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Available as arXiv:1609.01997, arXiv:1708.07257, and arXiv:1801.08102
Joint with H. Qi & K. Sharma, M. Takeoka, S. Adhikari & N. Davis, M. E. Shirokov
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quantum channels

Mark M. Wilde

Department of Physics and Astronomy,

Center for Computation and Technology,

Louisiana State University,

Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803, USA

Joint with H. Qi & K. Sharma, M. Takeoka, S. Adhikari & N. Davis, M. E. Shirokov

Quantum Information, Statistics, Probability,

Steklov Mathematical Institute, Moscow, Russia

Mark M. Wilde September 12, 2018 1 / 40

Motivation

determine, or at least characterize, various capacities of quantum communication

channels

classical bits, private bits (QKD), qubits (distributed quantum computing).

One could even allow for assisting resources, such as free classical communication

[BDSW96] or free entanglement [BSST99], and then study how the capacities are

affected.

The channels most relevant to practice are bosonic channels [Hol12, Ser17],

especially loss and thermal-noise models. The most prominent bosonic channels of

interest are thermal, amplifier, and additive-noise channels [HG12].

The state space of the input and output of these channels is infinite-dimensional,

which often presents a challenge for their analysis.

Entanglement-assisted classical capacity of bosonic channels

One of the great early successes of quantum information theory was the solution of

the entanglement-assisted capacity of quantum channels [BSST99, BSST02, Hol02]

results were then extended to bosonic quantum channels

[Hol03, Hol04, HW01, GLMS03]

[Hol03, Hol04], which will be the framework used for the capacities considered in

this talk today.

Classical capacity of bosonic channels

solution of the classical capacity of bosonic channels [GHGP15, GGPCH14]

The solution of this problem took place over many years, starting with the seminal

work of Holevo in the early 1970s [Hol73], continuing in the 1990s with the advent

of quantum computing [Hol98, SW97], and continuing with Holevo and

collaborators until the 2010s when it was solved [GHGP15, GGPCH14].

Fortunately for those trying to understand it, the solution is based on good physical

and quantum information-theoretic intuition and particular properties of these

bosonic channels, quantum entropies, and information measures, rather than

excessively complicated mathematics. Other proofs available in [MGH14, GHM15].

Private and quantum communication

of the basic bosonic channels solved, we are left with the problem of determining the

following for the basic bosonic channels:

Focus on energy-constrained capacities for practical reasons. Also, they are more

fundamental, in the sense that unconstrained capacities are limits of the constrained ones.

Background: Quantum theory of information

Quantum Channel

A

NA→B

Background: Quantum Channel

E

A N

UA→BE

Background: Capacity of a channel

log M

Rate =

Mark M. Wilde n September 12, 2018 8 / 40

Background: Quantum communication

Quantum communication

Alice Bob

A’ B

N

A’ N B

A1 B1

E D

A’ B

N

Background - Private communication

Private communication

E E

A’ B

U

E E

M A’ U

Alice B Eve

E

E E

A’

U B

B

Bob M’

D

B

Background - LOCC-assisted quantum communication

A1 B1 A2 B2 An Bn

LOCC N LOCC N LOCC LOCC N LOCC

Background - LOCC-assisted private communication

A1 B1 A2 B2 An Bn

LOCC N LOCC N LOCC LOCC N LOCC

Similar picture as before, but Eve (eavesdropper) gets environment of each channel N

and a copy of all classical data exchanged

Background - Capacities

Background - Capacities

Background - Pure-loss bosonic channel

√ p

b̂ = η â − 1 − η ê,

√

ê 0 = 1 − η â + η ê.

p

Background - Thermal channel

Thermal state

∞ n

1 X NB

θ(NB ) ≡ |nihn| .

NB + 1 n=0 NB + 1

Background - Quantum-limited amplifier channel

√ √

b̂ = G â + G − 1ê † ,

√ √

ê 0 = G − 1â† + G ê,

where G ≥ 1.

Background - Energy-constrained capacities

First focus on energy-constrained quantum capacity of a channel (same upper bounds

derived apply to energy-constrained private capacity)

Let H be a Hamiltonian such that Tr e −βH < ∞ for all β > 0 and N a quantum channel

satisfying the finite-output entropy condition:

ρ:Tr{ρH}≤W

1

Q(N , H, W ) = lim Ic (N ⊗n , H n , W ),

n→∞ n

where H n = (H ⊗ I ⊗ · · · ⊗ I + · · · + I ⊗ · · · I ⊗ H)/n and the energy-constrained

coherent information of the channel is defined as

ρ:Tr{ρH}≤W

Quantum Capacity of Degradable Channels

Degradable channels

Coherent information is additive [DS05]

g (x) = (x + 1) log2 (x + 1) − x log2 x.

Upper bounds on the energy-constrained quantum capacity

Use the pure-loss channel as an anchor to help characterize the thermal channel’s

quantum capacity

Data-processing bound (QU1 )

ε-degradable bound (QU2 )

ε-close-degradable bound (QU3 )

Another data-processing bound (QU4 )

Data-processing bound can be at most be 1.45 bits larger than a known lower bound.

Upper bounds are close to a known lower bound for different parameter regimes.

Data-processing bound QU1

Data-processing bound QU1

Lη,NB = AG ◦ Lη0 ,0 ,

where

G = (1 − η)NB + 1,

η 0 = η/G

Data-processing bound QU1

Theorem

An upper bound on the quantum capacity of a thermal channel Lη,NB with transmissivity

η ∈ [1/2, 1], environment photon number NB , and input mean photon number constraint

NS is given by

Theorem

The upper bound QU1 is within 1.45 bits of a known lower bound:

Another data-processing bound QU4

Suppose that η > (1 − η)NB . Implies that Lη,NB is not entanglement breaking [Hol08].

Then the following decomposition holds [RMG18], [SWAT18], [NAJ18]

Lη,NB = Lη0 ,0 ◦ AG ,

Data-processing bound QU4

An upper bound on the energy-constrained quantum capacity of a thermal channel Lη,NB

with transmissivity η ∈ [1/2, 1], environment photon number NB ≥ 0, such that

η > (1 − η)NB , and input mean photon number constraint NS ≥ 0 is given by

with η 0 = η − (1 − η)NB .

Comparison of upper bounds

η = 0.8, NB = 0.3

Rate

1.5

1.0

QU1

QU4

0.5

QL

NS

20 40 60 80 100

Figure: The figure plots the data-processing bound (QU1 ), the upper bound (QU4 ) and the lower

bound (QL ) on the energy-constrained quantum capacity of thermal channels.

Comparison of upper bounds

η = 0.8, NB = 0.3

Rate

0.8

0.6

0.4

QU1

0.2

QU4

QL

NS

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

Figure: The figure plots the data-processing bound (QU1 ), the upper bound (QU4 ) and the lower

bound (QL ) on the energy-constrained quantum capacity of thermal channels.

Comparison of upper bounds

η = 0.8, NB = 0.01

Rate

2.0

QU1

1.5

QU4

QL

1.0

0.5

NS

20 40 60 80 100

Figure: The figure plots the data-processing bound (QU1 ), the upper bound (QU4 ) and the lower

bound (QL ) on the energy-constrained quantum capacity of thermal channels.

LOCC-assisted quantum communication

Switch gears now to LOCC-assisted quantum communication (bounds derived also apply

to LOCC-assisted private communication)

A1 B1 A2 B2 An Bn

LOCC N LOCC N LOCC LOCC N LOCC

Squashed entanglement of a bipartite state [CW04] (see also [Shi16])

For a state ρAB , the squashed entanglement Esq (A; B)ρ is a measure of leftover

correlation once an adversary attempts to “squash down” the correlations between A

and B:

1

Esq (A; B)ρ = inf I (A; B|E 0 )S(ψ)

2 SE →E 0

where CMI is taken with respect to SE →E 0 (ψABE ) and ψABE is a purification of ρAB .

B

Conditional Entropy

E E’

S

S(A|B)ρ = S(AB)ρ − S(B)ρ

Squashed entanglement of a quantum channel [TGW14, DSW18]

!

1 0

Esq (N , H, W ) = sup inf [S(B|E )ϕ + S(B|F )ϕ ]

ρA :Tr{HρA }≤W VS

E →E 0 F

2

|ψ〉RA

B

A

N

U E E’

VS F

= S(B|E 0 )ϕ + S(B|F )ϕ .

Squashed Entanglement Bound

√ √

log2 M ≤ Esq (KA ; KB )ω + 2 ε log2 M + 2g ( ε)

Esq (KA ; KB )ω ≤ Esq (A0n ; Bn Bn0 )σ(n)

Esq (A0n ; Bn Bn0 )σ(n) ≤ S(Bn |En0 )τ (n) + S(Bn |Fn )τ (n) + I (A0n An ; Bn0 |En00 )ζ (n)

Conclusion

LOCC-assisted quantum capacity does not exceed energy-constrained squashed

entanglement:

Q2 (N , H, W ) ≤ Esq (N , H, W ).

Phase-Insensitive, Single-Mode Gaussian Channel

Recall that any phase-insensitive, single-mode Gaussian channel that is not entanglement

breaking can be written as [RMG18, SWAT18, NAJ18]

We can use this structure and squashed entanglement to bound its energy-constrained,

LOCC-assisted quantum capacity

Squashing isometry

Can take the squashing isometry to be two independent 50:50 beamsplitters, so that the

overall transformation of the input is

Improved Bounds

1

H(B|E10 E20 )W(θ(NS )) + H(B|F10 F20 )W(θ(NS )) = H(B|E10 E20 )W(θ(NS ))

2

Q2 (Lη,NB , n̂, NS ) ≤ H(B|E10 E20 )W(θ(NS ))

The bound applies to a thermal channel Lη,NB of transmissivity η ∈ [0, 1] and thermal

photon number NB ≥ 0 such that η > (1 − η) NB

Bound Comparison

Figure: Comparison of bounds from [GEW16, Pir17, WTB17, DSW18] with η ∈ [0.5, 1],

NS = 0.1 and NB = 1.

Conclusion

Summary

It is a great challenge to determine energy-constrained private and quantum

capacities of basic bosonic quantum channels

This talk reported progress on this front, using techniques such as data processing

and squashed entanglement

Prove that log(η/[1 − η]) is a strong converse rate for quantum communication over

pure-loss channel

There is a Gaussian optimizer question regarding energy-constrained channel

divergences of Gaussian channels. If it is true, then the upper bounds coming from

ε-degradability could be improved.

References I

[BDSW96] Charles H. Bennett, David P. DiVincenzo, John A. Smolin, and William K. Wootters. Mixed-state

entanglement and quantum error correction. Physical Review A, 54(5):3824–3851, November

1996. arXiv:quant-ph/9604024.

[BSST99] Charles H. Bennett, Peter W. Shor, John A. Smolin, and Ashish V. Thapliyal.

Entanglement-assisted classical capacity of noisy quantum channels. Physical Review Letters,

83(15):3081–3084, October 1999. arXiv:quant-ph/9904023.

[BSST02] Charles H. Bennett, Peter W. Shor, John A. Smolin, and Ashish V. Thapliyal.

Entanglement-assisted capacity of a quantum channel and the reverse Shannon theorem. IEEE

Transactions on Information Theory, 48(10):2637–2655, October 2002. arXiv:quant-ph/0106052.

[CGH06] Filippo Caruso, Vittorio Giovannetti, and Alexander S. Holevo. One-mode bosonic Gaussian

channels: a full weak-degradability classification. New Journal of Physics, 8(12):310, December

2006. arXiv:quant-ph/0609013.

[CW04] Matthias Christandl and Andreas Winter. “Squashed entanglement”: an additive entanglement

measure. Journal of Mathematical Physics, 45(3):829–840, March 2004. arXiv:quant-ph/0308088.

[DS05] Igor Devetak and Peter W. Shor. The capacity of a quantum channel for simultaneous

transmission of classical and quantum information. Communications in Mathematical Physics,

256(2):287–303, June 2005. arXiv:quant-ph/0311131.

[DSW18] Noah Davis, Maksim Shirokov, and Mark M. Wilde. Energy-constrained two-way assisted private

and quantum capacities of quantum channels. Physical Review A, 97:062310, June 2018.

arXiv:1801.08102.

References II

[GEW16] Kenneth Goodenough, David Elkouss, and Stephanie Wehner. Assessing the performance of

quantum repeaters for all phase-insensitive Gaussian bosonic channels. New Journal of Physics,

18:063005, 2016. arXiv:1511.08710v2.

[GGPCH14] Vittorio Giovannetti, Raul Garcia-Patron, Nicolas J. Cerf, and Alexander S. Holevo. Ultimate

classical communication rates of quantum optical channels. Nature Photonics, 8:796–800,

September 2014. arXiv:1312.6225.

[GHGP15] Vittorio Giovannetti, Alexander S. Holevo, and Raul Garcı́a-Patrón. A solution of Gaussian

optimizer conjecture for quantum channels. Communications in Mathematical Physics,

334(3):1553–1571, March 2015. arXiv:1312.2251.

[GHM15] Vittorio Giovannetti, Alexander S. Holevo, and Andrea Mari. Majorization and additivity for

multimode bosonic gaussian channels. Theoretical and Mathematical Physics, 182(2):284–293,

2015. arXiv:1405.4066.

[GLMS03] Vittorio Giovannetti, Seth Lloyd, Lorenzo Maccone, and Peter W. Shor. Entanglement assisted

capacity of the broadband lossy channel. Physical Review Letters, 91(4):047901, July 2003.

arXiv:quant-ph/0304020.

[HG12] Alexander S. Holevo and Vittorio Giovannetti. Quantum channels and their entropic

characteristics. Reports on Progress in Physics, 75(4):046001, April 2012. arXiv:1202.6480.

[Hol73] Alexander S. Holevo. Bounds for the quantity of information transmitted by a quantum

communication channel. Problems of Information Transmission, 9:177–183, 1973.

[Hol98] Alexander S. Holevo. The capacity of the quantum channel with general signal states. IEEE

Transactions on Information Theory, 44(1):269–273, January 1998. arXiv:quant-ph/9611023.

References III

Physics, 43(9):4326–4333, September 2002. arXiv:quant-ph/0106075.

SPIE, First International Symposium on Quantum Informatics, 5128:62–69, July 2003.

arXiv:quant-ph/0211170.

of Probability & Its Applications, 48(2):243–255, July 2004. arXiv:quant-ph/0211170.

Information Transmission, 44(3):171–184, September 2008. arXiv:0802.0235.

Mathematical Physics (Book 16). de Gruyter, November 2012.

[HW01] Alexander S. Holevo and Reinhard F. Werner. Evaluating capacities of bosonic Gaussian channels.

Physical Review A, 63(3):032312, February 2001. arXiv:quant-ph/9912067.

[MGH14] Andrea Mari, Vittorio Giovannetti, and Alexander S. Holevo. Quantum state majorization at the

output of bosonic Gaussian channels. Nature Communications, 5(3826), May 2014.

arXiv:1312.3545.

[NAJ18] Kyungjoo Noh, Victor V. Albert, and Liang Jiang. Improved quantum capacity bounds of

Gaussian loss channels and achievable rates with Gottesman-Kitaev-Preskill codes. January 2018.

arXiv:1801.07271.

References IV

[RMG18] Matteo Rosati, Andrea Mari, and Vittorio Giovannetti. Narrow bounds for the quantum capacity

of thermal attenuators. January 2018. arXiv:1801.04731.

[Ser17] Alessio Serafini. Quantum Continuous Variables: A Primer of Theoretical Methods. CRC Press,

2017.

Physics, 57(3):032203, March 2016. arXiv:1507.08964.

[SW97] Benjamin Schumacher and Michael D. Westmoreland. Sending classical information via noisy

quantum channels. Physical Review A, 56(1):131–138, July 1997.

[SWAT18] Kunal Sharma, Mark M. Wilde, Sushovit Adhikari, and Masahiro Takeoka. Bounding the

energy-constrained quantum and private capacities of phase-insensitive Gaussian channels. New

Journal of Physics, 20:063025, June 2018. arXiv:1708.07257.

[TGW14] Masahiro Takeoka, Saikat Guha, and Mark M. Wilde. The squashed entanglement of a quantum

channel. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 60(8):4987–4998, August 2014.

arXiv:1310.0129.

[WQ16] Mark M. Wilde and Haoyu Qi. Energy-constrained private and quantum capacities of quantum

channels. September 2016. arXiv:1609.01997.

[WTB17] Mark M. Wilde, Marco Tomamichel, and Mario Berta. Converse bounds for private

communication over quantum channels. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory,

63(3):1792–1817, March 2017. arXiv:1602.08898.

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