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Energy-constrained private and quantum capacities of

quantum channels

Mark M. Wilde

Hearne Institute for Theoretical Phyiscs,


Department of Physics and Astronomy,
Center for Computation and Technology,
Louisiana State University,
Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803, USA

September 12, 2018

Dedicated to Alexander S. Holevo on the occasion of his 75th birthday

Available as arXiv:1609.01997, arXiv:1708.07257, and arXiv:1801.08102


Joint with H. Qi & K. Sharma, M. Takeoka, S. Adhikari & N. Davis, M. E. Shirokov
Quantum Information, Statistics, Probability,
Steklov Mathematical Institute, Moscow, Russia
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Motivation

One of the fundamental goals of quantum information theory [Hol12] is to


determine, or at least characterize, various capacities of quantum communication
channels

There are a number of communication tasks of interest, including communication of


classical bits, private bits (QKD), qubits (distributed quantum computing).

One could even allow for assisting resources, such as free classical communication
[BDSW96] or free entanglement [BSST99], and then study how the capacities are
affected.

The channels most relevant to practice are bosonic channels [Hol12, Ser17],
especially loss and thermal-noise models. The most prominent bosonic channels of
interest are thermal, amplifier, and additive-noise channels [HG12].

The state space of the input and output of these channels is infinite-dimensional,
which often presents a challenge for their analysis.

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Entanglement-assisted classical capacity of bosonic channels

One of the great early successes of quantum information theory was the solution of
the entanglement-assisted capacity of quantum channels [BSST99, BSST02, Hol02]

First considered for finite-dimensional quantum channels [BSST99, BSST02], the


results were then extended to bosonic quantum channels
[Hol03, Hol04, HW01, GLMS03]

General framework established for studying energy-constrained capacities


[Hol03, Hol04], which will be the framework used for the capacities considered in
this talk today.

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Classical capacity of bosonic channels

Arguably one of the greatest achievements in quantum information theory is the


solution of the classical capacity of bosonic channels [GHGP15, GGPCH14]

The solution of this problem took place over many years, starting with the seminal
work of Holevo in the early 1970s [Hol73], continuing in the 1990s with the advent
of quantum computing [Hol98, SW97], and continuing with Holevo and
collaborators until the 2010s when it was solved [GHGP15, GGPCH14].

Fortunately for those trying to understand it, the solution is based on good physical
and quantum information-theoretic intuition and particular properties of these
bosonic channels, quantum entropies, and information measures, rather than
excessively complicated mathematics. Other proofs available in [MGH14, GHM15].

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Private and quantum communication

With both the entanglement-assisted and unassisted classical communication capacities


of the basic bosonic channels solved, we are left with the problem of determining the
following for the basic bosonic channels:

Energy-constrained quantum capacity

Energy-constrained private capacity

Energy-constrained quantum capacity, when assisted by free classical communication

Energy-constrained private capacity, when assisted by free classical communication

Focus on energy-constrained capacities for practical reasons. Also, they are more
fundamental, in the sense that unconstrained capacities are limits of the constrained ones.

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Background: Quantum theory of information

Quantum Channel

A
NA→B

NA→B is a linear, completely positive, trace preserving map.

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Background: Quantum Channel

Isometric extension of a quantum channel

E
A N
UA→BE

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Background: Capacity of a channel

log M
Rate =
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Background: Quantum communication

Quantum communication

Alice Bob
A’ B
N
A’ N B
A1 B1
E D
A’ B
N

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Background - Private communication

Private communication

E E
A’ B
U
E E
M A’ U
Alice B Eve
E
E E
A’
U B

B
Bob M’
D
B

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Background - LOCC-assisted quantum communication

LOCC-assisted quantum communication

A1’ A2’ A’n KA

A1 B1 A2 B2 An Bn
LOCC N LOCC N LOCC LOCC N LOCC

B1’ B2’ B’n KB

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Background - LOCC-assisted private communication

LOCC-assisted private communication

A1’ A2’ A’n KA

A1 B1 A2 B2 An Bn
LOCC N LOCC N LOCC LOCC N LOCC

B1’ B2’ B’n KB

Similar picture as before, but Eve (eavesdropper) gets environment of each channel N
and a copy of all classical data exchanged

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Background - Capacities

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Background - Capacities

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Background - Pure-loss bosonic channel

Input-output relation in Heisenberg picture

√ p
b̂ = η â − 1 − η ê,

ê 0 = 1 − η â + η ê.
p

Denote pure-loss channel by Lη,0

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Background - Thermal channel

Thermal state
∞  n
1 X NB
θ(NB ) ≡ |nihn| .
NB + 1 n=0 NB + 1

Denote thermal channel by Lη,NB

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Background - Quantum-limited amplifier channel

Input-output relation in Heisenberg picture


√ √
b̂ = G â + G − 1ê † ,
√ √
ê 0 = G − 1↠+ G ê,

where G ≥ 1.

Denote pure-amplifier channel by AG

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Background - Energy-constrained capacities
First focus on energy-constrained quantum capacity of a channel (same upper bounds
derived apply to energy-constrained private capacity)

Energy-constrained quantum capacity [WQ16]


Let H be a Hamiltonian such that Tr e −βH < ∞ for all β > 0 and N a quantum channel
satisfying the finite-output entropy condition:

sup S(N (ρ)) < ∞.


ρ:Tr{ρH}≤W

Then the energy-constrained quantum capacity of N is given by


1
Q(N , H, W ) = lim Ic (N ⊗n , H n , W ),
n→∞ n
where H n = (H ⊗ I ⊗ · · · ⊗ I + · · · + I ⊗ · · · I ⊗ H)/n and the energy-constrained
coherent information of the channel is defined as

Ic (N , H, W ) ≡ sup S(N (ρ)) − S(N̂ (ρ)),


ρ:Tr{ρH}≤W

and N̂ denotes a complementary channel of N .

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Quantum Capacity of Degradable Channels

Degradable channels
Coherent information is additive [DS05]

Q(Lη,0 , NS ) = max[g (ηNS ) − g ((1 − η)NS ), 0],


g (x) = (x + 1) log2 (x + 1) − x log2 x.

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Upper bounds on the energy-constrained quantum capacity

Use the pure-loss channel as an anchor to help characterize the thermal channel’s
quantum capacity

Four different upper bounds:


Data-processing bound (QU1 )
ε-degradable bound (QU2 )
ε-close-degradable bound (QU3 )
Another data-processing bound (QU4 )

Data-processing bound can be at most be 1.45 bits larger than a known lower bound.

Upper bounds are close to a known lower bound for different parameter regimes.

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Data-processing bound QU1

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Data-processing bound QU1

Decomposition of thermal channel as pure-loss followed by pure-amplifier [CGH06]


Lη,NB = AG ◦ Lη0 ,0 ,
where

G = (1 − η)NB + 1,
η 0 = η/G

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Data-processing bound QU1

Theorem
An upper bound on the quantum capacity of a thermal channel Lη,NB with transmissivity
η ∈ [1/2, 1], environment photon number NB , and input mean photon number constraint
NS is given by

QU1 (Lη,NB , NS ) ≡ g (η 0 NS ) − g [(1 − η 0 )NS ],

with η 0 = η/[(1 − η)NB + 1].

Theorem
The upper bound QU1 is within 1.45 bits of a known lower bound:

QL (Lη,NB , NS ) ≤ QU1 (Lη,NB , NS ) ≤ QL (Lη,NB , NS ) + 1/ ln 2 .

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Another data-processing bound QU4

Suppose that η > (1 − η)NB . Implies that Lη,NB is not entanglement breaking [Hol08].
Then the following decomposition holds [RMG18], [SWAT18], [NAJ18]

Lη,NB = Lη0 ,0 ◦ AG ,

where η 0 = η − (1 − η)NB and G = η/η 0 .

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Data-processing bound QU4

Theorem ([SWAT18], [NAJ18])


An upper bound on the energy-constrained quantum capacity of a thermal channel Lη,NB
with transmissivity η ∈ [1/2, 1], environment photon number NB ≥ 0, such that
η > (1 − η)NB , and input mean photon number constraint NS ≥ 0 is given by

QU4 (Lη,NB , NS ) = g (ηNS + (1 − η)NB ) − g [(1/η 0 − 1)(ηNS + (1 − η)NB )],

with η 0 = η − (1 − η)NB .

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Comparison of upper bounds

η = 0.8, NB = 0.3
Rate

1.5

1.0

QU1
QU4
0.5
QL

NS
20 40 60 80 100

Figure: The figure plots the data-processing bound (QU1 ), the upper bound (QU4 ) and the lower
bound (QL ) on the energy-constrained quantum capacity of thermal channels.

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Comparison of upper bounds

η = 0.8, NB = 0.3
Rate

0.8

0.6

0.4
QU1

0.2
QU4
QL

NS
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

Figure: The figure plots the data-processing bound (QU1 ), the upper bound (QU4 ) and the lower
bound (QL ) on the energy-constrained quantum capacity of thermal channels.

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Comparison of upper bounds

η = 0.8, NB = 0.01
Rate
2.0

QU1
1.5
QU4
QL
1.0

0.5

NS
20 40 60 80 100

Figure: The figure plots the data-processing bound (QU1 ), the upper bound (QU4 ) and the lower
bound (QL ) on the energy-constrained quantum capacity of thermal channels.

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LOCC-assisted quantum communication

Switch gears now to LOCC-assisted quantum communication (bounds derived also apply
to LOCC-assisted private communication)

A1’ A2’ A’n KA

A1 B1 A2 B2 An Bn
LOCC N LOCC N LOCC LOCC N LOCC

B1’ B2’ B’n KB

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Squashed entanglement of a bipartite state [CW04] (see also [Shi16])

Squashed entanglement [CW04] (see also [Shi16])


For a state ρAB , the squashed entanglement Esq (A; B)ρ is a measure of leftover
correlation once an adversary attempts to “squash down” the correlations between A
and B:
1
Esq (A; B)ρ = inf I (A; B|E 0 )S(ψ)
2 SE →E 0
where CMI is taken with respect to SE →E 0 (ψABE ) and ψABE is a purification of ρAB .

Conditional Mutual Information A

I (A; B|E 0 )S(ψ) = S(B|E 0 )S(ψ) − S(B|AE 0 )S(ψ) . |ψ〉ABE


B
Conditional Entropy
E E’
S
S(A|B)ρ = S(AB)ρ − S(B)ρ

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Squashed entanglement of a quantum channel [TGW14, DSW18]

Energy-constrained Esq of a channel


!
1 0
Esq (N , H, W ) = sup inf [S(B|E )ϕ + S(B|F )ϕ ]
ρA :Tr{HρA }≤W VS
E →E 0 F
2

|ψ〉RA
B
A
N
U E E’
VS F

Conditional Mutual Information

I (R; B|E 0 )ϕ = S(B|E 0 )ϕ − S(B|RE 0 )ϕ


= S(B|E 0 )ϕ + S(B|F )ϕ .

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Squashed Entanglement Bound

Squashed entanglement of an approximate maximally entangled state is normalized


√ √
log2 M ≤ Esq (KA ; KB )ω + 2 ε log2 M + 2g ( ε)

Squashed entanglement is monotone under LOCC


Esq (KA ; KB )ω ≤ Esq (A0n ; Bn Bn0 )σ(n)

“Peel apart” squashed entanglement terms


Esq (A0n ; Bn Bn0 )σ(n) ≤ S(Bn |En0 )τ (n) + S(Bn |Fn )τ (n) + I (A0n An ; Bn0 |En00 )ζ (n)

Conclusion
LOCC-assisted quantum capacity does not exceed energy-constrained squashed
entanglement:
Q2 (N , H, W ) ≤ Esq (N , H, W ).

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Phase-Insensitive, Single-Mode Gaussian Channel

Recall that any phase-insensitive, single-mode Gaussian channel that is not entanglement
breaking can be written as [RMG18, SWAT18, NAJ18]

We can use this structure and squashed entanglement to bound its energy-constrained,
LOCC-assisted quantum capacity

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Squashing isometry

Can take the squashing isometry to be two independent 50:50 beamsplitters, so that the
overall transformation of the input is

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Improved Bounds

Due to the symmetry of the particular squashing isometry


1
H(B|E10 E20 )W(θ(NS )) + H(B|F10 F20 )W(θ(NS )) = H(B|E10 E20 )W(θ(NS ))

2

LOCC-assisted quantum capacity upper bound


Q2 (Lη,NB , n̂, NS ) ≤ H(B|E10 E20 )W(θ(NS ))

Applies to thermal channels


The bound applies to a thermal channel Lη,NB of transmissivity η ∈ [0, 1] and thermal
photon number NB ≥ 0 such that η > (1 − η) NB

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Bound Comparison

Figure: Comparison of bounds from [GEW16, Pir17, WTB17, DSW18] with η ∈ [0.5, 1],
NS = 0.1 and NB = 1.

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Conclusion

Summary
It is a great challenge to determine energy-constrained private and quantum
capacities of basic bosonic quantum channels
This talk reported progress on this front, using techniques such as data processing
and squashed entanglement

Ongoing and Future Directions


Prove that log(η/[1 − η]) is a strong converse rate for quantum communication over
pure-loss channel
There is a Gaussian optimizer question regarding energy-constrained channel
divergences of Gaussian channels. If it is true, then the upper bounds coming from
ε-degradability could be improved.

Special thanks to all collaborators!

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References I

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References II

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References IV

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[SWAT18] Kunal Sharma, Mark M. Wilde, Sushovit Adhikari, and Masahiro Takeoka. Bounding the
energy-constrained quantum and private capacities of phase-insensitive Gaussian channels. New
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