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o Material Requirements
o Design for Strength
o Design for Serviceability
o Design for Durability
o Design for Sustainability
o Design for Structural Integrity
o Design for Fire Resistance

o Material Requirement
o 419.2.2 Modulus of Elasticity
o For values of wc between 1440 and 2560 kg/m3
Ec = wc1.50.043√f’c (in MPa)
o For normal weight concrete
Ec = 4700√f’c (in MPa)
o 419.2.3 Modulus of Rupture
o fr = 0.62λ√f’c (in MPa)
λ = 0.75 for lightweight concrete
= 0.85 for sand-lightweight concrete
= 1.0 for normal weight concrete
o 420.2.2.2 Modulus of elasticity, Es for non-prestressed bars and wires shall be permitted taken as
200,000 MPa

o Design for Strength

404.6.1 Design strength of a member and its joints and connections, in terms of moment, axial force,
shear, torsion, and bearing, shall be taken as the nominal strength Sn multiplied by the applicable
strength reduction factor φ.
o Design for Serviceability
o Excessive static deflection might not be a life safety issue, but are usually associated with
excessive concrete cracking and sagging of structural members, which could interfere with the
functioning of building components such as doors and windows.
o In cases of excessive dynamic deflection, occupants experience a bouncy feeling when waling on
the surface, giving the perception of an unsafe structure
o Engineers must design and beams for adequate stiffness in addition to meeting strength
o Serviceability checks
o Deflection due to service level gravity loads (Section 424.2)
o Distribution of flexural reinforcement in one-way slabs and beams to control cracking (Section
o Shrinkage and temperature reinforcement (Section 424.4)
o Permissible stresses in prestressed flexural members (Section 424.5)

o Minimum Thickness
o Expression applicable for normal weight
concrete and fy = 420MPa. For other
cases, minimum h shall be multiplied by
(0.4 + fy/700) for fy other than 420MPa,
and by greater of 1.65 – 0.0003wc and
1.09 for non-prestressed slabs made of
lightweight concrete having wc in the range
of 1440 to 1840 kg/m3
o Table 424.2.2 Maximum Permissible Calculated Deflection

o Distribution of flexural reinforcement in one-way slab and beams to control cracking

Maximum spacing = lesser of 380 2.5 300

Stress fs in deformed reinforcement closest to the tension face at service loads shall be calculated
based on the unfactored moment, or it shall be permitted to take fs as 2/3fy

o Shrinkage and Temperature Reinforcement

Table 424.4.3.2 Minimum Ratios of Deformed Shrinkage and Temperature Reinforcement

Area to Gross Concrete Area

o Design for Durability

o Durability of structural concrete is its ability, while in service, to resist possible deterioration due to
the surrounding environment, and to maintain its engineering properties.
o Attack Mechanisms
1. Permeability
2. Freezing and thawing -> generally not applicable to Philippines
3. Sulfates
4. Corrosion
o Permeability can be defined as “the ease with which a fluid can flow
through a solid” or as “the ability of concrete to resist penetration by water or other substances
(liquid, gas, or ions)”
o Low permeability concretes are more resistant to resaturation, freezing and thawing, sulfate and
chloride ion penetration, and other forms of chemical attack (Kosmatka and Wilson 2011)
o Concrete permeability, diffusivity, and electrical conductivity can be reduced with lower water-
cement-ratio (w/c), the use of supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) and extended moist
o Sulfates
o Sulfates present in soil and water can react with hydrated compounds in the hardened cement
paste and induce sufficient pressure to disintegrate the concrete.
o However, formation of new crystalline substances due to those reactions is partly responsible
for the expansion.
o Although ordinary Portland cements are most susceptible to sulfate attack, the use of sulfate-
resistant cements will not stop the sulfate attack, either
o Resistance to sulfate attack can be greatly increased by decreasing the permeability of
concrete through reduction of the water cementitious material ratio
o Corrosion
o Alkaline nature of concrete (pH greater than 13) will induce formation of a passive, noncorroding
layer on reinforcing steel. If, however, chloride ions are present in concrete, they can reach and
disrupt that layer and lead to corrosion of steel in the presence of water and oxygen.
o Corrosion of the reinforcing steel in concrete can be reduced or prevented by minimizing the
w/cm ratio (permeability), ensuring maximum cover depth of concrete over steel
o Concrete Exposure Categories
o 1. F: concrete exposed to moisture and
cycles of freezing and thawing (with or
without deicing chemicals);
o 2. S: concrete in contact with soil or
water containing deleterious amounts of
water-soluble sulfate ions;
o 3. W: concrete in contact with water but
not exposed to freezing and thawing,
chlorides, or sulfates;
o 4. C: concrete exposed to conditions
that require additional protection against
corrosion of reinforcement.
o Durability check procedure per
member type
1. Determine exposure classes within
each exposure category
2. Determine required minimum
compressive strength based on
exposure category.
3. Determine maximum w/cm ratio
4. Determine minimum concrete cover
5. Determine nominal maximum size of
6. Determine required air content
7. Determine limits on cementitious
8. Determine limits on calcium chloride admixture
9. Determine maximum water-soluble chloride ion (Cl-) content in concrete, percent by weight of

o Check durability requirements for an interior suspended slab not exposed to moisture or freezing
and thawing.
Thickness of Slab = 175mm
Reinforcement = 16mm bars spaced at 200mm
o Design for Sustainability
o Sustainability
o 404.9.1 The licensed design professional shall be permitted to specify in the construction
documents sustainability requirements in addition to strength,
serviceability and durability requirements of this Code.
o 404.9.2 The strength, serviceability, and durability requirements of
this Code shall take precedence over sustainability considerations.
o General Definition
o Sustainability is meeting the needs of the present without
compromising the ability of future generations to meet
their own needs. (ACI website)
o Three Pillars of Sustainability: Environment, Economy, Society
o Environmental Sustainability in the Building Industry
o Rating / Certification Systems


Leadership in Energy and
Environmental Design (LEED)

Building Research Establishment

Environmental Assessment Method

o Local Rating / Certification Systems



o Green Building
o A ‘green’ building is a building that, in its design, construction or operation, reduces or
eliminates negative impacts, and can create positive impacts, on our climate and natural
Different countries and regions have a variety of characteristics such as distinctive climatic
conditions, unique cultures and traditions, diverse building types and ages, or wide-
ranging environmental, economic and social priorities – all of which shape their approach
to green building. (World Green Building Council)
o Features of a “Green Building” (World Green Building Council Website)
o Efficient use of energy, water and other resources
o Use of renewable energy, such as solar energy
o Pollution and waste reduction measures, and the enabling of re-use and recycling
o Good indoor environmental air quality
o Use of materials that are non-toxic, ethical and sustainable
o Consideration of the environment in design, construction and operation
o Consideration of the quality of life of occupants in design, construction and operation
o A design that enables adaptation to a changing environment
o The Philippine Green Building Code
o Also known as the “GB Code,” it is the Referral Code of the National Building Code of
the Philippines (PD 1096)
o OBJECTIVE: To improve the efficiency of building performance through a framework
of acceptable set of standards that will enhance environmental and resource
management that will counter the harmful gases responsible for the adverse effects of
climate change, throughout the building’s life-cycle.
o Applies to new construction and alteration of certain Building Occupancies –
Residential of min. 20,000 sqm, Mercantile of min. 15,000sqm, Hotel/Resort,
Educational, Institutional, Business, Mixed
Occupancy of min. 10,000sqm
(Chapter I. General Provisions of GB Code)
o GB Code is a set of regulations setting minimum
standards for compliance and NOT intended to rate
o Performance Standards:
1. Energy Efficiency
2. Water Efficiency
3. Material Sustainability
4. Solid Waste Management
5. Site Sustainability
6. Indoor Environmental Quality
(Chapter I. General Provisions AND Chapter II.
Green Building Requirements of GB Code)
o Why Practice and support Green Building?
o Energy Consumption in the Building Industry

COPYRIGHT Philippine Green

Buillding Code Presentation by Engr.
o The Greenhouse Effect

COPYRIGHT Philippine Green Buillding

Code Presentation by Engr. RHONNIEL
o Concrete and Carbon Footprint
o Defined as the total amount of greenhouse
gases produced to directly and indirectly
support human activities, usually expressed
in equivalent tons of carbon dioxide (CO2)
o “The manufacture of cement produces about
0.9 pounds of CO2 for every pound of
cement. Since cement is only a fraction of the
constituents in concrete, manufacturing a cubic yard
of concrete (about 3900 lbs) is responsible for emitting about 400 lbs of CO
2” (
o Concrete and Sustainability
The carbon footprint of concrete can be lowered by: (ACI website)
o using supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) such as fly ash, slag cement,
and silica fume;
o SCMs are industrial by-products that would otherwise end up in landfills if not
recycled. When SCMs are instead combined with Portland cement in concrete,
they enhance both its plastic and hardened properties, and reduce overall
carbon footprint of concrete. (NRMCA Sustainability Initiatives)
o by using higher-strength concrete;
o and through the use of alternative fuels during the cement manufacturing process
o Use of concrete applications can also provide “green” benefits—for example, pervious
concrete results in pavements, sidewalks, and parking areas that drain directly to the
subsurface, eliminating the need for drainage structures, underground piping, retention
basins (saving materials and lower carbon footprint), and direct discharge into rivers
and lakes (an environmental benefit).
(ACI website)

o Design for Structural Integrity

o Structural integrity provisions in concrete building codes require reinforcement to limit progressive
or disproportional collapse. Disproportional collapse occurs when the failure of a single member
leads to the failure of multiple adjacent members.

In response to this collapse, codes added requirements for integrity reinforcement based on a
rational assessment of the failure. This integrity reinforcement is a prescriptive provision, that is, the
requirements are detailed in the code and must be incorporated in the structure without associated
detailed calculations.

Table 404.10.2.1
Minimum Requirements for Structural Integrity
o Design for Fire Resistance
o 404.11.1 Structural
concrete members shall
satisfy the fire protection
requirements of the
general building code
o Where the general
building coded requires a
thickness of concrete for
fire protection greater
than the concrete cover
Table 420. Specified Concrete Cover for Cast-in-Place Non-
specified in Section 420.6.1,
such greater thickness shall Prestressed Concrete Members
o For more information, refer to ACI 216 Standard Method for Determining Fire Resistance of
Concrete and Masonry Construction Assemblies

Fire Protection Requirements Reinforced Concrete as per National Building Code

o Section 4.01.01 Types of Construction

o (4) Type IV. Type IV Building shall be of steel, iron, concrete, or masonry construction. Walls
and permanent partitions shall be of incombustible fire-resistive construction: