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Cable Stayed Structures:

References:
Fuller Moore: Understanding Structures
James B. Harris, Kevin Pui-K Li: Masted Structures in Architecture
Wolfgang Schueller, The Design of Building Structures
Definition:
“Cable-stayed building structures support
horizontal spans by means of diagonal cables
suspended from a higher point. Moore, 1999.

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Cable Stayed Bridges

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Horizontal & Vertical Reactions

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Load Paths

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Reactions

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Some 19th Century Examples

Friedrich Schnirch; Suspended Theater Roof; 1824

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Some 19th Century Examples

J.A. Hittorf; Panorama; 1839

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Some 19th Century Examples

C.R. MacIntosh; Greenhouse; 1853

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Some 19th Century Examples

Müller & Giese; Auditorium; 1865

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Some 20th Century Examples

R. Buckminster Fuller; Dymaxion House; 1927-29

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Some 20th Century Examples

E.Bennett & Associates; Pavilion; Chicago; 1933

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Some 20th Century Examples

Buckhard; Gymnasium; Ellensburg; 1958

Corlett & Spackman; Stadium; Squaw Valley; 1960


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Some 20th Century Examples

London County Council Architects; Crystal Palace Sports Center; 1964


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Some 20th Century Examples

P.Zoelly; Exhibition Railway Station; 1964


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Some 20th Century Examples

F.Browns; Woking Pool; 1989


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Some 20th Century Examples

P.Cox & Partners; Darling Harbor Exhibition Centre; 1986


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Some 20th Century Examples

P.Cox & Partners; Darling Harbor Exhibition Centre; 1986


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A Taxonomy of Masted Structures
• The number, position and relationships of the
basic elements in relation to the pattern of
spaces they define. Harris; 1996.
• Masts, cables & roof beams
• Cellular spatial unit
• Geometric operation

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A Taxonomy of Masted Structures

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Structural Behaviour
• Vertical Loads
• Uniformly Distributed: applied to the roof beam,
supported by stays
• Concentrated: ponding rain or drifting snow; problematic
w/ multi–span structures
• Wind Uplift: limit bending in the mast; aerodynamic eaves;
secondary tensile system

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Structural Behaviour
• Stiffness & Deflection
• Not necessarily more or less flexible than conventional
structures
• Longer spans however mean greater allowable deflection
• Details at junctures w/ other building elements become
critical

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Structural Behaviour
• Temperature Effects
• External Structure: interface between external elements
& enclosure needs to allow for movement
• Internal/ External Structure: need to allow for differential
expansion
• Lightweight of roofing system requires high performance
membranes.

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Construction Issues
• Cables, Rods or Tubes
• Cables have a low modulus of elasticity, so stretch can
be 4x rods or tubes
• Cables are more difficult to protect
• Cable end connections are readily avaiable, but clumsy in
appearance, while rod end connections must be custom
fabricated through study of design and usage

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Benefits and Penalties
• Can Meet a Wide Range of Functional Demands
• Can Provide Column Free Space Increasing
Internal Flexibility
• Can Be Easily Extended
• Can Lead to Reduced Structural Weight
• Can Lead to Higher Design Costs
• Increased Thermal Movement
• Erection Requires Special Consideration
• Increased Costs for Corrosion Protection
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Case Studies: Foster & Rogers

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