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Draft version – published at: 6th Workshop on Semantic Web Applications and Perspectives

SWAP 2010, (2010), S. 1 – 12,
http://www.inf.unibz.it/krdb/events/swap2010/page10/page10.html (last access Oct. 2010)

@twitter Mining#Microblogs Using #Semantic
Technologies

Selver Softic1, Martin Ebner², Herbert Mühlburger ², Thomas
Altmann², Behnam Taraghi²
1
Infonova GmbH, Am Seering 6, 8141 Graz / Unterpremstätten
selver.softic@infonova.com

²Graz University of Technology, Social Learning, Steyrergasse 30/I,
8010 Graz, Austria
{muehlburger, martin.ebner, b.taraghi}@tugraz.at
{thomas.altmann}@stud.tugraz.at

Abstract. In this paper we report about our current and ongoing research efforts
aiming at knowledge discovery, offline social data mining and social entity
extraction based upon semantic technologies. Further we are aiming to provide
the scientific architecture paradigm for building semantic applications that rely
on social data. In this early stage our work focuses on data from Twitter1 as
currently most popular and fastest growing microblogging platform. In the
realm of our research we implemented applications like Grabeeter2for storing
searching and caching the social data and STAT infrastructure that uses
semantic standards like RDF (SIOC, FOAF), SPARQL and existing semantic
services as Sinidice3 and Linked Data silos as DBPedia4 or GeoNames5 as well.
They represent parts of novel architecture paradigm for semantic social
applications intended to be introduced here.

Keywords: Twitter, microblogging, semantic, linked data, SIOC, FOAF,
SMOB, web 2.0, data portability, knowledge discovery, information retrieval,
data mining, sentiment classification, social web

1
http://www.twitter.com/ (last access: September 2010)
2
http://grabeeter.tugraz.at/ (last access: September 2010)
3
http://www.sindice.com/ (last access: September 2010)
4
http://www.dbpedia.org/ (last access: September 2010)
5
http://geonames.org (last access: September 2010)
2 Selver Softic , Martin Ebner², Herbert Mühlburger ², Thomas Altmann², Behnam
Taraghi²

1 Introduction

Most of the content on the Web nowadays is user generated. Especially
microblogging gained strong importance in recent years. Current
microblogging
platforms like Twitter, Jaiku6, Tumblr7, Emote.in8 attract every day
masses of users
with different social, cultural and educational background. Furthermore
microblogs tend to become a solid media for simplified collaborative
communication. Templeton
[3] defines microblogging as a small-scale form of blogging made up
from short, succinct messages, used by both consumers and businesses
to share news, post
status updates and carry on conversations.
While communicating people share different kind of information like
common knowledge, opinions, emotions, and information resources
and their likes or dislikes. They discuss on different topics in more or
less open communities [4]. Information chunks (small scale messages)
delivered by masses and structured in adequate way offers new
scientific insights which are interesting not only for science but also for
commercial use like monitoring of trends, advertising, statistics,
reputation management and news broadcasting. Possibility of
monitoring and analysis of such messages not only restricted to humans
but also for machines would enormously contribute the exploitation of
already present on-line social data essence e.g. for educational,
commercial or informative purposes. Short form of content posted by
microbloggers offers also a solid base for automated content processing
and analysis. However current state of research lacks of simplified
architectural paradigm approach according to these problems.
Twitter along with Facebook9 belongs to the fastest growing social web
platforms of the last 12 months10 [2]. On 22nd of February 2010 Twitter
hits 50 million tweets per day11. Without any exaggeration it can be said
that these two social networks are worth to be researched in more detail
[1].

6
http://www.jaiku.com/ (last access September 2010)
7
http://www.tumblr.com/ (last access September 2010)
8
http://www.emote.in/ (last access: September 2010)
9
http://www.facebook.com/ (last access: September 2010)
10
http://ibo.posterous.com/aktuelle-twitter-zahlen-als-info-grafik (last access: 2010-04)
11
http://mashable.com/2010/02/22/twitter-50-million-tweets/ (last access: 2010-04)
@twitter Mining#Microblogs Using #Semantic Technologies 3

This publication deals first with the question, what can be the
advantages of an (web)-application that can also be used offline or
online for information retrieval and semantically based knowledge
discovery in a micro-content system like Twitter. Further we want to
answer in which way a social data can be exposed using Semantic Web
technologies in order to provide a solid interface for data mining,
sentiment extraction, and knowledge discovery in general and as
fundament for building smart semantic applications based upon social
data as well. Finally as answer to these questions we would like to
introduce our novel architectural paradigm approach for this research
issue.

2 Related Work

2.1 Microblogging and Twitter
Although the beginning of first serious microblogs dated back five
years ago their leverage on the web grows rapidly. Especially in the
area of communication and social networking microblogging is gaining
significantly daily [5]. Tumblr, Jaiku, Emote.in and identi.ca are only
some of current massively used microblogging platforms. Most
significant among them is Twitter, which induced a new culture of
communication [6] [7]. The140 characters restriction for twitter
messages can also be compared with a short-message internet-based
service platform. Users can send a post (tweet) that is listed on the top
of their twitter-wall together with messages of people they are
following. Furthermore any user can be followed by anyone who is
interested in that user’s updates. By nature Twitter or similar services
support the fast exchange of different resources (links, pictures,
thoughts) as well as fast and easy communication amongst more or less
open communities [2]. In the same way Java et al. [11] defined four
main user behaviors why people are using Twitter - for daily chats, for
conversation, for sharing information and for reporting news.
It has been shown lately that usage of Twitter at conferences helps to
increase reports, statements, and announcements as well as supports
fast conversation between participants. Nowadays very often so called
Twitter-streams done by hash tag search nearby the projection of an
ongoing presentation [8] or placed at any other location at the
conference support the conference administration, organization,
discussions or knowledge exchange. From this point of view
microblogging becomes a valuable service reported by different
publications [8] [9].
4 Selver Softic , Martin Ebner², Herbert Mühlburger ², Thomas Altmann², Behnam
Taraghi²

The rules are simple and platform is easy to use. This approach through
its simplicity and easy technical accessibility produces masses of
information. Analysis of such content in a systematic manner using
standards and adequate automated techniques enables the consumer of
information to get valuable data categorized by aspects like locality,
time, popularity, categorization etc.
Although Twitter already has an API with advanced search
functionality, retrieved data lacks of usability. Bringing these results
into structured form with appropriate domain description using wide
accepted vocabularies for a specific knowledge domain would increase
the relevance of information retrieved through mining and exploration
of such content. Second disadvantage of Twitter API12is that results are
restricted to the last 3200 tweets.

2.2 Semantic for Microblogging
User posts, relations and communication between them represent the
essence of microblogging idea. The Communication paradigm
presented in most microblog platforms like Twitter could be covered
through following cases: User “A” says something on topic “T”, User
“A” communicates with user “B”, User “A” broadcasts some content
without addressing. All these communicational patterns can be easily
mapped into a tripartite structure [20][21], which mainly corresponds to
the basic idea of RDF Framework.
Regarding Twitter there have already been done some efforts like
Semantic Tweet13 to bring data from Twitter user into a wise semantic
form. In order to describe semantically circumstances of relations
between the users widely used FOAF (Frien-Of-A-Friend) vocabulary
[10] is recommended to use and it will be considered by our
architecture paradigm. For the purposes of posts’ description and
relations around them like topic, author, content and the vocabulary
called SIOC (Semantically Interlinked Online Communities)[17] is
provided by Semantic Web Community.
Currently a well known scientific project dealing with the semantic
realization of microblogging platforms named SMOB (Semantic
MicrOBlogging) [11] [12] is maintained by DERI Galway. It provides
a SPARQL14 API and relies on vocabularies like FOAF, SIOC and
OPO (Online Presence Ontology). Additionally it offers the interfaces
to the semantic search engines like Sindice15and to the Linked Data

12
http://apiwiki.twitter.com/ (last access: September 2010)
13
http://semantictweet.com/ (last access: September 2010)
14
http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/ (last access: September 2010)
15
http://www.sindice.com (last access: September 2010)
@twitter Mining#Microblogs Using #Semantic Technologies 5

Cloud (LOD)16. There is also Smesher17 a micro-blogging client
maintained by Benjamin Nowack with the ability of local storage. It
provides also a SPARQL API as part of its implementation.
According to the mentioned aspects in this section there are some
proven domain vocabularies as FOAF, SIOC or semantic technologies
like SPARQL provided by the Semantic Web Community, which can
be used for triplification and semantic description of microblogs like
Twitter.

2.3 Linked Data
The idea of Linked Data [14] and growing activities in this field
cumulated into LOD Cloud (Linking Open Data Cloud) [18] offering in
the meanwhile reliable semantic data sets like e.g. DBPedia [13], which
is a semantic version of Wikipedia as reasonable mapping source.
DBPedia team operates besides SPARQL endpoints also a lookup
service18. For identifying people, organizations or locations there are
some other verified linked data sets present in LOD Cloud like New
York Times19, Geo-names20 etc. Similar data sets also exist about music,
books, movies, science etc.
Linking semantic sources using simple principles described in [14] [15]
turns the web into a large database not only available for human but
also to intelligent agents [16]. Bringing Twitter data into this
infrastructure would increase the relevance of its content and offer
more profound information on social aspects of posted content [17].
Our current and future efforts are also inspired by this vision. In
following chapter we are introducing architecture suitable to meet the
intended requirements and expectations.

3 System Architecture

3.1 Overview
Basically our experimental system paradigm depicted in Fig. 1
describes the basic mining architecture consisting of three fundamental
parts: data acquisition, data extraction, and analysis as final step.

16
http://richard.cyganiak.de/2007/10/lod/ (last access: September 2010)
17
http://smesher.org/ (last access: September 2010)
18
http://lookup.dbpedia.org/ (last access: September 2010)
19
http://data.nytimes.com/ (last access: September 2010)
20
http://www.geonames.org/ (last access: September 2010)
6 Selver Softic , Martin Ebner², Herbert Mühlburger ², Thomas Altmann², Behnam
Taraghi²

Fig. 1. Experimental architectural paradigm for semantic microblog
mining

In the acquisition phase tweets are simply grabbed and subsequently
stored into a local database or passed automatically through to
extraction phase. Extraction phase triplifies the microblogs content into
RDF triples and stores the data into a triple store of choice. Also
interlinking of tweet bodies is done in this step. Finally in the analysis
phase stored RDF triples are exposed over SPARQL Endpoints or by
using the Lookup Services to humans and machines.

3.2 Data Acquisition

3.2.1 Grabeeter
Before creating semantic triples data must be at first retrieved from the
twitter server. Our main module that serves data acquisition is called
Grabeeter. It simply grabs Twitter user timelines using the Twitter API.
Every user who owns a Twitter account can initialize and grab his/her
data with Grabeeter. The architecture of Grabeeter (see Fig.2) consists
of two main parts. The first part is a web application and second part of
Grabeeter consists of a client application developed in JavaFX6
technology for accessing the stored information on a client side.
@twitter Mining#Microblogs Using #Semantic Technologies 7

Fig. 2. Architecture of Grabeeter
The Grabeeter web application (see Fig.3) uses the Twitter API to
retrieve tweets of predefined users. Tweets are stored in the Grabeeter
database and on the file system as Apache Lucene21 index. In order to
ensure an efficient search tweets must be indexed. The Grabeeter web
application provides access to the Grabeeter database through its own
REST style [19] API. This enables client applications to retrieve tweets
and user information in an easy way by implementing this API. In
contrast to the Twitter API Grabeeter API provides all stored tweets
and makes no restriction over time.

21
http://lucene.apache.org/java/docs/ (last access: September 2010)
8 Selver Softic , Martin Ebner², Herbert Mühlburger ², Thomas Altmann², Behnam
Taraghi²

Fig. 3.Grabeeter web application

The Grabeeter client application (Fig 4.) is developed using JavaFX in
order to be independent from different operating systems as well as to
provide an easy upgrade process for the client application using Java
Web Start22. Furthermore it simplifies the way to store the retrieved
tweets on the user’s local file system for later offline processing.

22
http://java.sun.com/javase/6/docs/technotes/guides/javaws/index.html (last access: September
2010)
@twitter Mining#Microblogs Using #Semantic Technologies 9

Fig. 4.Grabeeter client application

3.3 Data Extraction

3.3.1 Triplification Module
Triplification module resides on the achievement of SMOB (Semantic
MicrOBlogging) project. SMOB is a Semantic MicroBlogging
framework based on state-of-the-art Semantic Web and Linked Data
technologies like SIOC PHP API23 or ARC224interfaces. Some parts of
framework are adapted into our TriplificationModule and used to
triplify the user data and tweets, which were harvested by Grabeeter
using the SIOC and FOAF vocabulary in similar manner as it was made
in SMOB Project. Once the data is triplified it will be stored into a RDF
Store. For experimental purposes we are using ARC2 store hence our
implementation resides on PHP. Additionally the SMOB project also
offers an interlinking feature using the MOAT25 and

23
http://wiki.sioc-project.org/index.php/PHPExportAPI (last acess: September 2010)
24
http://arc.semsol.org/ (last acess: September 2010)
25
http://moat-project.org/ (last acess: September 2010)
10 Selver Softic , Martin Ebner², Herbert Mühlburger ², Thomas Altmann², Behnam
Taraghi²

CommonTag26vocabularies and interface connection to Sindice, which
will be also considered to be used to expose the harvested data.
Currently the module implementation status is limited to simple
triplification and storing of triplified data.

3.3.2 Interlinking Module
Once the content is semantically structured and described, content
fields like post
body, channel (topic) inside the post body, author or location can much
easier explored and analyzed. SPARQL for example offers a possibility
to use regular expressions on content, which were previously
semantically described and structured. Analyzed content in this form is
qualified for more accurate specification by mapping and interlinking
the detected entities into verified data sources.
Our interlinking module is still in development. Currently it uses a
simple interlinking algorithm based on regular expressions inside
SPARQL queries over the fields of sioc:MicroblogPost (sioc:content,
sioc:topic, foaf:name, foaf:maker). In following pseudo code a sample
SPARQL query searches for all tweets including #vienna hastag is
shown.

SELECT ?post ?content ?maker ?name
WHERE {
?post rdf:type sioct:MicroblogPost;
foaf:maker ?maker;
?maker foaf:name ?name;
sioc:content ?content.
FILTER(regex(?content,#vienna))
}

Those queries are used for RDF store of tweets, which are grabbed by
Grabeeter, triplified and stored in ARC2 triple store. At this stage of
implementation we are trying to extract some more concrete entities
like persons, locations and interlink them with DBPedia or GeoNames.
In this way additional reliable data is semantically linked to social data
artifacts enhancing them with proven references.

26
http://commontag.org/ (last acess: September 2010)
@twitter Mining#Microblogs Using #Semantic Technologies 11

3.4 Analysis
Analysis is done using Semantic Technologies and simple text based
techniques. Other very significant contribution of analysis phase
includes the exposure of triplified raw microblog data using SPARQL
endpoints or lookup services. This aspect offers a solid base for further
exploitation of grabbed data by intelligent semantic web applications.
Especially for Twitter we developed for demonstration purposes so
called STAT (Semantic Tweeter Analysis Tool) Infrastructure. STAT is
still in development at this moment. However we are aiming creating
an analysis system that would be able to answer simple questions about
persons and their actions and interactions on microbloging platforms. A
snapshot of current stage of STAT is depicted in Fig. 5.

Fig. 5. STAT (Semantic Twitter Analysis Tool) development snapshost

4 Conclusion and Future Work

Grabeeter was launched in May 2010. The web application as well as
the JavaFX client can be accessed at http://grabeeter.tugraz.at.
Grabeeter grabs the timeline data from Twitter and on the other hand it
provides longer lasting storage for tweets that would be lost due the
3200 tweets restriction of Twitter API. The rapid improvements in the
12 Selver Softic , Martin Ebner², Herbert Mühlburger ², Thomas Altmann², Behnam
Taraghi²

mobile technology have led to an ascending trend of using mobile
applications in recent years. Consequently more users use mobile
devices to access online applications. It is planned to build the
Grabeeter client as a mobile application for different platforms
(Android, iPhone, JavaFX devices …). The adaptations, which must
be performed, are mainly the view adjustment and an appropriate look
and feel for the mobile environments.
Furthermore we consider involving more complex text processing
techniques as well as more advanced approaches like simple NLP
(Natural Language Processing) methods in order to make the entity
extraction inside the Interlinking Module more accurate and widely
applicable.
In this paper we introduced the interesting aspects about microblogs,
how far they correspond with ideas from other research areas like
Semantic Web or Linked Data.
We also tried to answer how far those two areas can be combined to
gain more knowledge and mine usable data out of social context of
microblogs. We also outlined the importance and relevance of such or
similar efforts by examples and arguments from current research.
Through implementation of Grabeeter and STAT along with integration
of open source projects like SMOB or technologies like SPARQL into
our Triplification and Interlinking Module we approved that it is
possible to grab, triplify and expose the social data from microblogs’ to
intelligent semantic clients. Although some research questions have to
be solved we are convinced that in this way prepared social data
especially from microblogs will be interesting as base for future
semantic web applications. We have also carried out that current state-
of-the-art-technologies can support this idea. Finally we presented our
architectural paradigm approach that delivers the answer to specified
research issue.

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