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1

Introduction:

In a bird’s eye view, this project aims at bringing the

branch of linear and non linear optics under a single umbrella.

when the mirrors of a conventional Michelson interferometer

are replaced by phase-conjugate mirrors, the resulting

interferometer displays dramatically altered behavior which

makes it ideally suited to performing important operations in

parallel optical image processing a and optical computing. The

phase reversing property and real time response of the phase

conjugate mirrors makes this type of interferometer much more

immune to spatially uniform and non uniform distortions, both

static and dynamic. Phase conjugate interferometers are

remarkably stable, sensitive only to real amplitude disturbances

or information in the arms, and they readily display the

subtraction, addition, intensity inversion.

A phase conjugate Michelson interferometer combines

the linear operation of wave superposition with the nonlinear

operation of optical phase conjugation. The latter is

accomplished by replacing the ordinary mirrors of the

interferometer with nonlinear optical elements, called phase

conjugate mirrors (PCMS). The advantages of this combination

of linear and nonlinear optical effects in interferometry include

greatly enhanced alignment stability, non-critical alignment

requirements, and real-time compensation for spatially uniform

2

and nonuniform phase distortions present in the interferometer

arms.

Where as ordinary mirror reverses the sign of only one

component of a wave’s incident propagation vector (the

component perpendicular to the mirror surface), a PCM

reverses the sign of the entire propagation vector, causing

optical system in the opposite direction. In addition, a PCM

reverses the sign of the phase of each point of the wave fronts,

so that converging portions of the wave become diverging upon

reflection, and vice versa. The reflected wave is effectively the

time-reversed version of the incident wave.

Optical phase conjugation was first demonstrated in

holography, but this static, multi step technique is rarely used

because it is unable to respond in real time. The nonlinear

effects mentioned above differ in the materials used, in the

incident wavelengths allowed, in the required light power

densities, in response time, and in other details of their

operation. The photorefractive effect is distinguished from the

other methods by its combination of low input light power

requirements, large reflectivity, and the possibility o f using it to

make a passive phase-conjugate mirror (requiring no external

light input other than the beam to be phase conjugated). Along

with the increasing availability of suitable materials, these

properties make the photorefractive effect one of the most

convenient methods for producing optical phase conjugation.

3

The behavior of a phase-conjugate interferometer differs

sharply from that of a conventional Michelson interferometer.

The phase reversing property makes the phase-conjugate

interferometer immune not only to phase distortions appearing I

the interferometer arms, but also to spatially uniform optical

path differences between the tow beams (limited by some

temporal bandwidth). The behavior makes the phase-conjugate

interferometer ideally suited to the parallel processing of two

dimensional optical images and for use as a two-dimensional

all-optical logic gate.

4

THEORY

5

1. REVIEW OF CONVENTIONAL MICHELSON

INTERFEROMETER:

In this section, we review the basic properties of a

conventional Michelson interferometer in the simple

configuration of Fig (1) we assume that

1. The input to the interferometer is a visible, monochromatic,

linearly polarized plane wave.

2. The mirrors are parallel to the wave fronts so that the two

exiting beams are collinear, and

3. The lossless beam splitter consists of a glass plate with

plane parallel surfaces, one face of which is antireflection

coated.

The output irradiance of the instrument exhibits

conventional two-beam interference, where the total phase

difference δ between the two waves at the output arises from

two sources:

1. differing optical path lengths of the two beams, represented

here by

opl

o A

,

2. Reflection at the beam splitter, giving rise to a phase

difference of π. if the two beams traversing the interferometer

have equal irradiances (which may be arranged, for

example, by inserting appropriate neutral density filters), the

output irradiance is

6

2 2

0 0

cos ( / 2) cos (1/ 2)( )

out opl

I I I ô o r · · A

(1)

Where each output beam is assumed to have an irradiance of

0

4 I

The π phase difference arises from the fact that one beam

undergoes an internal reflection at the beam splitter while the

other beam undergoes an external reflection. This phase

difference exists regardless of the polarization state of the

incident beam. This well-known result follows from the Fresnel

equations governing the reflection and transmission of light at

linear lossless dielectric interfaces. It has as its underlying

cause the principle of the time-reversal invariance of light,

which states that, as long as no absorption occurs, the time-

reversed version of the process of reflection and transmission

of an electromagnetic wave from a linear lossless interface

must be physically permissible. The resulting relationships

between the internal and external reflection and transmission

coefficients are known as the Stokes relations, after Sir George

Gabriel Stokes (1819-1903). If r and r’ are the reflection

coefficients of the beam splitter in Fig (1), for light incident on

the right hand and left-hand faces, respectively, we may state

the relevant Stokes relation as

7

i

r r e r

r

´

· ·

(2)

If we setup the interferometer of Fig (1) so that the optical

path lengths are equal, we are left with only the reflection-

induced phase difference. Equation (1) then implies that there

will be complete destructive interference at the output.

8

Fig (1) A simple Michelson interferometer with plane ordinary

mirrors and a lossless glass plate beam splitters

2.MICHELSON INTERFEROMETER AS A LOGIC GATE

The simple interferometer described above can be readily

modified to provide one-or-two-dimensional gating action. As

shown in the above figure several modifications to the

interferometer are necessary in order to display gating action in

two dimensions: a second beam splitter (BS2) must be added;

it is assumed to be identical to the first beamsplitter (BS1) and

to lie outside the main part of the interferometer. This second

beamsplitter provides an additional output port with different

properties to be outlined below.

9

Fig 3. Two-dimensional logic gates.

The interferometer involves three modifications:

(1) A second beam splitter has been added

(2) The input beam has been expanded

(3) Image-bearing transparencies have been placed in the

arms.

An image-bearing transparency has been placed in each of the

arms. We assume, without loss of generality, that these are

“binary images”, that is, they consist of patterns of total

transmission and total opaqueness. The transparencies may

also contribute two-dimensional phase information to the

beams. The images shown in figure consist of three parallel

transmitting bars that are identical aside from their orientations.

These images are written onto the laser beams as the beams

pass through the transparencies. We have expanded the

collimated input laser beam to the size of the transparency

10

images. Let us assume that the interferometer has been

adjusted so that

opl

o A

= 0. We will ignore diffraction effects.

Using digital terminology, a bright image pixel

corresponds to logical input of ‘1’ and a dark pixel to a logical

input of ‘0’. The optical signal in the interferometer arms may

then be treated as digital inputs to a two-dimensional array of

tow-input logic gates. If we similarly call a bright pixel output a

‘1’ and a dark pixel output a ‘0’ and assume that the same two-

dimensional phase information is introduced into both beams,

then we can construct the truth table of table I, describing the

outputs from BS1 and BS2. Each spatially corresponding pair

of pixels in the images (one pixel from each image contributing

to the pair) serves as a pair of inputs into the gates and

satisfies the truth table of Table I (a)

Part (a) of Table I corresponds to Boolean XOR operation

and part (b) to Boolean OR operation. The output at BS2 is

readily determined by following the beam’s path prior to exiting,

while accounting for phase shifts upon reflection. It is found

that there is no net phase shift between the two beams at this

output. Note that the two truth tables differ only in their third

rows, for which

Table I. Truth tables corresponding to the all-optical logic gates

fig 2. 1=bright and 0=dark

11

(a) BS1 output XOR subtraction

Image

Pixel 1

Image

Pixel 2

Digital

Output

1 0 1

0 1 1

1 1 0

0 0 0

(b) BS2 output OR addition

Image

Pixel 1

Image

Pixel 2

Digital

Output

1 0 1

0 1 1

1 1 1

0 0 0

Both pixels are bright. The operations XOR and OR

correspond to the subtraction and addition, respectively, of the

two inputs. The corresponding optical operations are

destructive and constructive interference. Expressions for the

output irradiances of this interferometer are obtained in a

straight forward manner, as follows.

12

We will obtain an expression for the output irradiance

form BS1 in figure 2. If

0

E is the complex amplitude of the

input wave (assumed to be spatially uniform),

1

( , ) t x y and

2

( , ) t x y

are the amplitude transmission functions of the

transparencies, that is, their complex two-dimensional

amplitude transmission coefficients, and t is the beamsplitter’s

transmission coefficients for light incident on the right hand

surfaces, the surfaces, the expression for the complex output

amplitude form BS1 is readily formulated by accounting for all

reflections, transmissions, and additional phase shifts. Allowing

for time-dependent phase information, the result is

1 2

2 ( , , ) 2 ( , , ) ' 2 2 2

1 0 2 0

( , , ) ( , ) ( , )

i x y z i x y z

out

E x y z r e t x y t E te t x y rtE

I I

· +

(3)

Where

1

( , , ) x y t I and

2

( , , ) x y t I are two-dimensional,

time dependent phase modulation functions which describe

one-way optical path length effects (both spatially uniform and

nonuniform), other than those from the transparencies [which

are included in

1

( , ) t x y and

2

( , ) t x y ], and the mirrors are

assumed to be 100% reflecting. The functions

1

( , , ) x y t I and

2

( , , ) x y t I may include phase distortions arising from effects

such as air turbulence and temperature variations (we will

13

assume that the phase distortions change slowly compared to

the round-trip times of the beams in the interferometer arms.)

and may also include static contributions, such as imperfect

optical elements. The first term of equation (3) corresponds to

the portion of the incident beam initially transmitted through

beamsplitter BS1 while the second term corresponds to the

portion initially reflected. The coefficients

1

( , ) t x y and

2

( , ) t x y appear squared since each beam passes through its

transparency twice. We have assumed that the phase

information introduced from all sources is reciprocal, i.e., the

same in both directions.

In order to distinguish the amplitude from the phase

information of the transparencies, we write the amplitude

transmission function as

( , ) 0

( , ) ( , )

i

i x y

i i

t x y t x y e

w

· (4)

Where i=1,2. The output amplitude, Equation 3, then becomes

1

2

2 ( , , ) (1) ' 0 2 2

1 0

2 ( , , ) 0 2

2 0

( , , ) [ ( , )]

[ ( , )]

i x y t

out

i x y t

E x y t r t x y e t E

t t x y e rtE

o

o

·

+

(5)

14

where ( , , ) ( , ) ( , , )

i i i

x y t x y x y t o w · + I .

The functions ( , , )

i

x y t o contain all phase information

acquired in the interferometer arms. Making use of the Stokes

relation

i

r e r

r

´

·

the output irradiance is found to be

1 2

2

(1) (1)

2

2

2 ( , , ) 2 ( , , ) 0 2 2 0 2

0 1 2

( , , ) ( , , )

[ ( , )] [ ( , )]

out out

i x y t i x y t i

I x y t E x y t

RT E t x y e t t x y e e

o o r

·

· +

(6a)

Where

2

R r ·

and

2

T t · are the intensity reflectance and

transmittance of the beamsplitters and where appropriate units

have been assumed. After expansion, this expression may be

written as,

2

(1) 0 4 0 4

0 1 2

0 2 0 2

1 1

( , , ) {[ ( , )] [ ( , )]

2[ ( , )] [ ( , )] cos[ 2 ( , , )]}

out

I x y t E t x y t x y

t x y t x y x y t r o

· + +

× + A

.

(6b)

Where

2 1

( , , ) ( , , ) ( , , ) x y t x y t x y t o o o A · and

2 ( , , ) x y t o A is the phase difference between the two beams

upon returning to BS1. Then ( , , ) x y t o A is therefore doubled

15

when ordinary mirrors are used, unlike the case of the phase-

conjugate interferometer.

If all phase-distorting influences could be removed and

the optical path lengths made equal, so that

( , , ) 0 x y t o A ·

Equation 6b would become

2

(1) 2 2

0 1 2

( , ) [[ ( , )] [ ( , )]]

out

I x y RT E T x y T x y · (7)

The quantities

0 2

1 1

( , ) [ ( , )] T x y t x y · and

0 2

2 2

( , ) [ ( , )] T x y t x y · are the two-dimensional intensity

transmittance functions of the transparencies, and represent

the image patterns. Equation (7) therefore corresponds to the

subtraction of the two image irradiances, of, since the present

transparencies contain binary images, to a two-dimensional, all-

optical XOR operation. Each corresponding pair of resolution

elements of the images satisfies the truth table of Table I (a).

Note that image subtraction results regardless of the

reflectance of the beam splitter, but the maximum output

irradiance is achieved when the intensity reflectance is 50%. A

similar analysis of the output irradiance from BS2 leads to

image addition and a two-dimensional OR operation for a

reflectance of 50%. In this case, however the operation is

dependent on the beamsplitter reflectance. The input images of

Fig2, and the resulting outputs from BS1, are shown in fig 3. [ It

16

is worth nothing that the nonzero portion of the output in figure

3(b), corresponding to image addition, are no of uniform

irradiance.]

The experimental difficulty in achieving and maintaining

the condition ( , , ) 0 x y t o A · with a conventional

interferometer, however, makes the latter impractical for use as

an image processor. Conventional interferometers are, by

nature, highly sensitive to phase. In fact, the strenuous

demands that must be placed on this type of interferometer if it

is to be used as logic gate or image processor are somewhat

unusual; we would like an interferometer in which the only net

effect of the beams’ travel down the interferometer arms is the

writing of real amplitudes onto the beams, with no net phase

information added. As seen below, by replacing the ordinary

mirrors with phase-conjugate mirrors, it is possible to construct

an extremely stable interferometer with such a property. The

main point which should be made here is that any phase

difference between the two images upon returning to the

beamsplitters represents pure noise in the present application.

It is prospect of completely eliminating this noise that makes the

use of a phase-conjugate interferometer.

There are additional operations that are of interest in this

configuration. If one of the transparencies is completely

removed from the interferometer, the remaining image is

17

subtracted, at the output from BS1, from the spatially uniform

beam in the other arm. The resulting output is the intensity-

inverted version of the remaining image, and is shown in figure

3(c). This operation corresponds to a two-dimensional NOT

gate, or inverter. Discrete spatial differentiation at the BS1

output, with respect to an arbitrary direction, may also be

demonstrated by making the images identical (with the same

orientation and spatially coincident at the output) and then

slightly shifting one of them with respect to the other in this

direction.

fig(3). Input and output of the three two-dimensional logic

operations performed by the interferometer

(a) XOR image subtraction

(b) OR image addition

(c) NOT image inversion

18

3.OPTICAL PHASE CONJUGATION

Phase-conjugation leads to aberration correction. (Yariv

and fisher, 1983).We Optical phase conjugation:

Optical phase conjugation is a process that

can be used to remove aberrations from certain types of optical

systems. The nature of the phase conjugation is illustrated in

the figure .part (a) of the figure shows an optical wave falling

at normal incidence onto an ordinary metallic mirror. In this

case the most advanced portion turns into the most retarded

portion in the reflection process. For this reason, optical phase

conjugation is sometimes referred to as wave front reversal.

Note ,however that the wave front is reversed only with respect

to normal geometrical incidence; in fact the generated wave

front exactly replicates the incident wave front but propagates in

the opposite direction. For this reason, phase conjugation is

sometimes referred to as the generation of a time-reversed

wave front.

The reason can be understood via, a mathematical description

of the process. We represent the wave incident on the phase-

conjugate mirror (called signal wave) as

( ) ( )

, .

i t

s s

E r t E r e c c

u

· +

% (8)

19

When illuminated by such a wave, a phase-conjugate mirror

produces a reflected wave, called the phase-conjugate wave,

described by

( ) ( )

*

, .

i t

c s

E r t rE r e c c

u

· +

%

(9)

Where r represents the amplitude reflection coefficient of the

mirror. In order to determine the significance of

( )

s

E r

%

replacing

*

( )

s

E r

%

by in the reflection process, it is

useful to represent as the product

( )

.

ˆ

( )

s

iK r

s s s

E r A r e r ·

% (10)

Where

ˆ

s

r represents the polarization unit vector, ( )

s

A r the

slowly varying field amplitude, and the mean wave vector of the

incident light. The complex conjugate of eqn(10) is given

explicitly by

. * *

( ) ( )

s

iK r

s s s

E r A r e r

·

%

(11)

We thus see that the action of an ideal phase-conjugate mirror

is threefold:

20

1. The complex polarization unit vector of the incident radiation

is replaced by its complex conjugate. For example, right-angled

circular light remains right-hand circular in reflection from a

phase-conjugate mirror rather than being converted into left-

handed circular light, as in the case in reflection at normal

incidence from a metallic mirror.

2. ( )

s

A r is replaced by

*

( )

s

A r implying that the

wave front is reversed in the sense illustrated in

3.

s

k Is replaced by

s

k , showing that the incident

wave is reflected back into its direction of incidence. From the

point of view of ray optics, the result shows that each ray of the

incident beam is precisely reflected back onto itself.

Note further that through imply that

( )

, ( , )

c s

E r t rE r t ·

% (12)

This result shows that the phase conjugation process can

be thought of as the generation of a time-reversed wave front.

It is important to note that the description given here

refers to an ideal phase-conjugate mirror. Many physical

21

devices that are ordinarily known as phase- conjugate mirrors

are imperfect either in the sense that they do not possess all

three properties listed above or in the sense that they possess

these properties only approximately. For example, many phase-

conjugate mirrors are highly imperfect in their polarization

properties, even though they are nearly perfect in their ability to

perform wavefront reversal.

(4) ABERRATION CORRECTION BY PHASE-

CONJUGATION:

The process of phase-conjugation is able to remove the

effects of aberrations under conditions such that a beam

passes twice in opposite directions through an aberrating

medium. The reason why optical phase conjugation leads to

aberration correction is as follows.

An initially plane wave front propagates through an

aberrating medium. The aberration may be due to turbulence in

the earth’s atmosphere, in homogeneities in the refractive index

of a piece of glass, or a poorly designed optical system. The

wave front of the light leaving the medium therefore becomes

distorted in the manner shown schematically in the figure. If this

aberrated wave front is allowed to fall onto a phase-conjugate

mirror, a conjugate wave front will be generated, and the sense

22

of the wave front distortion will be inverted in this reflected

wave. As a result, when this wave front passes through the

aberrating medium again, an undistorted output wave will

emerge.

Let us now see how to demonstrate mathematically that

optical phase conjugation leads to aberration correction.We

consider a wave

( )

, E r t

% propagating through a lossless

material of no uniform refractive index

1/ 2

( ) [ ( )] n r r r ·

.

23

We assume that the spatial variation of ( ) r r occurs

on a scale that is much larger than an optical wavelength. The

optical field in this region must obey the wave equation, which

we write in the form

2

2

2 2

( )

0

r E

E

c t

r o

V ·

o

%

%

(13)

We represent the field propagating to the right through

this region as

( )

( )

, ( ) .

i kz t

E r t A r e c c

u

· +

% (14)

Where the field amplitude ( ) A r is assumed to be a

slowly varying function of .Since we have singled out the z

direction as the mean direction of propagation, it is convenient

to express the laplacian operator which appears in eqn(13) as

2

2 2

2

T

z

o

V · +V

o

(15)

Where

24

2 2

2

2 2

T

x y

o o

V · +

o o

(16)

is called the transverse laplacian. Equations 14 and 15 are now

introduced into eq( 13 ), which becomes

2

2 2

2

( )

2 0

T

r A

A k A ik

c z

u r ] o

V + + ·

]

o

]

(17)

In writing this equation in the form shown, we have omitted the

term because

2

2

A

z

o

o

has been assumed to be slowly

varying. Since this equation is generally valid, so its complex

conjugate, which is given explicitly by,

2 *

2 * 2 *

2

( )

2 0

T

r A

A k A ik

c z

u r ] o

V + + ·

]

o

]

(18)

However, this equation describes the wave

( )

* ( )

, ( ) .

i kz t

c

E r t A r e c c

u

· +

% (19)

which is a wave propagating in the negative z direction

whose complex amplitude is everywhere the complex conjugate

of the forward-going wave. This proof shows that if the phase-

conjugate mirror can generate a backward-going whose

25

amplitude is the complex conjugate of that of the forward-going

wave at any one plane(say the input face of the mirror),then the

field amplitude of the backward-going wave will be the complex

conjugate of that of the forward-going wave at all points in front

of the mirror. In particular, if the forward-going wave is a plane

wave before entering the aberrating medium, then the

backward going (ie., conjugate)wave emerging from the

aberrating medium will be a plane wave.

(5) PHASE CONJUGATE MIRRORS:

The behavior of a phase-conjugate mirror is substantially

different from that of a conventional mirror. Consider a point

source of essentially monochromatic light above an ordinary,

perfectly, flat mirror, as shown in the figure (4a) below

26

Fig (4a) The behavior of diverging wave fronts upon reflection

from an ordinary mirror

Fig (4b) The behavior of diverging wave fronts upon reflection

from a phase-conjugate mirror

The wave fronts which diverge from this object continue

to diverge after being reflected from the mirror, as if they were

emanating from the object’s (ordinary) mirror image. Now the

consider figure above which shows the effect of a PCM on the

same diverging wave fronts. The PCM has the property that it

reverses both the direction and phase of each point on the

wave fronts, so that the resulting reflected wave is the time-

27

reversed replica of the incoming of the incoming wave. The

operation is termed optical phase conjugation and the wave

reflected off of the PCM is called the phase conjugate of the

incident wave. The term phase conjugation comes from the

fact the reversal of the direction and phase accomplished by a

PCM corresponds to the mathematical operation of complex

conjugation on the spatial part of the incident wave. For

example, let the wave incident onto the PCM be represented,

in complex form,by

( )

0

( )

i t k r

E r e

u ×

·

where

( , )

0 0

( ) ( , )

i x y

E r A x y e

o

·

(20)

which satisfies the electromagnetic wave equation for a

static, linear, lossless, nonmagnetic medium.

0

( ) E r is the

complex-amplitude envelope of the wave and represents spatial

modulation due to image information, phase and amplitude

distortions, and diffraction

0

( ) A r and ( , ) x y o are real

functions. The phase conjugate of this wave is

* ( )

0

( )

i t k r

E r e

u + ×

·

(21)

where

* ( , )

0 0

( ) ( , )

i x y

E r A x y e

o

·

(22)

28

Note that only the spatial part of the wave has been

conjugated, resulting in the reversal of the wave front’s direction

and phase. Since the phase-conjugate wave represented by

Eqn. (9) satisfies the electromagnetic wave equation as the

incident wave, its wave fronts are identical at every point in

space, but travel in the opposite direction. It is therefore the

wave which would result if time were allowed to run backward.

Before considering how to realize PCM’s experimentally,

let us look at the implications of using them as replacements for

the ordinary mirrors of the interferometer. The remarkable

advantage of using PCMs is that any phase or phase distortion

which a beam acquires during the first half of a round trip down

an interferometer arm is completely cancelled on the return trip.

This can be seen as follows. Consider a plane light wave which

has acquired a two-dimensional phase distortion, for example,

by passing through a nonuniform piece of glass. If this wave is

subsequently retroreflected by an ordinary plane mirror, its

wave fronts are turned “inside out”, that is, the relative phase

between any two points on the distorted wave front is

unchanged. As a result, the phase distortions present on the

wave are doubled upon retraversing the distorting element from

the opposite direction. On the other hand, if a phase-conjugate

mirror is used in place of the ordinary mirror, the wave fronts

are not turned inside out. This implies that the relative phase

between any two points on the wave front must change sign. In

this case, upon retraversing the distorting element from the

29

opposite direction, the phase distortions present on the wave

are completely cancelled, and a plane wave front, traveling in

the opposite direction to the incident one, results.

This behavior is exactly what we need in order to

eliminate unwanted phase information from the image

processing described above. The result of replacing the

ordinary mirrors of the Michelson interferometer with phase-

conjugate mirrors is that only the real amplitude information of

the images, which the PCM is unable to compensate for, gets

written onto the output beams.

The question remains as to how one can experimentally

produce optical phase conjugation. The answer to this optical

phase conjugation is a large and active one and a survey of the

many ways of achieving and making use of it will not be

attempted here.

The first method is that of conventional holography. A

brief review of it will aid in the understanding of the second,

more desirable, method which makes use of the photorefractive

effect in an electro optic crystal.

Consider the production of a conventional transmission

type hologram, the configuration of which is shown in figure

5(a). The reference and object beams are mutually coherent

and the reference beam is a plane wave. If the developed

30

hologram is viewed with a beam propagating in exactly the

opposite direction to the original reference beam (i.e., the

phase conjugate of the original reference beam), a real image

of the object is formed. The scattered wave fronts from the

developed hologram, which converge onto the real image of the

object, comprise the phase conjugate of the original object

beam; the direction and phase of each point on this wave front

are exactly opposite to those if the corresponding point on the

original object wave front. This may be seen analytically using

a simple treatment of holographic image formation. The grating

picture of holography describes the developed pattern on the

film as complicated set of amplitude or phase gratings which

correspond to the interference pattern between the references

and object waves. The reading beam in figure 5(a) is scattered

off of these gratings to form the phase-conjugate beam.

31

fig.5.production of a phase-conjugate wave using conventional

holography.

(a) hologram exposure

(b) generation of the phase conjugate of the object beam by

illumination of the developed hologram with the ”time-reversed”

reference beam.

I

32

f a spatially non uniform pattern of light intensity is set up

n such a material, the index of refraction is spatially modulated.

A brief and simple description is as follows: in regions of

nonzero intensity, the light releases trapped charge carriers

form impurities, promoting them to the conduction band.

Through diffusion, these charges migrate and are

retrapped in regions of low light intensity, since the probability of

ionization in these regions is relatively low. The resulting

equilibrium space charge pattern is the source of strong local

and spatially varying electric fields and the index of refraction of

the material is altered by these local fields via the linear electro-

optic effect. The nonuniform light intensity pattern may arise

from the interference of a reference beam and an object beam

inside the material, just as in conventional holography. The

reference and object waves create “volume-index gratings”,

which are “read” by third beam.

The depth of modulation of the medium’s refractive index,

and therefore the diffraction efficiency of the gratings, is

independent of the magnitude of the incident light intensities,

but instead depends on the ratio of the intensities of the

interfering beams. This makes it possible to use low power

lasers, and is in contrast to more well-known indeed-changing

nonlinear optical effects, such as the optical Kerr effect, for

which the change in index is dependent on the light intensity.

33

Unlike the later, the photorefractive effect is not driven directly

by the release, trapping and migration of charge carriers.

One of the most widely used photorefractive materials at

present is single crystal barium titanate (BaTio3

3

), a

ferroelectric with the largest known photorefractive response,

due to its unusually large effective electro-optic coefficient.

Normally, the crystal is impurity doped, to provide charge donor

acceptors, and electrically poled, to create a single-domain

structure, which enhances the linear electro-optic effect by

removing the crystal’s inversion symmetry. Other electro optic

materials exhibiting photorefractive behavior include other

ferroelectric oxides, such LiNbO

3

and KNbO

3

, the Para electric

crystals Bi

12

TiO

20

, Bi

12

GeO

20

and compound semiconductors

such as GaAs, InP, and CdTe. Photorefractive behavior has

recently been observed in doped organic polymers. The

photorefractive effect is finding applications in numerous areas,

including image processing, optical computing, laser

resonators, and laser beam propagation.

34

fig.6. The generation of a phase-conjugate beam with a

photorefractive crystal.

(a) degenerate four wave mixing

(b) a self pumping configuration, known as a cat conjugator.

Figure 6(a) shows the writing of a simple index grating in a

photorefractive crystal. The reference and object beams are

both assumed to be plane waves and are incident on the crystal

face with some nonzero angle between them. The volume-

35

index grating which is formed by the interference of these two

beams is shown schematically. This hologram is read by a

reading beam which propagates exactly opposite to the

reference beam. The configuration shown in figure 6(a) is

called degenerate four-wave mixing; “degenerate “ because all

waves are of the same frequency, and the four waves are

shown in the figure. One of the main differences between

holography using photographic film and that using a

photorefractive crystal is that, in the latter case, the hologram

may be read simultaneously with the writing process; there is

no intermediate developing procedure. The crystal also

responds in real time to varying object beam wave fronts,

phase-conjugating whatever object beam is incident upon it.

This is often referred to as real time, or dynamic holography.

Although the method shown in figure is straightforward, it

requires that two additional beams be input into the crystal. To

replace the ordinary mirrors of our interferometer with a

photorefractive crystal in this configuration adds complexity to

the experiment. What we would like is a passive phase-

conjugate mirror, that is , one which requires no input aside

from the object beam whose phase conjugate is sought, so that

the optical configuration is similar to that for ordinary mirrors.

Fortunately, there is a configuration for producing phase-

conjugate waves using BaTio

3

for which no additional beams

are requires. This is called as self-pumping configuration and

the operation performed by the crystal is called self-pumped

36

phase conjugation. A rough diagram of the crystal, part of the

object beams is deflected from its path in the direction of the c-

axis, due to scattering off of crystal impurities or defects and

subsequent nonlinear interaction between the incident and

scattered waves. This effect is known as asymmetric self-

defocusing, or beam fanning. The scattered beam is totally

internally reflected at the faces shown, in such a way that the

crystal, generates its own writing and reading beams through

internal “cavity modes”. Since the index of refraction of the

crystal is about 2.4, total internal reflection is readily

accomplished. In order for sufficient beam fanning to occur in

BaTio

3

, the polarization of the incident beam must be that of an

extraordinary ray i.e., in the plane of incidence. A wave

emerges from the crystal which retraces the path of the incident

image-bearing beam and is its phase conjugate. This phase-

conjugate mirror conveniently replaces the ordinary mirrors of

the interferometer. This configuration has been named a “cat

conjugator”. The physical mechanisms behind it are not yet

fully explained.

37

(6) A PHASE-CONJUGATE MICHELSON

INTERFEROMETER :

Figure 7 shows a Michelson interferometer with the two

ordinary mirrors replaced by one BaTio

3

crystal, which serves

as two passive phase-conjugate mirrors. The crystal has the

capability of phase conjugating both beams simultaneously

without introducing any additional phase shift between them.

This interferometer is relatively insensitive to alignment, and

exhibits real-time compensation of spatially uniform and

nonuniform phase distortions in the beams.

Referring to figure7, a beam of a few tens of milliwatts

from a single-mode argon ion laser at 514.5 nm is spatially

filtered, allowed to expand, and collimated with a simple lens.

As before, the input beam is assumed to have a spatially

uniform intensity distribution. We have chosen this particular

optical wavelength only for definiteness; the wavelength

response of the photorefractive PCM is actually quite broad.

Both image-bearing beams are focused into the same

photorefractive crystal, in the self-pumping configuration of

figure 6(b). The ordinary mirrors are simply for steering the

beams. As discussed above, the two beams return to the

beam splitter with the same zero phase difference they had

upon splitting, regardless of their relative optical paths or of

phase distortions present in the interferometer arms. Only their

real amplitude profiles have been altered. This means that the

38

only remaining phase contribution to the output is that

introduced by the beam splitters. The major source of instability

and noise in the interferometer has thus been eliminated.

We first consider the output from BS1. The complex

amplitudes of the beam initially transmitted through BS1, at

various points as it travels down the interferometer arm and

back, as shown in figure 8. Here r’ is the amplitude reflection

coefficient of the beam splitters for light incident on the left-hand

faces and …. is the phase-conjugate amplitude reflection

coefficient of the photorefractive crystal. Following transmission

through the beam splitter, the beam passes through

transparency 1, is phase conjugated by the crystal, passes

back through transparency 1 going in the opposite direction,

and finally is reflected by the beam splitter, incident on its left

face. The final output amplitude of this beam is given at the

output in the figure. In a similar manner one can obtain the

output amplitude of the beam initially reflected at the beam

splitter.

With the ( , )

i

t x y coefficients defined by equation (4),

the total output amplitude is

.

(1) ' 0 2 2 *

1 0

0 2 *

2 0

( , ) [ ( , )] [ ]

[ ( , )] [ ]

out

E x y r t x y t E

t t x y rtE

p

p

·

+

(23).

39

This result is to be compared to that of equation (5),

which assumes conventional mirrors. In contrast to the

doubling of the one-way accumulated phases in equation (5)

and (1) shows no trace of any net phase information acquired in

the interferometer arms.

In order to represent a typical experimental configuration,

the beam splitters are now assumed to be coated with a

multilayer dielectric film on one face while the other face is

antireflection coated.

The generalized Stokes relation allow us to mutually

relate the factors r’t* and r*t of equation (10). They may be

obtained using the principal of time-reversal invariance, in a

similar manner to the way in which the conventional Stokes

relations are derived. The result is the following two relations:

2

*

* *

' 1,

' 0

r t t

tr r t

+ ·

+ ·

(24)

where t’ is the complex amplitude transmission coefficient

of the beam splitters for light incident on the left-hand faces in

Fig() and Fig().This equations reduce to the stokes relations for

a single interface if the coefficients are assumed to be real.

40

we may use Eq.() to eliminate the factor

*

' r t

in the first

term in the final form of Eq(). the interferometer output

amplitude at BS1 then become

(1) * * *

0 1 2

( , ) [ ( , ) ( , )]

out

E x y E t r t T x y T x y p · (25)

The output radiance is

2

(1) (1)

2 2

0 1 2

( , ) ( , )

[ ( , ) ( , )]

out out

I x y E x y

RT E T x y T x y p

·

· +

(26)

This is identical, except for the factor of

2

p

, to Eq(7), which

was derived for the case of a conventional interferometer with

ordinary mirrors and with the assumption that

( , , ) 0 x y t o A · As before, the output irradiance of the

interferometer is proportional to the squared difference in the

internsity transmittance functions of the two transparencies, that

is the two images are subtracted from each other (XOR for

binary images). in the case of the phase conjugate

interferometer, however the conditions of zero net phase

difference of the beams upon returning to the beam splitters is

automatically satisfied due to the phase reversing property of

the PCM.

If transparency 1 is removed from the interferometer, the

resulting irradiance at this output is, from Eq.(), proportional to

41

2

2

[1 ( , )] T x y This results corresponds to an intensity inversion

of the image on transparency 2 (2-D NOT gate). A similar

analysis of the output from BS2 yields the following output

irradiance

2 2

(2) 2

0 1

( , ) [ ( , ) ( , )]

out

I x y RT E TT x y RT x y p · +

(27)

for 50% beam splitters this corresponds to image addition (logic

OR) ,for binary images.

42

RESULTS AND

DISCUSSION

43

Experimental Arrangement:

44

Image Pattern:

45

Results:

We were successfully able to construct XOR,

NOT, OR gates using ordinary mirrors. In the experimental part,

we introduced a additional beam splitter and henceforth an

additional output port was constructed.

The transparencies were made by marking

rulings on OHP sheet using marker. We took simple images

that is horizontal and vertical markings.

The source we used was a 1mW laser.

The beam was expanded using a pinhole lens

arrangement.

Pinhole diameter-2 mm

Focal length of the lens-2.5 cm

In order to measure the intensity we used light meter which was

available in our laboratory.

For the measurement of intensity, we attached the detector of

the light meter to traveling microscope. Thus we were able to

scan the image for a considerable distance.

46

fig.8. shows the idea of a sample point

In order to map the intensity pattern of the image we used the

idea of sample points.ie.,the image was divided into squares of

equal dimensions. Each square was considered as a sample

point and the detector was placed on them to measure the

intensity at that point.By plotting a graph with sample points in

x-axis and intensity along y-axis the complete mapping of the

image can be made.

Since we are interested only in two states for digital image

processing, the sample points having maximum intensity were

noted as “1” state and the points having minimum intensity

were noted as “0” states.

47

Range of maximum intensity- 250 to 350 mV

Range of minimum intensity- 35 to 70 mV

Clear idea can be gained when we look into the graphs.

Graph 1: Intensity pattern of image 1

48

1

6

1

1

1

6

2

1

2

6

3

1

3

6

S

1

0

50

100

150

200

250

300

sample points

I

(mV)

intensity pattern

Graph2: Intensity pattern of image2 (placed at one of the

arms of the interferometer)

49

1

6

1

1

1

6

2

1

2

6

3

1

3

6

S

1

0

50

100

150

200

250

300

sample points

I

(

m

V

)

intensity pattern

Graph3: Intensity pattern obtained from port1 ie., from the first

beam splitter.(subtracted image pattern of image1 and image2)

50

1

5

9

1

3

1

7

2

1

2

5

2

9

3

3

3

7

S

1

0

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

sample points

I

(mV)

intensity pattern

Graph 4: Intensity pattern of image 3 (uniform illumination)

51

1

5

9

1

3

1

7

2

1

2

5

2

9

3

3

3

7

S

1

0

50

100

150

200

250

300

sample points

I

(mV)

intensity pattern image I

Graph 5: Intensity pattern of image 2(placed at one arm of the

interferometer)

52

1

5

9

1

3

1

7

2

1

2

5

2

9

3

3

3

7

S

1

0

50

100

150

200

250

300

sample points

I

(mV)

intensity pattern image 2

Graph 6: Intensity pattern of the images at port1 ie.,from

beamsplitter1 (NOT operation)

53

1

4

7

1

0

1

3

1

6

1

9

2

2

2

5

2

8

3

1

3

4

3

7

4

0

S

1

0

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

sample points

I

(mV)

intensity pattern output

1

9

1

7

2

5

3

3

S

1

0

50

100

150

200

250

300

sample points

I

(mV)

intensity pattern

Graph 7: Intensity pattern of image 1 placed at one arm of the

interferometer

54

Graph 8: Intensity pattern of image 2 placed in one arm of the

interferometer

55

1

6

1

1

1

6

2

1

2

6

3

1

3

6

S

1

0

50

100

150

200

250

300

sample points

I

(

m

V

)

intensity pattern

1

3

5

7

9

1

1

1

3

1

5

1

7

1

9

2

1

2

3

2

5

2

7

2

9

3

1

3

3

3

5

3

7

3

9

S

1

0

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

Sample points

I

(mv)

Intensity Patttern

Graph 9 : Intensity pattern of the image in port 2 ie.,from the

beamsplitter 2 (OR operation )

56

CONCLUSION:

Thus we were successfully able to construct three gates,

namely XOR,NOT and OR gates.

We could not construct phase conjugate

mirror because ,Barium titanate crystal did not grow in a bulk

form as we had expected.

57

REFERENCES:

1. F.I.Pedrotti and L.S.Pedrotti, Introduction to optics (Prentice-

hall, Englewood Cliffs,NJ,(1987),pp,253-257

2. A.Yariv,Quantum Electronics(Wiley,New York,1989),3

rd

edition,pp 495-497

3. A.E.Chiou and Yeh,”Parallel image subtraction using a phase

conjugate Michelson interferometer”, Opt.Lett. 11,306-

308(1986)

4. Jefrey B.Norman,”Phase-conjugate Michelson interferometer

for all-optical image processing”,Am.J.Phys,60(3),March 1992.

58

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