Oil reservoirs are pools of hydrocarbons, located beneath the earth¶s surface in porous rock structures.

The total estimate of petroleum reservoirs includes the total quantity of oil that be can be recovered and that which cannot be recovered. The fraction of crude oil reservoirs that can be extracted from the oil field is classified as reserves. Three conditions must be present for oil reservoirs to form: a source rock rich in hydrocarbon material buried deep enough for subterranean heat to cook it into oil;

porous and permeable reservoir rock for it to accumulate in; and a cap rock (seal) or other mechanism that prevents it from escaping to the surface. Within these reservoirs, fluids will typically organize themselves like a three-layer cake with a layer of water below the oil layer and a layer of gas above it, although the different layers vary in size between reservoirs. Because most hydrocarbons are lighter than rock or water, they often migrate upward through adjacent rock layers until either reaching the surface or becoming trapped within porous rocks (known as reservoirs) by impermeable rocks above. However, the process is influenced by underground water flows, causing oil to migrate hundreds of kilometers horizontally or even short distances downward before becoming trapped in a reservoir. When hydrocarbons are concentrated in a trap, an oil field forms, from which the liquid can be extracted by drilling and pumping. The reactions that produce oil and natural gas are often modeled as first order breakdown reactions, where hydrocarbons are broken down to oil and natural gas by a set of parallel reactions, and oil eventually breaks down to natural gas by another set of reactions. The latter set is regularly used in petrochemical plants and oil refineries. Wells are drilled into oil reservoirs to extract the crude oil. "Natural lift" production methods that rely on the natural reservoir pressure to force the oil to the surface are usually sufficient for a while after reservoirs are first tapped. In some reservoirs, such as in the Middle East , the natural pressure is sufficient over a long time. T he natural pressure in many reservoirs, however, eventually dissipates. Then the oil must be pumped out using ³artificial lift´ created by mechanical pumps powered by gas or electricity. Over time, these "primary" methods become less effective and "secondary" production methods may be used. A common secondary method is ³water flood´ or injection of water into the

primary production methods account for less than 40% of the oil produced on a daily basis. the buried residue transforms into liquid hydrocarbons Later on they migrate from the source rock to porous rocks and get trapped in impermeable layers of rock. . algae and other protein rich life forms under layers of sand and mud at a source rock y y y y With continuous accumulation of sand. and tertiary recovery the remaining 10%. secondary methods account for about half. or using ³in-situ´ methods of injecting heated liquids into the deposit and then pumping out the oil-saturated liquid." Eventually "tertiary" or "enhanced" oil recovery methods may be used to increase the oil's flow characteristics by injecting steam. size and age. Unconventional oil reservoirs Oil-eating bacteria biodegrades oil that has escaped to the surface. but they contain so much migrating oil that. The formation of petroleum reservoirs can be divided into four stages: y Burial of plankton. carbon dioxide and other gases or chemicals into the reservoir. They usually extend over hundreds of kilometers. the buried material heats up at 50°C to 70°C High temperatures. Extracting oil (or ³bitumen´) from oil/tar sand and oil shale deposits requires mining the sand or shale and heating it in a vessel or retort. combined with pressure. triggers a µcooking¶ process Eventually. although most of it has escaped. In the United States.000 feet beneath the surface and vary in terms of shape. and include a series of oil wells spread across a large area.reservoir to increase pressure and force the oil to the drilled shaft or "wellbore. vast amounts are still present²more than can be found in conventional oil reservoirs. Oil sands are reservoirs of partially biodegraded oil still in the process of escaping and being biodegraded. Formation and Location Crude oil reservoirs are usually located at 1.000 to 30.

the United States has the world's largest deposits.[21] Major Reservoirs According to the United States Department of Energy. "A way to extract and make great quantityes of pitch. The kerogen trapped in the rock can be converted into crude oil using heat and pressure to simulate natural processes. the 2009 estimate of recoverable oil reservoirs stands at: Country Saudi Arabia Canada Iran Iraq Kuwait The United Arab Emirates Venezuela Recoverable Oil Reservoirs In Billion Barrels 266.The lighter fractions of the crude oil are destroyed first. oil shales are source rocks that have not been exposed to heat or pressure long enough to convert their trapped hydrocarbons into crude oil. Technically speaking. These two countries have the world's largest deposits of oil sands. tarr.03 .75 178.59 138. and oyle out of a sort of stone. resulting in reservoirs containing an extremely heavy form of crude oil." Although oil shales are found in many countries. 330 covering. oil shales are not really shales and do not really contain oil. but are usually relatively hard rocks called marls containing a waxy substance called kerogen.4 115 104 97. The method has been known for centuries and was patented in 1694 under British Crown Patent No. or extra-heavy crude oil in Venezuela.8 87. called crude bitumen in Canada. On the other hand.

46 36.2 30 20. . located 4 km below the sea bed. only a limited amount of oil can be extracted from a particular region. For instance. the extraction technologies are effective only to a certain extent.97 16 12.Russia Libya Nigeria Kazakhstan United States China Algeria Brazil 60 41. most of Brazil¶s oil reservoirs are located in µpre-salt¶ areas. a region that is found below a thick layer of salt.2 12. The thickness and depth of salt formation hinders the extraction process. Furthermore.18 Oil Reservoirs: Issues Due to geographical limitations and reservoir characteristics.

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