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TRAINING NOTES 1-8 (15.

1 FUNDAMENTALS)
1. Potential energy.
2. Kinetic energy.
3. Newton's laws of motion.
4. Brayton cycle.
5. The relationship between force, work, power, energy, velocity, acceleration.
6. Constructional arrangement and operation of turbojet, turbofan, turbo-shaft, turboprop.
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POTENTIAL ENERGY: - Potential energy state that pressure is equal in all parts to the sprinkler
head and no motive power is present. In this manner pressure or stored energy is present.

Potential Energy (P.E) = m x g x h

Where,
P.E = Potential Energy,
m = Mass of object,
g = Acceleration of Gravity,
h = Height of object,

KINETIC ENERGY: -The average kinetic energy of a gas particle is directly proportional to the
temperature. An increase in temperature increases the speed in which the gas molecules move. All gases
at a given temperature have the same average kinetic energy. Lighter gas molecules move faster than
heavier molecules. Or

Rotation created by a potential energy being connected to kinetic energy is clearly the result of a
force within the device and not the force of the fluid pushing on the atmosphere.

NEWTON’S LAW OF MOTION

1. NEWTONS FIRST LAW: A body at rest tends to remain at rest and a body in motion tends to
continue in motion in a straight line unless caused to change its state by an external force.

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1st Law of Motion

An object at rest will remain at rest unless

acted on by an unbalanced force. An object in
motion continues in motion with the same
speed and in the same direction unless acted
upon by an unbalanced force.

This First Law of Motion is often called

"the law of inertia".

Inertia = the resistance an object has to a change in its state of motion.

2. NEWTON’S SECOND LAW: - The acceleration of body is directly proportional to the force
causing it and inversely proportional to the mass of body.

F=MA

2nd Law of Motion Acceleration is produced

when a force acts on a mass. The greater the
mass (of the object being accelerated) the
greater the amount of force needed (to
accelerate the object).

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The Second Law of Motion can be expressed
as a mathematical equation:
F=MA
or
FORCE = MASS times ACCELERATION

3. NEWTON’S THIRD LAW: For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.

For every action there is an equal and opposite re-action.

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The terms "action" and "reaction" refer to the action force and
reaction force. In addition, the term "equal" means equal in magnitude
and the term "opposite" means opposite directions.

Action-reaction force must occur in pairs!

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BRAYTON CYCLE:-
1. Brayton cycle is also known as pressure cycle which defines the events that take place in
the turbine engine.
2. Unlike diesels, operate on STEADY-FLOW cycle
3. Open cycle, unheated engine

DESCRIPTION:
1. Point ’A’ in the drawing indicate the condition of the air in front of the engine Before it is
affected by the inlet duct of the engine
2. Point ‘B’ after the air enters the inlet duct is diffused and static pressure increases which
represents the air condition at the entrance to the compressor.
3. Point ‘B’ to ‘C’ through the compressor, the air not is decreased and pressure is increased
simultaneously
4. Point ‘c’ fuel is injected and burned causing rapid increase in the volume and temperature, the
pressure drop slightly as the velocity of hot gases mixture to the rear.
5. Point ‘D’ the heated gases enter the turbine where energy is extracted causing decreases in
both pressure & temp.
6. Point ‘E’ to ‘F’ it will present the condition in the exhaust nozzle as the gases flow out to the
ambient pressure.

1. WORK:-Force acting on a body is equal to the magnitude of the force multiplied by the
distance
W = force x distance
= FxD
Work is measured by “Foot- Pound”
2. FORCE:
Force is the intensity of an impetus, or the intensity of an input.
F = mass x acceleration
= m ×a
The unit of force is Newton.

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3. POWER-
Power is defined as a force being applied over a measured distance.
P=work done/ Time
= w/t
The unit of power will be ‘Foot-pound per minute’
4. ENERGY:
Energy is defined as the capacity to performance at work.
E= Force x distance
E= Fxd
The unit of energy is “Joule
5. VELOCITY:-
Velocity is defined as the distance per unit
V = distance/ time= d/t
The unit of velocity is m/s
6. ACCELERATION :-
Acceleration is defined as the velocity per
a = Velocity / time
= v/t
The unit of acceleration is m/s2

7. MASS:-Both weight and mass may be expressed in terms of pounds, but they are not the
same. Mass is the amount of matter in an object and is not affected by gravitational pull of
earth. Weight on the hand is the effect of gravity on mass.

Mass = Weight (Pounds)/ 32.2 fps

8. MOMENTUM CHANGE

Momentum is the product of the mass of an object multiplied by its velocity. The momentum
of air and fuel passing through a gas turbine engine is found by dividing their weight in pounds
per second by the acceleration due to gravity or 32.2 feet per second. This is then multiplied
by the velocity of gases leaves the engine.

where,

V 2 = Velocity of exhaust gases in feet per second.

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LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS

The effect of heat in gas turbine engine or in any engine is explained by the law of
thermodynamics.
1. 1st law of Thermodynamics
1st law of thermodynamics states that the energy is distractible heat energy is important to the
air in a gas turbine engine by the compressor and more heat is added when fuel is burned.
The heat energy is changed to thrust and the gases are cooled as they pass through the
turbine section and out the jet nozzle.

2. 2nd law of Thermodynamics:-

2nd law of thermodynamics states that in one form of heat can’t be transferred from colder
body to a hotter Body. The pressure and temperature of the gases follow the principle of
“Boyle’s law” and “Charles law”

3. BOYLE’S LAW:-
Boyle's gas law states the volume of a gas is inversely proportional to the pressure of the gas
when temperature is held constant. This example problem uses Boyle's law to find the volume
of a gas when pressure changes.

PiVi = PfVf

Where Pi = initial pressure

Vi = initial volume
Pf = final pressure
Vf = final volume
4. CHARLES LAW:
Charles law states that the volume of a gas varies in directly proportional to the absolute
temperature. This law explains the expansion of gases that occurs when heat is added by the
burning of fuel in the engine.

V T =---------------- (P constant)

5. BERNOULLI’S THEOREM
This principle deals with pressure of gases. Pressure can be changed in the gas turbine engine
by adding or removing heat, changing the number of molecules present or changing the
volume in which the gas is contained.

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VENTURI TUBE:-

1. A tube is shown in fig. in which the cross-sectional area gradually decreases to a minimum
diameter in its centre section. called as “Venturi” or “Venturi tube”
2. Where the cross sectional area is decreasing, the passageway is referred to as
“convergent” and where the cross-sectional starts to spread out. It is referred to as a
“divergent duct”

VENTURI TUBE

3. As a liquid flows through the venture tube. The gages at points “A”, “B” & “c” are
positioned to register the velocity and the static pressure of the liquid.
4. The venture can be used to illustrate a Bernoulli’s which state’s hat,
5. The static pressure of a liquid decreases at point where the velocity of the fluid increases
provided no. energy is added to nor taken away from the fluid.
6. In the wide section of the venture A & C, the liquid moves at low velocity producing a high
static pressure as indicated by pressure gage.
7. As the tube narrows in the centre, it must contain the same volume of fluid as the two end
areas. In this narrow section, the liquid moves at a higher velocity producing a lower
pressure than that at points A&C.

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GAS TURBINE ENGINES: Gas turbine engine are of two types.
1. Torque producing Engine: - Torque producing Engine is also two types
A. Turboprop Engine
B. Turbo shaft engine
2. Thrust producing Engine: - Thrust producing Engine is also two types
A. Turbojet Engine
B. Turbofan Engine

TORQUE PRODUCING ENGINE

A. Turboprop Engine:
1. The turboprop engine is similar in design to the turboshaft except that the reduction
gear box is usually on the turboprop inlet.
2. The propeller is driven by means of either a fixed or free turbine. The fixed turbine is
connected directly to the compressor reduction gearbox and propeller shaft. The free
turbine is connected only to the gear box and a propeller shaft.
3. High propulsive efficiency at low airspeed.
4. Shorter takeoff rolls but falls off rapidly as airspeed increases.
5. More complicated design and heavier weight than a turbojet.
6. Lowest TSFC.
7. Large frontal area of propeller.
8. Possibility of efficient reverse thrust.
9. Turboprop is currently limited in speeds to approximately 500 mph[805 km/h].

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B. TURBOSHAFT ENGINE:
1. A gas turbine engine that delivers the power through a shaft to operate something other
than a propeller is referred to as turboshaft.
2. The early turbo shaft engine power output shaft was coupled directly to the gas turbine
generator wheel. The output shaft is driven by a separate turbine wheel.
3. Turbo shaft engine having two major section
 Gas generator section
 Power turbine section

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THRUST PRODUCING ENGINE
A. TURBOJET ENGINE:
1. Turbojet engine having an impeller, compressor, annular combustion chamber and single
stage turbine. The turbojet gets its propulsive power from reaction to the flow hot gases.
2. Air enters the inlet and its pressure is increased by the compressor. Fuel is added in the
combustion chamber and expansion created by heat forces the turbine will to rotate. The
turbine in return drives the compressor.
3. Turbojet Simplest form of gas turbine
 High velocity hot gas provides thrust
 High fuel burn and high noise levels

1. Low thrust at low forward speed.

2. Relatively high, thrust specific fuel consumption (TSFC) at low altitudes and airspeed. A
disadvantage that decrease as altitude and airspeed increase.
3. Long takeoff roll.
4. Small frontal area, resulting in low drag and reduced ground- clearance problems.
5. Lightest specific weight (weight per pound of thrust produced).
6. Ability to take advantage of high rams pressure ratios.
7. Turbojet engine would be best for high speed, high altitude, and long distance flight.

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B. TURBOFAN ENGINE :-
The turbofan engine is ducted multi-bladed propeller driven by a gas turbine engine. This fan
produces pressure ratio on the order of 2:1.

TURBOFAN ENGINE:-It is divided into three classifications

1. Low bypass Turbofan engine
2. Medium bypass Turbofan engine
3. High bypass Turbofan Engine

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1. LOW BYPASS TURBOFAN ENGINE
 The fan and the compressor section are utilizing approximately the same mass of the
airflow.
 They are describing as heavy bypass ratio of 1:1. The fan discharge may be slightly higher
or slightly lower.
 Keep in mind that the bypass ratio concern airflow mass. The end of the duct is a
converging discharge nozzle to produce a velocity increased and reactive thrust.

2. MEDIUM BYPASS TURBOFAN ENGINE:

 The medium or intermediate bypass Turbofan engine is considered to be in the range of 2
or 3. To 1. (i.e.2:1 or 3:1) Mass Airflow ratio with a thrust ratio in approximate proportion
to the bypass ratio.
 The fan will slightly larger in diameter in low bypass fan of comparable engine power.

3. HIGH BYPASS TURBOFAN ENGINE

 High bypass Turbofan engine having fan ratio of 4 to1 (4:1) and wider fan dia.
 Lowest fuel consumption.
 80% thrust product by fan & 20 % by the core engine
 Current high bypass Turbofan engine range from 75% to 85% bypass of the core of the air
mass.
The high bypass fan engine widely used for medium to large airlines because it offer the best fuel
economy.

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Signature of the Instructor Signature of Chief Instructor

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