Discharge From Treaty: The Case Study of John Sutherland

Compiled by Lawrence Barkwell Coordinator of Metis Heritage and History Research Louis Riel Institute

Monias (Mooneyas) John Sutherland Jr., (b. 1826) John Sutherland who was known as Monias, and also known as Laroque, was made a Headman of One Arrow’s Band in 1884. He was Band member # 6 on the treaty pay list with a notation “Pagan, relative of One Arrow”. He is reported to have fought in the 1885 Resistance. 1 He fled to Montana in 1885.2 He joined up with Little Bear’s group in Montana. His daughter Marie was married to Resistance fighter William Swain Jr.

Monias, photographed by F.E. Peeso, with Little Bear’s group near Butte, Montana. (Montana Historical Society) In August of 1893, Sutherland applied for discharge from Treaty from Box, Elder, Choteau County, Montana. In his claim he noted that he was the son of John Sutherland Sr. and Paskiwush and a member of One Arrow’s Band. His wife is listed as Nashpagiow. The Indian Commissioner’s attached note confirms that Sutherland was #6 on Beardy’s Band list in 1893. In Sutherland’s statement he notes that he is employed as a freighter and labourer, and does not see himself “returning to your treaty, as I don’t see that there is anything to suit me especially since 1885.”3

1 2

Diane Payment, 1997 (The Willow Cree…) p. 39. RG 10, Volume 3875, No. 90299. 3 Indian Affairs, RG 10, Vol. 3906, file 105,265.