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History textbooks were wrong

Cultural Movements of the 1960s

That movement allowed people to realize that these History textbooks are biased

Revisionist History: The reinterpretation of history or correcting the mistakes historians have
made because of bias

- 2nd largest continent
- Africa can be divided into three layers
- Top layer is Sahara Desert, to the east is the fertile Nile valley
- Middle layer is known as Sahel, a semi desert region
- Bottom layer is the Savanna
- Origins of humanity are from African savannah

Early Civilization in the Nile River Valley

- Emerged in Nile River valley 4000 BCE
- Civilization emerged after a long process of hunting and gathering because of agriculture
- Why does agriculture help provide civilization vs. hunting and gathering?

- Egyptian is a unified prosperous kingdom from 3150 BCE - 1100 BCE
- Invaded by Alexander the Great in 331 BCE
- Greek ideas invade the country and cause decline in Egypt’s ancient culture
- Does not look at color like our society does today
- You would be determined by the location / culture you were born in

- Black nation in present day Sudan, south of Egypt
- 4000 BCE begin interacting and trading with Egyptians
- 2000 BCE became a colony to Egypt because of ivory, ebony, leopard pelts, and slaves

West African Societies

Ancient Ghana
- Had superior iron weapons to dominate their neighbors
- Ghana was very rich and successful because of their trade
- Commercial and religious rivalries led to Ghana’s decline (Arab traders taking control of
the economic system in place and Islamic religious beliefs conflicting with African

West African Society and Culture

- Family
- Nuclear v. Polygynous families
- Patrilineal v. Matrilineal
- African women had more freedom than European and Arab women
- Able to own property
- Control their sexuality
- Participate in politics
- African slavery
- Existed as a tool of assimilation
- Captives of war were enslaved
- Children were assimilate into society and gained employment privileges and
- Slave owners had the obligation to treat their slaves as guardians
- Religion in West Africa
- Islam brought by Arabs introduced literacy to West Africa
- Knowledge of Muhammad, Jesus, Moses, and Abraham
- Polytheistic and animistic African religions
- Attributed power to one divine creator and lesser gods representing the forces of
- Africans believed the spirits of ancestors could influence gods and so funerals
were important.
- African Music
- Call and response style singing
- Used instruments such as banjo, xylophones, flutes, bells
- Music was very rhythmic to encourage dancing
- African Literature
- The nobles had their royal poets and musicians
- Common folks spread oral histories (many of which came to America)
- Many of the tales involved animals with the weaker animals outsmarting the
- African Technology
- Blacksmiths and iron forgers
- Rice cultivation
- Textile production
- Architecture

Agency: (verb) to act for ourselves and not be acted upon