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Heat transfer

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Simulation of thermal convection in the Earth's mantle. Colors span from red and green to blue with decreasing temperatures. A hot, less-dense lower boundary layer
sends plumes of hot material upwards, and cold material from the top moves downwards.

Heat transfer is a discipline of thermal engineering that concerns the generation, use, conversion, and exchange of thermal energy (heat) between
physical systems. Heat transfer is classified into various mechanisms, such as thermal conduction, thermal convection, thermal radiation, and transfer
of energy by phase changes. Engineers also consider the transfer of mass of differing chemical species, either cold or hot, to achieve heat transfer.
While these mechanisms have distinct characteristics, they often occur simultaneously in the same system.
Heat conduction, also called diffusion, is the direct microscopic exchange of kinetic energy of particles through the boundary between two systems.
When an object is at a different temperature from another body or its surroundings, heat flows so that the body and the surroundings reach the same
temperature, at which point they are in thermal equilibrium. Such spontaneous heat transfer always occurs from a region of high temperature to
another region of lower temperature, as described in the second law of thermodynamics.
Heat convection occurs when bulk flow of a fluid (gas or liquid) carries heat along with the flow of matter in the fluid. The flow of fluid may be forced by
external processes, or sometimes (in gravitational fields) by buoyancy forces caused when thermal energy expands the fluid (for example in a fire
plume), thus influencing its own transfer. The latter process is often called "natural convection". All convective processes also move heat partly by
diffusion, as well. Another form of convection is forced convection. In this case the fluid is forced to flow by use of a pump, fan or other mechanical
means.
Thermal radiation occurs through a vacuum or any transparent medium (solid or fluid). It is the transfer of energy by means
of photons in electromagnetic waves governed by the same laws.[1]

Contents

 1Overview
 2Mechanisms
o 2.1Advection
o 2.2Conduction
o 2.3Convection
 2.3.1Convection-cooling
o 2.4Convection vs. conduction
o 2.5Radiation
 3Phase transition
o 3.1Boiling
o 3.2Condensation
o 3.3Melting
 4Modeling approaches
o 4.1Climate models
o 4.2Heat equation
o 4.3Lumped system analysis
 5Engineering
o 5.1Insulation, radiance and resistance
o 5.2Devices
 5.2.1Heat exchangers
 6Applications
o 6.1Architecture
o 6.2Climate engineering
o 6.3Greenhouse effect
o 6.4Heat transfer in the human body
o 6.5Cooling techniques
 6.5.1Evaporative cooling
 6.5.2Laser cooling
 6.5.3Magnetic cooling
 6.5.4Radiative cooling
o 6.6Thermal energy storage
 7See also
 8References
 9External links

Overview
See also: Heat transfer physics

Earth's long wave thermal radiation intensity, from clouds, atmosphere and surface.

Heat is defined in physics as the transfer of thermal energy across a well-defined boundary around a thermodynamic system. The thermodynamic free
energy is the amount of work that a thermodynamic system can perform. Enthalpy is a thermodynamic potential, designated by the letter "H", that is
the sum of the internal energy of the system (U) plus the product of pressure (P) and volume (V). Joule is a unit to quantify energy, work, or the
amount of heat.
Heat transfer is a process function (or path function), as opposed to functions of state; therefore, the amount of heat transferred in a thermodynamic
process that changes the stateof a system depends on how that process occurs, not only the net difference between the initial and final states of the
process.
Thermodynamic and mechanical heat transfer is calculated with the heat transfer coefficient, the proportionality between the heat flux and the
thermodynamic driving force for the flow of heat. Heat flux is a quantitative, vectorial representation of heat-flow through a surface.[2]
In engineering contexts, the term heat is taken as synonymous to thermal energy. This usage has its origin in the historical interpretation of heat as a
fluid (Caloric) that can be transferred by various causes,[3] and that is also common in the language of laymen and everyday life.
The transport equations for thermal energy (Fourier's law), mechanical momentum (Newton's law for fluids), and mass transfer (Fick's laws of
diffusion) are similar,[4][5] and analogies among these three transport processes have been developed to facilitate prediction of conversion from any one
to the others.[5]

Radiation The transfer of energy by the emission of electromagnetic radiation. Advection By transferring matter. Conduction Main article: Thermal conduction On a microscopic scale. heat transfer is involved in almost every sector of the economy. use.[7]This can be as simple as placing hot water in a bottle and heating a bed. due to fluid motion. conversion.[6] Heat transfer is classified into various mechanisms. transferring some of their energy (heat) to these neighboring particles.Thermal engineering concerns the generation. Convection The transfer of energy between an object and its environment. Mechanisms The fundamental modes of heat transfer are: Advection Advection is the transport mechanism of a fluid from one location to another. Thermal conductivity is the property of a material to conduct heat and evaluated primarily in terms of Fourier's Law for heat conduction. A practical example is thermal hydraulics. heat is transferred by conduction when adjacent atoms vibrate against one another. In other words. Conduction is the . thermal radiation. or the movement of an iceberg in changing ocean currents. ρ is density (kg/m³). and transfer of energy by phase changes. and exchange of heat transfer. or as electrons move from one atom to another. such as thermal conduction. is heat capacity at constant pressure (J/kg·K). ΔT is the change in temperature (K). The average temperature is a reference for evaluating properties related to convective heat transfer. energy—including thermal energy—is moved by the physical transfer of a hot or cold object from one place to another. Conduction or diffusion The transfer of energy between objects that are in physical contact.[citation needed] This can be described by the formula: where Q is heat flux (W/m²). rapidly moving or vibrating atoms and molecules interact with neighboring atoms and molecules. As such. thermal convection. and is dependent on motion and momentum of that fluid. is velocity (m/s). heat conduction occurs as hot.

a process that is essentially the transfer of heat via mass transfer. the spatial distribution of temperatures in the conducting object does not change any further. or natural. but pure advection is a term that is generally associated only with mass transport in fluids. the amount of heat entering a section is equal to amount of heat coming out. Although sometimes discussed as a third method of heat transfer.[clarification needed] Steady state conduction (see Fourier's law) is a form of conduction that happens when the temperature difference driving the conduction is constant. Forced convection is a term used when the streams and currents in the fluid are induced by external means—such as fans. Fluids—especially gases—are less conductive. such as (for example) between a solid surface and the fluid. convection is usually used to describe the combined effects of heat conduction within the fluid (diffusion) and heat transference by bulk fluid flow streaming. In the case of heat transfer in fluids.[8] Transient conduction (see Heat equation) occurs when the temperature within an object changes as a function of time. Another form of convection is forced convection. Bulk motion of fluid enhances heat transfer in many physical situations. or sometimes (in gravitational fields) by buoyancy forces caused when thermal energy expands the fluid (for example in a fire plume). .[12] Convection-cooling See also: Nusselt number Convective cooling is sometimes described as Newton's law of cooling: The rate of heat loss of a body is proportional to the temperature difference between the body and its surroundings. stirrers. is the transfer of heat from one place to another by the movement of fluids. Example: Heat transfer through Metal rods. In this case the fluid is forced to flow by using a pump.[8] Convection Main article: Convection The flow of fluid may be forced by external processes. and pumps—creating an artificially induced convection current. Free. convection occurs when bulk fluid motions (streams and currents) are caused by buoyancy forces that result from density variations due to variations of temperature in the fluid. as well. Analysis of transient systems is more complex and often calls for the application of approximation theories or numerical analysis by computer.[10] Convection is usually the dominant form of heat transfer in liquids and gases. so that after an equilibration time.[9] In steady state conduction. fan or other mechanical means. thus influencing its own transfer. Convective heat transfer.most significant means of heat transfer within a solid or between solid objects in thermal contact. or convection. where transport by advection in a fluid is always also accompanied by transport via heat diffusion (also known as heat conduction) the process of heat convection is understood to refer to the sum of heat transport by advection and diffusion/conduction. Thermal contact conductance is the study of heat conduction between solid bodies in contact. All convective processes also move heat partly by diffusion.[11] The process of transport by fluid streaming is known as advection. The latter process is often called "natural convection". such as advection of pebbles in a river.[8] The process of heat transfer from one place to another place without the movement of particles is called conduction.

and in some cases is strongly nonlinear. This can be seen as follows. In these cases. The Rayleigh number ( ) is the product of the Grashof and Prandtl numbers.However. where all calculations are up to numerical factors depending on the geometry of the system. conduction In a body of fluid that is heated from underneath its container. up to a numerical factor. while fluid moving up by convection is cooled by conduction so fast that its driving buoyancy will diminish. the validity of Newton's law of Cooling requires that the rate of heat loss from convection be a linear function of ("proportional to") the temperature difference that drives heat transfer.  μ is the dynamic viscosity. the ratio between the corresponding timescales (i. and  L is characteristic length.  T is the temperature. Convection vs. In general.[13] where  g is acceleration due to gravity.  ν is the kinematic viscosity. or.  α is the Thermal diffusivity. a large temperature gradient may be formed and convection might be very strong. equivalently. On the other hand. It is a measure which determines the relative strength of conduction and convection.  β is the volume thermal expansivity (sometimes denoted α elsewhere). and in convective cooling this is sometimes not the case. conduction and convection can be considered to compete for dominance.  ρ is the density with being the density difference between the lower and upper ends. convection is not linearly dependent on temperature gradients. if heat conduction is very low.e. . The Rayleigh number can be understood as the ratio between the rate of heat transfer by convection to the rate of heat transfer by conduction. fluid moving down by convection is heated by conduction so fast that its downward movement will be stopped due to its buoyancy. by definition. conduction timescale divided by convection timescale). If heat conduction is too great. Newton's law does not apply.

000–2. The Stefan-Boltzmann equation. and therefore roughly equals .The buoyancy force driving the convection is roughly . Convection occurs when the Rayleigh number is above 1. on the other hand. transferring heat to the surrounding environment through thermal radiation Thermal radiation occurs through a vacuum or any transparent medium (solid or fluid). which carries energy away from the surface. is as follows for an object in a vacuum : . so the corresponding pressure is roughly .[1] Thermal radiation is energy emitted by matter as electromagnetic waves. due to the pool of thermal energyin all matter with a temperature above absolute zero. which describes the rate of transfer of radiant energy. Radiation Red-hot iron object.[citation needed] The conduction timescale. this is canceled by the shear stress due to viscosity. Thermal radiation propagates without the presence of matter through the vacuum of space. their movement results in the emission of electromagnetic radiation.[14] Thermal radiation is a direct result of the random movements of atoms and molecules in matter. Since these atoms and molecules are composed of charged particles (protons and electrons). In steady state. It is the transfer of energy by means of photons in electromagnetic waves governed by the same laws. is of the order of . where V is the typical fluid velocity due to convection and the order of its timescale.000.

X-rays and even gamma rays. the sunlight reflected from mirrors heats the PS10 solar power tower and during the day it can heat water to 285 °C (545 °F). σ is the Stefan–Boltzmann constant.For radiative transfer between two objects. radio waves. or solar radiation. lightning discharges 30. ε is the emissivity (unity for a black body). and emits light. the equation is as follows: where Q is the heat flux. Radiation is typically only important for very hot objects. can be harvested for heat and power. which is exploited in concentrating solar power generation.[16] For example. Radiation from the sun.[citation needed] Phase transition Lightning is a highly visible form of energy transfer and is an example of plasma present at Earth's surface.[17]Plasma . thermal radiation can be concentrated in a small spot by using reflecting mirrors. Typically.000 amperes at up to 100 million volts.[15] Unlike conductive and convective forms of heat transfer. or for objects with a large temperature difference. and T is the absolute temperature (in kelvins or degrees Rankine).

Any addition of thermal energy results in a phase transition.940. . The liquid can be said to be saturated with thermal energy. Phase transitions involve the four fundamental states of matter:  Solid – Deposition. The Mason equation explains the growth of a water droplet based on the effects of heat transport on evaporation and condensation. Phase transition or phase change.  Plasma – Ionization. The saturation temperature is the temperature for a corresponding saturation pressure at which a liquid boils into its vapor phase. Phase change examples are the melting of ice or the boiling of water. and sublimation.33 °F) and electron densities may exceed 1024 m−3.85 °C) (49.  Gas – Boiling / evaporation.  Liquid – Condensation and melting / fusion. freezing and solid to solid transformation. Saturation temperature means boiling point. takes place in a thermodynamic system from one phase or state of matter to another one by heat transfer. Boiling Nucleate boiling of water. recombination / deionization.000 kelvins (27. temperatures in lightning can approach 28. The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the pressure surrounding the liquid[18][19] and the liquid evaporates resulting in an abrupt change in vapor volume.726.

therefore. The amount of the heat is the same as that absorbed during vaporization at the same fluid pressure.  Dropwise condensation is when liquid drops are formed on the subcooled surface. Heat fluxes across the stable vapor layers are low. At high bubble generation rates. or DNB). but rise slowly with temperature. and collapse. The Leidenfrost Effect demonstrates how nucleate boiling slows heat transfer due to gas bubbles on the heater's surface. and usually occurs when the liquid does not wet the surface. as during a formation of fog. At higher temperatures still. or CHF). Dropwise condensation is difficult to sustain reliably. the bubbles begin to interfere and the heat flux no longer increases rapidly with surface temperature (this is the departure from nucleate boiling. As the surface temperature is increased. Any contact between fluid and the surface that may be seen probably leads to the extremely rapid nucleation of a fresh vapor layer ("spontaneous nucleation"). industrial equipment is normally designed to operate in filmwise condensation mode. Condensation Condensation occurs when a vapor is cooled and changes its phase to a liquid. and is a very efficient heat transfer mechanism. and usually occurs when the liquid wets the surface.  Condensation on direct contact with a cooling wall of a heat exchanger: This is the most common mode used in industry:  Filmwise condensation is when a liquid film is formed on the subcooled surface. no boiling occurs and the heat transfer rate is controlled by the usual single-phase mechanisms. At standard atmospheric pressure and low temperatures. the hydrodynamically-quieter regime of film boiling is reached. During condensation.[20] There are several types of condensation:  Homogeneous condensation.  Condensation in direct contact with subcooled liquid. the latent heat of vaporization must be released. grow into the surrounding cooler fluid. gas-phase thermal conductivity is much lower than liquid-phase thermal conductivity. a maximum in the heat flux is reached (the critical heat flux. As mentioned. This is sub-cooled nucleate boiling. so the outcome is a kind of "gas thermal barrier". At similar standard atmospheric pressure and high temperatures. local boiling occurs and vapor bubbles nucleate. Melting .

[21] Modeling approaches Heat transfer can be modeled in the following ways. Ice melting Melting is a thermal process that results in the phase transition of a substance from a solid to a liquid. Molten substances generally have reduced viscosity with elevated temperature. The internal energy of a substance is increased. an exception to this maxim is the element sulfur. typically with heat or pressure. Climate models . at which the ordering of ionic or molecular entities in the solid breaks down to a less ordered state and the solid liquefies. whose viscosity increases to a point due to polymerization and then decreases with higher temperatures in its molten state. resulting in a rise of its temperature to the melting point.

[23] Engineering Heat exposure as part of a fire test for firestop products . in which case heating and cooling are described by a simple exponential solution. the ratio of the conductive heat resistance within the object to the convective heat transfer resistance across the object's boundary. as compared with the resistance to heat entering the object. In this method. Lumped system analysis Lumped system analysis often reduces the complexity of the equations to one first-order linear differential equation. known as the Biot number.[22] in other cases the equation must be solved numerically using computational methods. often referred to as Newton's law of cooling. That is. land surface. This is a method of approximation that reduces one aspect of the transient conduction system—that within the object—to an equivalent steady state system. although its value may be changing in time. is calculated. the approximation of spatially uniform temperature within the object can be used: it can be presumed that heat transferred into the object has time to uniformly distribute itself. Heat equation The heat equation is an important partial differential equation that describes the distribution of heat (or variation in temperature) in a given region over time. System analysis by the lumped capacitance model is a common approximation in transient conduction that may be used whenever heat conduction within an object is much faster than heat conduction across the boundary of the object.Climate models study the radiant heat transfer by using quantitative methods to simulate the interactions of the atmosphere. exact solutions of the equation are available. the method assumes that the temperature within the object is completely uniform. and ice. For small Biot numbers. In some cases. due to the lower resistance to doing so. oceans.

[citation needed] Devices . and vice versa. Insulation. An ideal radiant barrier would have a reflectivity of 1. and therefore reduce the flow of heat from radiation sources.[citation needed] Heat transfer methods are used in numerous disciplines. and would therefore reflect 100 percent of incoming radiation. or both. or decrease temperature in a wide variety of circumstances. The effectiveness of a radiant barrier is indicated by its reflectivity. satellites use multi-layer insulation. and vice versa. In the vacuum of space.Heat transfer has broad application to the functioning of numerous devices and systems. Radiant barriers are materials that reflectradiation. for instance. A material with a high reflectivity (at a given wavelength) has a low emissivity (at that same wavelength). At any specific wavelength. Heat-transfer principles may be used to preserve. which consists of many layers of aluminized (shiny) Mylar to greatly reduce radiation heat transfer and control satellite temperature. are silveredto approach this ideal. Vacuum flasks. Radiance or spectral radiance are measures of the quantity of radiation that passes through or is emitted. is an excellent reflector and a poor insulator.emissivity. climate control. or Dewars. insulation. Thermal resistance is a heat property and the measurement by which an object or material resists to heat flow (heat per time unit or thermal resistance) to temperature difference. materials processing. convection. and power station engineering. which is the fraction of radiation reflected. thermal management of electronic devices and systems. reflectivity=1 . Metal. such as automotive engineering. Good insulators are not necessarily good radiant barriers. increase. radiance and resistance Thermal insulators are materials specifically designed to reduce the flow of heat by limiting conduction.

[24][25] A thermocouple is a temperature-measuring device and widely used type of temperature sensor for measurement and control. and can also be used to convert heat into electric power. Schematic flow of energy in a heat engine. One common example of a heat exchanger is a car's radiator. in which the hot coolant fluid is cooled by the flow of air over the radiator's surface.[citation needed] . A thermal diode or thermal rectifier is a device that causes heat to flow preferentially in one direction. air conditioning. Heat exchangers are widely used in refrigeration. space heating. power generation. It is based on the Peltier effect. A thermoelectric cooler is a solid state electronic device that pumps (transfers) heat from one side of the device to the other when electric current is passed through it. Heat exchangers A heat exchanger is used for more efficient heat transfer or to dissipate heat. and chemical processing. A heat engine is a system that performs the conversion of a flow of thermal energy (heat) to mechanical energy to perform mechanical work.

 Thermostat is a device to monitor and control temperature. It is expressed in watts per square meter per kelvin. air sealing of structural leaks or the addition of energy-efficient windows and doors. in counter flow. Well- insulated parts of a building have a low thermal transmittance. the fluids move in opposite directions. Common constructions for heat exchanger include shell and tube.  Thermal transmittance is the rate of transfer of heat through a structure divided by the difference in temperature across the structure. In architecture. Climate engineering See also: Anthropogenic heat . and stacked plate. such as air or a liquid. double pipe. An energy audit can help to assess the implementation of recommended corrective procedures. both fluids move in the same direction while transferring heat. or W/(m²K).Common types of heat exchanger flows include parallel flow. For instance.[further explanation needed] A heat sink is a component that transfers heat generated within a solid material to a fluid medium. and cross flow.[26]  Smart meter is a device that records electric energy consumption in intervals. whereas poorly-insulated parts of a building have a high thermal transmittance. and in cross flow. condensation and air currents can cause cosmetic or structural damage. the fluids move at right angles to each other. A heat pipe is another heat-transfer device that combines thermal conductivity and phase transition to efficiently transfer heat between two solid interfaces. extruded finned pipe. u-tube. In parallel flow. counter flow. Examples of heat sinks are the heat exchangers used in refrigeration and air conditioning systems or the radiator in a car. Applications Architecture Efficient energy use is the goal to reduce the amount of energy required in heating or cooling. spiral fin pipe. insulation improvements.

An example application in climate engineering includes the creation of Biochar through the pyrolysisprocess. causing more long-wave (infrared) radiation out to Space. Thus. storing greenhouse gases in carbon reduces the radiative forcing capacity in the atmosphere. carbon dioxide removal techniques can be applied to reduce the radiative forcing. Solar radiation management is the attempt to absorb less solar radiation to offset the effects of greenhouse gases. Climate engineering consists of carbon dioxide removal and solar radiation management. Greenhouse effect . Since the amount of carbon dioxide determines the radiative balance of Earth atmosphere.

and the fluid thickness .[29] This thermal resistance causes the temperature on the surface of the clothing to be less than the temperature on the surface of the skin. This smaller temperature gradient between the surface temperature and the ambient temperature will cause a lower rate of heat transfer than if the skin were not covered. Heat is produced in the body by the continuous metabolism of nutrients which provides energy for the systems of the body. excess heat must be dissipated from the body to keep it from overheating. Heat transfer occurs more readily when the temperature of the surroundings is significantly less than the normal body temperature. the velocity of the air. When a person engages in elevated levels of physical activity.[27]The human body must maintain a consistent internal temperature in order to maintain healthy bodily functions. This flow of blood through the vessels can be modeled as pipe flow in an engineering system. the diameter of the blood vessel. Since part of this re-radiation is back towards the surface and the lower atmosphere. velocity of the flow. This concept explains why a person feels “cold” when not enough covering is worn when exposed to a cold environment. the Earth's atmosphere. the convection mechanism is dependent on the surface area of the body. the thickness of the fluid. For heat transfer from the outer surface of the body. the Earth's surface. In order to ensure that one portion of the body is not significantly hotter than another portion. and the temperature gradient between the surface of the skin and the ambient air. Clothing can be considered an insulator which provides thermal resistance to heat flow over the covered portion of the body. and the ultimate sink outer space. and is re-radiated in all directions. the body requires additional fuel which increases the metabolic rate and the rate of heat production. The heat carried by the blood is determined by the temperature of the surrounding tissue. it results in an elevation of the average surface temperature above what it would be in the absence of the gases. heat must be distributed evenly through the bodily tissues. The body must then use additional methods to remove the additional heat produced in order to keep the internal temperature at a healthy level. Heat transfer in the human body See also: Wet-bulb temperature The principles of heat transfer in engineering systems can be applied to the human body in order to determine how the body transfers heat. The velocity.[28] The normal temperature of the body is approximately 37 °C. and the heat transfer coefficient of the blood. The ability of the atmosphere to capture and recycle energy emitted by the Earth surface is the defining characteristic of the greenhouse effect. Therefore. The greenhouse effect is a process by which thermal radiation from a planetary surface is absorbed by atmospheric greenhouse gases. This convective fluid can be either a liquid or a gas. Blood flowing through blood vessels acts as a convective fluid and helps to prevent any buildup of excess heat inside the tissues of the body. blood vessel diameter. Heat transfer by convection is driven by the movement of fluids over the surface of the body. A representation of the exchanges of energy between the source (the Sun).

Latent heat describes the amount of heat that is needed to evaporate the liquid. also known as evaporative heat loss.[30] The rate of evaporation heat loss is directly related to the vapor pressure at the skin surface and the amount of moisture present on the skin. The body continuously loses water by evaporation but the most significant amount of heat loss occurs during periods of increased physical activity. Latent heat loss. When the core temperature of the body increases.can all be related with the Reynolds Number. the maximum of heat transfer will occur when the skin is completely wet. accounts for a large fraction of heat loss from the body. while the air remains at a constant enthalpy. Cooling techniques Evaporative cooling A traditional air cooler in Mirzapur. the body triggers sweat glands in the skin to bring additional moisture to the surface of the skin.[28] Therefore. this heat comes from the liquid itself and the surrounding gas and surfaces. India Evaporative cooling happens when water vapor is added to the surrounding air. The greater the difference between the two . The liquid is then transformed into vapor which removes heat from the surface of the body. a dimensionless number used in fluid mechanics to characterize the flow of fluids. The energy needed to evaporate the water is taken from the air in the form of sensible heat and converted into latent heat. Uttar Pradesh.

temperatures. See also  Combined forced and natural convection  Heat capacity . The thermal reservoir may be maintained at a temperature above or below that of the ambient environment. or generating electricity. the greater the evaporative cooling effect. Applications include space heating. Outgoing energy is an important effect in the Earth's energy budget.3K. When the temperatures are the same. no net evaporation of water in air occurs. −459. This technique allows cooling of ions and atoms that cannot be laser cooled directly.67 °F) of atomic and molecular samples to observe unique quantum effects that can only occur at this heat level.15 °C.  Sympathetic cooling is a process in which particles of one type cool particles of another type. there is no cooling effect. domestic or process hot water systems. thus. In the case of the Earth-atmosphere system. Magnetic refrigeration cools below 0. Laser cooling In quantum physics. laser cooling is used to achieve temperatures of near absolute zero (−273. Typically.  Doppler cooling is the most common method of laser cooling. atomic ions that can be directly laser-cooled are used to cool nearby ions or atoms. it refers to the process by which long- wave (infrared) radiation is emitted to balance the absorption of short-wave (visible) energy from the Sun. Convective transport of heat and evaporative transport of latent heat both remove heat from the surface and redistribute it in the atmosphere. Radiative cooling Radiative cooling is the process by which a body loses heat by radiation.[citation needed] Magnetic cooling Main articles: Magnetic refrigeration and Magnetic evaporative cooling Magnetic evaporative cooling is a process for lowering the temperature of a group of atoms. by making use of the magnetocaloric effect. Thermal energy storage Thermal energy storage includes technologies for collecting and storing energy for later use. It may be employed to balance energy demand between day and nighttime. after pre-cooled by methods such as laser cooling.

V (2008).007. Chemical Engineering". (2012).rser. IV.. Yuwen. Van Ness. Charles E..). Thermal Fluids Central. 603. p. "Spectral beam splitting for efficient conversion of solar energy—A review". Heat transfer physics  Stefan–Boltzmann law  Thermal contact conductance  Thermal physics  Thermal resistance in electronics  Thermal science  Heat transfer enhancement References 1. Massachusetts: Phlogiston Press. ISBN 978-0-471-93354-0. ^ "Convection — Heat Transfer".C. 13. ^ a b c Abbott. Montreal: McGraw-Hill. et al. 4. Lienhard. Howell. OCLC 2213384. ISBN 0-07-310445-0. Columbia. A Heat Transfer Textbook (3rd ed. (2005). ISBN 0-13-101367-X. Heat Transfer: A practical approach (2nd ed. ISBN 978-0- 470-64615-1. Archived from the original on 10 December 2010. New York: Wiley.2012.1016/j. H. 9. 39(10): 1467–1473. OCLC 230956959. John H. 14. 8. Wiley.. Boston.08. J. Amir.09. 2. John (2010). Engineers Edge. ISBN 978-0-9713835-3-1.1016/j. A.). Frank P. "Socioeconomic impacts of heat transfer research". MO: Global Digital Press. ^ a b Geankoplis.M. John H. ^ Taylor. 7. Wilson. Thermal-FluidsPedia.M. doi:10. ^ "Convective heat transfer". 6. ^ Çengel. ISBN 978-0-9842760-0-4. Thermal Fluids Central. Thermal-FluidsPedia. Thermal-FluidsPedia. ^ Welty. Thermal Fluids Central. ^ a b Faghri. James R. ^ "Heat conduction". and mass transfer (2nd ed. Introduction to Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics (7th ed. 28: 654–663. Retrieved 2009-04-20. Advanced Heat and Mass Transfer. International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer.). Fundamentals of heat and mass transfer (7th ed. Prentice Hall. Fundamentals of momentum. ISBN 978-0-07- 245893-0. Thermal-FluidsPedia. 3. (2012). 12. Retrieved 9 April 2011. Wicks. ^ Incropera. Thermal Fluids Central. Zhang. ^ Mojiri.026. A (2013). Robert Elliott (1976).icheatmasstransfer.. 10. Yunus (2003). Smith. ^ "Mass transfer".. ^ "B. 11.). Chemical Engineering Departement. Boston: McGraw-Hill. Cambridge. heat. 15. Transport Processes and Separation Principles (4th ed. 5. doi:10.). ^ "Radiation". Christie John (2003).2013. R. ^ Lienhard.S. M.). . Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. New Jersey Institute of Technology.

^ Mechanical efficiency of heat engines. Chad A. even though the device does not operate in a thermodynamic cycle. Monica. Yunus A. Cleveland. Lewis. 4th Edition.3571565. (1913). ^ Fundamentals of Classical Thermodynamics. 2012. Theoretical Foundations of Conduction and Convection Heat Transfer. ISBN 1-56670-495-2. ^ Hartman. Ravi (March 2011). 1 (2007) by James R. 24. ^ "How to simplify for small Biot numbers". Washington DC 22. p. Carl. Todd P.S. fabrics. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. 479. Often the term heat engine is used in a broader sense to include all devices that produce work. p. National Council for Science and the environment. Robert A. Wendl Foundation. ^ C. 232. Michael Hogan (2011) Sulfur. Human Kinetics. McGraw-Hill. eds. 159. Goldberg (1988).1063/1.). Section 27. Ryan Dupont and Kumar Ganesan (Editors) (1999).Overview . Senf: "Heat engines are made to provide mechanical energy from thermal energy.. David L... 19." 25. ^ Louis Theodore. When a substance condenses from a gas to a liquid. 28. 2001 30.E. ISBN 9781450477673.An online thermal fluids encyclopedia. 17. 29. Patrick E.2016. "Smart fibres. ^ Wilmore.. Nguyen. U. Afshin J. Woodhead Publishing. Otanicar. Retrieved December 21. Xiaoming. Trimble. Department of Energy. the same amount of heat is involved. Upper Saddle River. E. R. J. Larry (2008). but the heat is emitted rather than absorbed. ^ a b Cengel. C. Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy. Van Wylen and R. page 321. 3 (2): 023104. (1985) by G. Walker.  Hyperphysics Article on Heat Transfer . either through heat transfer or combustion. 27. Jack H. A. p. Jorgensen and C. 2010. ^ "EnergySavers: Tips on Saving Money & Energy at Home" (PDF). 3rd ed. 16. Costill. 23. The internal-combustion engine and the gas turbine are examples of such devices. Encyclopedia of Earth. p. 20. CRC Press.)..(free download).000 Solved Problems in Chemistry (1st ed. Physiology of Sport and Exercise (6th ed. doi:10. Nivaldo (2008). "Heat and Mass Transfer: Fundamentals and Applications". ^ Tao. ^ Tro. Sonntag: "A heat engine may be defined as a device that operates in a thermodynamic cycle and does a certain amount of net positive work as a result of heat transfer from a high-temperature body and to a low-temperature body. 3. Prasher. McGraw- Hill. ISBN 0-07-023684-4. Pollution Prevention: The Waste Management Approach to the 21st Century. and Ghajar. 21. ^ Wendl. Section 17. Bibb. M. (2012). "The Human Body and Its Enemies".  Thermal-FluidsPedia . Phelan. Chemistry: A Molecular Approach. 256.. ^ David. page 15. Kenney. J. Retrieved March 2. External links  A Heat Transfer Textbook ." 26. World Book Co. "Applicability of nanofluids in high flux solar collectors". Steven.. and clothing". p. and calling these heat engines is an acceptable use of the term. ^ Taylor.43. ^ See Flashes in the Sky: Earth's Gamma-Ray Bursts Triggered by Lightning 18.

 Aspects of Heat Transfer. ventilation and air conditioning  Air changes per hour  Bake-out  Building envelope  Convection  Dilution  Domestic energy consumption  Enthalpy Fundamental Fluid dynamics concepts Gas compressor  Heat pump and refrigeration cycle  Heat transfer  Humidity  Infiltration  Latent heat  Noise control  Outgassing . Cambridge University  Thermal-Fluids Central  Energy2D: Interactive Heat Transfer Simulations for Everyone  v  t  e Heating.  Interseasonal Heat Transfer .a practical example of how heat transfer is used to heat buildings without burning fossil fuels.

 Particulates  Psychrometrics  Sensible heat  Stack effect  Thermal comfort  Thermal destratification  Thermal mass  Thermodynamics  Vapour pressure of water  Absorption refrigerator  Air barrier  Air conditioning  Antifreeze  Automobile air conditioning  Autonomous building  Building insulation materials Technology Central heating  Central solar heating  Chilled beam  Chilled water  Constant air volume (CAV)  Coolant  Dedicated outdoor air system (DOAS)  Deep water source cooling .

 Demand-controlled ventilation (DCV)  Displacement ventilation  District cooling  District heating  Electric heating  Energy recovery ventilation (ERV)  Firestop  Forced-air  Forced-air gas  Free cooling  Heat recovery ventilation (HRV)  Hybrid heat  Hydronics  HVAC  Ice storage air conditioning  Kitchen ventilation  Mixed-mode ventilation  Microgeneration  Natural ventilation  Passive cooling  Passive house  Radiant heating and cooling system  Radiant cooling  Radiant heating .

 Radon mitigation  Refrigeration  Renewable heat  Room air distribution  Solar air heat  Solar combisystem  Solar cooling  Solar heating  Thermal insulation  Underfloor air distribution  Underfloor heating  Vapor barrier  Vapor-compression refrigeration (VCRS)  Variable air volume (VAV)  Variable refrigerant flow (VRF)  Ventilation  Air conditioner inverter  Air door  Air filter  Air handler Components  Air ionizer  Air-mixing plenum  Air purifier  Air source heat pumps .

 Automatic balancing valve  Back boiler  Barrier pipe  Blast damper  Boiler  Centrifugal fan  Chiller  Condensate pump  Condenser  Condensing boiler  Convection heater  Cooling tower  Damper  Dehumidifier  Duct  Economizer  Electrostatic precipitator  Evaporative cooler  Evaporator  Exhaust hood  Expansion tank  Fan coil unit  Fan heater  Fire damper .

 Fireplace  Fireplace insert  Freeze stat  Flue  Freon  Fume hood  Furnace  Furnace room  Gas compressor  Gas heater  Gasoline heater  Geothermal heat pump  Grease duct  Grille  Ground-coupled heat exchanger  Heat exchanger  Heat pipe  Heat pump  Heating film  Heating system  High efficiency glandless circulating pump  High-efficiency particulate air (HEPA)  High pressure cut off switch  Humidifier .

 Infrared heater  Inverter compressor  Kerosene heater  Louver  Mechanical fan  Mechanical room  Oil heater  Packaged terminal air conditioner  Plenum space  Pressurisation ductwork  Process duct work  Radiator  Radiator reflector  Recuperator  Refrigerant  Register  Reversing valve  Run-around coil  Scroll compressor  Solar chimney  Solar-assisted heat pump  Space heater  Smoke exhaust ductwork  Thermal expansion valve .

 Thermal wheel  Thermosiphon  Thermostatic radiator valve  Trickle vent  Trombe wall  Turning vanes  Ultra-low particulate air (ULPA)  Whole-house fan  Windcatcher  Wood-burning stove  Air flow meter  Aquastat  BACnet  Blower door  Building automation  Carbon dioxide sensor Measurement Clean Air Delivery Rate (CADR) and control Gas sensor  Home energy monitor  Humidistat  HVAC control system  Intelligent buildings  LonWorks  Minimum efficiency reporting value (MERV) .

and plumbing  Mold growth. trades. electrical. adjusting. assessment. balancing .  OpenTherm  Programmable communicating thermostat  Programmable thermostat  Psychrometrics  Room temperature  Smart thermostat  Thermostat  Thermostatic radiator valve  Architectural acoustics  Architectural engineering  Architectural technologist  Building services engineering  Building information modeling (BIM)  Deep energy retrofit  Duct leakage testing Professions.  Environmental engineering and services  Hydronic balancing  Kitchen exhaust cleaning  Mechanical engineering  Mechanical. and remediation  Refrigerant reclamation  Testing.

 ACCA  AMCA  ASHRAE  ASTM International Industry  BRE organizations  BSRIA  CIBSE  LEED  SMACNA  Indoor air quality (IAQ)  Passive smoking Health and safety  Sick building syndrome (SBS)  Volatile organic compound (VOC)  ASHRAE Handbook  Building science  Fireproofing See also  Glossary of HVAC terms  Template:Home automation  Template:Solar energy  Transport phenomena  Heat transfer .