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¢'yQGHKDEUiPiVPROpFXODVHQXQPROGHKLGUyJHQRRHQXQPROGHR[tJHQR" 

Solución 

D

'HVSHMDQGRHOYROXPHQGHODHFXDFLyQGHORVJDVHVSHUIHFWRV QĊ5Ċ7 9 S (OYROXPHQGHKLGUyJHQR\GHR[tJHQRDOVHUQXQPROHQDPERVFDVRV\VHUS \7LJXDOHVVHUiHOPLVPR  E.

$SOLFDQGRHOFRQFHSWRGHPRO  PRO+≡ĊPROpFXODV+≡J PRO2≡ĊPROpFXODV2≡J  3RUWDQWRODPDVDGHXQPROGHR[tJHQRHVVXSHULRUDODPDVDGHXQPROGH KLGUyJHQR  F.

&RPRVHKDYLVWRHQHODSDUWDGRDQWHULRUHQDPERVKD\HOPLVPRQ~PHURGH PROpFXODV   &XHVWLyQ &XHVWLyQ  (Q  P GH PHWDQR &+.

 PHGLGR HQ FRQGLFLRQHV QRUPDOHV GH SUHVLyQ \ WHPSHUDWXUDFDOFXOH D.

(OQ~PHURGHPROHVGHPHWDQR E.

(OQ~PHURGHPROpFXODVGHPHWDQR F.

(OQ~PHURGHiWRPRVGHKLGUyJHQR  .

.QLFLDFLyQDOD4XtPLFD  Solución  D.

$SOLFDQGRHOFRQFHSWRGHYROXPHQPRODU\FRPRP /FDOFXODPRVHO Q~PHURGHPROHVGHPHWDQRGHODVLJXLHQWHHFXDFLyQ   /PHWDQR / = [  PROHVGHPHWDQR PROPHWDQR [  E.

 $SOLFDQGR HO FRQFHSWR GH PRO HO Q~PHUR GH PROpFXODV GH PHWDQR SXHGH FDOFXODUVHGHODVLJXLHQWHH[SUHVLyQ  PRO&+  PROHV  =   Ċ PROpFXODV&+ [  [ ·ĊPROpFXODVGHPHWDQR  F.

(QFDGDPROpFXODGHPHWDQRKD\FXDWURiWRPRVGHKLGUyJHQRSRUWDQWR  QžGHiWRPRVGH+ [·ĊiW ·ĊiWGHKLGUyJHQR   &XHVWLyQ &XHVWLyQ  (Q·PROHVGH&2FDOFXOH D.

(OQ~PHURGHPROpFXODVGH&2 E.

/DPDVDGH&2 F.

O = 16.Masas atómicas: C = 12.  Solución D.(OQ~PHURWRWDOGHiWRPRV Datos.

 &RPR HQ XQ PRO GH GLy[LGR GH FDUERQR KD\ HO Q~PHUR GH $YRJDGUR GH PROpFXODVGHGLy[LGRGHFDUERQRHQ·PROHVKDEUi  PRO&2  PROHV  =  Ċ PROpFXODV&2 [  [ ·ĊPROpFXODVGH&2  E.

/DPDVDGHGLy[LGRGHFDUERQRVHUi  0P &2.

 J .

 &RQFHSWRVEiVLFRV PRO&2  PROHV = [ JGH&2  J&2 [ F.

&RPRHQFDGDPROpFXODKD\WUHViWRPRV XQRGHFDUERQR\GRVGHR[tJHQR.

HO Q~PHURWRWDOGHiWRPRVVHUi  PRO&2  PROHV  = [ Ċ iWRPRV [ [ ·ĊiWRPRV   &XHVWLyQ &XHVWLyQ  5D]RQHTXpFDQWLGDGGHODVVLJXLHQWHVVXVWDQFLDVWLHQHPD\RUQ~PHURGHiWRPRV D.

·PROHVGH62 E.

JUDPRVGHQLWUyJHQRPROHFXODU F.

  Solución &DOFXODPRVHOQ~PHURGHiWRPRVHQFDGDDSDUWDGR  D.·OLWURVGHJDVKHOLRHQFRQGLFLRQHVQRUPDOHVGHSUHVLyQ\WHPSHUDWXUD Datos. S = 32. O = 16.Masas atómicas: N = 14.

$SOLFDQGRHOFRQFHSWRGHPRO\FRPRHQFDGDPROpFXODGHGLy[LGRGHD]XIUH KD\WUHViWRPRV XQRGHD]XIUH\GRVGHR[tJHQR.

  0P 62.

 J  PRO62  PROHV = [  Ċ  iWRPRV  [ Ċ  iWRPRV [  E.

&RPRHQFDGDPROpFXODGHQLWUyJHQRKD\GRViWRPRVGHQLWUyJHQRHOQ~PHUR GHHVWRVVHUi  0P 1.

 J  J1 J = [   <   iWRPRV  [ Ċ  iWRPRV [  F.

$SOLFDQGRHOFRQFHSWRGHYROXPHQPRODUHOQ~PHURGHiWRPRVGHKHOLRSXHGH FDOFXODUVHGHODVLJXLHQWHH[SUHVLyQ .

QLFLDFLyQDOD4XtPLFD   /+H  / = [  Ċ  iWRPRV  Ċ  iWRPRV [ 3RUWDQWRODFDQWLGDGTXHWLHQHPDViWRPRVHV·/GHKHOLR   &XHVWLyQ  5D]RQHVLVRQYHUGDGHUDVRIDOVDVODVVLJXLHQWHVDILUPDFLRQHV D. .

 'RV PDVDV LJXDOHV GH ORV HOHPHQWRV $ \ % FRQWLHQHQ HO PLVPR Q~PHUR GH iWRPRV E.

/DPDVDDWyPLFDGHXQHOHPHQWRHVODPDVDHQJUDPRVGHXQiWRPRGHGLFKR HOHPHQWR F.

(OQ~PHURGHiWRPRVTXHKD\HQJGHR[tJHQRDWyPLFRHVLJXDODOQ~PHURGH PROpFXODVTXHKD\HQJGHR[tJHQRPROHFXODU Solución D.

 )DOVD SRUTXH ODV PDVDV TXH FRQWLHQHQ HO PLVPR Q~PHUR GH iWRPRV GH DFXHUGRFRQHOFRQFHSWRGHPROVHULDQXQDPDVDGHOHOHPHQWR$LJXDOD0P $.

\ XQDPDVDGHOHOHPHQWR%LJXDOD0P %.

\VLHPSUHDOVHUGRVHOHPHQWRVGLVWLQWRV 0P $.

HVGLIHUHQWHGH0P %.

  E.

 )DOVD SRUTXH HV OD PDVD H[SUHVDGD HQ JUDPRV GH · Ċ  iWRPRV GH GLFKRHOHPHQWRHVGHFLUGHXQPROGHiWRPRV  F.

$SOLFDQGRHOFRQFHSWRGHPROFDOFXODPRVHOQ~PHURGHiWRPRVVDELHQGRTXH 0P 2.

 J JGH2 J  = [  Ċ  iWRPRVGH2  Ċ iW2 [ &DOFXODPRVHOQ~PHURGHPROpFXODVGH2VDELHQGRTXH0P 2.

 JGHOD VLJXLHQWHH[SUHVLyQ  J2 J  = [  Ċ  PROpFXODVGH2  Ċ PROpFXODV2 [ 3RUWDQWRODDILUPDFLyQHVYHUGDGHUD  &XHVWLyQ D.

¢&XiOHVODPDVDH[SUHVDGDHQJUDPRVGHXQiWRPRGHVRGLR" .

 &RQFHSWRVEiVLFRV E.

¢&XiQWRViWRPRVGHDOXPLQLRKD\HQ·JGHHVWHHOHPHQWR" F.

Al = 27. Solución D. Na = 23. Cl = 35’5.Masas atómicas: C = 12.¢&XiQWDVPROpFXODVKD\HQXQDPXHVWUDTXHFRQWLHQH·JGHWHWUDFORUXURGH FDUERQR" Datos.

$SOLFDPRVHOFRQFHSWRGHPRO  PRO1D≡ĊiWRPRV1D≡J 3RUWDQWR J 1iW1D = =  Ċ  JiW1D  Ċ  DW E.

(OQ~PHURGHiWRPRVGHDOXPLQLRSXHGHFDOFXODUVHGHODVLJXLHQWHH[SUHVLyQ  0P $O.

 J  J$O  J$O  = [  Ċ  iWRPRVGH$O  Ċ iW$O [ F.

$SOLFDPRVHOFRQFHSWRGHPRO  0P &O &.

 J  PRO&O &≡ĊPROpFXODV&O &≡J 3RUWDQWR   J&O&  J  = [  Ċ  PROpFXODV&O&  Ċ PROpFXODV&O& [ &XHVWLyQ &XHVWLyQ  5D]RQHVLVRQYHUGDGHUDVRIDOVDVODVDILUPDFLRQHVVLJXLHQWHV D.

 /D PDVD GH XQ LRQ PRQRYDOHQWH SRVLWLYR HV PHQRU TXH OD GHO iWRPR FRUUHVSRQGLHQWH E.

(OQ~PHURDWyPLFRGHXQLRQPRQRYDOHQWHSRVLWLYRHVPHQRUTXHHOGHOiWRPR FRUUHVSRQGLHQWH F.

 (Q XQ JUDPR GH FXDOTXLHU HOHPHQWR KD\ PiV iWRPRV TXH KDELWDQWHV WLHQH OD 7LHUUD .

QLFLDFLyQDOD4XtPLFD  Solución D. .

JTXH HV OD PDVD DWULEXLGD DO HOHFWUyQ $KRUD ELHQ GDGR TXH ODV PDVDV DWULEXLGDV DO SURWyQ \ DO QHXWUyQ VRQ GHO RUGHQ GH  YHFHV VXSHULRUHV D OD PDVD GHO HOHFWUyQODPDVDGHXQLyQPRQRYDOHQWHSRVLWLYRHVDSUR[LPDGDPHQWHODPLVPD TXHODGHOiWRPRFRUUHVSRQGLHQWH  E.9HUGDGHUDSRUTXHHOLRQPRQRYDOHQWHSRVLWLYRWLHQHXQHOHFWUyQPHQRVTXH HOiWRPRFRUUHVSRQGLHQWH\SRUWDQWRVXPDVDVHUiPHQRUHQ·Ċ.

)DOVDSRUTXHHOQ~PHURDWyPLFRHVHOQ~PHURGHSURWRQHVGHOQ~FOHR\pVWH QR YDUtD HQ HO LyQ PRQRYDOHQWH SRVLWLYR TXH VH GLIHUHQFLD GHO iWRPR FRUUHVSRQGLHQWHHQTXHKDSHUGLGRXQHOHFWUyQ  F.

(QXQPROGHiWRPRVGHFXDOTXLHUHOHPHQWRKD\·ĊiWRPRV&RPROD PDVD PRODU GHORV HOHPHQWRV HVWi FRPSUHQGLGD HQWUH  \ PHQRV GH HQ XQ JUDPR GH HOHPHQWR KDEUtD HQWUH · Ċ  iWRPRV \  [  3RU WDQWR OD DILUPDFLyQHVYHUGDGHUD &XHVWLyQ &XHVWLyQ  8QYDVRFRQWLHQHP/GHDJXD&DOFXOH D.

&XiQWRVPROHVGHDJXDKD\HQHOYDVR E.

&XiQWDVPROpFXODVGHDJXDKD\HQHOYDVR F.

Masas atómicas: H = 1. O = 16.&XiQWRViWRPRVGHKLGUyJHQR\R[tJHQRKD\HQHOYDVR Datos.  Solución  D.

+D\TXHFRQVLGHUDUTXHDOVHUODGHQVLGDGGHODJXDJP/HOYDVRFRQWLHQH WDPELpQJGHDJXD&RPR0P +2.

 JHOQ~PHURGHPROHVVHUi  J QžPROHV+  = =  PROHV+  JPRO E.

 $SOLFDQGR HO FRQFHSWR GH PRO FDOFXODUHPRV HO Q~PHUR GH PROpFXODV HQ HO YDVR  PRO+   PROHV = [  Ċ  PROpFXODVGH+   Ċ  PROpFXODV+  [ F.

 &RPR FDGD PROpFXOD GH DJXD WLHQH XQ iWRPR GH R[tJHQR \ GRV iWRPRV GH KLGUyJHQR\FRPRWHQHPRV·ĊPROpFXODVGHDJXD .

 &RQFHSWRVEiVLFRV QžiW2 [·Ċ ·ĊiWRPRVGHR[tJHQR  QžiW+ [·Ċ ·ĊiWRPRVGHKLGUyJHQR  &XHVWLyQ &XHVWLyQ 5D]RQHVLODVVLJXLHQWHVDILUPDFLRQHVVRQFRUUHFWDVRQR F.

JGH1+RFXSDQHQFRQGLFLRQHVQRUPDOHVXQYROXPHQGH·OLWURV E.

(QJ1+KD\·PROpFXODV F.

Masas atómicas: H = 1.(QJGH2KD\·×iWRPRVGHR[tJHQR Datos. Solución D. O = 16. N = 14.

'HDFXHUGRFRQODKLSyWHVLVGH$YRJDGURXQPROGHDPRQtDFRHQFRQGLFLRQHV QRUPDOHV RFXSD · / 3RU WDQWR OD DILUPDFLyQ HV FRUUHFWD \D TXH 0P 1+.

  J  E.

$SOLFDQGRHOFRQFHSWRGHPRO PRO1+≡J1+≡ĊPROpFXODV1+ 3RUWDQWRODDILUPDFLyQHVFRUUHFWD  F.

 &RPR HQ XQD PROpFXOD GH 2 KD\  iWRPRV GH R[tJHQR HQ  J GH 2  HO Q~PHURGHiWRPRVGHR[tJHQRVHUi  PRO2≡J2≡ĊPROpFXODV2≡[ĊiWRPRV2 3RUWDQWRODDILUPDFLyQQRHVFRUUHFWD  &XHVWLyQ &XHVWLyQ  (QOLWURVGHKLGUyJHQR\HQOLWURVR[tJHQRDPERVHQODVPLVPDVFRQGLFLRQHV GHSUHVLyQ\WHPSHUDWXUDKD\ D.

(OPLVPRQ~PHURGHPROHV E.

.GpQWLFDPDVDGHDPERV F.

QGLTXHVLVRQFRUUHFWDVRQRHVWDVDILUPDFLRQHVUD]RQDQGRODVUHVSXHVWDV  Solución D.(OPLVPRQ~PHURGHiWRPRV .

'HVSHMDQGRHOQ~PHURGHPROHVGHODHFXDFLyQGHORVJDVHVSHUIHFWRV SĊ9 Q= 5Ċ7 .

  b) Como la 0P +. . hay el mismo número de moles y la afirmación es correcta.QLFLDFLyQDOD4XtPLFD  $SOLFDQGRHVWDH[SUHVLyQDODVFRQGLFLRQHVGHOHQXQFLDGR  SĊ/ SĊ/ Q+ = . Q2 = 57 57 /XHJR  Q+ = Q2  Por tanto.

HVGLVWLQWDGHla 0P 2.

 QžJUDPRV+ QžPROHVGH+[0P +.

 QžJUDPRV2 QžPROHVGH+[0P 2.

 /XHJRQžJUDPRV+≠QžJUDPRV23RUWDQWRODDILUPDFLyQHVLQFRUUHFWD  F.

&DOFXOHPRVHOQ~PHURGHiWRPRVHQFDGDFDVRFRPRHQDPEDVPROpFXODVKD\ GRViWRPRV PROGH2 Q2 PROHV  = [  Q2 [[ Ċ  iW2 [ Ċ iW2 [ PRO+ Q+ PROHV =  [   Q+ [[ Ċ  iW+ [ Ċ  iW+ [ &RPR HO Q~PHUR GH PROHV GH 2  HV LJXDO DO Q~PHUR GH PROHV GH +  WHQHPRV TXH[ [/XHJRKD\HOPLVPRQ~PHURGHiWRPRV\ODDILUPDFLyQHVFRUUHFWD  &XHVWLyQ &XHVWLyQ  &DOFXOH F.

/DPDVDHQJUDPRVGHXQDPROpFXODGHDJXD E.

(OQ~PHURGHiWRPRVGHKLGUyJHQRTXHKD\HQJGHDJXD F.

Masas atómicas: H = 1. (O Q~PHUR GH PROpFXODV TXH KD\ HQ   / GH + TXH HVWiQ HQ FRQGLFLRQHV QRUPDOHVGHSUHVLyQ\WHPSHUDWXUD Datos.  Solución  D. O = 16.

$SOLFDQGRHOFRQFHSWRGHPRO\FRPR0P +2.

 J  PRO+2≡ĊPROpFXODV+2≡J /XHJR .

 &RQFHSWRVEiVLFRV J PROpFXOD+2 = =  Ċ  J   Ċ  PROpFXODV  E.

 'H OD VLJXLHQWH H[SUHVLyQ FDOFXODPRV ORV JUDPRV GH KLGUyJHQR TXH KD\ HQ  JUDPRVGHDJXD J+2 J = [  JGH+  J+ [  $SOLFDQGRGHQXHYRHOFRQFHSWRGHPRO PRO+≡ĊiWRPRV+≡J  J+  J = [  Ċ  iWGH+   Ċ  iW+ [  F.

$SOLFDQGRODKLSyWHVLVGH$YRJDGUR  /GH+  /  = [  Ċ  PROpFXODVGH+   Ċ PROpFXODVGH+ [   &XHVWLyQ &XHVWLyQ  &DOFXOHHOQ~PHURGHiWRPRVTXHKD\HQ D.

JGH&2 E.

/GHJDV+HPHGLGRVHQFRQGLFLRQHVQRUPDOHV F.

O = 16  Solución D.Masas atómicas: C = 12.·PROHVGH2 Datos.

 (O Q~PHUR GH PROHV GH GLy[LGR GH FDUERQR FRQWHQLGR HQ  J GH HVWD VXVWDQFLDFRPR0P &2.

 JVHUi J&2 QžPROHV&2 = = PRO&2  JPRO &RPRHQFDGDPROpFXODGHGLy[LGRGHFDUERQRKD\WUHViWRPRV GRVGHR[tJHQR\ XQRGHFDUERQR.

DSOLFDQGRHOFRQFHSWRGHPRO QžiWRPRV [·ĊiW ·ĊiWRPRV  E.

$SDUWLUGHODKLSyWHVLVGH$YRJDGURFDOFXODPRVORViWRPRVGHKHOLRHQ/ PHGLDQWHODVLJXLHQWHHFXDFLyQ   /+H / = [  Ċ  iW+H   Ċ  iW+H [ .

QLFLDFLyQDOD4XtPLFD   F. .

QGLTXHUD]RQDGDPHQWHVLODVVLJXLHQWHVDILUPDFLRQHVVRQYHUGDGHUDVRIDOVDV D. &RPR HQ FDGD PROpFXOD GH 2 KD\ GRV iWRPRV GH R[tJHQR HO Q~PHUR GH iWRPRVVHUi  PRO2  PROHV  = [  Ċ  iWRPRVGH2  [ Ċ iW2 [   &XHVWLyQ &XHVWLyQ  /DV PDVDV DWyPLFDV GHO KLGUyJHQR \ GHO KHOLR VRQ  \  UHVSHFWLYDPHQWH .

8QPROGH+HFRQWLHQHHOPLVPRQ~PHURGHiWRPRVTXHXQPROGH+ E.

/DPDVDGHXQiWRPRGHKHOLRHVJUDPRV F.

(QXQJUDPRGHKLGUyJHQRKD\·ĊiWRPRV  Solución  D.

)DOVDSRUTXHHQXQPROGHKHOLRKD\·ĊiWRPRVGHKHOLRPLHQWUDV TXHHQXQPROGH+KD\·ĊPROpFXODVGH+\FRPRHQFDGDPROpFXOD GH+KD\GRViWRPRVKDEUi[·ĊiWRPRVGH+  E.

)DOVDSRUTXHODPDVDGHXQiWRPRGHKHOLRHV   Ċ  iW+H iW+H = [  <  J  J+H [  F.

9HUGDGHUDSRUTXH PROGHiWRPRVGH+≡ĊiWRPRV+≡J &XHVWLyQ &XHVWLyQ  /DHVWULFQLQDHVXQSRWHQWHYHQHQRTXHVHKDXVDGRFRPRUDWLFLGDFX\DIyUPXOD HV&+123DUDPJGHHVWULFQLQDFDOFXOH D.

(OQ~PHURGHPROHVGHFDUERQR E.

(OQ~PHURGHPROpFXODVGHHVWULFQLQD F.

 Solución . H = 1. N = 14.(OQ~PHURGHiWRPRVGHQLWUyJHQR Datos. O = 16.Masas atómicas: C = 12.

 &RQFHSWRVEiVLFRV D.

&DOFXOHPRVHOQ~PHURGHPROHVGHHVWULFQLQDHQPJGHHVWDVXVWDQFLD 0P &+12.

 J JHVWULFQLQD  J = [ Ċ  PROHVGHHVWULFQLQD  PROGHHVWULFQLQD [ (OQ~PHURGHPROHVGHFDUERQRVHUi [Ċ ·ĊPROHVGHFDUERQR  E.

(OQ~PHURGHPROpFXODVGHHVWULFQLQDTXHKD\HQORVPROHVGHHVWDVXVWDQFLD FDOFXODGRVHQHODSDUWDGRD.

VHUi PROGHHVWULFQLQD Ċ  PROHV  = [  Ċ PROpFXODV   Ċ PROpFXODV [  F.

&RPRHQXQDPROpFXODGHHVWULFQLQDKD\GRViWRPRVGHQLWUyJHQRHOQ~PHUR GHiWRPRVVHUi PROHVWULFQLQD Ċ  PROHV  = [  Ċ iWRPRVGH1  [ Ċ iW1 [   &XHVWLyQ &XHVWLyQ  'H XQ UHFLSLHQWH TXH FRQWLHQH  J GH PHWDQR VH H[WUDHQ ⋅ PROpFXODV &DOFXOH D.

/RVPROHVGHPHWDQRTXHTXHGDQ E.

/DVPROpFXODVGHPHWDQRTXHTXHGDQ F.

C = 12./RVJUDPRVGHPHWDQRTXHTXHGDQ Datos0DVDVDWyPLFDV: H = 1.  Solución D.

&RPR0P &+.

 JHOQ~PHURGHPROHVGHPHWDQRHQJVHUi  J QžPROHV&+ = = PROHV  JPRO  &DOFXOHPRVORVPROHVGHPHWDQRTXHTXLWDPRVDOH[WUDHU⋅PROpFXODV PRO&+ [ = [  PROHVGH&+    Ċ PROpFXODV&+ Ċ   3RUWDQWRHOQ~PHURGHPROHVTXHTXHGDVHUi QžPROHV&+ PROHV²·PROHV ·PROHV  E.

/DVPROpFXODVGHPHWDQRTXHTXHGDQODVFDOFXODPRVGHODVLJXLHQWHHFXDFLyQ .

.QLFLDFLyQDOD4XtPLFD  PRO&+  PROHV = [  Ċ  PROpFXODVGH&+   Ċ  PROpFXODV&+ [  F.

/DPDVDGHPHWDQRVHUi  PRO&+  PROHV = [  JGH&+  J&+ [   &XHVWLyQ &XHVWLyQ  D.

 ¢&XiQWRV iWRPRV GH R[tJHQR KD\ HQ  OLWURV GH R[tJHQR PROHFXODU HQ FRQGLFLRQHVQRUPDOHV" E.

 Solución D.8QDSHUVRQDEHEHDOGtDOLWURGHDJXD6XSRQLHQGRTXHODGHQVLGDGGHODJXD HV GH  JP/ ¢FXiQWRV iWRPRV GH KLGUyJHQR LQFRUSRUD D VX FXHUSR SRU HVWH SURFHGLPLHQWR" Datos. O = 16.0DVDVDWyPLFDV: H = 1.

$SOLFDQGRHOFRQFHSWRGHYROXPHQPRODUFDOFXODPRVORVPROHVGH2TXHKD\ HQORV/HQFRQGLFLRQHVQRUPDOHV  /2 / = [  PROHV  PRO2 [  (OQ~PHURGHPROpFXODVFRQWHQLGRVHQHOORVVHUi  ·PRO[·ĊPROpFXODVPRO ·ĊPROpFXODVGH2 (OQ~PHURGHiWRPRVGHR[tJHQRHQORV/VHUi [·Ċ ·ĊiWRPRVGH2  E.

/DPDVDGHDJXDTXHEHEHDOGtDVHUi P G[9 JP/[P/ JGH+2 $SOLFDQGRHOFRQFHSWRGHPRO\FRPRHQFDGDPROpFXODGHDJXDKD\GRViWRPRV GHKLGUyJHQR\0P +2.

 JORViWRPRVGHHVWHHOHPHQWRTXHLQFRUSRUDOD SHUVRQDDVXFXHUSRVHUiQ QžiWRPRV+ [QžPROpFXODVGH+2 [QžPROHVGH+2[1$  J+2 QžiW+  [ [ Ċ 23 =  [  iWRPRVGH+  JPRO .

 &RQFHSWRVEiVLFRV 5HVROXFLyQGH3UREOHPDV   3UREOHPD 3UREOHPD  &XDQGR VH FDOLHQWD GH PRGR FRQYHQLHQWH FORUXUR DPyQLFR VH GHVFRPSRQH HQ FORUXURGHKLGUyJHQR\DPRQtDFR6LVHOLEHUDQJGHDPRQtDFRFDOFXOH  D.

/DPDVDREWHQLGDGHFORUXURGHKLGUyJHQR E.

Cl = 35’5  Solución  D. N = 14. /DVIUDFFLRQHVPRODUHVGHFDGDJDVJHQHUDGR Datos. Masas atómicas: H = 1.

/DUHDFFLyQHV1+&O+&O1+ 3XHVWR TXH OD PDVD PROHFXODU GHO DPRQtDFR 1+.

 HV LJXDO D Ċ JĊPRO ORVJGHDPRQtDFRFRUUHVSRQGHDPROGH1+ (QFRQVHFXHQFLDVHGHEHKDEHUIRUPDGRPROGH+&O3XHVWRTXHODPDVD PROHFXODU GHO +&O HV LJXDO D   ·  · J Ċ PRO  /D PDVD GH +&O IRUPDGDHVLJXDODPROĊ·JĊPRO  ·JGH+&O  E.

/DV IUDFFLRQHV PRODUHV GH FDGD JDV YLHQH GDGD SRU IPRODU  PROHV GH JDV PROHVWRWDOHV3RUWDQWR IPRODU 1+.

 PRO 1+.

>PRO 1+.

PRO +&O.

@  · IPRODU +&O.

 PRO +&O.

>PRO 1+.

PRO +&O.

@  ·   3UREOHPD 3UREOHPD  8QDPH]FODGHGRVJDVHVHVWiFRQVWLWXLGDSRUJGH62\RWURVJGH62\HVWi FRQWHQLGDHQXQUHFLSLHQWHDž&\DDWPGHSUHVLyQ&DOFXOH  D.

(OYROXPHQTXHRFXSDODPH]FOD E.

 Solución D. /DIUDFFLyQPRODUGHFDGDJDV Datos. Masas atómicas: O = 16. S = 32.R = 0’082 atm L K-1 mol-1.

&DOFXODPRVSULPHURHOYROXPHQTXHRFXSDQFDGDJDV  'HODHFXDFLyQGHORVJDVHVSHUIHFWRV3Ċ9 QĊ5Ċ7GHDTXtGHVSHMDQGR 9 WHQGUHPRV 9  Q Ċ 5 Ċ 7  3 SRU WDQWR WHQHPRV TXH FDOFXODU SULPHUR .

.QLFLDFLyQDOD4XtPLFD  Q PROHVGHJDV 0DVDGHJDV J.

0DVDPROHFXODUGHJDV JĊPRO .

(QHO FDVRGHO62UHVXOWDQ 62.

 J Ċ.

JĊPRO   .

PROHV  ·PROHV.

(QHOFDVRGHO62UHVXOWDQ 62.

 J Ċ.

JĊPRO   .

PROHV ·PROHV 7  .

3RUFRQVLJXLHQWH  9 /. ..

  ·PROĊ·DWPĊ/Ċ.DWP.ĊPRO Ċ.

 ·/62 9 /.

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/DSUHVLyQWRWDOGHOUHFLSLHQWH E.

He = 4. Masas atómicas: H = 1. /DVSUHVLRQHVSDUFLDOHVHMHUFLGDVSRUORVJDVHV Datos.  Solución  D.R = 0’082 atm L K-1 mol-1.

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 3SDUFLDO +H.

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 3SDUFLDO +H.

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/DFRPSRVLFLyQHQSRUFHQWDMHGHODPH]FOD E.

R = 0’082 atm L K-1 mol-1. /DSUHVLyQGHOUHFLSLHQWH Datos.  Solución D.

/RVPROHVGHFDGDJDVTXHVHYDQDLQWURGXFLUVHFDOFXODQFRQODHFXDFLyQGH ORVJDVHV Q 3Ċ95Ċ7 DWPĊ/·DWP/.PRO Ċ .

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.QLFLDFLyQDOD4XtPLFD  3UREOHPD 3UREOHPD  (Q XQ UHFLSLHQWH GH  / GH FDSDFLGDG TXH VH PDQWLHQH D OD WHPSHUDWXUD FRQVWDQWHGHž&VHLQWURGXFHQ/GH+DDWPGHSUHVLyQ\/GH1D DWPGHSUHVLyQDPERVDž&&DOFXOH  D.

/DSUHVLyQWRWDOTXHHMHUFHODPH]FODJDVHRVDHQHOUHFLSLHQWH E.

R = 0’082 atm L K-1 mol-1. /DVSUHVLRQHVSDUFLDOHVGHORVJDVHVGHVSXpVGHH[WUDHUGHOUHFLSLHQWH/GH OD PH]FOD JDVHRVD D  DWP GH SUHVLyQ SHUR PDQWHQLHQGR OD WHPSHUDWXUD FRQVWDQWH Datos. Solución D.

(VWHSUREOHPDHVVLPLODUDODQWHULRUSHURFRQRWURVJDVHV /RVPROHVGHFDGDJDVTXHVHYDQDLQWURGXFLUVHFDOFXODQFRQODHFXDFLyQGH ORVJDVHV Q  3 Ċ 9  5 Ċ 7   DWP Ċ  / · DWP / . PRO Ċ   .

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R = 0’082 atm L K-1 mol-1. (OQ~PHURGHJUDPRVGHFDGDFRPSXHVWR Datos. O = 16. Masas atómicas: C = 12.  Solución  D.

&RPR3SDUFLDO IPRODU3WRWDO3RUWDQWRGHORVYDORUHVGHOHQXQFLDGRWHQHPRV  3SDUFLDO &2.

 ·ĊDWP ·DWP 3SDUFLDO &2.

 ·ĊDWP ·DWP  E.

PRO Ċ.PRO Ċ. O = 16  Solución &DOFXODPRVODPDVDPROHFXODUGHOiFLGRVXOI~ULFR 0 +62. (OQžGHJUDPRVGHFDGDFRPSXHVWRGHSHQGHGHOQžGHPROHVGHFDGDXQRGH HOORV 3RU HOOR DSOLFDQGR OD HFXDFLyQ GH ORV JDVHV OOHJDPRV 39 Q57 P570 GRQGHPVRQORVJUDPRVGHFRPSXHVWR\0VXPDVDPROHFXODU  P 39057 DWPĊ/ĊJĊPRO ·DWP/. ·JSDUD&2   3UREOHPD 3UREOHPD &DOFXOHODFRPSRVLFLyQFHQWHVLPDOGHOiFLGRVXOI~ULFR Datos. S = 32.  ·JSDUD&2 P 39057 DWPĊ/ĊJĊPRO ·DWP/.Masas atómicas: H = 1.

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/DPRODULGDGGHODGLVROXFLyQDQWHULRU E.

/D PRODULGDG GH OD GLVROXFLyQ UHVXOWDQWH GH GLOXLU  P/ GH OD GLVROXFLyQ RULJLQDOKDVWD/ Datos.0DVDVDWyPLFDV+ 1 2   Solución  D.

&DOFXODPRVODPDVDPROHFXODUGHOiFLGRQtWULFR 0 +12.

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  .

PROHV/ ·0  E.

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/DVIUDFFLRQHVPRODUHVGHVROXWR\GLVROYHQWH Datos.0DVDVDWyPLFDV+ 2 1D .  .

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/DIRUPXODHPStULFD b) /DIRUPXODPROHFXODU 'DWRV0DVDVDWyPLFDV+ &   Solución  D.

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.QLFLDFLyQDOD4XtPLFD  &RPRODUHODFLyQGHFRPELQDFLyQWLHQHTXHVHUVHJ~QQ~PHURVHQWHURVVH PXOWLSOLFDQSRUGRV\GDODIRUPXODHPStULFDVLJXLHQWH&+  E.

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 E.

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+ ·.

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/DIyUPXODHPStULFD E.

/DIyUPXODPROHFXODU 'DWRV0DVDVDWyPLFDV+ & 2   Solución D.

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3DUDFDOFXODUODIyUPXODPROHFXODUHVQHFHVDULRFRQRFHUODPDVDGHXQPRO TXHVHFDOFXODDSOLFDQGRHOFRQFHSWRGHYROXPHQPRODU  J 0 = 0 JPRO  /  /  [[Q[[Q[Q Q  Q   /DIyUPXODPROHFXODUVHUi C4 H10 O    .

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62 VH XWLOL]D FRPR IHUWLOL]DQWH HQ DJULFXOWXUD &DOFXOH D.

(OWDQWRSRUFLHQWRHQSHVRGHQLWUyJHQRHQHOFRPSXHVWR E.

/DFDQWLGDGGHVXOIDWRGHDPRQLRQHFHVDULDSDUDDSRUWDUDODWLHUUDNJGH QLWUyJHQR 'DWRV0DVDVDWyPLFDV+ 1 2 6   .

 &RQFHSWRVEiVLFRV Solución D.

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 62 ] = J   J 1+ .

2 62  = [  1  J1 [  E.

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 62 [ = [ JGH 1+  .

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&DOFXOHODPRODULGDGGHODGLVROXFLyQUHVXOWDQWH E.

 .QGLTXH HO PDWHULDO QHFHVDULR \ HO SURFHGLPLHQWR D VHJXLU SDUD SUHSDUDU OD GLVROXFLyQ 'DWRV0DVDVDWyPLFDV+ 2 6   Solución D.

&DOFXODPRVODPDVDGHP/GHGLVROXFLyQ  P GĊ9 ·JP/[P/ J  &RPRODULTXH]DHVGHOODFDQWLGDGGHVROXWR iFLGRVXOI~ULFR.

VHUi  QžJ+62 J[· ·JGH+62  7UDQVIRUPDPRVODPDVDHQPROHV  0P +62.

 J   J PROHV+62  =    JPRO .

QLFLDFLyQDOD4XtPLFD  3RUWDQWRODPRODULGDGVHUi  PROHV 0  =     /  E. .

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 &DOFXOH OD PDVD GH 1D2+ VyOLGR GHO  GH SXUH]D HQ SHVR QHFHVDULD SDUD SUHSDUDUP/GHGLVROXFLyQDFXRVD·0 E.

 ([SOLTXH HO SURFHGLPLHQWR SDUD SUHSDUDU OD GLVROXFLyQ LQGLFDQGR HO PDWHULDO QHFHVDULR 'DWRV0DVDVDWyPLFDV+ 2 1D   Solución  D.

 /RV PROHV QHFHVDULRV SDUD SUHSDUDU  P/ GH GLVROXFLyQ DFXRVD · 0 VHUiQ  QžPROHV 0RODULGDGĊ9  QžPROHV ·PROHV/[·/ ·ĊPROHVGH1D2+  7UDQVIRUPDQGRORVPROHVDJUDPRV  0P 1D2+.

 J  QžJ1D2+ ·Ċ[ ·J1D2+SXUR  &RPRODVRVDHVGHOGHSXUH]DHQSHVRGH1D2+  .

 &RQFHSWRVEiVLFRV  QžJ1D2+ ·[ ·J1D2+   E.

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HQJGHGLVROXFLyQ  PDVDGH1D2+ J  0DVDGHGLVROYHQWH PDVDGLVROXFLyQ²PDVDGHVROXWR J²J J+2  /DPRODOLGDG P.

GHODGLVROXFLyQVHUi  0P 1D2+.

JGLVROYHQWH J+2 J . J  J1D2+ PROHVGHVROXWR JPRO P  = =  PRODO  .

QLFLDFLyQDOD4XtPLFD   3UREOHPD 3UREOHPD  (Q HO ODERUDWRULR VH GLVSRQH GH XQ iFLGR FORUKtGULFR FX\D GHQVLGDG HV GH JP/\GHULTXH]DHQSHVR&DOFXOH D. .

6XIUDFFLyQPRODU E.

6XPRODOLGDG 'DWRV0DVDVDWyPLFDV+ 2 &O   Solución  D.

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 ·J00 +2.

 J  J QžPROHV+&O  =  PROHV   JPRO  J QžPROHV+2  =  PROHV  JPRO  3RUWDQWRODIUDFFLyQPRODUVHUi   PROHV+&O [ +&O.

  =     PROHV+&O PROHV+2   PROHV+ 2 [ + 2.

=     PROHV+&O PROHV+2  &RPRVHFXPSOH[ VROXWR.

[ GLVROYHQWH.

   .

 &RQFHSWRVEiVLFRV &RPSUREDPRVTXH··   E.

 'H ORV GDWRV GHO DSDUWDGR DQWHULRU VDEHPRV TXH WHQHPRV  J GH iFLGR FORUKtGULFR VROXWR.

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¢&XiQWRVJUDPRVGHVXOIDWRGHFREUHKD\HQODGLVROXFLyQRULJLQDO" E.

¢&XiOHVODPRODULGDGGHODGLVROXFLyQILQDO" 'DWRV0DVDVDWyPLFDV2 6 &X ·  Solución  D.

/RVPROHVGHVXOIDWRGHFREUH .

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&O   ·PROHV  JPRO  &DOFXODPRVORVPROHVGHR[tJHQRTXHVHSURGXFHQ  PROHV.5HODFLyQHVWHTXLRPpWULFD PROHVGH.  ĊPRO  [. 9  = /  DWP   3UREOHPD 3UREOHPD  (OVXOIDWRGHVRGLR\HOFORUXURGHEDULRUHDFFLRQDQHQGLVROXFLyQDFXRVDSDUDGDU XQSUHFLSLWDGREODQFRGHVXOIDWRGHEDULRVHJ~QODUHDFFLyQ  1D62%D&O→%D621D&O  D.&O  PROHV = [  PROHVGH2  PROHV2 [  3DUDFDOFXODUHOYROXPHQTXHRFXSDDSOLFDPRVODHFXDFLyQGHORVJDVHVSHUIHFWRV   PROHV[ DWPĊ/Ċ.&OFRQWHQLGRHQ.JGHHVWDVDOVHUiQ  J QžPROHV.&OVHREWLHQHQMXQWRDPROHVGH2 /RVPROHVGH.

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.QLFLDFLyQDOD4XtPLFD  Solución  D.

5HODFLyQHVWHTXLRPpWULFDPROGH1D62SURGXFHPROGH%D62 /RVPROHVGHVXOIDWRGHVRGLRHQ·P/GHGLVROXFLyQ·0VHUiQ  QžPROHV1D62 ·PROHV/[·/ ·ĊPROHV  &DOFXODPRVORVJUDPRVGHVXOIDWRGHEDULR 0P %D62.

 J  PROGH1D 62  Ċ  PROHV = [  J%D62  J%D62 [  E.

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/DULTXH]DGHODPXHVWUDGHQLWUDWRGHSODWD E.

/DPRODULGDGGHOiFLGRFORUKtGULFR 'DWRV0DVDVDWyPLFDV+ 1 2 &O ·$J  Solución  D.

(VFULELPRVODHFXDFLyQDMXVWDGD $J12+&O→$J&O+12 .

 &RQFHSWRVEiVLFRV  (OQ~PHURGHPROHVGHiFLGRFORUKtGULFRHQORVP/VHUi P GĊ9 ·JP/[P/ ·JGHGLVROXFLyQGH+&O &RPRODULTXH]DGHHVWDGLVROXFLyQHQ+&OHVGHO  QžJUDPRV+&O ·J+&O[· ·JGH+&O  &RPR0P +&O.

 ·J   J QžPROHV+&O   ·PROHV  JPRO  &RPRODUHODFLyQHVWHTXLRPpWULFDQRVGLFHTXHPROGH$J12UHDFFLRQDFRQ PROGH+&OODPDVDGHQLWUDWRGHSODWDHQODPXHVWUDVHUi 0P $J12.

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'HODSDUWDGRDQWHULRUVDEHPRVTXHHQP/GHGLVROXFLyQKD\·PROHVGH iFLGRFORUKtGULFROXHJRODPRODULGDGVHUi   PROHV 0   ·0  /   3UREOHPD 3UREOHPD   &XDQGR VH DxDGH DJXD D  J GH FDUEXUR GH FDOFLR VH IRUPD JDV DFHWLOHQR HWLQR.

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+2→&D 2+.

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&+ J.

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&DOFXOHORVJUDPRVGHDFHWLOHQRTXHVHREWHQGUiQ E.

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5HODFLyQHVWHTXLRPpWULFD PROGH&D&SURGXFHPROGH&+  0P &D&.

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.QLFLDFLyQDOD4XtPLFD  /DPDVDGHDFHWLOHQRVHUi  J&D& J = [  J&+  J& + [  E.

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(OYROXPHQGHFDGDJDVHQODPH]FOD E.

/DVIUDFFLRQHVPRODUHVGHFDGDJDV Solución  D.

[ P/GHPHWDQR\ P/GHHWDQR [\  /DVUHDFFLRQHVGHVSXpVGHLJXDODGDVVRQODVVLJXLHQWHV &+2→&2+2 .

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(O Q~PHUR GH NJ GH SLULWD QHFHVDULRV SDUD JHQHUDU HVD FDQWLGDG GH iFLGR VXOI~ULFRVXSRQLHQGRTXHODSLULWDHVSXUD E.

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