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Arc Welding Procedures

1. Strike the arc. This is the process of creating an

electric arc between the electrode and the

2. Moving the arc to create a bead. The bead is the

metal from the melting electrode flowing
together with molten metal from the base metal
to fill the space between the pieces being joined
by welding.

3. Shape the weld bead. This is done by weaving

the arc back and forth across the weld path
either in a zig zag or figure 8 motion so the
metal spreads to the width that you want your
finished weld bead to be.

4. Chip and brush the weld between passes. Each

time you complete a pass, or trip from one end
to the other of your weld, you need to remove
the slag, or the melted electrode flux material,
from the surface of the weld bead so only clean
molten metal will be filling the weld on the
subsequent passes
Things to take note in arc welding

1. Prepare the metal to be welded: remove paint and


Arc welding is more tolerant to slightly rusty metal

than other electric welding processes but at the least,
you should remove any paint, grease, rust, or other
contaminants with metal brush, sandpaper or abrasive
grinder to avoid weld contamination or inclusion.

2. Attach clamps on workpieces and grounding

Ensure there is a clean location so that

the electrical circuit can be completed with
minimal resistance at the ground location. Again,
rust or paint will interfere with the grounding of
your work piece, making it difficult to create an
arc when you begin welding.

3. Select the correct rod and amperage range for

the work you are attempting. As
an example, 1⁄4 inch (0.6 cm) plate steel can be
welded effectively using an E6011, 1⁄8 inch (0.3
cm) electrode, at between 80-100 amps.

4. Arc Length
The arc length is the distance between
the electrode and the weld pool. It should be
roughly the same as the diameter of the rod. You
will get used to the arc length after some
5. Maintaining Lead Angle and Arc Length

As the welding rod gets shorter during the

weld process, takes a mindful effort to reduce
the length of the arc. Excessive arc length will
lead to an unstable arc with excess heat and
undercutting. This is one of the most common
mistakes by beginners.

6. Slag

After welding, you may want to remove

the slag and clean up your weld. Chip off the
slag and wire brush the weld to remove any
foreign material and remaining slag. Ensure
eye protection is worn as the brittle slag can
fly off to distance. A clean weld after grinding
is easier to examine for any pitting, puddling
or other defects.