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Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008


ASSALAMU ALAIKUM
WELCOME TO ILF HADITH
TERMINOLOGY COURSE

ISLAMIC LEARNING FOUNDATION


BY
SHAIKH AHMED KOBEISY
Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008
Important Announcement
 This course is offered for free at this time for
the purpose of preserving Islamic Knowledge.
 It is, therefore, our hope and request that you
would contribute financially to ILF and would
encourage others to contribute.
 For those who want to obtain a certificate of
completion for this course, they should email us
at info@islamiclearningfoundation.com
 They will be required to complete a take-home
exam and pay a nominal fee in order to obtain the
certificate
Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008
Agenda
 9:00-9:10 Introduction and welcome
 9:10-10:30 Lecture 1
 10:35-10:50 Break
 10:50-12:30 Lecture 2
 12:30-1:00 Q & A and conclusion

Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008


2nd Lecture
Hadith Terminology
By
Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy
May Allah Forgive him and his parents

Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008


Some references

http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/fundamentals/hadithsunnah/scienceofhadith/atit.html

http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=mustalah+of+hadith&aq=f&oq=

http://www.dar-us-
salam.com/store/main.mvc?Screen=PROD&Product_Code=H08&Category_Code=eng_hadith

Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008


Rejected because of a missing link in the
chain of narrators:
• Mu’allaq (Hanged on or left unsupported)
• Mursal : Sent
• Mu’dal: Ill
• Munqati’e: disconnected
• Mudallas: Misrepresented
• Mursal Khafi: Passed over or reporting indirect
report in the form of direct one
• Mu’ana’n: indecisive in indicating the direct
transmission (‘an)
• Mu’annan: similar to the above (anna)
Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008
Classification of Sunnah (Hadith)

Based upon the method of


transmission

Based upon the strength of


the narration (acceptability)
Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008
Method of transmission

Ahad (not
Mutawatir
• Abundant number of mutawatir)
narrators
• The number is in each
generation
• It is impossible to All ahadith that
conspire to lie do not meet the
• The narration is based criteria for
upon the five senses not
reasoning mutwatir
• It is all acceptable and
Sahid
• Verbal or meaning
Can be either
acceptable or
weak

Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008


Mutwatir

The basis of such


The availability of this The impossibility of
report is senses rather
Multiple narrators number in all levels of lying either organized
than thoughts or
the hadith or coincidental
feelings

Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008


Mutwatir

Mutawatir
• (abundantly narrated)
• Lafzi (verbal)
• Ma’anawi (by meaning
only)
Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008
Authentic
Mutwatir
and accepted

Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008


Types and examples of Mutawatir

Tawatur
Tawatur in
(Mutawatir) lafthi
meaning:
(i.e.) verbal):

Examples:
•Lying against the Prophet
•Wiping over the leather socks
•Intercession
•The Hawd (lake of the Prophet SAWS)
•Prohibition of taking the graves as masajid
•Addajjal (the false Messiah)
•The return of Isa (Jesus) SAWS

Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008


Sources

 As-Suti: Al azhar al Mutnathirah fi Al Akhbar


al mutwatirah
 Qatful-Azhar……………………………
 Al kittani: Muhammad bin ja’afar: nazmu Al
Mutnathir minal Hadith Al mutwatir
(collecting or compiling the scattered of
Mutawtir Hadith

Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008


Denying the acceptance of
hadith Mutwatir

 Denying hadith mutwatir amounts to


denying the Quran itself

Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008


Proof-value of Mutwatir

Authenticity Meaning

Certain
Certain
Definitive

Probable
More than one meaning
Each meaning is
speculative

Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008


Examples of definitive
(Qate’i) meanings from the
Quran
 When Muslims should fast?
 If someone misses a day because of a valid
execuse
 A divorced woman waits three quruu’
(periods of time)
 Divorce is only two times before the third
becomes final
 If someone fails to keep an oath, the kaffarah
is specified in the Quran (feeding 10 poor,
clothing them or freeing a slave)
Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008
 A man inherits ½ of his childless deceased
wife and 1/4th of his deceased wife with
child(ren)
 A woman inherits 1/4th of her childless
husband and 1/8th of her husband with
child(ren)

Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008


speculative

 Punishment of a thief:
 For what level of theft
 How much should be cut?
 Which hand?
 A divorced woman waits three quruu’ (either
menstruation period or purity period)

Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008


Challenges to this concept
 Critical theory:
 Relativism:
 Positive: civil right movements, Women’s rights,
equality in other aspects
 Negative: religious books and texts lost their
authority :
 Moral relativism
 The approval of homosexuality as part of the religion
(in some branches Christianity and Judaism)
 Women leading Friday Prayer
 Feminism:
 The rights of women (varies a great deal): practices of marriage,
divorce, inheritence,
Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008
Qualifications of the Hadith
Commentator
 If the person is qualified to comment and
explain the hadith: agreement or
disagreement is acceptable
 The person is approved by teachers
 Acknowledged by contemporary scholars
 In old times, we know the imams and their status
regarding the Hadith
 In modern times: The scholar has to adopt and
choose a legitimate scholarly opinion from those
that are in existence
Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008
When scholars are allowed to
make new commentary on
hadith
 The scholar has to have strong and
acknowledged qualifications and abilities
 Applied to new situations
 The connection between the Hadith is
extremely strong and evident
 It does not contradict other conclusions
 It should be examined by other scholars who
can approve of or challenge it
Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008
Imam Abu Hanifah

 He would follow and abide by the consensus


of the Sahabah Scholars
 If the sahabah differ, he would choose from
among their different opinions
 If one of the tabi’een (the second generation)
[he named Said ibn Al Musayyeb, or Al Hasn
Al Basry] make ijtihad, then I am entitled to
the right of making ijtihad

Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008


Ahad narrations
All narrations that do
The Plural of one not satisfy the
Are classified into
(wahid) requirements of
mutwatir

Mash-hour (well-
known or wide
spread): 3 or more
in all level

Aziz (less
available or
glorious): two

Gharib (strange):
one in any

Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008


Ahad

Authenticity: Meaning;

Speculative
(non- Definitive
definitive)

Speculative

Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008


Authenticity

Verify and
conclude:
Acceptable
• Sahih (authentic)
• Hasan (Sound)

No-t-
acceptable

Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008


Criticism to Ahad Narratives

It is not reliable

It can be accepted in less important things but not


in Aqidah (belief, Ibadat and Halal and haram)

How could you trust reports of lone narrators

Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008


Response
Ahad (several) is The authenticity
different from is guaranteed
wahid (one) by:

Reliability of
narrators (a’dalah
and [dabt]
accuracy)

Lack of
contradictions
with other
ahadith

Lack of
contradiction
with the Quran

Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008


More Responses

 The Prophet SAAWS is one single person


 The Prophet SAAWS sent:
 Musa’ab ibn Umair RA to Madinah
 Mu’aath ibn Jabal to Yemen
 Individual messengers to the kings, emperors and
emirs of different territories
 The change of Qiblah from Jerusalem to Makkah
 The prohibition of wine was communicated to
Muslims in the time of the Prophet SAAWS by one

Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008


 Abu Bakr (RA) was sent by the Prophet
SAAWS to lead Hajj and communicate on
behalf of the Prophet SAAWS
 Ali Ibn Abi Talib was sent by the Prophet
SAAWS to read surat # 9 (At-Tawbah) to the
Mushrikeen thus cancelling their truce and
agreements

Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008


According to acceptability

Maqboul Mardoud
(acceptable) (rejected)
Sahih (authentic) Dhaeef (weak): the
weakness could be either
• Mutawatir in the chain of narrators or
• Ahad in the text or in both.
•Shath (abnormal)

Hasan (sound) Fabricated

Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008


as-saheeh - ‫حٍْح‬
ِ ‫ص‬
َّ ‫ان‬

 Linguistically: Sound/healthy
 Technically: That whose isnaad is connected
through “just” (‘adl) and precise (daabit)
narrators from beginning to end, not being
shaadhdh (abnormal) or having a hidden defect
(‘illah).

 Sahih in Isnad (chain of narrators)


 Sahih in Matn (text)

Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008


‫حدثنا‏‏إسحق بن إبراهين وعبد بن‬
‫حويد قاال أخبرنا عبد‬
‫َ‏حدثىا‏‏حسه‏‬
‫‏‬ ‫الرزاق أخبرنا هعور‏‏ح‏‏‬
‫َعبد‏به‏حمٍد‏‏قاال حدثنا‏‏ٌعقُب‏ٌَُ‏‬
‫‏‬ ‫انحهُاوً‏‏‬
‫‏‬
‫ابه‏إبزاٌٍم‏به‏سعد‏‏قال‏‬
‫انزٌزي‏‏‬
‫‏‬ ‫عه‏‏‬
‫أبً‏‏عه‏‏‏صالح‏‏كالهوا‏‏ ‏‬ ‫‏‬ ‫حدثىً‏‏‬
‫‏‬
‫صانح‏‏اوتٍى‏‬
‫‏‬ ‫غٍز‏أن‏حدٌث‏‏‬
‫‏‬ ‫بٍذا‏اإلسىاد‏مثهً‏‏‏‬
‫عىد‏قُنً‏فأوزل‏هللا‏عز‏َجم‏فًٍ‏َنم‏ٌذكز‏اٌَتٍه‏‬
‫َقال‏فً‏حدٌثً‏ٌَعُدان‏فً‏تهك‏انمقانة‏‏َفً‏‬
‫‏‬
‫معمز‏‏مكان‏ٌذي‏انكهمة‏فهم‏ٌزاال‏بً‏‬
‫‏‬ ‫حدٌث‏‏‬
‫‏‬

‫‪Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy‬‬ ‫‪10/25/2008‬‬


Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008
Muslim
Muslim
Hasan Abd ibnHumaid
Abd ibn
Isaac
Humid
Yaqoub (Ibrahim
ibn Saad)
Abdel
Razzaq
His father

Ma’amar
Salih

Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008


The five conditions :
1) ittisaalus- sanad - ‫الس َند‬ َّ ‫صال‬ َ ِّ ‫ اِت‬- That its isnaad is
connected. That every one of its narrators heard it
directly from the person he is narrating from, from
the start of the isnaad to the end.
2) al-’adaalah - ‫ع َدالَة‬
َ ‫ اَ ْل‬- That all of its narrators are ‘adl
(just); i.e. Muslim, Of age (baaligh), Sane (‘aaqil), Not
an open sinner (faasiq), and not having bad manners
and habits (makhroomul maroo’ah) i.e. undignified
person or manners

Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008


Ittisal Al Ssanad

 Birth of the narrator


 Death of the narrator
 Places he/she travelled to
 Scholars he/she learned from
 Scholars he/she taught
 The reporter had heard directly the ahadith
he/she narrates from the shaykh

Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008


3) That all of its narrators are daabit (precise),
which is of two kinds:
 dabtus-sadr - ‫( ضَبْطُ‏انصَّدَر‬precision of the heart)
- that he memorizes it correctly and transmits it
as he heard it and that he understands it if he is
reporting its meaning.
 dabtul kitaab - ‫( ضَبْطُ‏انكِتَاب‬precision of writing)
- that he correctly writes it down, preserves it
and makes sure that it is passed on correctly.

Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008


4) ‘adamu-sh-shuthooth - ‫الشر ْوذ‬ ُّ ‫ عَ َدم‬- That it
is not shaadhdh. And the shaadhdh is when the
reliable narrators contradict those who are
more reliable than them and/or more
numerous
5) ‘adamul ‘illah - ‫علَّة‬
ِ ‫ عَ َدم ال‬- That it does not
contain (‘illah) hidden weakness. The ‘illah is a
non-apparent factor which affects the
authenticity of the hadeeth, whilst the isnaad
appears to be free from it, e.g. a hidden gap in
the isnaad.

Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008


X X

Z Y

Z
Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008
Classification of Hadith
Sahih

Sahih Lithatihi Sahih Lighayrihi

Meets all Confirming or


requirements of Hasan Lithatihi (less confirmed by another
Hadith Sahih in its text than Sahih) report that is
as well as in its isnad authentic (sahih)

Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008


Resources or sources for
Hadith Sahih
 Majority of Islamic texts of hadith
 The agreed upon between Both Imams Bukhari
and Muslim
 What was reported by imam Bukhari in his famous
text called Sahih
 What was reported by imam Muslim
 Al Muwatta’

Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008


How should we treat Hadith
Sahih
 It is imperative on Muslims to accept the
hadith sahih and act according to it unless:
 It is abrogated
 It is general and is specified by another hadith
 not limited by any factor

Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008


Some expressions in the
fields of hadith
 Sahih (authentic)
 Meets all five requirements and conditions of
authenticity
 Ghayr Sahih (not authentic0)
 Does not meet the requirements but not
necessarily fabricated or wrong
 Sahih-ul-Isnad: (the chain of narrators are
authentic);
 The chain of the narrators are authenticated and
accepted as some ones whose report is strong but
Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008
 The matn (i.e. the text or the report itself) has
not been verified

Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008


Comparisons between Sahih Al
Bukhari and sahih Muslim
Bukhari in Sahih Muslim
 Imam Bukhari is stronger in  Reports hadiths complete
authenticity  Does not include his own
 Hadith are fragmented fiqh because he did not
 Imam Bukhari included his make titles for his chapters
fiqhi opinion in his book by  Imam An-nawawi (the
making chapter titles to commentator on sahih
each collection of the Muslim) is the one who put
hadith the chapter titles which are
more general than the
titles in sahih al Bukhari)
Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008
Other texts of Sahih

 Sahih ibn Hibban (the authentic reports of ibn


Hibban):
 It is not all authentic because the author is known
to be easy with regards to judging the reporters
(Mutasahil)
 Al Mustadrak by Imam Al Hakim:
 Includes reports that meet the requirements of
both but did not include them
 Ibn Khuzaimah

Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008


 The book was verified by imam Ad-dhahabi and
commented on. When there is agreement
between the two, the hadith is authentic,
otherwise, it should be examined
 Sahih ibn Khuzaimah:
 Stronger than Ibn Hibban
 Hesitant to authenticate ahadith that he is not
fully confident in
 Still less than Sahih of both Bukhari and Muslim

Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008


Are all ahadith in Sahih
Bukhari and Muslim authentic
 Every hadith reported with the Isnad Mutassil
(connected chain) is authentic
 Some ahadith (many in Bukhari and only one
in Muslim0 are reported without isnad (i.e.
Mu’allaq)
 These reports are not in the main text of Imam Bukhari, rather
they are in the titles and intro. to the chapters
 The ruling on these reports: what was reported with definitive
manner or form, is authentic and the rest needs reexamination

Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008


Al Hasan -

Linguistically: Sound/healthy
Technically: That whose isnaad
is connected through “just”
(‘adl) and less precise (daabit)
narrators from beginning to
end, not being shaadhdh
(abnormal) or having a hidden
defect (‘illah).

Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008


The five conditions :
1) ittisaalus- sanad - ‫الس َند‬ َّ ‫صال‬ َ ِّ ‫ اِت‬- That its isnaad is
connected. That every one of its narrators heard it
directly from the person he is narrating from, from
the start of the isnaad to the end.
2) al-’adaalah - ‫ع َدالَة‬
َ ‫ اَ ْل‬- That all of its narrators are ‘adl
(just); i.e. Muslim, Of age (baaligh), Sane (‘aaqil), Not
an open sinner (faasiq), and not having bad manners
and habits (makhroomul maroo’ah) i.e. undignified
person or manners

Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008


Ittisal Al Ssanad

 Birth of the narrator


 Death of the narrator
 Places he/she travelled to
 Scholars he/she learned from
 Scholars he/she taught
 The reporter had heard directly the ahadith
he/she narrates from the shaykh

Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008


3) That all of its narrators are less daabit
(precise), which is of two kinds:
 dabtus-sadr - ‫( ضَبْطُ‏انصَّدَر‬precision of the heart)
- that he memorizes it correctly and transmits it
as he heard it and that he understands it if he is
reporting its meaning.
 dabtul kitaab - ‫( ضَبْطُ‏انكِتَاب‬precision of writing)
- that he correctly writes it down, preserves it
and makes sure that it is passed on correctly.

Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008


4) ‘adamu-sh-shuthooth - ‫الشر ْوذ‬ ُّ ‫ عَ َدم‬- That it
is not shaadhdh. And the shaadhdh is when the
reliable narrators contradict those who are
more reliable than them and/or more
numerous
5) ‘adamul ‘illah - ‫علَّة‬
ِ ‫ عَ َدم ال‬- That it does not
contain (‘illah) hidden weakness. The ‘illah is a
non-apparent factor which affects the
authenticity of the hadeeth, whilst the isnaad
appears to be free from it, e.g. a hidden gap in
the isnaad.

Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008


History

 Before Imam Tirmithi: Hadith was classified


to only Sahih and Da’ieef
 Scholars have always realized that there is
one type of hadith that does not belong to
either category
 Imam Ahmad: hadith Daieef is more
preferred to me than people’s opinions
(hasan)

Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008


Imam Tirmithi

 Gave the category Hasan to the hadith that


does not rise to the level of sahih yet it is not
as bad as daieef
 Tirmithi:
 Sahih: Authentic
 Hasan and Sahih:
 More than one chain: some chains are hasan while
others are sahih
 By one chain: Some scholars consider it sahih while
others consider it hasan
Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008
 Hasan ghareeb: hasan but strange (one reporter
only in one or more of the generations of the
chain of narrators)
 Da’ieef:

Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008


Sahih Hadith texts
 Bukhari
 Muslim
 Sahih Ibn Khuzaimah
 Al Mustadrak by imam Al Hakim: omitted or
missed some reports that match their conditions
and qualify for inclusion in their texts.
 He was not right in all of what he included
 Al Mustadrak was verified by imam Ath-thahabi
 Sahhahahu al Hakim wa wa faqahu Ath-thahabi (Hakim
said sahih and Ath-thahabi agreed)
Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008
 Sahih Ibn hibban:
 He was permissive in assuming ‘adalah (good
Islamic character) in narrators.
 When he lacked precise information on any
reporter, he assumed the good character and
acceptability of the reporter
 By other scholars as (Majhoul Al hal) and therfore
categorized as da’ieef, ibn Hibban gave
acceptance and authenticity to that reporter

Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008


Other books that include
Sahih
 Sunan Abi Daud
 Tirmithi
 Ibn Majah
 An-Nasaaei
 Musnad Ahmad
 Muwatta’ of Imam Malik

Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008


Hadith hasan
 Sunan (Jame’I At-tirmithi)
 Depending on the version or the print or the
specific manuscript of imam at-tirmithi, you may
find discrepancy in the categorization of a hadith
 We verify which version is authentic and is correct in
reflecting imam Tirmithi’s opinion
 Sunan Abi Daud:
 Includes in his book the sahih and the reports that
are close to it
 If he does not indicate anything, the hadith is
good (includes both sahih and hasan)
Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008
 If it is weak, he would indicate that
 Imam Al Khattabi reviewed and verified Abu’
Daud’s text and made agreements and
disagreements with him.
 Sunan Ad-Daraqutni is another source of
hasan hadith
 Musnad Ahmad
 Muwatta’ Malik

Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008


Imam Al Baghawi (Masabeeh-u-
Sunnah)

 Categorized the hadiths in both Bukhari and


Muslim as Sahih
 Hadith from the other four texts (abu Daud,
Ibn Majah, Tirmithi and Nasaaei) as Hasan

Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008


Hasan
 Hasan Lithatihi: hasan in itself because its isnad
and matn meet the requirements of Hadith
Hasan
 Hasan lighayrihi (for another reason):
 Da’ieef: from this transmission
 It comes from many other forms and chains of
transmissions
 Reported from another chain that either similar or
stronger
 The reason for considering the hadith weak is less
precision, or lack of adquate knowledge of the reporter

Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008


 Comparison and contrast:
 In agreement: it is good and stornger
 In disagreement with Hasan hadith: we take the
Hasan lithatihi over the hasan lighayrihi
 If we conclude that a hadith is hasan lighyrihi: It
should be accepted and acted accordingly

Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008


Other reasons for strength
of Hadith
 The hadiths that were reported by Imam
Bukhari and Muslim in their sahih
 Are very well respected in this regard
 Advance level of distinguishing the hadith sahih
from others
 Imams from the whole Muslim world in the past as
well as in later generations accepted their books
as authority in Hadith Sahih

Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008


 Mash-hour (famous, widely spread, widely
known): could be strong, weak: three
reporters in every generation of the chain
 Mash-hour is stronger when non of its chains
of narrators is criticized
 Even stronger if the matn is safe from any
defect

Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008


Hadith Musalsal by imams;
and is not strange

Ahmad As-Shafei Malik


and R1 and R2 and R3

Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008


Hadith Sahih

 Acted upon (Ma’mouloun bihi):


 Authentic and not opposed by any text or reason
 Not-acted upon (ghayru Ma’moulin bihi)
 Sahih or authentic but it is opposed or cancelled
or qualified in some ways

Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008


Ma’moulun Bihi (Al Nuhkam)

 Al Muhkam: the perfect


 The authentic hadith which is not opposed by
a similar or stronger report
 Constitutes the majorith of hadith sahih

Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008


Ghayru Ma’moulin bihi (Al
Mukhtalif)
 Mukhtalif: different, inconsistent
 The authentic Hadith that is opposed by
other similar or stronger reports and cannot
be reconciled in meaning
 Leaving the hadith altogether
 Reconcile the two ahadith and employ both of
them in the conclusion

Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008


Examples

 “La ‘adwa wala tiarat” There is no


transmission of illness nor bad omen” Muslim
 Run away from the leper as you run away
from a lion”:
 There is no transmission of the disease originally
 Run away from illnesses so if you contract the
disease, you don’t fall into doubting and referring
the illness to mixing with ill persons thus affecting
your ‘aqeeda that only Allah is the one who causes
things to happen

Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008


 There is no infection or transmission of a
disease by itself unless permitted by Allah
SWT
 In order to take all precautions possible to protect
yourself without losing faith in Allah as the
Supreme Creator and Ruler of the Universe
 In order not to blame one another for illnesses and
severe ties with one another
 In order to maintain strong faith in Allah
 For people who must interact with ill persons, for
them to rely on Allah SWT alone

Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008


What should we do when there is
Mukhtilif Al Hadith or Ikhtilaf
 Try to reconcile between the two reports as much
as possible
 If it is not possible;
 Is this report subject t to abrogation?
 Do we know the date of each report? If yes,
 Then we consider the earlier as abrogated
 If we don’t know the dates, we give more weight to
either one based on many criteria as specified in the
texts of Hadith
 Sometimes both can be effective in different
circumstances
Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008
Sources for knowledge

 Imam Ash-Shafe’i: Ikhtilafu Al Hadith


 Imam Ibn Qutaybah: Abdullah ibn Muslim Ad-
Daynouri: Ta’weel Mukhtalaf Al Hadith
 At-tahawi: Abu ja’afar Ahmad ibn Salama:
Mushkil Al Athar

Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008


Abrogation in Hadith (Naskh)

 Abrogation: means removal


 Removing the ruling in one text and replacing
it by another rule from another source
 How do we know;
 1. The explicit statement from Rasoul- Ullah
SAAWS
 2. If the sahabi reporter of the haidth expresses
that abrogation
 3. Knowing the date of the report

Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008


 Consensus of Muslim Scholars:

Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008


Sources of Knowledge in this
field
 Imam Ahmad: An-Nsikh wal Mansoukh
 Ibn Al Jawzi; Tajreed Al-Ahadeeth Al
Mansoukhah
 Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Mousa Al hazimi: Al
I’tiar fi An-Nasikh wa Al Mansoukh

Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008


The rejected reports

 Rejected because of criticism in the chain of


narrators
 Rejected because of defects in the Matn

Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008


Rejected because
of reasons in the
chain of narrators

Omission in
Isnad

Criticism in
the narrator
Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008
 Criticism in the narrator
 ‘Adalah (Islamic devotion, good ch.)
 Dabt (precision) ability to memorize and
communicate precisly what he/she had heard

Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008


Da’ieef (weak)
 If the hadith is missing one or more of the
requirements of Hasna Hadith
 Hadith Da’ieef varies greatly based upon the
level of weakness in the Hadith
 A wha Al Asaaneed (the weekest of all Isnad):
 Sahabi: the wekest of isnad leading to a particular
companion
 Ibn ‘Abbas: chain (this is the chain of falsehood)
 Town or geographic areas: Sham, Egypt: the
weakest isnad in that territory

Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008


Should we report a hadith
Da’ieef?
 We can report it as long as the weakness is
mentioned provided the following:
 The hadith is not fabricate unless we are exposing
it
 If it does not relates to ‘Aqeedah
 If it does not constitute ‘ibdat or Islamic rules

Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008


Should we act according to A
Hadith that is Da’ieef?
 The jumhoor (majority of Muslim scholars)
are of the opinion that it should be employed
provided the following conditions are
present:
 The weakness is not so severe
 The hadith must fall under a principle that is
authentically founded and established
 When acting upon the hadith, we must not believe
that it is from the Prophet SAAWS. Rather, we
should believe that we are acting in precaution

Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008


What are the books the
enlist the Da’ieef narrators
 Mizan Al I’tidal (the scale of Justice) by Imam
Ath_Thahabi
 Ad-Du’afa (the Weak0 by imam Ibn Al jawzi

Islamic Learning Foundation- Shaikh Ahmed Kobeisy 10/25/2008