You are on page 1of 12

“Terrorism Folder”… What did Qatar do in Syria, Libya and Yemen?

Mahmoud Basouni1
Although the United Nations are concerned with the terrorism issue along with the
procedures of how to combat it as being a crime threatens the most important and
fundamental human right namely right to life, yet the states which support
terrorism and use it as a tool of political and economic pressure and to implement
their regional and international agendas benefit from the lack of binding
international convention for all countries around the world to stop supporting and
funding terrorism whether by material or moral forms.
Till now the member states in the UN are negotiating about proposal of
comprehensive convention in regard to international terrorism, while they actually
had approved the UN International Strategy to Combat Terrorism in 8th September
2006. This convention is in a form of decision and work plan attached with a
unique international instrument which – as mentioned – will strengthen the
national, regional and international efforts that aim at combating terrorism.
These principles state the criminalization of terroristic crimes and to be subject to
punishment according to law, litigating the committers or extraditing them,
eliminating the sources of terrorism and their funders, calling the member states to
take necessary procedures to stop terrorism, assuring the necessity of cooperation
among all member states, sharing information supporting and help each other as
much as possible regarding combating and stopping terroristic acts in addition to
investigating and litigating them.
By applying these principles on Qatar, we find out that Qatar totally ignores these
texts and principles. As Qatar is still supporting and financing a number of
terroristic organizations in the Middle East on the top of which is Muslim
Brotherhood Group. However; the reasons behind the Qatari support to terrorism
have converted to be a political ideology and doctrine which have been rooted in
all Qatari military, security and diplomatic institutions and even charity ones.
Thus the huge financial surplus which Qatar gets (the state with low population
density) has become a catastrophe for MENA because it was the reason behind the
unprecedented increased terrorism in the region accompanied by the appearance
of many terroristic groups with different names and titles which all are supported
by Qatar with funds and weapons; the matter which pushes all Arab countries to
boycott Qatar to besiege its terroristic activities. As a result, the accusations
against Qatar have been increased as being a supporter of international terrorism
and its obvious failure to control the Qatari funders for terroristic activities in
Yemen, Syria, Iraq and Libya. In addition, Qatar failed in take strict procedures
against the financial terroristic networks in it.
When Qatar did not cooperate to implement the procedures of terrorism combating
applied by Arab Spring Countries, it violated the International Convention to
Suppress Terrorism Fund issued by the UN General Assembly Decision no. 109/54
in 9th December 1999 (the convention was issued in 10th January 2000). The
convention’s preamble assures the condemnation of all terroristic acts, techniques
and practices as being criminal unjustified acts wherever they are committed and
whoever are the committers. These terroristic acts also include the acts which
expose the friendly relations among nations and countries to danger and threaten
the regional security and safety of them.
The clause no. 3 (W) of the General Assembly Decision no. 51/210, dated 17
December19962, calls all states to take steps using all suitable internal direct and
indirect means to stop and prohibit funding and supporting terrorists and
terroristic organizations by charity, social or cultural organizations, in addition to
organizations working in illegal activities such as illegal trafficking of weapons,
drugs and money extortion, including the exploitation of some people for purposes
of funding terroristic activities and thinking of, when necessary, approving
organizational procedures to prevent the transactions of suspected funds as being
transacted for terroristic acts and addressing these transactions.
In addition, the international law obliges the member states to limit the financial
flow for terrorists by addressing the matter of threat in regard to financing
terrorism on local and international levels to prevent the terroristic networks from
fund and safe refuge. This is done through strengthening the states’ legal,
organizational, financial and investigatory capacities regarding the
implementation of law in addition to the judicial capacities to combat funding of
terrorism in order to face the challenges represented in terrorism funding. Thus
the financial systems should be better protected against misuse by terrorism
funders all over the world.
Qatar has long history in non-implementation of national decisions, the most
prominent of which is the decision 2368 of 2017 in regard to Daaish Group, Al
Qaida Organization and all people, groups and projects related to them. This
decision highlights the necessity of taking procedures towards assets freezing,
travel ban and embargo imposed on weapons. Also the decision defines the criteria
of insertion in the list of people and entities related to these terroristic
organizations and assures the importance of combating money laundering,
terrorism funding and weapons spread.
Moreover, Qatar has not implement the national decision no. 2178 issued in
September 2015 which prevents flow of foreign fighters to Syria and Iraq across
the Turkish lands, in addition to decision number 2170 regarding the elimination
of sources of material, military and logistical support and fund for extremists
especially Daaish Group and Al Nasra Front who detainees members in Syria
admitted Qatar support to their activities.
Qatar is sheltering the leaders of Muslim Brotherhood Group which – for many
reasons – has been classified as terroristic group in Russia, Egypt, Saudi Arabia,
Emirates and Bahrain. Recently, after reviewing various evidences, Britain has
classified the two groups “Hasm” and “Lawaa Al Thawra” related to Muslim
Brotherhood as two terroristic groups and blocked their activities; in addition to
Yousef Al Qaradawy confession – one of the group members – of Osama Bn Laden
and Abo Bakr Baghdadi belonging to Muslim Brotherhood Group3.
Based on these previously mentioned points, Qatar has violated an important
principle in the UN Strategy to Combat Terrorism which states that terroristic
acts, techniques and practices with all their forms are activities aim at
undermining human rights, fundamental freedoms and democracy, threaten the
regional safety and security of states and shake the stability of legally formed
governments. The strategy also recommends the international community to take
the necessary steps to strengthen the cooperation to prevent and combat terrorism.
However; Qatar and its media channels support and disseminate the Group’s
ideas. In addition, they have close relations with groups such as Talban and some
groups related to Al Qaida Organization. In addition, they support Al Houthi
rebels in Yemen who fight governmental forces supported by Saudi Arabia and
Emirates.
Qatar alleges that these groups are opponent to their regimes in their countries
and it support their democratic right, yet it did not investigate the evidences
condemning them with terrorism which presented by the four countries for the
whole world. The Qatari media bodies adopted its violence-inciting political
discourse and disseminated false information against the four Arab countries. This
religious inciting discourse had its effect in regard to the division of Al Sunna
followers between Qatar and Arab states because of Doha support to Muslim
Brotherhood Group. This group was the first and main reason in adopting the
atmosphere for extremism and joining terroristic groups such as Daaish and Al
Nasra Front as a number of the group members appear in Daaish videos and
announce their involvement in Daaish activities. Some of them, after exiting from
Libya and Syria, turned out to be a “wolf” threatening Europe and United States
with killing and running over civilians.
Supported information with audio recordings were recently revealed about the
Qatari government as it paid one billion dollars to terroristic organizations in Iraq
after kidnapping 28 princes in 2015 by Said Group as the funds transferred to
groups and members classified by the United States as being terrorists: Hazib
Allah battalions in Iraq which killed Americans soldiers by putting bombs on the
road side, the Gen Qasim Solimany who is the leader of revolutionary guards and
who is subjected to the punishments of the United States and European Union and
Tahrir Al Sham Body which was known as Al Nasra Front when it was affiliated to
Al Qaida Organization in Syria4. The hostages’ crisis ended in April 2017 when a
plane affiliated to the Qatari airlines flew to deliver funds and get the hostages
back. This is what was assured by Qatari officials although the Qatari airlines
avoid commenting.
Hence Qatar has disregarded the decision of the Security Council in January 2014
about the criminalization of ransom payment. As the decision points out that
ransom amounts paid to these terroristic groups represent income resources which
enhance the efforts exerted by these groups to recruit new members and strengthen
their capacities and represent a motivation to commit kidnapping in return for
ransom.
In addition, the decision proposal calls all states to prevent terrorists’ benefit –
directly or indirectly – from ransom payment or from political concessions and to
guarantee safe release of hostages. However; Qatar paid the ransom and the
terroristic organizations had funds that allowed them to kill, riot, violate
fundamental human rights and expose the state’s basis to danger; the matter which
motivate more refugees towards north states in an attempt to escape from troubled
area that tries to survive.
Yet, the crisis is deeper than this as it extends to the inside Qatar. When analyzing
twitter accounts in Arabic, it is found out that Qatar is the biggest incubator for
twitter accounts in Arabic for Daaish in the Arab and Islamic World and that 50%
of the Qatar tweets are for Daaish. So if we link this with the terrorism list
announced by Qatar itself and other Arab countries, we will find out that the most
ratio among the accused belong to Qatar; the matter which reflects tolerant
governing authorities with terroristic ideas and allowing the dissemination of these
ideas among citizens without any supervision. In addition, Al Gezira Channel,
owned by the Qatari regime, welcomes the ideas of Sayed Qotib and Yousef Al
Qaradawy. The channel also includes programs presenters belonging to Muslim
Brotherhood Group who severely criticize the progressive and liberal ideas and
resisting any new religious discourse through their media discourse so that the
extremist ideas will be the supreme in the Arab and Islamic societies5.
Qatar has long history in the list of terrorism in the UN on the top of which comes
the Qatari funder and terroristic facilitator Al Sabiei who lives in Qatar. He
provides the financial support to the leaders of Al Qaida Organizations before
being arrested in March 2003. Since that he has provided the financial support to
the leaders of Al Qaida Organizations in South Asia. In addition, he has worked
with the senior facilitators of the organization to transport the extremist soldiers
back to the organization to the training camps in South Asia and provides funds for
them. He also was a link between Al Qaida organization and third parties in the
Middle East. In 2011, Al Sabiei provided thousands of dollars dedicated to the
senior officials in Al Qaida Organization in Pakistan. His supportive funding
activities for Al Qaida Organization continued till 20136.
Moreover, Al Sabiei participated in organizing donation campaigns for Al Nasra
Front in Syria and he had a video in May 2013 while he requested donations for
terroristic fighters in Syria.
In addition, there were accusations against Abd El Kareem II member in the Royal
Family in Qatar to have a relation with Abo Mosaab Al Zarkaway the founder of
Al Qaida Organization in Iraq. Also he gave passports to many escapees affiliated
to the organization. Yet it was found out that Abd El Kareem deposited million
dollars in a bank account to fund Al Qaida Organization in Iraq.
Qatar used NGOs to cover its movements while Qatari charity organizations were
followed because of suspicions of funding terrorism covered by human purposes,
as charity organizations were used to fund terroristic organizations in Syria, Libya
and Yemen.
Qatar established tens of charity organizations and bodies to cover its suspicious
purposes in many regional states with a Qatari resistance to convert the charity
work into terroristic work aiming at shaking the stability of the targeted states by
wars and conflicts in Syria, Yemen and Libya.

Syria
The Center of Strategic and International Studies in Washington7 calls the
American administration to get help from all its bodies to stop the logistical and
financial support gained by the terroristic groups in Syria from some countries
such as Qatar and Turkey.
Published by the center, the report entitled “Developing Inclusion Strategy in
Syria” has revealed that Qatar provided support to extremists groups in Syria as it
participated in 2015 in forming Al Fattah Army Group which included groups like
Ahrar Al Sham and Al Nasra Front (which was affiliated to Al Qaida
Organization).
These accusations were enhanced by confessions of Essam Al Hana Al Makani
known as “Abo Mansour Al Maghrabi”, a former leading member in Al Nasra
Group and who detained in Iraq, that the Qatari Sheikh Khaled Soliman had close
relations with Al Nasra Front and provided them monthly with million dollars.
In addition, Qatari charity organizations are accused of funding terroristic acts in
Syria among them is Qatar Charity Organization headed by Hamad Bn Nasr Bn
Jasem II. This organization is accused of facilitating travelling procedures of
terroristic members and funding them through transporting them from Eritrea.
Besides, it provides financial support for terrorism in Syria, Yemen and Libya.
Another organization is Sheikh Thani Bn Abd Allah for Human Services which is
NGO established in 1969 and headed by Sheikh Khaled Bn Thani II. This
organization supported the armed terroristic groups in Syria on the top of them is
Al Nasra Front with about 130 million dollars. Also the organization has close
relations with the Turkish Red Crescent in regard to support extremists and
fighters in Syria with funds and weapons covered with the purpose of human
services and aids.
The third organization is Sheikh Eid II Charity Organization which established in
1995 to provide aids for patients, the poor and people in need. The organization is
headed by Mohamed Bn Eid II and Abd Al Rahman Al Naemi who is the founder of
Al Karama Organization for Human Rights and who is inserted on the American
terrorism lists.
Moreover, the four Arab countries put the name of Khaled Said Abo Enien – from
Qatar – in the list of terrorism funders as Abo Enien was collecting funds to
support terrorists in Syria in cooperation with some people who are inserted in the
punishment regulation affiliated to the US and UN, in addition to cooperating with
the coordinators of Al Qaida Organizations who are Saad Bn Saad Al Kabe and
Abd El Latif Bn Abd Allah Al Kawary. Also Abo Enien has worked as a contact
point for donation campaign in Qatar in the period from 2012 to 2014.
In addition, the name of the Qatari Saleh Bn Ahmed Ghanem was inserted in the
list of prohibited terrorism as in 2013 he worked in a Qatari event for collecting
funds for terrorists in Syria in cooperation with Al Qaida coordinators who were
inserted in the punishment regulation affiliated to the US and UN who are
successors of Mohamed Torkey Al Sabiei and Saad Al Kabei and who are inserted
in the coalition regulation along with Abd El Aziz Bn Khalifa Al Attya, Hassan Al
Dokki and Wagdi Ghonam (a terrorist belonging to Muslim Brotherhood).
The file of Abd El Aziz Bn Khalifa Al Attya is very exciting as despite his
suspicious activities with terroristic organizations, the Qatari Prince Tamim Bn
Hamad assigned him as a member in the Qatari Olympic Committee after he had
worked for years in the Qatari Union of Billiards and Snooker. Although he was
detained in Lebanon in 2012 after he was arrested when providing support to
terroristic militias in Syria. So Qatar practiced strong pressures on Lebanon
headed by Khaled Bn Mohamed Al Attaya – the current Qatari minister of defense
– (as the accused is his cousin) till he was released.

Libya
Libya has the world’s fifth reserve of the exploitable petroleum rocks making it a
potential rival - and yet a fierce rival – in the European market especially as it has
close borders with Europe. So weakening Libya by a strong support from Qatar to
the fighters there is a means to overthrow the potential Libyan rival.
A documentary screened by “Sky News” – a satellite channel – entitled “Shagra El
Zalam” or “Darkness Tree”1 has revealed important information about Qatar and
Turkey relations with extremists’ organizations in Libya. The documentary screens
absent prayer for Wessam Bn Hameed known as “Abo Khattab Al Libi” who was
one of the founders of Al Shoura Rebels Council in Binghazi which is inserted in
the list of terroristic organizations in Istanbul in 1st May 2018. The prayer Imam
was Salem Gaber who is wanted and included in terrorism lists and the member of
the International Union for Muslim Scientists in Qatar. Also among the prayers
were the two leading members in the Libyan fighting group Khaled El Sherif and
Ahmed Al Saadi who were repeating Daaish anthems.
The documentary also included an old film for Wessan Bn Hamad while he was
threatening the Libyan army and the flag of the terroristic Daaish organization
flapping behind him. The documentary clarified that this organization has been
funded by Tripoli which was dominated and controlled at that time by Islamic
factions and run by religious trends on the top of which is the terroristic Muslim
Brotherhood.

1
http://www.albawabhnews.com/3242868
Besides, “Darkness Tree” unveils the Qatari policeman Hamad Fatis Al Mori who
was authorized – during the Libyan revolution against the former president Al
Gaddafi – to lead the terroristic attacks against the military facilities and buildings
in Libyan with the help of his Qatari colleagues.
The documentary also clarified that about 20 Qataris came from Doha to stay in
Libyan hotels to participate in what was called coalition of running the crisis in
cooperation with Islamic trends at that time. This was in Binghazi. It is pointed out
that the Libyan policeman Abd El Fattah Younis refused this coalition and he was
insisted that the coalition’s members must be Libyans.
The General Commander of the National Libyan Army, the general marshal
Khalifa Haftet9, has revealed what he called the Qatari destruction in Libya and
accused Qatar with funding Daaish and Muslim Brotherhood militias in the west
of the country. In addition, the spokesman of the General Command of the Libyan
Armed Forces, the brigadier general Ahmed Al Mismari, assured that Qatar has
funded groups related to Al Qaida Organization and Al Sharia supporters group to
besiege the oil ports.
“Telegraph” newspaper was more specific in regard to the Qatari role in Libya as
it frankly said that Qatar is the main sponsor for Islamic extremists groups in the
Middle East as two of its senior reporters had revealed – who are David Beller
and Richard Spinsir – intimate and close relationship between Al Doha and
Islamic extremists groups which controlled Tripoli. This is the group which
declares its loyalty to Daaish organization in what it called “Tripoli State”. The
group also is accused of slaughtering 20 Egyptian Christians. They also are allies
to the brutal Jihadi Al Sharia supporters group which is suspected also of the
killing of the American ambassador – Christopher Stevens - in Libya and trying to
kill the British ambassador Dominic Squeeze.
In addition, the famous American writer Simore Hirsh in his article in the
magazine “London Review of Box” he talked about what he called “Rats Line”
which is a back channel to escape to Syria. This channel was established in
cooperation with Qatar and Turkey in 2012 to smuggling weapons and supplies
from Libya through north Turkey to Syrian borders to be delivered to the Syrian
opposition. The article also revealed Qatar and Turkey role in delivering Al
Gaddafi weapons to extremists in Syria10.
The American writer added that the main beneficiary from these weapons were the
terrorists who some of them related directly to Al Qaida organization; the matter
which assures the close relations between Al Doha and extremists groups in Libya
who dominated the weapons stores after the fall of Al Gaddafi.
Moreover, Qatar used charity and human organizations in Libya such as Sheikh Al
Thani Bn Abd Allah Charity organization (Qatari organization known as RAF) to
be incubator of terroristic organizations to the extent that the militias leaded by the
Qatari leader Ismail Al Salabi were called RAF forces. In addition, in Libya,
Qatar depended on Libyan figures who are inserted in terrorisms list in the four
Arab countries such as Ismail Mohamed Al Salabi11. Ismail Al Salabi is one of the
most prominent and strongest Qatar leaders in Libya as he led many terroristic
militias who were financially and militarily supported by Qatar. He is no. 26 in the
lists of terrorism announced by the four Arab countries which call for combating
terrorism: Emirates, Egypt, Saudi Arabia and Bahrain. The lists also include
entities and members who receive support and funds from Al Doha.
With the outbreak of fighting against Al Gaddafi forces in 2011, Ismail Al Salabi
has appeared in many videos while he was fighting against Al Gaddafi forces.
After the fall of Al Gaddafi regime, along with his brother Ali Al Salabi, he
established the most important terroristic militias in Libya named as “RAF Allah
Al Sahati Battalion” by Qatari fund. This battalion centralized in Binghazi and
could control wide areas in the city. It also implemented a number of
assassinations against religious scientists, military personnel, activists, civilians,
journalists and cultured people.
This battalion, which was headed by Ismail Al Salabi, along with 17 February
battalion were the strongest and most important battalions which controlled
Benghazi and which have huge weapons stores and prisons in which they jailed
people outside judicial system. In May 2014, the Libyan army – leaded by the
general marshal Haftir – adopted a campaign to cleansing Benghazi and expelled
the terrorists including Ismail Al Salabi and his battalions; the matter which made
Al Salabi announced the formation of what called “Defense Group of Benghazi”
affiliated to the overthrown Mufti Al Sadiq Al Gharyani. The group was formed of
many terroristic militias and groups.
Throughout the recent years, Ismail Al Salabi has close and strong relations with
the Qatari Intelligence Agency. Many intelligence report have revealed a number
of meetings between and his group with the Qatari intelligence director Ghanem
Al Kabsi. The most important meeting was that held on 25th January 2014 in one of
Al Doha hotels with the attendance of the Turkish intelligence director “Hakan
Fiden”. In that meeting they agreed upon providing support for terroristic militias
in Libya who did not exceed 800 people at that time leaded with Ismail Al Salabi12.
In addition, Ismail Al Salabi appeared in one video while he praised the role
played by Qatar in supporting the fighters of Muslim Brotherhood and Al Qaida
Organizations during the incidents in 2011.
Ismail Al Salabi and his battalions were accused of the killing of the American
ambassador in Libya as Al Salabi has appeared at the same day when the
American ambassador was killed and said “the American ambassador was killed
in accordance with the Allah’s instructions and orders delivered by angels to his
soldiers on the Earth, offending the Prophet in America and European States will
not pass without punishment for all these states, from now then we should fight and
attack all American and western bodies and departments in Libya so the east will
be the starting point of this Islamic renaissance.
The British newspaper “The Guardian” said that Qatar is exceeding the aid
strategy of Libya which is internationally approved by supporting the militias
leading to instability and chose supportive figures and funded them with millions
of dollars. On the top of these supportive figures is Abd Al Hakim Belhag, the head
of what is called the military council in Tripoli and the former leader of the
fighting Islamic group related to Al Qaida organization in Libya, the group which
is classified on the international terrorism lists. Yet establishing “Al Watan” party
by Belhag was a remarkable matter, the party which was established by Qatari
great fund and chose the colors of Qatari flag to be its slogan.
In addition, Qatar has supported Al Mahdi Al Harati the leader of “Tripoli
Rebels” battalion with the terrorist Abd El Hakim Belhag. Also he was a former
leader of the fighting Islamic group in Libya and which is inserted in the lists of
international terrorism. In 2011, Tripoli Rebels battalion received a training and
support from the Qatari Special Forces in the western mountain in Libya. In 2012,
Al Harati established the terroristic militias of “Lawa Al Omaa” in Syria. He
coordinated the financial support for the group with Al Qaida funder Hagag Bn
Fahd Al Agame and helped Qatar in obstructing Libyan oil and exporting it, as
Qatar planned to obsess the rights of oil extraction and sale through “Off Shore”
companies. So the Libyan oil production regressed from million and 700.000
barrel daily in 2011 to the quarter of this amount.
Moreover, Al Sadik Abd El Rahman Ali Al Gharyani, the terroristic religious
leader of the defense group of Benghazi, had special relations with Qatar and he
had photos with the Qatari crown then Tamim Bn Hamad II.

Yemen
The suspicious activities of Qatar Charity Organization did not stop. This was
appeared in Yemeni crisis by providing support to Al Houthi militias and
terroristic groups in many Yemeni governorates and through many bank accounts
(in the banks: Islamic Qatar, International Islamic Qatar, Barwa, Misrif Al Rayan)
the matter which widen the range of battles between governmental forces and Al
Houthi forces. This led to the outbreak of the current conflict which converted the
conditions in Yemen to human tragedy that is difficult to be solved or addressed.
Ransom funds provided by Qatar to terroristic organizations in Yemen enhanced
the capacity of these organizations to expand and continue. Qatar could intercede
and release Swiss kidnapped hostage by gunmen in Shobwa in Yemen. The
kidnapped Swiss hostage is 36 years old was kidnapped in 14 March 2012 by
gunmen from her home as she worked as a teacher in Languages Institute.
According to “The Wall Street Journal” newspaper, in 27th February 2013 a
private plan came to Yemen with Qatari Diplomats on board to get Silvia
Eberheart back. A prominent Yemeni official and the Airport Security Officer said
that they saw 5 Qatari diplomats getting out of that plane carrying briefcases
thinking that they were full of money. Then they took the kidnapped to Al Doha
airport without clarifying the circumstances of kidnapping her accurately.
At that time, after released Silvia Eberheart, the former Yemeni Minister of
Exterior Abo Bakr Al Qarbi gave strong declarations saying that “these
arrangements put by Qatar led to a catastrophe”. In addition, he said to the Saudi
newspaper “The Middle East” that “Yemen totally refuses dealing with releasing
kidnapped hostages through paying ransom13”.
All previously mentioned incidents require serious investigation and forming fact
finding delegation from UN bodies, Human Rights Council and the rapporteur
concerned with terrorism to investigate and find the fact of crimes that Qatar has
committed in the three countries and take the necessary procedures to compensate
the harmed of such practices which threaten the lives and rights of citizens in the
three countries which were exposed to systematic destruction processes giving the
way to these groups to interfere in its internal affairs and affect its sovereignty in
contrary to the international conventions and norms.
[1]
‫صحفى مصرى‬
[2]
http://www.un.org/ar/terrorism/adhoccom.shtml
[3]
https://arabic.cnn.com/middleeast/2014/10/16/qaradawi-albaghdadi-islamic-brotherhood
[4]
http://www.bbc.com/arabic/middleeast-44860057
[5]
https://www.dw.com/ar/%D9%82%D8%B7%D8%B1-
%D8%A3%D9%83%D8%A8%D8%B1-%D8%AD%D8%A7%D8%B6%D9%86%D8%A9-
%D9%84%D9%80%D8%AC%D9%8A%D8%B4-%D8%AF%D8%A7%D8%B9%D8%B4-
%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A5%D9%84%D9%83%D8%AA%D8%B1%D9%88%D9%86%D9%8
A-%D8%B9%D9%84%D9%89-%D8%AA%D9%88%D9%8A%D8%AA%D8%B1/a-18858876
[6]
https://www.un.org/sc/suborg/ar/sanctions/1267/aq_sanctions_list/summaries/individual/khali
fa-muhammad-turki-al-subaiy
[7]
https://www.csis.org/analysis/qatar-crisis-turmoil-gcc
[8]
https://al-ain.com/article/qatari-terrorist-syria
[9]
https://qatarileaks.com/ar/leak/%D8%AE%D9%84%D9%8A%D9%81%D8%A9-
%D8%AD%D9%81%D8%AA%D8%B1-%D9%82%D8%B7%D8%B1-
%D8%AA%D9%85%D9%88%D9%84-
%D9%85%D9%8A%D9%84%D9%8A%D8%B4%D9%8A%D8%A7%D8%AA-
%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A5%D8%B1%D9%87%D8%A7%D8%A8-%D9%81%D9%8A-
%D8%AC%D9%86%D9%88%D8%A8-%D9%84%D9%8A%D8%A8%D9%8A%D8%A7
[10]
https://www.strategic-culture.org/news/2016/04/28/seymour-hersh-hillary-approved-
sending-libya-sarin-syrian-rebels.html
[11]
http://www.almarjie-paris.com/2434
[12]
https://www.alittihad.ae/Article/79179/2017/
[13]
http://adenpress.news/news/2372