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i-I I
Wood Handbook
Wood as an Engineering Material
The use oftrade or firm namesis for information only and does not imply
endorsement by the U.S. Department ofAgriculture or the ForestProducts
Society of any product or service. This publication reportsresearch
involvingpesticides.It does not containrecommendations for their use, nor
does it implythat the uses discussed herehave beenregistered. All uses of
pesticides must be registered by appropriate Stateand/orFederal agencies
beforethey can be recommended.

Reprintedfrom ForestProductsLaboratory General Technical


ReportFPL-GTR-1 13 with the consentof the USDAForestService,
ForestProductsLaboratory.

Printedin 1999 by the ForestProductsSociety.

ISBN 1-892529-02-5
Printedin the UnitedStatesofAmerica
FPS catalogueno. 7269
99045000

Cover photo courtesy of the Southern Forest ProductsAssociation.


Conteiits
Preface v 5 Commercial Lumber
HardwoodLumber 5—1
Acknowledgments vii SoftwoodLumber 5—7
Purchase ofLumber 5—12
Contributors xi
CommonlyUsed LumberAbbreviations 5—18
References 5—20
Characteristicsand Availability of
Commercially ImportantWood
Timber Resourcesand Uses 1—2
6 Lumber StressGrades and Design Properties
SpeciesDescriptions 1—3 Responsibilities and Standards for Stress
Grading 6—2
U.S. Wood Species 1—3
Imported Woods 1—17 VisuallyGradedStructural Lumber 6—3
References 1—34 Machine-Graded Structural Lumber 6—'7
AdjustmentofProperties for DesignUs 6—il
References 6—14
2 Structure ofWood
Bark, Wood, Branches,and Cambium 2—1
7 Fastenings
Sapwoodand Heartwood 2—2 Nails 7—2
Growth Rings 2—2
Wood Cells 2—3 Spikes 7—8
Staples 7—8
ChemicalComposition 2—3 Drift Bolts 7—9
SpeciesIdentification 2-4 WoodScrews 7—9
References 2—4
Lag Screws 7—il
Bolts 7—14
3 Physical Properties and Moisture Relations Connector Joints 7—18
of Wood
Multiple-Fastener Joints 7—24
Appearance 3—1 Metal Plate Connectors 7—25
MoistureContent 3—5 Fastener Head Embedment 7—26
Shrinkage 3—7 References 7—27
Weight,Density,and SpecificGravity 3—11
WorkingQualities 3—15 8 Structural AnalysisEquations
DecayResistance 3—15
Thennal Properties 3—15 Deformation Equations 8—i
ElectricalProperties 3—21 Stress Equations 8—4
CoefficientofFriction 3—22 Stability Equations 8—8
NuclearRadiation 3—23 References 8—11

References 3—23
9 Adhesive Bonding ofWood Materials
4 Mechanical Properties of Wood Adhesionto Wood 9—1
OrthotropicNatureofWood 4—1 Surface Properties ofWoodAdherends 9—2
Elastic Properties 4—2 Physical Properties ofWoodAdherend 9—6
Strength Properties 4—3 Adhesives 9—9
VibrationProperties 4—25 BondingProcess 9—15
Mechanical Properties ofClearStraight-Grained Bonded Joints 9—18
Wood 4—26 Testingand Performance 9—20
Natural Characteristics Affecting Mechanical References 9—23
Properties 4—27
Effects ofManufacturing and Service
Environments 4—34
References 4—44

111
10 Wood-Based Composites and Panel Products 15 Finishing of Wood
Scope 10—2 FactorsAffecting Finish Performance 15—1
Types ofConventional Composite Control ofWater or Moisturein Wood 5--9
Materials 10—3 Types ofExteriorWood Finishes 15—14
AdhesiveConsiderations 10—3 Application ofWood Finishes 15—19
Additives 10—4 Finish Failure or Discoloration 15—24
GeneralManufacturing Issues 10—4 Finishingof InteriorWood 15—30
Standards for Wood—BasedPanels 10—4 Finishesfor Items Used for Food 15—32
Plywood 10—6 Wood Cleaners and Brighteners 15—33
Particle and Fiber Composites 10—13 Paint Strippers 15—33
Wood—NonwoodComposites 10—24 Lead-BasedPaint 15—35
References 10—30 References 15—36

11 Glued Structural Members 16 Use of Wood In Building and Bridges


StructuralCompositeLumber 11—1 Light-Frame Buildings 16—1
Glulam 11—3 Post-Frameand Pole Buildings 16-4
Glued MembersWith Lumberand Log Buildings 16-6
Panels 11—12 Heavy Timber Buildings 16-6
Structural Sandwich Construction 11—16 TimberBridges 16—9
References 11—21 Considerations for Wood Buildings 16—10
References 16—14
12 Drying and Controlof Moisture Content
and Dimensional Changes 17 Fire Safety
DeterminationofMoisture Content• 12—1 FireSafetyDesignandEvaluation 17—1
RecommendedMoistureContent 12—3 FirePerformance Characteristics ofWood 17—6
Drying ofWood 12—5 Flame-Retardant Treatments 17—12
Moisture ControlDuring Transit and References 17—13
Storage 12—14
DimensionalChangesin Wood 12—15 18 Round Timbersand Ties
DesignFactorsAffectingDimensional Standards and Specifications 18—1
Change 12—18 MaterialRequirements 18—1
Wood Careand InstallationDuring
Construction 12—18 Availability 18—2
References 12—20 Form 18—3
Weight and Volume 18—5

1.3 Biodeteriorationof Wood Durability 18-6


Strength Properties 18—7
Fungus Damageand Control 13—1 References 18—8
Bacteria 13—8
Insect Damageand Control 13—8 19
MarineBorerDamage and Control 13—13 Specialty Treatments
References 13—15 Plasticizing Wood 19—1
Modified Woods 19-4
Paper-Based PlasticLaminates 19—12
14 Wood Preservation References 19—14
Wood Preservatives 14—2
Preservative Effectiveness 14—12 Glossary G—1
Effect ofSpecieson Penetration 14—12
Preparationof Timberfor Treatment 14—17 Index 1—1
Applicationof Preservatives 14—19
Handlingand SeasoningofTimberAfter
Treatment 14—24
Quality Assurancefor TreatedWood 14—25
References 14—26

iv
Preface
Efficientuseofour nation's timberresourceis a vital concern. Becausea majoruse ofwood in the UnitedStates is in
construction, particularlyhousingconstruction, good practicein this endeavor can have a profound impact on the resource.This
handbook is intendedas an aid to more efficientuse ofwood as a construction material. It providesengineers, architects, and
otherswith a source ofinformation on the physicalandmechanical properties ofwood andhow these properties are affected by
variations in the wood itself.Continuingresearchandevaluation techniques hold promisefor wider and more efficientutilization
ofwood and for more advanced industrial, structural, and decorative uses.
This handbookwas preparedby the Forest Products Laboratory (FPL),a unit ofthe researchorganizationofthe Forest Service,
U.S. Department ofAgriculture.The Laboratory, established in 1910, is maintainedat Madison, Wisconsin, in cooperation
with the UniversityofWisconsin.It was the first institution in the world to conductgeneralresearchon wood and its
utilization.The accumulation of infonnationthat has resultedfrom its engineering and allied investigations ofwood and
wood products over nine decades—along with knowledge ofeveryday construction practicesand problems—is the chiefbasis
forthis handbook.
The Wood Handbookwas first issued in 1935, and sI[ightly revised in 1939, as an unnumberedpublication.Further revisions
in 1955, 1974, and 1987were publishedby theU.S. Department ofAgricultureas AgricultureHandbook No. 72. This current
work is a complete revisionofthe 1987 edition. This revisionwas necessaryto reflectmore recentresearchaccomplishments
and technological changes.

The audienceforthe WoodHandbookis fairlybroad.Therefore, the coverage ofeach chapteris aimedat providing a general
discussion ofthe topic,with references included for additional information. Past versions ofthe WoodHandbooktended to report
only the findings and applications ofFPL research. Although the handbook is not intendedto be a state-of-the-art review,this
approach would now leave significantgaps in some important areas. The currentedition has broadenedthe sources of
information to provide bettercoverageofimportant topics.

The organizationofthis version ofthe Wood Handbookis similarto previousones,with some modifications:

• Plywood(chapter 11 in thepreviousversion), insulation board,hardboard, medium-density fiberboard (part of chapter21


in thepreviousversion),and wood-based particle panelmaterials (chapter 22 in thepreviousversion) are now included
in a new chapter on wood-basedcomposites and panelproducts.
• Structural sandwichconstruction (chapter 12 inthepreviousversion) is now includedin thechapteron glued structural
members.

• Moisture movementandthermal insulation in light-frame structures (chapter 20 in thepreviousversion) arenow part of


a new chapter on use ofwood in buildingsand bridges.
• Bentwood members(chapter 13 in the previousversion), modified woods, and paper-based laminates (chapter 23 in the
previousversion)are now includedin a chapteron specialtytreatments.
Consistentwith movementby many U.S. standards agenciesand industry associations towarduse ofmetric units and near-
universal implementation ofmetricusage in the international community, units ofmeasurement in this version ofthe hsndbook
areprovidedprimarilyin metricunits, with customary inch—pound equivalents as secondary units. All conversions in i;his
handbook to metricunits, including conversions ofempirically derived equations, are direct(or soft) conversions from
previouslyderivedinch—pound values. At some futuretime, metricexpressions may needto be derived from a reevaluation
oforiginal research.

V
Page blank
in original
cktww1égments
We gratefully acknowledgethe extraordinary effortofthe following individuals in theirreview ofthe final draftofthis
entirevolume.Theireffort has substantially enhancedthe clarity, consistency, and coverage ofthe Wood Handbook.

Donald Bender Thomas McLain


WoodMaterials & Engineering Laboratory Department ofForest Products
Washington StateUniversity Oregon StateUniversity
Pullman,Washington Corvallis,Oregon

Arthur Brauner RussellMoody


Forest Products Society Madison, Wisconsin
Madison, Wisconsin
Michael O'Halloran
Bradford Douglas APA—The Engineered Wood Association
American Forest & PaperAssociation Tacoma, Washington
Washington,DC
ErwinSchaffer
DavidGreen Sun City West, Arizona
USDAForest Service, Forest ProductsLaboratory
Madison, Wisconsin

MichaelHunt
Department ofForestryand NaturalResources
Purdue University
West Lafayette, Indiana

Contributors to the Wood Handbookare indebtedto the following individuals and organizations for their early
technical reviewofchapter manuscripts.

Terry Amburgey Richard Caster


Forest Products Laboratory Weyerhaeuser Company
MississippiState University Tacoma, Washington
Mississippi State, Mississippi
KevinCheung
Jon Arno WesternWoodProductsAssociation
Troy, Minnesota Portland, Oregon

B. Alan Bendtsen StephenClark


Madison, Wisconsin Northeastern LumberManufacturers Association
Cumberland Center, Maine
A. WilliamBoehner
Trus Joist MacMillan RichardCook
Boise, Idaho NationalCasein Company
Santa Ana,California
R. MichaelCaldwell
AmericanInstitute ofTimber Construction William Crossman
Englewood,Colorado AtlantaWoodIndustries
Savannah, Georgia
DonaldCarr
NAHB—National Research Center
UpperMarlboro, Maryland

vii
ThomasDaniels JohnKressbach
Energy Products ofIdaho Gillette, New Jersey
CoeurD'Alene, Idaho
RobertKundrot
DonaldDeVisser NestleResins Corporation
West Coast LumberInspectionBureau Springfield, Oregon
Portland,Oregon
Steven Lawser
Bradford Douglas WoodComponent Manufacturers Association
American Forest and PaperAssociation Marietta, Georgia
Washington,DC
Phillip Line
Stan Elberg American Forest & PaperAssociation
NationalOakFlooringManufacturers Association Washington,DC
Memphis,Tennessee
Joseph Loferski
Paul Foehlich Brooks ForestProductsCenter
SouthernCypress Manufacturers Association Blacksburg, Virginia
Pittsburgh,Pennsylvania
MapleFlooring Manufacturers Association
BarryGoodell Northbrook, Illinois
Forest Products Laboratory
UniversityofMaine ThomasMcLain
Orono,Maine Department ofForest Products
OregonStateUniversity
KevinHaile Corvallis,Oregon
HP&VA
Reston, Virginia DavidMcLean
Civil Engineering Department
DanielHare Washington State University
The CompositePanel Association Pullman, Washington
Gaithersburg, Maryland
RodneyMcPhee
R. Bruce Hoadley Canadian Wood Council
ForestiyDepartment Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
UniversityofMassachusetts
Amherst,Massachusetts MichaelMilota
Oregon StateUniversity
DavidHon Corvallis, Oregon
Department ofForest Resources
ClemsonUniversity JeffreyMorrell
Clemson, South Carolina Department ofForest Products
Oregon State University
Robert Hunt Corvallis, Oregon
WesternWood ProductsAssociation
Portland,Oregon National Hardwood LumberAssociation
Memphis, Tennessee
LisaJohnson
SouthernPine InspectionBureau Darrel Nicholas
Pensacola, Florida ForestProductsLaboratory
MississippiStateUniversity
Tom Jones Mississippi State, Mississippi
SouthernPine Inspection Bureau
Pensacola, Florida Michael O'Halloran
APA—The Engineered WoodAssociation
CharlesJourdain Tacoma, Washington
CaliforniaRedwoodAssociation
Novato, California

VIII
Perry Peralta Ramsey Smith
Department ofWoodandPaper Science Louisiana Forest ProductsLaboratory
North CarolinaState University Baton Rouge,Louisiana
Raleigh,North Carolina
William Smith
DavidPlackett SUNY—ESF
ForintekCanadaCorporation WoodProductsEngineering
Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada Syracuse, New York

DavidPollock Edward Starostovic


CivilEngineeringDepartment PFS/TECOCorporations
Washington State University Madison, Wisconsin
Pullman, Washington
LouisWagner
RedwoodInspection Service American HardwoodAssociation
Mill Valley, California Palatine, Illinois

Alan Ross Eugene Wengert


Kop—CoatInc. Department ofForestry
Pittsburgh,Pennsylvania Universityof Wisconsin
Madison, Wisconsin
Thomas Searles
American LumberStandards Committee Michael Westfall
Germantown, Maryland RedCedar Shingle& Handsplit ShakeBureau
Bellevue, Washington
JamesShaw
Weyerhaeuser Company Borjen Yeh
Tacoma, Washington APA—The Engineered WoodAssociation
Tacoma, Washington
BradleyShelley
West CoastLumberInspectionBureau
Portland,Oregon

ix
Page blank
in original
Coiitributors
The following staff ofthe Forest ProductsLaboratory contributed to the writing,revision, and compilationofinformation
contained inthe Wood Handbook.

MarkA. Dietenberger Roger M. Rowell


Research General Engineer Supervisory Research Chemist

David W. Green William T. Simpson


Supervisory Research General Engineer Research Forest Products Technologist

David E. Kretschmann Lawrence A. Soltis


Research GeneralEngineer Research General Engineer

RolandHernandez Anton TenWolde


Research GeneralEngineer Research Physicist

Terry L. Highley Ronald W. Wolfe


Supervisory ResearchPlant Pathologist(retired) Research General Engineer

Rebecca E. Ibach Charles B. Vick


Chemist Research Forest Products Technologist

Jen Y. Liu Robert H. White


Research General Engineer Supervisory WoodScientist

Kent A. McDonald R. Sam Williams


ResearchForest Products Technologist(retired) Supervisory ResearchChemist

Regis B. Miller Jerrold E. Winandy


Botanist Research Forest Products Technologist

Russell C. Moody John A. Youngquist


Supervisory Research GeneralEngineer(retired) Supervisory Research GeneralEngineer

xi
I Chapter .1(
I
Characteristics and Availability of
Commercially Important Woods
Regis B. Miller

hroughouthistory, the unique characteristic; and


Contents comparative abundance ofwood havemade ita
naturalmaterial forhomesand other structures,
furniture,tools,vehicles,and decorative objects. Today, for
Timber Resourcesand Uses 1—2 the same reasons,wood is prized fora multitudeofues.
All wood is composed of cellulose, lignin,hemicelitloses,
Hardwoodsand Softwoods 1—2
andminor amounts (5% to 10%) ofextraneous matera1s
contained in a cellular structure. Variations in the characteris-
Commercial SourcesofWoodProducts 1—2
tics and volume ofthese components anddifferences in cellu-
Use Classes and Trends 1—3 lar structure makewoodsheavyor light, stiffor flexible, and
hard or soft. Thepropertiesofa singlespecies are relatively
constantwithinlimits;therefore, selectionofwood by spe-
SpeciesDescriptions 1—3 cies alonemay sometimes be adequate.However,to use
U.S. Wood Species 1—3 woodto itsbestadvantage and most effectively inengineer-
ing applications, specific characteristics orphysicalproperties
Hardwoods 1—3 must be considered.

Softwoods 1—10 Historically, somespeciesfilledmany purposes,whi [e other


less available or less desirable species servedonly one or two
needs. For example, becausewhite oak is tough, strong, and
ImportedWoods 1—17
durable,it was highly prized for shipbuilding, bridges,
Hardwoods 1—17 cooperage, barn timbers, farmimplements, railroadc:rossties,
fenceposts, and flooring. Woodssuch as black walnutand
Softwoods 1—33 cheriywere usedprimarily forfurniture and cabinets. Hickory
was manufactured into tough, hard, and resilientstriking-tool
References 1—34 handles, and blacklocustwas prized forbarn timbers.What
theearlybuilderor craftsman learned by trial and errorbe-
camethe basisfor deciding whichspecies were appropriate
a
for given use in terms oftheir characteristics. Itwas com-
monlyaccepted that wood from treesgrown in certain loca-
tions undercertainconditions was stronger,more durable,
more easily worked with tools, or fmergrainedthan 'vood
fromtrees in other locations. Modernresearchon wood has
substantiated that location and growth conditions do
significantly affectwoodproperties.
The gradualreductions in use ofold-growth forestsinthe
UnitedStateshas reducedthe supplyoflargeclear logs for
lumber andveneer. However, the importance ofhigh.•quality
logs has diminished as new concepts ofwood use have been
introduced. Second-growth wood,the remaining old-growth
forests, and importscontinueto fill theneeds for wood in the
qualityrequired. Wood is as valuablean engineering mate-
rial as ever,and in many cases,technological advances have
madeit evenmore useful.

1—1

I
The inherent factors that keepwood inthe forefrontofraw or sap in thetree. Typically,hardwoodsare plants with
materials are many and varied,but a chiefattribute is its broad leavesthat, with few exceptions inthe temperatere-
availabilityin many species, sizes, shapes, and conditions to gion, lose theirleaves in autumn orwinter. Most imported
suit almost every demand. Wood has a high ratio ofstrength tropicalwoods are hardwoods. Botanically, softwoods are
toweightand a remarkable recordfor durability andperform- Gymnosperms or conifers; the seedsare naked(not enclosed
ance as a structural material.Dry wood has good insulating in theovaryoftheflower). Anatomically, softwoods are
propertiesagainst heat, sound, and electricity. It tends to nonporousand do not containvessels. Softwoods are usually
absorb and dissipatevibrationsunder some conditions of cone-bearing plants withneedle-or scale-like evergreen
use, andyet it is an incomparable materialfor such musical leaves. Some softwoods, such as larches andbaldcypress,
instrumentsas the violin. The grain patternsand colors of losetheirneedles during autunm orwinter.
wood make it an estheticallypleasingmaterial,and its
appearancemay be easily enhanced by stains, varnishes, Majorresources ofsoftwood species are spreadacrossthe
lacquers, and other finishes.It is easily shaped with tools UnitedStates, except forthe Great Plains whereonly small
and fastenedwith adhesives, nails, screws,bolts,and dow- areas are forested. Softwood species are often loosely grouped
els. Damagedwood is easily repaired,andwood structures hi three generalregions,as shownin Table 1—1. Hardwoods
are easily remodeledor altered.In addition,wood resists also occur in all parts ofthe UnitedStates, although most
oxidation,acid, saltwater,and other corrosiveagents, has grow east ofthe Great Plains. Hardwoodspeciesare shown
high salvagevalue, has good shock resistance, can be treated by region in Table 1—2.
with preservatives and fire retardants, and can be combined
with almost any other materialfor both functional and Commercial Sources
estheticuses.
of Wood Products
Timber Resources and Uses Softwoodsare availabledirectlyfromthe sawmill, wholesale
and retail yards, or lumberbrokers.Softwoodlumberand
In theUnitedStates,more than 100 wood species areavail- plywood are used in construction for forms,scaffolding,
able to the prospectiveuser, but all are unlikely to be avail- framing, sheathing, flooring, moulding,paneling, cabinets,
able in any one locality.About 60 nativewoodsare ofmajor poles and piles, and many other buildingcomponents. Soft-
commercial importance. Another30 species are commonly woods may also appearinthe form ofshingles, sashes,
importedin the form oflogs, cants, lumber, and veneerfor doors, and other millwork,in addition to some rough prod-
industrialuses, the buildingtrade, and crafts. ucts such as timberand round posts.

A continuing programoftimberinventoryis in effect in the Hardwoods are used in construction for flooring, architectural
United Statesthroughthe cooperation ofFederaland State woodwork, interiorwoodwork, and paneling. These items
agencies, andnewinformation onwood resources is pub- areusuallyavailable from lumberyards andbuildingsupply
lished in State and Federalreports. Two ofthe most valuable dealers. Most hardwoodlumberand dimensionstock are
sourcebooksare AnAnalysisofthe Timber Situationin the remanufactured into furniture,flooring, pallets,containers,
UnitedStates 1989—2040 (USDA 1990) and The 1993 RPA dunnage,and blocking. Hardwoodlumberand dimension
TimberAssessment Update(Haynesand others 1995).
Current information on wood consumption, production, Table 1—1. Major resources of U.S. softwoodsaccording
imports,and supply and demandis publishedperiodically to region
by theForest Products Laboratory (Howard1997) andis Northern Southern
availablefrom the SuperintendentofDocuments, U.S. Western
GovernmentPrinting Office, Washington, DC. Incense-cedar Northern white-cedar Atlanticwhite-cedar
Port-Orlord-cedar Balsam fIr Baldcypress
Eastern hemlock Fraserfir
Hardwoods and Softwoods Douglas-fir
Whitefirs Fraserfir Southern Pine
Trees are dividedintotwo broad classes, usually referredto Western hemlock Jack pine Eastern redcedar
as hardwoods and softwoods. These names can be confusing Western larch Redpine
since some soitwoodsare actuallyharderthan somehard- Lodgepolepine Eastern white pine
woods, andconverselysomehardwoodsare softerthan some Ponderosapine Eastern redcedar
softwoods. For example,softwoods such as longleafpine and Eastern spruces
Sugar pine
Douglas-firare typicallyharderthanthe hardwoods basswood Western white pine Tamarack
and aspen. Botanically, hardwoodsare Angiosperms; the
Western redcedar
seedsare enclosedin the ovary ofthe flower. Anatomically,
hardwoodsare porous;that is, they containvesselelements. Redwood
A vessel elementis a wood cell with open ends;when vessel Engelmannspruce
elementsare set one above another,they form a continuous Sitkaspruce
tube (vessel),which servesas a conduitfortransporting water Yellow-cedar

1—2
Table 1—2. Major resources of U.S. hardwoods according
to region Species Descriptions
Northernand Inthis chapter, each species or groupofspecies is described
Southern Appalachia Western in terms ofits principallocation, characteristics, and uses.
Moredetailedinformation on the properties ofthese and
Ash Ash Redalder other species is given in various tables throughoutthis
Basswood Aspen Oregon ash handbook. Information onhistoricaland traditionaluses is
American beech Basswood Aspen
Butternut Black cottonwood providedfor some species. Commonandbotanicalnames
Buckeye follow the Checklist ofUnitedStates Trees (Little 1979).
Cottonwood Butternut Californiablackoak
Elm American beech Oregon white oak
Hackberry Birch Bigleaf maple U.S. Wood Species
Pecan hickory Black cherry Paperbirch
True hickory American chestnuta Tanoak Hardwoods
Honeylocust Cottonwood
Blacklocust Elm
Alder, Red
Magnolia Hackberry
Red alder(Alnus rubra)grows along the Pacific coastbe-
Soft maple True hickory tweenAlaskaand California. It is the principalhardwoodfor
Red oaks commercial manufacture ofwoodproductsin Oregon and
Honeylocust
Whiteoaks Black locust Washington and the most abundant commercial hardwood
Sassafras Hard maple species in these two states.
Sweetgum Soft maple
The wood ofred aldervaries from almostwhite to pale
American sycamore Red oaks
Tupelo Whiteoaks pinkishbrown, and there is no visibleboundarybetween
Black walnut American sycamore
heartwoodand sapwood. Red alder is moderatelylight in
Blackwillow Black walnut weightand intermediate inmost strengthpropertiesbut low
in shock resistance.It hasrelatively low shrinkage.
Yellow-poplar Yellow-poplar

chestnut isno longer harvested,but chestnut


a4A,.,.erican The principaluse ofred alderis for furniture, butit i also
lumber fromsalvaged timbers canstillbe found on the used for sashand door panel stockand other millwork.
market.
Ash (White Ash Group)
Importantspeciesofthe white ash group are American white
stockare available directlyfromthe manufacturer, through ash (Fraxinusamericana),green ash (F. pennsylvanica), blue
wholesalers andbrokers,and from someretail yards. ash (F. quadrangulata),and Oregon ash (F. latfo/ia).The
firstthree species grow in the eastern halfofthe United
Both softwoodand hardwoodproductsare distributed States. Oregon ash grows alongthe Pacific Coast.
throughoutthe United States. Localpreferencesandthe
availability ofcertainspecies may influence choice,but a The heartwoodofthe white ash group is brown, andthe
wide selectionofwoodsis generallyavailable forbuilding sapwoodis light-colored ornearly white. Second-growth
construction, industrialuses, remanufacturing, andhome use. treesare particularly soughtafter becauseofthe inherent
qualities ofthe wood from these trees: it is heavy, strong,
Use Classes and Trends hard, and stiff, and ithas high resistanceto shock. Oregon
ash has somewhat lowerstrengthpropertiesthan American
The productionand consumptionlevels ofsome ofthe many white ash, but it is used for similarpurposeson the West
use-classifications for wood are increasing withthe overall Coast.
nationaleconomy,and othersare holding aboutthe same.
The most vigorouslygrowingwood-basedindustries are American white ash is used principallyfor nonstriking tool
those that convertwood to thin slices (veneer), particles handles,oars, baseballbats, and other sporting and athletic
(chips, flakes),or fiberpuips andreassemble the elementsto goods. Forhandles ofthe bestgrade, somehandle specifica-
producevarioustypes ofengineered panelssuch as plywood, tions call for not less than 2 nor more than 7 growthrings
particleboard, strandboard, veneerlumber, paper,paperboard, per centimeter(notless than 5 normore than 17 growth
and fiberboardproducts. Another growingwood industry is rings perinch). The additional weightrequirementof
theproduction of laminated wood.Foranumber ofyears,the 690 kg/rn3(43 lbfft3) or more at 12% moisturecontent en-
lumberindustry has producedalmost the same volume of sures high qualitymaterial.Principaluses for the white ash
wood peryear.Modestincreases haveoccurred inthe produc- group are decorative veneer, cabinets, furniture,flooring,
tionofrailroadcrossties, cooperage, shingles, and shakes. millwork, and crates.

1—3

3
Ash (Black Ash Group) The heartwoodofbasswood is pale yellowishbrown with
The black ash group includesblack ash (F. nigra) and occasional darkerstreaks.Basswoodhas wide, creamywhite
pumpkinash (F. profunda). Black ash grows in the North- orpalebrownsapwoodthat mergesgraduallyinto heart-
east and Midwest, and pumpkinash in the South. wood. When dry, the wood is without odoror taste. It is
soft and light in weight,has fme, even texture,and is
The heartwoodofblack ash is a darkerbrownthan that of straightgrainedand easy to work with tools. Shrinkage in
American white ash; the sapwoodis light-colored or nearly width and thicknessduring diying is rated as high; however,
white. The wood ofthe black ash group is lighterin weight basswood seldom warps in use.
(basic specific gravity of0.45 to 0.48)than that ofthe white
ash group (>0.50). Pumpkinash, American white ash, and Basswood lumberis used mainly in venetianblinds, sashes
green ash that grow in southernriverbottoms, especiallyin and door frames, moulding, apiary supplies,woodenware,
areas frequentlyfloodedfor long periods, produce buttresses andboxes. Somebasswood is cut for veneer,cooperage,
that contain relativelylightweightand brash wood. excelsior, andpulpwood, and it is a favoriteofwood carvers.

Principaluses forthe black ash group are decorative veneer, Beech, American
cabinets,millwork,furniture,cooperage, and crates. Only one speciesofbeech,American beech (Fagus
grandfolia),is nativeto theUnited States. It grows in the
Aspen easternone-third ofthe UnitedStatesand adjacentCanadian
Aspen is a generallyrecognizednamethat is appliedto provinces. The greatestproduction ofbeech lumberis in the
bigtooth(Populusgrandidentata) and quaking Central and Middle AtlanticStates.
(P. tremuloides)aspen.Aspen does not includebalsam
poplar (P. balsamfera) and the other speciesofPopulus that In somebeechtrees, colorvaries from nearly white sapwood
areincludedin thecottonwoods.In lumberstatisticsofthe to reddish-brown heartwood. Sometimes there is no clear
U.S. Bureau ofthe Census, however, the term cottonwood line ofdemarcation betweenheartwoodand sapwood. Sap-
includesall the preceding species. Also, the lumberofaspen wood may be roughly7 to 13 cm (3 to 5 in.) wide. The
and cottonwoodmay be mixed in trade and sold as either wood has little figureand is ofclose, uniformtexture. It has
poppleor cottonwood. The name poppleshould not be no characteristic taste or odor.The wood ofbeech is classed
confusedwith yellow-poplar(Liriodendrontulipfera), also as heavy,hard, strong, high in resistanceto shock, and
knownin the trade as poplar. Aspen lumber is produced highlysuitablefor steam bending. Beech shrinks substan-
principally in the Northeasternand Lake States, with some tially and therefore requires careful drying.It machines
production in the RockyMountainStates. smoothly, is an excellentwood for turning, wears well, and
is rathereasily treatedwith preservatives.
The heartwoodofaspen is grayish white to light grayish
brown. The sapwoodis lightercoloredand generallymerges Most beech is used for flooring, furniture,brush blocks,
gradually into the heartwoodwithoutbeing clearly marked. handles, veneer, woodenware, containers, and cooperage.
Aspenwood is usually straightgrained with a fine, uniform Whentreatedwith preservative, beech is suitablefor
texture. It is easily worked.Well-dried aspen lumber does railway ties.
not impartodor or flavorto foodstuffs. Thewood ofaspenis
lightweight and soft. It is low in strength, moderatelystiff, Birch
andmoderatelylow in resistance to shock and has moder- The threemost important speciesare yellowbirch (Betula
ately high shrinkage. alleghaniensis),sweetbirch (B. lenta),and paper birch
(B. papyrjfera). Thesethree species are the sourceofmost
Aspen is cut for lumber,pallets, boxes and crating, pulp- birch lumberand veneer. Other birch species ofsome com-
wood, particleboard, strandpanels, excelsior, matches,ve- mercialimportance are riverbirch (B. nigra), gray birch
neer, and miscellaneousturnedarticles. Today, aspen is one (B. populfo1ia),and westernpaper birch (B. papyrfera var.
ofthepreferred species foruse in oriented strandboard, a commutata). Yellow,sweet,and paper birch grow principally
panel productthat is increasinglybeing usedas sheathing. in theNortheastand theLake States;yellow and sweet birch
alsogrow along the Appalachian Mountainsto northern
Basswood
Georgia.
Americanbasswood(Tilia americana)is the most important
ofthe native basswood species;next in importance is white Yellow birch has white sapwoodand light reddish-brown
basswood (T. heterophylla),and no attemptis made to heartwood. Sweetbirch has light-colored sapwoodand dark
distinguish between these species in lumberform.In com- brown heartwoodtinged with red. For both yellow and sweet
mercialusage, "whitebasswood"is used to specify the white birch, the wood is heavy, hard, and strong, and it has good
wood or sapwoodofeither species.Basswoodgrowsin the shock-resisting ability. The wood is fine and uniform in
eastern halfofthe UnitedStatesfrom the Canadian provinces texture.Paper birch is lowerinweight, softer, and lower in
southward. Most basswoodlumbercomesfrom the Lake, strength than yellowand sweetbirch. Birch shrinks consid-
Middle Atlantic, and Central States. erablyduringdrying.

1-4
[4.
Yellowand sweetbirch lumberis usedprimarilyfor the The heartwoodofblackcherryvariesfrom light to dark
manufacture offurniture, boxes, baskets, crates, woodenware, reddishbrown and has a distinctive luster. The nearly white
cooperage, interiorwoodwork,and doors; veneerplywoodis sapwoodis narrowin old-growth trees and widerin second-
used for flushdoors, furniture, paneling, cabinets, aircraft, growthtrees. The wood has a fairlyuniformtexture and very
and other specialtyuses. Paperbirch is used for toothpicks, good machiningproperties. It is moderatelyheavy,strong,
tonguedepressors, ice creamsticks,and turnedproducts, stiff, and moderately hard; it has high shockresistance and
including spools, bobbins, smallhandles, and toys. moderately high shrinkage. Black cherryis very dimension-
ally stable after drying.
Buckeye Black cheny is usedprincipally for furniture, fme veneer
Buckeyeconsistsoftwo species,yellowbuckeye(Aesculus panels,and architectural woodwork. Otheruses include
octandra) and Ohiobuckeye (A. glabra). These species burial caskets, woodenware, novelties, patterns, and
range from the Appalachians ofPennsylvania, Virginia, and paneling.
North Carolinawestwardto Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas.
Buckeye is not customarily separated from other species
whenmanufactured into lumberand can be used forthe same Chestnut, American
Americanchestnut(Castanea dentata) is also known as
purposes as aspen(Populus),basswood(Tilia), and sapwood
ofyellow-poplar(Lfriodendrontu1ipfera). sweetchestnut. Before this species was attackedby ablight
inthe I920s, it grewin commercial quantities from New
The white sapwoodofbuckeyemerges gradually into the Englandto northernGeorgia. Practically all standingchest-
creamyor yellowishwhite heartwood. The wood is uniform nut has beenkilled by blight, and most suppliesofIhe
in texture, generallystraight grained, light in weight,weak lumbercomefrom salvaged timbers.Because ofthe species'
whenused as a beam, soft, and low in shock resistance. It is naturalresistance to decay, standing deadtrees in the Appa-
rated low on machinability such as shaping,mortising, lachian Mountains continued to provide substantial luanti-
boring, and turning. ties oflumberfor several decadesafter the blight,butthis
source is now exhausted.
Buckeyeis suitablefor pulping for paper; in lumberform,it
has been usedprincipallyfor furniture, boxes and crates, The heartwoodofchestnutis grayishbrownorbrown and
food containers, woodenware, novelties, andplaningmill darkenswith age. The sapwoodis very narrowand almost
products. white. The wood is coarse in texture;growth rings are made
conspicuous by severalrows of large, distinctpores st the
Butternut beginningofeach year's growth. Chestnutwood is inoder-
Also calledwhitewalnut,butternut(.Juglans cinerea) grows ately lightin weight,moderatelyhard, moderatelylow in
from southernNew Brunswick and Mainewest to Minne- strength, moderately low in resistance to shock, and low in
sota. Its southernrange extendsinto northeastern Arkansas stiffness. It dries well and is easy to work with tools.
and eastwardto westernNorth Carolina. Chestnutwas onceused for poles,railroadcrossties, furni-
The narrow sapwoodis nearly white and heartwoodis light
panels.At present,it appearsmost frequently as wotmy
r
ture, caskets, boxes, shingles, crates,and corestock f veneer
brown,frequentlymodifiedbypinkish tonesordarkerbrown chestnutfor paneling, interiorwoodwork, and pictureframes.
streaks. The wood is moderatelylight in weight (aboutthe
same as easternwhite pine), rather coarse textured,moder-
ately weak in bendingand endwise compression, relatively Cottonwood
low in stiffhess, moderatelysoft, and moderately high in Cottonwoodincludesseveralspecies ofthe genus Populus.
shock resistance. Butternut machineseasily and finishes Most important are easterncottonwood (P. deltoide"and
well.In many ways, butternutresemblesblack walnutespe- varieties), alsoknownas Carolinapoplarand whitewood;
cially when stained, but it does not have the same strength swamp cottonwood (P. heterophylla), alsoknown a;
or hardness. cottonwood, river cottonwood, and swamppoplar; black
cottonwood (P. trichocarpa);and balsampoplar
Principal uses are forlumberand veneer, whichare further (P. ba1samfera).Easternand swamp cottonwood giow
manufactured into furniture, cabinets,paneling, interior throughoutthe easternhalf ofthe UnitedStates. Greatest
woodwork, andmiscellaneousrough items. productionoflumberis in the SouthernandCentral States.
Black cottonwood grows on the West Coast and in western
Cherry, Black Montana, northern Idaho,and westernNevada.Balsam
Black cherry (Prunus serotina) is sometimes knownas poplargrowsfrom AlaskaacrossCanadaand in thenorthern
cherry,wild black cherry, and wild cherry. It is the only Great Lakes States.
nativespecies ofthegenus Prunus ofcommercial importance
for lumberproduction. Black cherryis foundfrom southeast- The heartwoodofcottonwood is grayish white to light
ern Canadathroughoutthe easternhalfoftheUnited States. brown.The sapwoodis whitish and mergesgraduallywith
Productionis centered chieflyin the MiddleAtlanticStates. theheartwood. The wood is comparatively uniformintex-
ture andgenerallystraightgrained.It is odorlesswhen well
dried. Easterncottonwood is moderatelylow in bending and

1—5

5
compressive strength, moderatelystiff, moderately soft, and Most hackberryis cut into lumber; small amounts are used
moderatelylow in ability to resist shock. Most strength for furniture parts,dimension stock, and veneer.
propertiesofblack cottonwood are slightly lowerthan those
ofeasterncottonwood. Both easternand blackcottonwood Hickory (Pecan Group)
have moderatelyhigh shrinkage. Some cottonwood is
difficultto work with tools becauseofits fuzzy surface, which Species ofthe pecan hickory group include bittemut hickory
is mainly theresult oftensionwood (see discussion ofReac- (Carya cordformis), pecan (C. illinoen.sis), water hickory
tion Wood in Ch. 4). (C. aquatica), and nutmeghickory (C. myristicjformis).
Bittemuthickorygrows throughoutthe eastern half ofthe
Cottonwood is used principallyfor lumber, veneer, pulp- UnitedStates; pecanhickory,from centralTexas and
Louisiana to Missouriand Indiana; water hickory,from
wood,excelsior, andfuel. Lumberand veneerare used Texas to SouthCarolina;and nutmeg hickory, in Texas
primarilyfor boxes, crates,baskets,and pallets. and Louisiana.
Elm The sapwoodofthis group is white ornearly white and
Six speciesofelm grow in the easternUnitedStates: relatively wide. The heartwoodis somewhatdarker. The
American (Ulmusamericana),slippery (U rubra), rock wood is heavy and sometimes has very high shrinkage.
(U thomasii),winged (U alata), cedar (U crassfo1ia),and
September(U serotina) elm. American elm is alsoknown Heavy pecan hickory is usedfortool and implementhandles
as white, water, and gray elm; slipperyelm as red elm; rock and flooring. The lowergrades are usedforpallets. Many
elm as cork and hickory elm; wingedelm as wahoo;cedar highergrade logs are sliced toprovide veneerfor furniture
elm as red and basket elm; and Septemberelm as red elm. anddecorative paneling.
Americanelm is threatenedby two diseases, DutchElm
disease and phloemnecrosis,whichhave killedhundreds of Hickory (True Group)
thousandsoftrees. Truehickories are foundthroughoutthe easternhalfofthe
United States. The species most importantcommercially are
Sapwood of elm is nearly white and heartwoodlight brown,
often tinged with red. Elm may be dividedinto two general shagbark (Carya ovata), pignut(C. glabra), shelibark
(C. laciniosa), andmockernut(C. tomentosa).The greatest
classes,soft and hard, based onthe weight and strength of commercial production ofthetrue hickories for all uses is in
thewood. Soft elm includesAmericanand slippery elm. It is theMiddleAtlantic and Central States,with the Southern
moderatelyheavy, has high shockresistance,and is moder- and South Atlantic Statesrapidly expanding to handle nearly
ately hard and stiff. Hard elm includesrock, winged, cedar, halfofall hickorylumber.
and Septemberelm. These species are somewhat heavierthan
soft elm. Elm has excellentbending qualities. The sapwoodofthe true hickory group is white and usually
quite wide, exceptin old, slow-growing trees. The heart-
Historically, elm lumberwas used forboxes, baskets, crates, wood is reddish. The wood is exceptionally tough, heavy,
and slack cooperage; furniture; agricultural supplies and
hard, and strong, and shrinks considerably in drying. For
implements; casketsand burial boxes; and wood components some purposes, both ringsper centimeter(or inch) and
in vehicles. Today,elm lumberand veneer are used mostly
for furniture and decorative panels. Hardelm is preferred for weightare limitingfactorswhere strength is important.
uses that require strength. The major use for high qualityhickory is for tool handles,
whichrequirehigh shock resistance. It is alsousedfor ladder
Hackberry rungs, athleticgoods, agriculturalimplements, dowels,
Hackberry(Celtisoccidentalis)and sugarberiy(C. laevigata) gymnasium apparatuses, poles, and furniture. Lowergrade
supplythe lumberknown in the trade as hackberry. Hack- hickory is not suitablefor the special uses ofhigh quality
berrygrowseastofthe Great Plainsfrom Alabama, Georgia, hickorybecauseofknottiness or othergrowth features and
Arkansas, and Oklahoma northward, exceptalong the Cana- low density.However, the lowergrade is useful for pallets
dianboundary.Sugarberry overlapsthe southern part ofthe and similar items. Hickory sawdust, chips, and some solid
hackberryrange and growsthroughoutthe Southernand wood are usedto flavor meat by smoking.
SouthAtlantic States.
Honeylocust
Sapwoodofboth speciesvariesfrom pale yellowto greenish The wood ofhoneylocust (Gleditsiatriacanthos) has many
or grayishyellow. The heartwoodis commonly darker. The desirable qualities,such as attractive figureand color, hard-
woodresembleselm in structure.Hackberrylumberis mod- ness, and strength, but it is little usedbecauseof its scarcity.
erately heavy. It is moderatelystrong in bending, moderately
weak in compressionparallelto grain, moderatelyhard to Although the naturalrange ofhoneylocust has been extended
by planting,this species is foundmost commonlyin the
very hard, and high in shock resistance,but low in stiffliess. easternUnitedStates, exceptforNew Englandand the South
Hackberryhas high shrinkagebut keeps its shapewell during Atlanticand GulfCoastalPlains.
drying.

1-6
Sapwoodis generallywide and yellowish, in contrastto the Magnolia lumberis usedprincipally in the manufacture of
light red to reddish-brown heartwood.The wood is very furniture,boxes, pallets, venetian blinds, sashes, doors,
heavy,very hard, strong in bending,stiff, resistantto shock, veneer,and miliwork.
and durable when in contact with the ground.
Maple, Hard
Whenavailable, honeylocust is primarilyused locally for
Hard mapleincludessugarmaple (Acer saccharum)and
fenceposts and generalconstruction. It is occasionally used
with other species in lumberforpallets and crating. black maple(A. nigrum). Sugarmaple is also known as hard
androck maple, and blackmaple as black sugarmaple.
Locust, Black Maplelumberis manufactured principally in theMiddle
Atlanticand Great Lake States, whichtogether accountfor
Black locust(Robiniapseudoacacia) is sometimes called about two-thirds ofproduction.
yellow orpost locust.This species grows from Pennsylvania
along the Appalachian Mountainsto northernGeorgia and The heartwoodis usuallylightreddish brown but sometimes
Alabama. It is also nativeto westernArkansasand southern considerably darker. The sapwoodis commonlywhite with a
Missouri.The greatestproduction ofblack locust timberis slight reddish-brown tinge. It is roughly 7 to 13 cm ormore
in Tennessee,Kentucky, West Virginia,and Virginia. (3 to 5 in. or more)wide. Hardmaplehas a fine,uniform
texture. It is heavy,strong, stiff, hard, and resistantto shock
Locusthas narrow, creamywhite sapwood. The heartwood, and has high shrinkage. The grain ofsugarmaple is gener-
when freshlycut, varies from greenish yellow to darkbrown. ally straight,but birdseye,curly, or fiddlebackgrain is often
Black locustis very heavy, very hard, very resistant to selectedforfurniture or novelty items.
shock, and very strong and stiff. It has moderately low
shrinkage. The heartwoodhas high decayresistance. Hardmaple is used principally for lumberand veneer. A
largeproportionis manufactured intoflooring, furniture,
Black locust is used for round, hewed,or splitmine timbers cabinets,cuttingboards and blocks,pianos, billiard :ues,
as well as fenceposts, poles, railroadcrossties, stakes, and handles,novelties, bowlingalleys, dance and gymnasium
fuel. Otheruses are for rough construction, crating, andmine floors, spools,and bobbins.
equipment. Historically,blacklocust was importantfor the
manufactureofinsulator pins andwoodenpegs used in the Maple, Soft
construction ofships, for whichthe woodwaswell adapted
Soft mapleincludes silver maple(Acersaccharinumj., red
becauseofits strength, decayresistance, andmoderate
shrinkageand swelling. maple(A. rubrum),boxelder(A. negundo),andbigleaf maple
(A. macrophyllum). Silvermaple is also knownas hite,
river, water,and swamp maple;redmaple as soft, water,
Magnolia scarlet,white,and swamp maple;boxelderas ash-leaved,
Commercialmagnoliaconsistsofthree species:southern three-leaved, and cut-leaved maple;andbigleafmapleas
magnolia(Magnoliagrand/1ora), sweetbay (M virginiana), Oregon maple. Soft mapleis found in the easternUnited
and cucumbertree (M acuminata).Othernamesfor southern Statesexcept for bigleafmaple, which comes from th
magnoliaare evergreenmagnolia,big laurel, bull bay, and PacificCoast.
laurelbay. Sweetbay is sometimes called swamp magnolia.
The lumberproducedby all three speciesis simplycalled Heartwood and sapwoodare similarin appearance to hard
magnolia.The natural range ofsweetbay extendsalongthe maple: heartwoodofsoft mapleis somewhatlighterincolor
Atlanticand GulfCoastsfrom Long Islandto Texas, and and the sapwood, somewhat wider.The wood ofsoft maple,
that ofsouthernmagnoliaextends fromNorth Carolina to primarily silver and red maple, resemblesthat ofhard maple
Texas. Cucumbertree growsfrom the Appalachians to the but is not as heavy,hard, and strong.
Ozarksnorthwardto Ohio. Louisiana leads in the production
ofmagnolialumber. Soft mapleis used forrailroadcrossties, boxes,pallets,
crates,furniture, veneer, woodenware, andnovelties,
Sapwoodofsouthernmagnoliais yellowishwhite, and
heartwoodis light to dark brown with a tinge ofyellow or Oak (Red Oak Group)
green.The wood, which has close, uniform textureand is Most red oak comesfrom the EasternStates.The principal
generallystraightgrained,closelyresembles yellow-poplar species are northern red(Quercusrubra), scarlet (Q. oc-
(Lfriodendrontulip([era). It is moderately heavy, moderately cinea), Shumard (Q. shumardil),pin (Q. palustris), Nuttall
low in shrinkage, moderatelylow in bendingand compres-
sive strength, moderatelyhard and stiff, and moderately high (Q. nuttallii),black (Q. velutina), southernred (Q.jzlcata),
in shockresistance.Sweetbay is much like southern rnagno- chenybark(Q.falcata var.pagodaefolia),water (Q. nigra),
laurel (Q. laur(folia),and willow(Q. phellos) oak.
ha. The wood of cucumbertree is similarto that ofyellow-
poplar (L. tulipjfera); cucumbertree that growsin the yellow- The sapwoodis nearly white and roughly2 to 5 cm
poplarrange is notseparatedfrom that species on the market. (1 to 2 in.) wide. The heartwoodis brown with a tinge of
red. Sawn lumberofthe red oak group cannotbe separated
by species on the basis ofwood characteristics alone.

1—7
Red oak lumbercan be separatedfrom white oak by the size characteristic odor of sassafras. The wood is moderately
and arrangementofporesin latewood and becauseit gener- heavy, moderately hard, moderatelyweak in bendingarid
ally lacks tyloses in the pores. The open pores ofred oak endwise compression, quite high in shock resistance,anI
makethis species group unsuitablefortightcooperage, resistantto decay.
unlessthe barrels are lined with sealer or plastic.Quarter-
sawn lumberofthe oaks is distinguished by the broad and Sassafras was highlyprizedby the Indiansfor dugoutcanoes,
conspicuous rays. Wood ofthe red oaks is heavy. Rapidly and some sassafraslumberis still used for smallboats.
grownsecond-growth wood is generallyharderandtougher Locally, sassafras is used for fence posts and rails and for
than fmertexturedold-growth wood.The redoaks havefairly generalmillwork.
high shrinkagein drying.
Sweetgum
The red oaks areprimarilycut into lumber, railroadcros- Sweetgum (Liquidambar styracflua) grows from southwest-
sties, mine timbers,fence posts, veneer, pulpwood, and ern Connecticut westwardinto Missouriand southward o
fuelwood.Ties,mine timbers,and fenceposts requirepre- the GulfCoast. Almost all lumberis produced in the South-
servative treatmentfor satisfactory service. Redoak lumberis ern and South Atlantic States.
remanufactured into flooring, furniture, general millwork,
boxes, palletsand crates, agriculturalimplements, caskets, The lumberfrom sweetgum is usuallymarkedas sap gum
woodenware, and handles. It is alsousedin railroadcars (the light-colored sapwood) or redgum (the reddish-brown
and boats. heartwood). Sweetgum oftenhas a form ofcross grain caFled
interlockedgrain, and it must be dried slowly. When quar-
Oak (White Oak Group) tersawn, interlocked grain producesa ribbon-type stripe that
White oak lumbercomes chiefly from the South, South is desirable for interiorwoodworkand furniture.The wood is
moderately heavy andhard. It is moderately strong,moder-
Atlantic, and Central States, including the southernAppala-
chianarea. Principal species are white (Quercus alba), chest- ately stiff, and moderately high in shockresistance.
nut (Q. prinus), post (Q. stellata), overcup (Q. lyrata),
Sweetgum is used principally for lumber, veneer,plywood,
swampchestnut (Q. michauxii),bur (Q. macrocarpa), slack cooperage, railroad crossties, fuel,pulpwood, boxes
chinkapin (Q. muehlenbergii), swampwhite (Q. bicolor), and crates, furniture, interiormoulding,and millwork.
and live (Q. virginiana) oak.
The sapwoodofthe white oaks is nearly white and roughly Sycamore, American
2 to 5 cm or more (1 to 2 in. or more) wide. The heartwood Americansycamore(Platanusoccidentalis) is knownas
is generallygrayishbrown.Heartwoodporesareusually sycamoreand sometimes as buttonwood, buttonball-tree, and
pluggedwith tyloses, whichtend to make the wood impene- in theUnited Kingdom,planetree.Sycamoregrows from
trable by liquids.Consequently,most white oaks are suit- Maineto Nebraska,southwardto Texas, and eastwardto
able for tight cooperage. Many heartwoodporesofchestnut Florida.
oak lack tyloses. The wood ofwhite oak is heavy, averaging
somewhat greater in weightthanred oak wood. Theheart- The heartwoodofsycamore is reddishbrown;the sapwcod is
wood has gooddecay resistance. lighterin color and from 4 to 8 cm (1-1/2 to 3 in.) wide.
The woodhas a fine texture and interlockedgrain. It has
Whiteoaks are usuallycut into lumber, railroadcrossties, high shrinkagein drying; is moderatelyheavy, moderately
cooperage, mine timbers,fenceposts, veneer, fuelwood, and hard, moderately stiff, and moderately strong;and has good
many other products. High-quality white oak is especially resistance to shock.
sought for tight cooperage. Live oak is considerably heavier
and strongerthan the other oaks, and it was formerly used Sycamore is used principally for lumber, veneer,railroad
extensivelyforship timbers.An important use ofwhite oak crossties, slack cooperage, fenceposts, and fuel. The lumber
is for plankingand bent parts ofships andboats; heartwood is used for furniture, boxesarticular1ysmallfood contain-
is often specified becauseofits decay resistance. Whiteoak is ers), pallets,flooring, handles, and butcherblocks.Veneeris
also used for furniture,flooring, pallets, agricultural imple- used for fruitandvegetablebaskets and somedecorative
ments,railroadcars, truck floors,furniture,doors, and panels and door skins.
millwork.
Tanoak
Sassafras Tanoak(Lithocarpusdensflorus) has recentlygained some
Sassafras(Sassafras albidum)ranges throughmost ofthe commercial value, primarilyin Californiaand Oregon.It is
easternhalfofthe UnitedStates,from southeastern Iowaand alsoknownas tanbark—oak becausehigh-grade tanninwas
easternTexaseastward. once obtainedfrom the bark in commercial quantities. This
speciesis found in southwestern Oregonand south to
Sassafras is easily confusedwith blackash, whichit resem- Southern California,mostlynear the coast but also in the
bles in color, grain, and texture. Sapwoodis light yellow, Sierra Nevadas.
and heartwoodvaries from dull grayishbrownto dark brown,
sometimes with a reddishtinge. Freshly cut surfaces havethe

1—8
Sapwood oftanoak is light reddishbrownwhenfirst cut and heavy, hard, strong, and stiff, andhas goodresistancto
turns darkerwith age to becomealmost indistinguishable shock.Black walnutis well suitedfor naturalfinishes.
from heartwood,whichalso ages to dark reddishbrown. The
wood is heavyand hard; exceptfor compression perpendicu- Because of its goodpropertiesand interestinggrain pattern,
lar to grain,the wood has roughlythe same strength proper- blackwalnut is much valuedfor furniture, architectural
ties as those ofeasternwhite oak. Tanoakhas highershrink- woodwork, anddecorative panels. Otherimportantuses are
age duringchying than does white oak, and it has a tendency gunstocks, cabinets,and interiorwoodwork.
to collapse during drying. Tanoak is quite susceptible to
decay, but the sapwoodtakes preservativeseasily. Tanoak Willow, Black
has straightgrain, machinesand glues well, and takes stains Black willow (Salixnigra) is the most importantof the
readily. many willowsthat grow in the United States. It is the only
willow marketedunder its own name. Most black wllow
Becauseofits hardness and abrasion resistance, tanoakis comes from the Mississippi Valley, from Louisiana 1:0 south-
excellent for flooring inhomesorcommercial buildings. ern Missouriand Illinois.
It is alsosuitable for industrialapplications such as truck
flooring. Tanoaktreatedwith preservative has beenused for The heartwoodofblack willow is grayishbrown or ight
railroad crossties. The wood has beenmanufactured into reddishbrownand frequently containsdarkerstreaks. The
baseball bats with good results, and it is also suitablefor sapwoodis whitish to creamy yellow.The wood is miform
veneer, both decorative and industrial, and for high quality in texture,with somewhat interlockedgrain, and light in
furniture. weight.It has exceedingly low strength as a beam or post, is
moderately soft, and is moderatelyhigh in shock res:Lstance.
Tupelo It has moderatelyhigh shrinkage.
The tupelo group includes water (Nyssaaquatica),black Black willow is principally cut into lumber. Small iLmounts
(N. sylvatica), swamp(N. sylvaticavar. bWora), and are used for slack cooperage, veneer, excelsior, charcoal,
Ogeechee(N. ogeche)tupelo. Watertupelo is also knownas pulpwood, artificial limbs,and fenceposts. The lumberis
tupelo gum, swamptupelo, and sourgum; black tupelo, as remanufactured principally into boxes,pallets,crates cas-
blackgumand sourgum; swamp tupelo, as swampblackgum, kets, and furniture.
blackgum,and sourgum;and Ogeecheetupelo, as sourtu-
pelo, gopherplum, and Ogeecheeplum. All exceptblack Yellow-Poplar
tupelo grow principally in the southeasternUnitedStates.
Black tupelo grows in the easternUnitedStatesfrom Maine Yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipfera) is alsoknownas
to Texas and Missouri.About two-thirdsoftheproduction poplar,tulip-poplar, and tulipwood. Sapwoodfrom yellow-
oftupelo lumberis from Southern States. poplar is sometimes calledwhite poplar or whitewood.
Yellow-poplar grows from Connecticut and New York
Woodofthe differenttupelo species is quite similarin southward to Florida and westwardto Missouri.Th greatest
appearance and properties. The heartwoodis light brownish commercial production ofyellow-poplar lumberis in the
South and Southeast.
gray and merges gradually into the lighter-colored sapwood,
whichis generally many centimeterswide. The wood has
fine,uniformtexture and interlocked grain. Tupelowood is Yellow-poplar sapwood is white and frequently seveialcen-
timeterswide. The heartwoodis yellowishbrown, some-
moderately heavy,moderatelystrong, moderately hard and times streaked with purple, green,black, blue, or red. These
stiff, and moderatelyhigh in shock resistance. Buttressesof colorations do not affectthe physicalproperties of th wood.
treesgrowing in swampsor floodedareas contain wood that
is much lighterin weightthan that from upper portions of The wood is generally straight grainedand comparatively
thesame trees. Becauseofinterlockedgrain, tupelo lumber uniformin texture. Slow-grown wood is moderately light in
requirescare in drying. weightand moderatelylow in bendingstrength, moderately
soft, andmoderatelylow in shock resistance.The wood has
Tupelo is cut principally for lumber, veneer, pulpwood, and moderately high shrinkage when driedfrom a green condi-
somerailroadcrossties and slack cooperage. Lumbergoes tion, but it is not difficultto dry and is stable after drying.
into boxes, pallets, crates,baskets,and furniture. Much ofthe second-growth wood is heavier, harder,and
stronger than that ofoldertrees that have grownmore
Walnut, Black slowly.
Black walnut(Juglans nigra), alsoknown as American black The lumberis used primarilyfor furniture,interior mould-
walnut,rangesfrom Vermontto the Great Plainsand south- ing, siding, cabinets,musical instruments, and structural
ward into Louisiana and Texas. Aboutthree-quarters of components. Boxes,pallets,and crates are made from lower-
walnut wood is grown in the Central States. grade stock. Yellow-poplar is also madeinto plywoodfor
The heartwoodofblackwalnutvaries from lightto dark paneling, furniture,piano cases, and variousother special
products.
brown;the sapwoodis nearly white and up to 8 cm (3 in.)
wide in open-grown trees. Black walnut is normallystraight
grained,easily workedwith tools, and stable in use. It is

l—9
and cooling towers. Second-growth wood is used for siding
and millwork, including interiorwoodworkand paneling.
Peckycypress is used forpanelingin restaurants,stores, and
other buildings.

Douglas-Fir
Douglas-fir(Pseudotsugamenziesii) is also knownlocallyas
red-fir, Douglas-spruce, andyellow-fir. Itsrange extendsfrom
the RockyMountains tothe PacificCoast and from Mexico
to central British Columbia.
Sapwood ofDouglas-fir is narrowin old-growth treesbut
maybe as much as 7 cm (3 in.) wide in second-growthtrees
ofcommercial size.Youngtrees ofmoderate to rapid growth
havereddishheartwood and are calledred-fir. Verynarrow-
ringedheartwoodofold-growth trees may be yellowish
brownand is knownonthe market as yellow-fir.The wood
ofDouglas-firvarieswidelyin weightand strength. When
lumberofhigh strengthis neededfor structural uses, selec-
Figure 1—1. Cypress-tupelo swamp near New Orleans, tioncan be improvedby selectingwood with higherdensity.
LA. Species includebaldcypress (Taxodium distichum)),
tupelo(Nyssa), ash (Fraxinus), willow (Salix), and elm Douglas-firis used mostlyforbuildingand construction
(Ulmus). Swollenbuttressesand "knees" are typically purposes in the form of lumber, marine fendering(Fig. 1-2),
present in cypress. piles, andplywood. Considerable quantitiesare used for
railroad crossties, cooperagestock,mine timbers,poles, and
fencing. Douglas-fir lumberis used in the manufactureof
Softwoods variousproducts, including sashes, doors, laminated beams,
generalmillwork,railroad-carconstruction, boxes,pallets,
Baldcypress and crates. Small amounts are used forflooring, furniture,
Baldcypress or cypress(Taxodium distichum) is also known ship and boat construction, and tanks. Douglas-firplywood
as southern-cypress, red-cypress, yellow-cypress, andwhite- has found application inconstruction, furniture,cabinets,
cypress.Commercially, the terms tidewaterred-cypress, gulf- marineuse, and other products.
cypress,red-cypress (coasttype),and yellow-cypress (inland
type) are frequently used.Abouthalf ofthe cypress lumber Firs, True (Eastern Species)
comesfrom the SouthernStates and about a fourthfrom the Balsam fir (Abies balsamea)growsprincipally in New Eng-
SouthAtlantic States (Fig. 1—1). Old-growth biddcypress is land,New York,Pennsylvania, and the Great Lake States.
no longerreadily available, but second-growth wood is Fraserfir (A. fraseri)growsin the Appalachian Mountainsof
available. Virginia, North Carolina, and Tennessee.
Sapwoodofbaldcypress is narrow andnearly white.The The wood ofthe easterntrue firs, as well as the westerntrue
color ofheartwoodvarieswidely,rangingfrom lightyel- firs, is creamy white to pale brown. The heartwoodand
lowish brownto dark brownishred, brown,or chocolate. sapwoodare generallyindistinguishable. The similarityof
The wood is moderatelyheavy,moderatelystrong, and wood structure in the true firs makes it impossibleto distin-
moderatelyhard. The heartwoodofold-growth baldcypress guishthe species by examinationofthe wood alone. Balsam
is one ofthemost decay resistantofU.S. species, but sec- and Fraserfirs are lightweight, have low bendingand com-
ond-growthwood is only moderatelyresistantto decay. pressive strength, aremoderatelylow in stiffness, are soft,
Shrinkage is moderatelylow but somewhat higherthan that and have low resistance to shock.
ofthecedars and lower thanthat ofSouthernPine. The wood
ofcertainbaldcypress treesfrequently containspocketsor The easternfirs are used mainly for pulpwood, although
localized areas that havebeenattackedby afungus. Such some lumberis producedforstructuralproducts, especially
wood is knownas pecky cypress.The decay causedby this in New Englandand the Great Lake States.
fungus is stoppedwhen the wood is cut into lumberand
dried.Peckycypress isthereforedurable and useful where Firs, True (Western Species)
water tightnessis unnecessary, appearance isnot important, Six commercial species makeupthe westerntrue firs: subal-
or a novel effectis desired. pine fir (Abies lasiocarpa),California redfir(A. magnIca),
When old-growth wood was available, baldcypress was used grand fir(A. grandis),noble fir (A. procera), Pacific silver fir
(A. amabilis),and white fir (A. concolor).The westerntrue
principally for buildingconstruction, especially whereresis- firs are cut for lumberprimarilyin Washington,Oregon,
tance to decay was required. It was alsoused for caskets,
California. western Montana, and northernIdaho, and they
sashes, doors, blinds, tanks, vats, ship and boat building, aremarketedas white firthroughouttheUnitedStates.

1—10

10
I
Figure 1—2.Woodis favored forwaterfrontstructures,particularly fendering, because of its shock-absorbing qualities.
Thefendering on thisdock in Key West, FL, is made of creosote-treatedDouglas-fir (Pseudotsugamenziesii). Some
tropical species are resistant to attackby decay fungi and marine borers and are used for marine construction
without preservative treatment.

The wood ofthe westerntrue firs is similarto that ofthe Hemlock, Eastern
easterntrue firs, whichmakes it impossible to distinguish Eastern hemlock(Tsugacanadensis)growsfrom NewEng-
thetrue fir speciesby examination ofthe wood alone. West- landto northernAlabamaand Georgia, and inthe Great Lake
ern true firs are light in weightbut,with theexceptionof States. Othernames are Canadian hemlockandhemlock—
subalpine fir, have somewhat higher strength properties than spruce. The production ofhemlocklumberis divided,fairly
does balsam fir. Shrinkage ofthe wood is low to moderately evenlyamongthe NewEngland States, MiddleAtlantic
high. States,and GreatLake States.
Lumberofthe westerntrue firs is primarilyused forbuilding The heartwoodofeastern hemlockispale brownwith a
construction, boxes and crates,planing-millproducts, reddishhue. The sapwoodis not distinctlyseparated from
sashes,doors, and generalmillwork.In house constru.ction, the heartwoodbut may be lighterin color. The wood is
thelumberis used for framing, subflooring, and sheathing. coarseand uneven in texture(old treestend to have consider-
Some westerntrue fir lumberis manufactured into boxes and able shake); it is moderatelylightweight,moderatelyhard,
crates.High-grade lumberfrom noble fir is used mainlyfor moderately low in strength, moderately stiff, and moderately
interiorwoodwork, moulding, siding, and sash and door low in shock resistance.
stock. Some ofthe highestquality material is suitablefor
aircraft construction. Otherspecialuses ofnoble firare vene- Easternhemlockisusedprincipally for lumberandpulp-
tian blinds and ladder rails. wood. The lumberis usedprimarilyin buildingconstruction
i
(framing,sheathing, subflooring, and roofboards) an in the
manufacture ofboxes,pallets,and crates.

1—11
Hemlock, Western and Mountain Larch, Western
Westernhemlock(Tsugaheterophylla) is also knownas Western larch (Larix occidentalis) growsin western Mon-
West Coast hemlock, Pacific hemlock, British Columbia tana, northern Idaho,northeastern Oregon,and on the eastern
hemlock,hemlock—spruce,and westernhemlock—fir. Itgrows slope ofthe Cascade Mountains in Washington.About two-
along the Pacific coast ofOregonand Washington and in the thirds ofthe lumberofthis species is producedin Idaho and
northernRocky Mountains north to Canada and Alaska.A Montanaand one-thirdin Oregonand Washington.
relativeofwesternhemlock,mountainhemlock(T. merten-
The heartwood ofwesternlarch is yellowishbrown and the
siana) growsin mountainous countryfrom central California
to Alaska.It is treated as a separatespecies in assigning sapwood, yellowishwhite. The sapwoodis generallynot
lumberproperties. more than 2.5 cm (1 in.) wide. The wood is stiff, moderately
strong and hard, moderately high in shock resistance, ancl
The heartwoodand sapwoodofwesternhemlockare almost moderately heavy. It has moderatelyhigh shrinkage. The
white with a purplishtinge. The sapwood,which is some- wood is usually straightgrained,splits easily, and is subject
times lighterin color than the heartwood, is generallynot to ring shake. Knotsarecommonbut generallysmallarid
more than 2.5 cm (1 in.) wide. The wood often contains tight.
small, sound,black knots that are usually tight and dimen-
Western larchis used mainly for rough dimensionwood in
sionallystable.Dark streaks are often found in the lumber;
these are causedby hemlockbark maggotsand generally do buildingconstruction, small timbers,planks and boards,and
not reduce strength. Westernhemlockis moderately light in railroadcrosstiesandmine timbers.It is used also for piles,
weight and moderatein strength. It is alsomoderatein poles, and posts. Some high-grade material is manufactured
hardness,stiffness, and shockresistance. Shrinkage ofwest- into interiorwoodwork, flooring, sashes, and doors. The
ern hemlockis moderatelyhigh, aboutthe same as that of properties ofwestern larch are similarto those ofDouglas-fir
Douglas-fir(Pseudotsugamenziesii). Greenhemlocklumber (Pseudotsugamenziesii), and these species are sometimes
contains considerably more water than does Douglas-firand sold mixed.
requires longer kiln-dryingtime. Mountain hemlockhas
approximately the same density as that ofwesternhemlock Pine, Eastern White
but is somewhat lower in bendingstrengthand stiffness. Eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) growsfrom Maineto
northern Georgiaand in the Great Lake States.It is also
Westernhemlockand mountainhemlockare used principally known as white pine,northernwhite pine, Weymouth pine,
for pulpwood, lumber, and plywood. The lumber is used and soft pine.About one-halfthe production ofeasternwhite
primarilyforbuildingmaterial,such as sheathing, siding, pine lumber occursin New England, about one-thirdin the
subflooring,joists,studding, planking, and rafters, as well as Great Lake States, and most oftheremainder in the Middle
inthemanufactureofboxes,pallets,crates,flooring, furni- Atlantic and South Atlantic States.
ture, and ladders.
Theheartwoodofeastern white pine is lightbrown, often
Incense-Cedar with a reddish tinge.It turns darker on exposureto air. The
Incense-cedar (Calocedrusdecurrens(synonym Libocedrus wood has comparatively uniformtexture and is straight
decurrens))growsin California, southwesternOregon, and grained.It is easily kiln dried, has low shrinkage,and ranks
extreme westernNevada.Most incense-cedar lumber comes high in stability. It is also easy to work and can be reacily
from the northern halfofCalifornia. glued.Easternwhite pine is lightweight,moderatelysoft,
moderately low in strength,low in shock resistance,and low
Sapwoodofincense-cedar is white or cream colored,and in stiffness.
heartwoodis lightbrown,often tinged with red. The wood
has a fme,uniformtexture and a spicyodor.Incense-cedar is Practicallyall easternwhite pine is converted into lumber,
which is used in a great varietyofways. A large proportion,
light in weight,moderatelylow in strength, soft, low in
shock resistance,and low in stiffness. It has low shrinkage mostly second-growth knottywood or lower grades, is used
and is easy to dry, with little checkingor warping. for structural lumber. High-grade lumberis used for patterns
for castings. Otherimportantuses are sashes,doors, furni-
Incense-cedar is used principally for lumberandfenceposts. ture, interiorwoodwork, knottypaneling, caskets, shadeand
Nearly all the high-grade lumber isusedforpencils and map rollers, andtoys.
venetianblinds; some is used for chests and toys.Much
incense-cedar wood is more or less pecky; that is, it contains Pine, Jack
pocketsor areas ofdisintegratedwood causedby advanced Jack pine (Pinus banksiana),sometimesknown as scrub,
stagesoflocalizeddecay in the livingtree. There is no fur- gray, and blackpine in the United States, grows naturallyin
ther developmentofdecay once the lumberis dried. This the GreatLake Statesand in a few scatteredareas inNew
low-quality lumberis usedlocally for rough construction Englandand northern NewYork. Jack pine lumber is some-
where low cost and decayresistanceare important. Because timesnot separated from the other pines with which it
of its resistance to decay,incense-cedar is well suitedfor grows, including red pine (Pinus resinosa) and easternwhite
fenceposts. Other uses are railroadcrossties, poles, and split pine (Pinus strobus).
shingles.

1—12
Sapwoodofjackpine is nearly white; heartwoodis light
brownto orange.Sapwoodmay constitute one-halformore
ofthe volume ofa tree. The wood hasa rathercoarsetexture
and is somewhatresinous.It is moderatelylightweight,
moderatelylow in bendingstrengthand compressive
strength, moderatelylow in shock resistance,and low in
stiffness. It alsohas moderatelylow shrinkage. Lumberfrom
jackpine is generallyknotty.
Jack pine is used for pulpwood, box lumber, andpallets.
Less important uses includerailroadcrossties, minetimber,
slack cooperage,poles,posts, and fuel.

Pine, Jeffrey (see Pine, Ponderosa)


Pine, Lodgepole
Lodgepolepine (Pinus contorta), also knownas knotty,
black, and sprucepine, growsin the RockyMountainand
Pacific Coastregionsas far northward as Alaska. Wood for Figure 1—3.Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) growing
in an open or park-like habitat.
lumberand other productsis producedprimarilyin the
centralRockyMountainStates;other producingregions are
Idaho, Montana,Oregon,and Washington.
Pond pine is usedfor general construction, railwaycrossties,
The heartwoodoflodgepole pine varies from lightyellowto posts,and poles. The lumberofthis speciesis also graded
lightyellow-brown.The sapwoodis yellowor nearly white. as aminor species in gradingrules forthe Southern Pine
Thewood is generallystraight grainedwith narrow growth species group.
rings. The wood is moderatelylightweight,is fairlyeasy to
work, and has moderatelyhigh shrinkage. It is moderately Pine, Ponderosa
low in strength,moderatelysoft, moderatelystiff, and mod- Ponderosa pine (Pinusponderosa)is also knownas Donder-
erately low in shock resistance. osa, westernsoft, westernyellow,bull, andblackjackpine.
Lodgepole pine is used for lumber, mine timbers, railroad Jeffreypine(P.jeffieyi),whichgrowsin close association
crossties, and poles. Less important uses includeposts and with ponderosapine in Californiaand Oregon, is usually
fuel.Lodgepolepine is being used increasingly for framing, marketedwith ponderosapine and sold underthat nme.
siding, millwork,flooring, and cabin logs. Majorponderosa pine producing areas are in Oregon. Wash-
ington, and California (Fig. 1—3). Other importantproducing
Pine, Pitch areas are in Idaho and Montana; lesseramounts come from
thesouthernRockyMountainregion, the Black T4ili:; of
Pitch pine (Pinus rigida) grows from Mainealong the moun- South Dakota, and Wyoming.
tainsto easternTennessee and northernGeorgia.
The heartwoodis brownishred and resinous;the sapwoodis The heartwoodofponderosapine is light reddishbrown,and
wide and light yellow.The wood ofpitch pine is moderately thewide sapwoodis nearly white to pale yellow.The wood
heavyto heavy,moderatelystrong,stiff, and hard, and
oftheouterportions ofponderosapine ofsawtimber size is
moderately high in shock resistance. Shrinkage ranges from generallymoderatelylight in weight,moderatelylow in
strength, moderately soft, moderately stiff, and mode:ately
moderatelylow to moderatelyhigh. low in shock resistance. It is generally straightgrainedand
Pitch pine is usedfor lumber, fuel, and pulpwood. The has moderatelylow shrinkage. It is quite uniform in texture
lumber is classified as a minor species in gradingrules for and has little tendency to warp and twist.
the Southern Pine speciesgroup.
a
Ponderosa pine is used mainly for lumberand to lesser
Pine, Pond extentfor piles, poles, posts, mine timbers,veneer, and
Pondpine (Pinus serotina) grows in the coastalregionfrom railroadcrossties. The clear wood is used for sashes, doors,
New Jerseyto Florida. It occursin smallgroups or singly, blinds, moulding,paneling, interior woodwork, and built-in
casesand cabinets. Low-grade lumber is used forboxes and
mixed with other pines on low flats. crates. Much intermediate- orlow-grade lumberis usd for
Sapwoodofpondpine is wide and pale yellow;heartwoodis sheathing, subflooring, and roofboards. Knottyponderosa
dark orange.The wood is heavy,coarsegrained,andresin- pine is used for interior woodwork.
ous. Shrinkage is moderatelyhigh. The wood is moderately
strong,stiff, moderatelyhard, and moderatelyhigh in shock
resistance.

1—13
Pine, Red shrinkage but are dimensionallystable whenproperly dried.
Red pine (Pinus resinosa)is frequently calledNorwaypine To obtain heavy,strong wood ofthe southernpines for
and occasionallyknownas hard pine and pitch pine. This structural purposes,a densityrule has been writtenthat
specifies a certain percentage oflatewood and growth ratesfor
species growsin New England,New York, Pennsylvania,
and the Great Lake States. structural timbers.

The heartwoodofred pine varies from pale redto reddish The denserandhigher strength southernpines are exten-
brown. The sapwoodis nearly white with a yellowishtinge sivelyused in the form of stringers in construction offacto-
and is generallyfrom 5 to 10 cm (2 to 4 in.) wide. The ries, warehouses, bridges,trestles, and docks, and also for
wood resemblesthe lighterweightwood ofthe Southern rooftrusses,beams,posts,joists, and piles. Lumberoflower
Pine speciesgroup. Latewoodis distinct in the growthrings. densityand strengthis also used for buildingmaterial,such
Red pine is moderatelyheavy,moderatelystrong and stiff, as interiorwoodwork, sheathing, and subflooring, as well as
moderatelysoft, and moderatelyhigh in shock resistance. It boxes, pallets,and crates. SouthernPine is usedalso for
is generallystraightgrained,not as uniformin texture as tight and slack cooperage. Whenusedfor railroadcrossties,
easternwhite pine (Pinus strobus), and somewhat resinous. piles, poles,mine timbers, and exterior decking, it is usually
The wood has moderatelyhigh shrinkage, but it is not treatedwith preservatives. The manufacture ofstructural-
difficultto dry and is dimensionallystable when dried. grade plywoodfrom SouthernPine is a major wood-using
industry, as is the production ofpreservative-treated lum ber.
Redpine is used principallyfor lumber, cabinlogs, and
pulpwood,and to a lesser extent for piles, poles, posts, and Pine, Spruce
fuel.The lumberis usedfor many ofthe same purposesas for Spruce pine (Pinus glabra), also known as cedar, poor,
easternwhite pine (Pinus strobus). Red pine lumberis used Walter,and bottom white pine, is classifiedas a minor
primarilyforbuildingconstruction, includingtreated lumber species in the Southern Pine speciesgroup. Spruce pine
for decking, siding, flooring, sashes, doors,generalmill- growsmost commonly on low moist lands ofthe coastal
work, and boxes, pallets, and crates. regionsofsoutheastern SouthCarolina,Georgia, Alabama,
Mississippi, and Louisiana, and northernandnorthwestern
Pine, Southern Florida.
A numberofspecies are includedin the group marketedas The heartwoodofsprucepine is light brown, and the wide
SouthernPine lumber. The four major SouthernPine species
andtheirgrowthrangesare as follows: (a) longleafpine sapwoodis nearly white. Sprucepine wood is lower in most
(Pinuspalustris), easternNorth Carolinasouthwardinto strengthvaluesthan the wood ofthe major SouthernPine
Floridaandwestwardinto easternTexas; (b) shortleafpine species group. Spruce pine comparesfavorablywith the
westerntrue firs in important bendingproperties,crushing
(P. echinata),southeasternNew York and NewJersey strength (perpendicular and parallelto grain),and hardness.
southwardto northernFloridaand westwardinto eastern It is similarto denserspeciessuch as coast Douglas-fir
Texas and Oklahoma;(c) loblollypine (P. taeda), Maryland
southwardthrough the Atlantic CoastalPlain and Piedmont (Pseudotsugamenziesii) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda
in shearparallelto grain.
Plateau into Floridaandwestwardinto easternTexas; (d)
slashpine (P. elliottii), Floridaand southernSouth Caro- In the past, spruce pine was principally used locally for
lina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi,and Louisiana east of lumber, pulpwood, and fuelwood. The lumberreportedly
the Mississippi River. Lumberfrom these fourspecies is was usedforsashes, doors,and interiorwoodworkbecause
classified as SouthernPine by the grading standards ofthe ofits low specific gravityand similarityofearlywoodand
industry. Thesestandardsalso classifylumberproducedfrom latewood. In recentyears,sprucepinehas been used for
the longleafand slash pine species as longleafpine ifthe plywood.
lumberconforms tothe growth-ring and latewood require-
ments ofsuch standards.SouthernPine lumberis produced Pine, Sugar
principallyin the Southernand SouthAtlantic States. Geor- Sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana),the world's largest species
gia, Alabama, North Carolina, Arkansas, andLouisianalead ofpine, is sometimes called Californiasugarpine. Most
in SouthernPine lumberproduction. sugarpine lumbergrows in Californiaand southwestern
Oregon.
The wood ofthese southernpines is quitesimilar in appear-
ance. Sapwoodis yellowishwhite andheartwood, reddish The heartwoodofsugarpine is buffor lightbrown, some-
brown. The sapwoodis usuallywide in second-growth timestinged with red. The sapwoodis creamy white. The
stands. The heartwoodbeginsto form whenthe tree is about wood is straight grained,fairly uniform in texture, and easy
20 years old. In old, slow-growth trees, sapwoodmay be to work with tools. It has very low shrinkage, is readily
only 2 to 5 cm (ito 2 in.) wide. dried withoutwarpingor checking, and is dimensionally
stable. Sugar pine is lightweight,moderatelylow in
Longleafand slashpine are classified as heavy,strong, stiff, strength, moderatelysoft, low in shock resistance,and low
hard, and moderatelyhigh in shock resistance. Shortleafand in stiffness.
loblollypine are usually somewhat lighter in weightthan is
longleaf.Allthe southernpines have moderately high

1—14
Sugar pine is used almost exclusively for lumberproducts. weight,stiff, moderately strong and hard, and moderately
The largestvolumeis usedfor boxes and crates, sashes, resistantto shock.Port-Orford-cedar heartwoodis highly
doors, frames,blinds, generalmillwork,buildingconstruc- resistantto decay. The wood shrinksmoderately, has little
tion, and foundrypatterns. Like easternwhitepine (Pinus tendencyto warp,and is stable after drying.
strobus), sugarpine is suitable foruse in nearlyevery part
ofa housebecauseofthe easewith whichit can be cut, its Some high-grade Port-Orford-cedar was onceused iu the
dimensionalstability, and its good nailing properties. manufacture ofstorage batteryseparators, matchsticks, and
specialtymillwork. Today,other uses are archery supplies,
Pine, Virginia sash and door construction, stadiumseats, flooring, interior
woodwork, furniture,andboats.
Virginiapine (Pinus virginiana),also known as Jerseyand
scrubpine, growsfrom New Jerseyand Virginiathroughout
theAppalachianregion to Georgia and theOhio Valley. Redcedar, Eastern
It is classifiedas a minorspeciesin thegradingrules for Eastern redcedar(Juniperusvirginiana)grows throughoutthe
the SouthernPine species group. easternhalfofthe UnitedStates,exceptin Maine, Florida,
and anarrow strip along the GulfCoast, and atthe higher
The heartwoodis orange,and the sapwoodis nearlywhite elevations in the Appalachian MountainRange. Commercial
andrelativelywide. The wood is moderately heavy,moder- production is principally in the southernAppalachianand
ately strong, moderatelyhard, andmoderatelystiffandhas Cumberland Mountain regions. Anotherspecies,southern
moderatelyhigh shrinkageandhigh shock resistance. redcedar(.1 silicicola),growsover a limited areain the
South Atlanticand GulfCoastal Plains.
Virginiapine is used for lumber, railroadcrossties, mine
timbers,and pulpwood. The heartwoodofredcedaris bright or dull red, andthe
narrowsapwoodis nearly white.The wood ismoderately
Pine, Western White heavy, moderately low in strength, hard, and high ia shock
Westernwhite pine (Pinus monticola) is alsoknown as resistance, but low in stiffness. It has very low shriiikage and
Idahowhite pine or white pine. About four-fifths ofthewood is dimensionally stable after drying. The texture is fine and
for lumberfromthis species is from Idahoand Washington; uniform, and the wood commonly has numeroussmall
knots. Eastern redcedarheartwoodis very resistantto decay.
smallamountsare cut inMontanaand Oregon.
The greatest quantity ofeasternredcedaris used for fence
The heartwoodofwesternwhite pine is creamcolored to
light reddishbrown and darkenson exposureto air. The posts. Lumberis manufactured into chests, wardrobes, and
closet lining. Otheruses include flooring, novelties pencils,
sapwoodis yellowishwhite and generallyfrom 2 to 8 cm scientific instruments, and smallboats. Southernredcedar
(ito 3 in.) wide. The wood is straightgrained,easy to is used forthesame purposes. Eastern redcedaris reDuted
work, easily kiln-dried, and stable afterdiying. This species to repel moths, but this claim has not been supported by
is moderatelylightweight,moderatelylow in strength, research.
moderatelysoft, moderatelystiff, andmoderatelylow in
shock resistance and has moderately high shrinkage.
Redcedar,Western
Practically all western white pine is sawn into lumber, which Western redcedar(Thujaplicata)grows in the Pacific
is used mainly for buildingconstruction, matches,boxes, Northwestand along the PacificCoast to Alaska. It is also
patterns, and miliworkproducts,such as sashes and door calledcanoe-cedar, giantarborvitae, shinglewood, and Pacific
frames.In buildingconstruction, lower-grade boards are used redcedar. Western redcedarlumberis producedprincipally in
for sheathing, knottypaneling, and subflooring. High-grade Washington, followed by Oregon,Idaho, and Montana.
material is made into siding ofvarious kinds, exteriorand
interiorwoodwork, and millwork.Westernwhite pine has The heartwood ofwestern redcedaris reddishor pinkish
practicallythe same uses as easternwhitepine (Pinus brownto dull brown, and the sapwoodis nearly white. The
sfrobus)and sugarpine (Pinus lambertiana). sapwoodis narrow, often not more than 2.5 cm (1 ia.) wide.
The wood is generallystraightgrained andhas a unform but
Port-Orford-Cedar rather coarsetexture. It has very low shrinkage. This species
Port-Orford-cedar (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana)is sometimes is lightweight, moderatelysoft, low in strength whenused as
knownas Lawson-cypress, Oregon-cedar, and white-cedar. It a beam orposts, and low in shockresistance. The heartwood
is very resistantto decay.
growsalong the Pacific Coast from Coos Bay, Oregon,
southward to California.It does not extendmore than Westernredcedaris usedprincipally for shingles, lumber,
64 km (40 mi) inland.
poles, posts,and piles. The lumberis usedfor exterior
The heartwoodofPort-Orford-cedar is light yellow to pale siding, decking, interiorwoodwork, greenhouse construc-
brown.The sapwoodis narrowand hard to distinguishfrom tion, ship and boat building, boxes and crates, sashes,
theheartwood. The wood has fme texture, generally straight and doors.
grain, and a pleasantspicy odor. It is moderately light-

1—15
Redwood The heartwoodofEngelmann spruce is nearly white,with a
Redwood(Sequoiasempervirens) growson the coast of slight tinge ofred. The sapwoodvaries from 2 to 5 cm
California and sometrees are amongthe tallest in the world. (3/4to 2 in.) in width and is often difficultto distinguish
from the heartwood. The wood has mediumto fine texture
A closely related species, giant sequoia(Sequoiadendron
and is withoutcharacteristic odor.Engelmannspruceis rated
giganteum),is volumetrically larger and grows in a limited as lightweight, and it is low in strengthas a beam or post. It
area in the SierraNevadasofCalifornia, but its wood is used
in very limitedquantities. Othernames for redwoodare coast is also soft and low in stiffhess, shock resistance,and shrink-
redwood,Californiaredwood,and sequoia. Productionof age. The lumbertypicallycontains many smallknots.
redwoodlumber is limitedto California, but the market is
Engelmann spruceis usedprincipally for lumberand for
nationwide. minetimbers,railroadcrossties, and poles. It is usedalso in
The heartwoodofredwoodvariesfrom light "cherry"red to buildingconstruction in the form ofdimensionlumber,
dark mahogany.The narrow sapwoodis almost white. Typi- flooring, and sheathing. Ithas excellent propertiesforpulp
cal old-growth redwoodis moderatelylightweight, moder- andpapermaking.
ately strong and stiff, and moderatelyhard. The wood is easy
to work, generallystraightgrained,and shrinks and swells Spruce, Sitka
Sitka spruce(Picea sitchensis)is a large tree that grows
comparatively little. The heartwoodfrom old-growth trees
has high decayresistance;heartwoodfrom second-growth along the northwestern coast ofNorth Americafrom Cali for-
trees generally has low to moderatedecay resistance. niato Alaska. It is also known as yellow,tideland,western,
silver, and west coast spruce.Much Sitka spruce timber is
Most redwood lumberis used forbuilding. It isremanufac- grownin Alaska, but most logs are sawn into cants for
tured extensivelyinto siding, sashes, doors, blinds, mill- exportto PacificRim countries. Materialfor U.S. consurnp-
work, casket stock, and containers. Becauseofits durability, tion is producedprimarilyin Washingtonand Oregon.
redwood is useful for coolingtowers,decking,tanks, silos,
wood-stavepipe,and outdoorfurniture.It is used in agricul- The heartwoodofSitka spruce is a light pinkish brown. The
turefor buildingsand equipment. Its use as timbers and large sapwoodis creamy white and shadesgraduallyinto the
dimension in bridges and trestlesis relatively minor. Red- heartwood;the sapwoodmay be 7 to 15 cm (3 to 6 in.) wide
wood splits readily and plays an important role in the oreven widerin young trees. The wood has a comparatively
manufacture ofsplitproducts,such as posts and fence fme,uniformtexture, generally straightgrain, andno distinct
material.Some redwoodveneeris producedfor decorative taste or odor. It is moderately lightweight,moderatelylow
plywood. in bendingand compressivestrength, moderatelystiff, mod-
erately soft, and moderatelylow in resistance to shock. Ithas
Spruce, Eastern moderatelylow shrinkage. On the basis ofweight,Sitka
spruce rates high in strengthproperties and can be obtained
The term easternspruce includes three species: red (Picea in long, clear, straight-grained pieces.
rubens),white (P. glauca), andblack (P. mariana). White
and blacksprucegrow principally in the Great LakeStates Sitka spruceis used principally for lumber, pulpwood, and
andNew England, andred sprucegrowsin New England cooperage. Boxes and crates account for a considerable
and the AppalachianMountains. amount ofthe remanufactured lumber. Other important uses
are furniture,planing-mill products, sashes,doors, blinds,
The wood is light in color, and there is little difference miliwork, and boats. Sitka spruce has been by farthe most
betweenheartwoodand sapwood. All threespecies have important wood for aircraft construction. Other specialty uses
about the same properties, and they are not distinguished are ladderrails and sounding boards for pianos.
from each other incommerce.The wood dries easily andis
stable after drying, is moderatelylightweight and easily Tamarack
worked,has moderateshrinkage, and is moderatelystrong,
Tamarack(Larixlaricina), also knownas eastern larchand
stiff, tough, and hard.
locally as hackmatack, is a small to mediumtree with a
The greatest use ofeasternspruceis for pulpwood. Eastern straight, round, slightlytaperedtrunk. It grows from Maine
spruce lumberis used for framingmaterial,generalmiliwork, to Minnesota, with thebulk ofthe stand in theGreat Lake
boxes and crates,andpiano sounding boards. States.

The heartwoodoftamarackis yellowishbrownto russet


Spruce, Engelmann brown. The sapwoodis whitish, generallyless than 2.5 cm
Engehnann spruce (Picea engelmannii) growsathigh eleva- (I in.) wide. The wood is coarsein texture, withoutodor or
tions in the Rocky Mountainregion ofthe United States. taste, and the transitionfrom earlywoodto latewoodis
This speciesis also known as white spruce, mountain
abrupt. The wood is intermediate in weight and in most
spruce,Arizona spruce, silverspruce, and balsam. About mechanical properties.
two-thirdsofthe lumberis producedin the southernRocky
MountainStatesand most ofthe remainderin the northern Tamarackis used principally for pulpwood, lumber, railroad
RockyMountainStates and Oregon. crossties, mine timbers,fuel, fence posts, and poles. Lumber

1—16
is used for framingmaterial, tank construction, and boxes, may be obtained ofa particular wood.The references at the
pallets,and crates. Theproductionoftamarack lumberhas end ofthis chaptercontaininformation on many species not
declined in recentyears. describedin this section.

White-Cedar, Northern and Atlantic Hardwoods


Two speciesofwhite-cedargrow in the eastern part ofthe Afara (see Limba)
UnitedStates: northern white-cedar(Thuja occidentalis) and
Atlantic white-cedar (Chamaecyparis thyoides). Northern Afrormosia
white-cedar is also knownas arborvitae or simply as cedar. Afrormosia or kokrodua (Pericopsiselata), a largeWest
Atlantic white-cedaris alsoknownas southern white-cedar, Africantree, is sometimes used as a substitute forteak
swamp-cedar, and boat-cedar. Northern white-cedar grows (Tectonagrandis).
from Mainealong the Appalachians and westwardthrough
the northernpart ofthe Great LakeStates.Atlantic white- The heartwoodis fme textured,with straightto interlocked
cedargrows nearthe AtlanticCoast from Maineto northern grain. The wood is brownishyellowwith darkerstreaks and
Floridaand westwardalong the GulfCoastto Louisiana. It moderately hard and heavy,weighingabout 700 kg/m3
is strictlya swamptree. Productionofnorthernwhite-cedar (43 lb/ft3) at 15% moisture content. The wood strorLgly
lumberis greatest in Maineandthe Great Lake States.Pro- resembles teak inappearancebut tacks its oily nature and has
duction ofAtlanticwhite-cedar centers inNorth Carolinaand a differenttexture. The wooddries readily with littk degrade
along the GulfCoast. and has good dimensionalstability. It is somewhatheavier
and strongerthan teak. The heartwoodis highly resistantto
The heartwoodofwhite-cedaris light brown,and the sap- decay fungiandtermiteattackand is extremely durable under
wood is white or nearly so. The sapwoodis usually narrow. adverseconditions.
The wood is lightweight,rather soft, and low in strength and
shock resistance.It shrinkslittle in drying. It is easily Afrormosia is often used forthe same purposesas tek, such
workedand holds paint well, and the heartwoodis highly as boat construction, joinery, flooring, furniture, interior
resistantto decay.Northernand Atlantic white-cedar are used woodwork, and decorative veneer.
for similar purposes, primarilyfor poles,cabin logs, railroad
crossties, lumber, posts, and decorative fencing.White-cedar Albarco
lumberis used principally wherea high degreeofdurability Albarco, orjequitiba as it is known in Brazil, is the com-
is needed,as in tanks andboats, and for woodenware. mon nameapplied to species in the genus Cariniara. The
10 species are distributed from eastern Peru and northern
Yellow-Cedar BoliviathroughcentralBrazilto Venezuelaand Colombia.
Yellow-cedar(Chamaecyparisnootkatensis) growsin the
PacificCoastregionofNorth Americafrom southeastern The heartwoodis reddishor purplish brownand sometimes
Alaska southwardthroughWashington to southernOregon. has dark streaks.It isusuallynot sharplydemarcatedfrom
thepale brownsapwood. The texture is mediumand the
Theheartwoodofyellow-cedaris bright,clear yellow.The grain straight to interlocked. Albarcocan be workedsatisfac-
sapwoodis narrow,white to yellowish,and hardly distin- torily with only slight bluntingoftoolcutting edgesbecause
guishable from theheartwood.The wood is fine textured and ofthe presence ofsilica. Veneer canbe cut withoutdifficulty.
generallystraightgrained.It is moderatelyheavy, moderately The wood is rather strong and moderatelyheavy,weighing
strong and stiff, moderatelyhard, and moderatelyhigh in about 560 kg/rn3(35 lb/ft3)at 12% moisture content. In
shock resistance.Yellow-cedar shrinks little in drying and is general, the wood has about the same strengthas that ofU.S.
stable afterdrying, and the heartwoodis very resistantto oaks (Quercusspp.). The heartwoodis durable, particularly
decay. The wood has a mild, distinctive odor. thedeeply colored material. It has goodresistanceto dry-
woodtermiteattack.
Yellow-cedar is usedfor interiorwoodwork, furniture, small
boats, cabinetwork, and novelties. Albarcois primarily used for general construction and carpen-
try wood, but it can alsobe used forfurniturecomponents,
Imported Woods shipbuilding, flooring, veneerforplywood, and turnery.

This sectiondoes not purport to describeall the woodsthat Amaranth (see Purpleheart)
havebeen at one time or anotherimportedinto the United
States. It includesonly those species that at presentare Anani (see Manni)
considered to be commercially important. The same species Anaura (see Marishballi)
may be marketedin the UnitedStatesunder other common
names. Because ofthe variationin commonnames,many Andiroba
cross-references are included. Text information is necessarily Because ofthe widespread distribution ofandiroba (Carapa
brief, but when used in conjunction with the shrinkage and guianensis)in tropicalAmerica,the wood is knownundera
strengthdata tables (Ch. 3 and 4), areasonably goodpicture varietyofnames,including cedro macho,carapa, crabwood,

1—17
and tangare. Thesenames are also appliedto the related whereit forms fairly densebut localizedand discontinuous
species Carapanicaraguensis,whosepropertiesare gener- timberstands.
ally inferiorto those of C. guianensis.
The wood is creamto pale yellow with high natural luster; it
The heartwoodvaries from mediumto darkreddishbrown. eventually darkensto a goldenyellow. The grain is some-
The texture is like that oftrue mahogany(Swietenia macro- timesstraight but more often wavyorirregularlyinterlocked,
phylla), and andirobais sometimes substituted for true ma- whichproducesan unusual and attractivemottledfigure
hogany.The grain is usually interlockedbut is rated easy to whensliced or cut on the quarter. Althoughavodire weighs
work, paint, and glue. The wood is rated as durableto very less than northernred oak (Quercusrubra), it has almost
durable with respectto decay and insects.Andirobais heav- identicalstrengthproperties exceptthat it is lowerin shock
ier than true mahoganyand accordingly is markedly superior resistance and shear. The wood worksfairlyeasily with hand
in all static bendingproperties,compression parallelto andmachinetools and finishes well in most operations.
grain, hardness,shear,and durability.
Figured material is usuallyconverted into veneerforuse in
Onthebasis of its properties,andirobaappearsto be suited decorative work,and it is this kind ofmaterial that is chiefly
for suchuses as flooring, frame construction inthe tropics, imported into the United States. Otheruses includefurniture,
furniture and cabinetwork, millwork, utilityand decorative fine joinery, cabinetwork, and paneling.
veneer,andplywood.
Azobe (Ekki)
Angelin (see Sucupira) Azobe or ekki (Lophiraalata) is found in West Africaand
Angelique extends into the Congobasin.
comesfromFrench
Angelique(Dicoryniaguianensis) The heartwoodis dark red, chocolate-brown, or purple--
Guiana and Suriname. brown with conspicuous white deposits in the pores
Becauseofthe variability inheartwoodcolorbetweendiffer- (vessels).The texture is coarse, and the grain is usually
ent frees,two forms are commonly recognizedby producers. interlocked. The wood is strong, and its densityaverages
Theheartwoodthat isrusset-coloredwhenfreshlycut and about 1,120 kg/rn3 (70 lb/ft3) at 12% moisture content. It is
becomessuperficiallydull brownwith a purplish cast is very difficult to work with hand and machinetools, and tools
referredto as "gris." The heartwoodthat is more distinctly areseverelyblunted ifthewood is machinedwhen dry.
reddish and frequentlyshows widepurplishbands is called Azobecan be dressedto a smoothfinish, and gluingproper-
ties are usually good. Dryingis very difficultwithout exces-
"angeliquerouge." The texture ofthe wood is somewhat sive degrade. The heartwoodis rated as very durable against
coarserthan that ofblack walnut(Juglans nigra), and the
grain is generallystraightor slightlyinterlocked. In strength, decay but only moderatelyresistantto termiteattack.Azobe
is very resistantto acid and has good weatheringproperties.
angeliqueis superior to teak(Tectonagrandis) and white It is alsoresistantto teredo attack.Theheartwoodis
oak (Quercus alba), when green or air dry, in all properties
extremely resistantto preservative treatment.
excepttensionperpendicular to grain.Angelique is ratedas
highlyresistant to decay and resistantto marineborer attack. Azobe is excellent forheavy construction work, harborcon-
Machining properties vary andmaybe due to differences in struction, heavy-duty flooring, and railroadcrossties.
density, moisturecontent,and silica content. After the wood
is thoroughlyair or kiln dried, itcanbe workedeffectively
Bagtikan (see Seraya, White)
only with carbide-tippedtools.
Balata
The strength and durabilityofangelique make it especially
suitableforheavy construction, harborinstallations, bridges, Balataor bulletwood(Manilkarabidentata) is widelydis-
tributedthroughoutthe West Indies, Central America,and
heavyplankingforpierand platformdecking,andrailroad northern South America.
bridge ties. The wood is also suitable for ship decking,
planking, boat frames, industrial flooring, andparquetblocks The heartwoodofbalata is light to dark reddish brownand
and strips. not sharplydemarcatedfrom the pale brown sapwood. Tex-
ture is fine and uniform, and the grain is straightto occasion-
Apa (see Wallaba) ally wavyor interlocked. Balata is a strong and very heavy
Apamate (see Roble) wood; density ofair-driedwood is 1,060 kg/m3 (66 lb/tI3). It
is generallydifficultto air dry, with a tendencyto develop
Apitong (see Keruing) severe checkingand warp.The wood is moderatelyeasy to
Avodire work despite its high density, and it is rated good to excel-
Avodire(Turraeanthusafricanus)has a rather extensive lent in all machiningoperations. Balata is very resistant to
attackby decay fungi and highlyresistantto subterranean
range in Africa,from SierraLeonewestwardto the Congo termitesbut only moderatelyresistant to dry-woodtermites.
region and southward to Zaire and Angola.It is most com-
mon in the easternregion ofthe IvoryCoast and is scattered
elsewhere. Avodire is amedium-size tree ofthe rainforest

1—18

VA
Balatais suitable for heavy construction, textile and pulpmill generally mixed in the trade.The main commercial supplyof
equipment, furnitureparts, turnery, tool handles, flooring, cuangare comes from Colombia andEcuador. Banak and
boat framesand other bentwork,railroadcrossties, violin cuangare are common in swamp andmarshforestsandmay
bows, billiardcues, and other specialtyuses. occur in almostpure stands in someareas.
Balau The heartwoodofboth banak and cuangare is usually pinkish
Balau, red balau, and selanganbatu constitute a group of or grayishbrownand is generally not differentiated from the
species that are the heaviestofthe 200 Shorea species. About sapwood. The wood is straightgrainedand is ofa medium
45 species ofthis group grow from Sri Lankaand southern to coarsetexture.The various species arenonresistant to
India through southeastAsia to the Philippines. decay and insectattackbut can be readilytreatedwith pre-
servatives. Machining propertiesare very good,but when
The heartwoodis light to deep red or purple—brown,and it zones oftensionwoodare present,machiningmay result in
is fairly distinctfrom thelighterand yellowish-to reddish- surface fuzziness. The woodfinishesreadily and is easily
or purplish-brown sapwood. The textureis moderatelyfine glued. Strength properties ofbanakand cuangareare similar
to coarse,andthegrain is often interlocked. The wood to those ofyellow-poplar (Liriodendrontulip(fera).
weighsmore than 750 kg/rn3(47 lb/fl3) at 12% moisture
content. Balau is a heavy, hard, and strong timberthat dries Banakis considered a generalutilitywood for lumber, ve-
slowly with moderateto severeend checksand splits. The neer, and plywood. It is also used for moulding, mi [lwork,
heartwoodis durableto moderately durable and very resistant and furniture components.
to preservative treatments.
Benge (Ehie, Bubinga)
Balau is used forheavy construction, framesofboats,deck- Although benge (Guibourtiaarnoldiana), ehie or ovangkol
ing, flooring, and utility furniture. (Guibourtiaehie),andbubinga (Guibourtiaspp.)belong to
thesame West Africangenus, theydifferrathermarkedly in
Balau, Red (see Balau) color andsomewhat in texture.
Balsa The heartwoodofbenge is pale yellowishbrownto medium
Balsa(Ochroma pyramidale)is widelydistributedthrough- brownwith gray to almostblack stripes. Ehie heartwood
out tropicalAmericafrom southern Mexicoto southern tends to be more golden brown to dark brown with gray to
Brazil and Bolivia,butEcuadorhas been the principalsource almostblack stripes. Bubingaheartwoodis pink, vivid red,
ofsupplysince thewood gained commercial importance. It or red—brown with purplestreaks,and it becomes yellowor
is usuallyfoundat lower elevations,especiallyon bottom- medium brownwith a reddishtint upon exposureto air. The
land soils along streamsand in clearings and cutover forests. textureofehie is moderately coarse, whereas that ofbenge
Today, it is often cultivated in plantations. and bubingais fme tomoderatelyfine. All three wocds are
Several characteristics makebalsa suitable fora wide variety moderately hard and heavy,but they can be workedwell
with hand and machinetools. They are listed as moderately
ofuses.It is the lightestand softestof all woodson the durable and resistantto preservative treatment.Dryingmay
market. The lumber selectedfor use in the United States be difficult, butwith care,thewood dries well.
weighs, on the average,about 180 kg/rn3 (11 lb/fl3)when dry
and often as little as 100 kg/rn3 (6 Ib/ft3). The wood is read- Thesewoodsare used in turnexy, flooring, furniturecompo-
ily recognizedby its lightweight;nearly white oroatmeal nents, cabinetwork, and decorative veneers.
color, often with a yellowishor pinkishhue; and unique
velvety feel. Brown Silverbaul (see Kaneelhart)
Because ofits light weightand exceedingly porousccmposi- Bubinga (see Benge)
tion, balsa is highlyefficient in useswhere buoyancy, insula- Bulletwood (see Balata)
tionagainstheator cold, or low propagationofsound and
vibration are important. Principal uses are for life-saving Carapa (see Andiroba)
equipment, floats,rafts, corestock, insulation, cushioning,
soundmodifiers,models,and novelties. Cativo
Cativo(Prioriacopafera)is one ofthe few tropical Ameri-
Banak (Cuangare) can species that occur in abundance and often innear]ypure
Variousspeciesofbanak(Virola)occur intropicalAmerica, stands. Commercial stands are found in Nicaragua, Costa
fromBelize and Guatemala southward to Venezuela, the Rica, Panama, and Colombia.
Guianas, the Amazonregionofnorthern Brazil, and southern
Brazil, and onthe Pacific Coastto Peru and Bolivia.Most of Sapwoodmay be very palepink or distinctlyreddish, and it
is usuallywide. In trees up to 76 cm (30 in.) in diameter,
the woodknownas banak is V. koschnyi ofCentralAmerica heartwoodmay be only 18 cm (7 in.) in diameter.The grain
and V. surinamensisand V. sebfera ofnorthern South is straight andthetextureofthewood is uniform, compara-
America.Botanically, cuangare(Dialyanthera)is closely blewith that oftrue mahogany (Swietenia macrophy/la). On
relatedto banak,andthe woodsare so similarthat they are flat-sawn surfaces, the figureis rather subduedas a result of

- 1—19
exposureofthe narrow bands ofparenchymatissue.The sapwood, is salmonred to orange—brownwhen freshly cut
wood can be dried rapidly and easily with very little degrade. andbecomesrusset or reddishbrown whendried. The heart-
Dimensionalstability is very good—practically equalto that wood is often markedwith dark streaks.The texture is me-
oftrue mahogany. Cativo is classifiedas a nondurable wood dium to rather coarse, and the grain is mostly interlocked.
with respectto decay and insects.It may containappreciable The wood is hard and heavy (about 800 kg/rn3(50 lb/ft3)at
quantities ofgum. In wood that has been properlydried, 12% moisture content). The strengthpropertiesofcourbaril
however, the aromaticsin the gum are removedand there is arequitehigh andvery similarto those ofshagbarkhickory
no difficulty in finishing. (Carya ovata), a species oflowerspecificgravity. Courbaril
is rated as moderatelyto very resistantto attackby decay
Considerable quantitiesofcativoare used for interiorwood- fungi and dry-wood termites. The heartwoodis nottreatable,
work, and resin-stabilized veneer is an important pattern but the sapwoodis treatablewith preservatives. Courbarilis
material. Cativo is widelyusedfor furniture and cabinet moderately difficultto saw andmachinebecauseofits high
parts, lumber core forplywood, pictureframes,edgebanding density,but it canbe machinedto a smooth surface. Turn-
for doors,joinery, and millwork. ing, gluing, and finishingpropertiesare satisfactory. Planing,
however, is somewhat difficult becauseofthe interlocked
Cedro (see Spanish-Cedar) grain. Courbaril comparesfavorablywith white oak (Quercus
Cedro Macho (see Andiroba) alba) in steam bendingbehavior.
Cedro-Rana (see Tornhllo) Courbaril is used for tool handles and other applications that
requiregood shock resistance. It is also used for steam-bent
Ceiba parts, flooring, tumery, furniture and cabinetwork, veneerand
Ceiba(Ce/bapentandra)is a largetree, whichgrowsto plywood, railroadcrossties, and other specialtyitems.
66 m (200 ft) in height with a straight cylindrical bole 13 to
20 m (40 to 60 ft) long. Trunkdiametersof2 m (6 ft) or Crabwood (see Andiroba)
more are common. Ceiba growsin West Africa,fromthe
Cristobal (see Macawood)
IvoryCoast and SierraLeone to Liberia,Nigeria,and the
Congoregion.A related species is lupuna(Ceiba samauma) Cuangare (see Banak)
from SouthAmerica.
Degame
Sapwoodand heartwoodare not clearlydemarcated. The Degameor lemonwood (Calycophyllum candidissimum)
wood is whitish,palebrown, or pinkishbrown, often with growsin Cuba and ranges from southernMexicothrough
yellowishor grayish streaks. The texture is coarse, and the Central Americato Colombia and Venezuela. It may grcw in
grain is interlockedor occasionallyirregular. Ceiba is very pure stands and is common on shadedhillsidesand along
soft and light; density ofair-driedwood is 320 kg/rn3 waterways.
(20 lb/ft3). In strength,the wood is comparable with bass-
wood (Tilia americana). Ceiba dries rapidlywithout marked The heartwood ofdegame rangesfrom light brownto oat-
deterioration. It is difficult to saw cleanly and dress smoothly meal-colored and is sometimesgrayish. The sapwoodis
becauseofthe high percentage oftensionwood.Itprovides lighter in color and mergesgradually with the heartwood.
goodveneer and is easy to nail and glue. Ceiba is very The texture is fine and uniform. The grain is usually straight
susceptible to attack by decay fungi and insects.It requires or infrequently shows shallow interlocking, whichmay
rapid harvestand conversionto preventdeterioration. Treat- produce a narrowand indistinct stripe on quarteredfaces.In
ability, however, is rated as good. strength, degame is above the averagefor woodsofsimilar
density;density ofair-driedwood is 817 kg/rn3(51 lb/ft).
Ceiba is availablein large sizes,and its low density com- Tests show degame superior to persimmon(Diospyros
bined with arather high degreeofdimensionalstability make virginiana)in all respectsbut hardness.Natural durabilityis
it ideal forpattern and corestock.Otheruses includeblock- low whendegame is used under conditions favorableto
board,boxes and crates,joineiy, and furniturecomponents. stain, decay, and insect attack. However,degame is reported
to be highlyresistantto marineborers. Degameis moder-
Chewstick (see Manni) ately difficult to machine becauseof its densityand hardness,
althoughit does not dull cutting tools to any extent. Ma-
Courbaril (Jatoba) chinedsurfaces arevery smooth.
ThegenusHymenaea consistsofabout 25 species that occur
in theWest Indiesand from southernMexico through Cen- Degameis little usedin the United States,but its character-
tral Americainto the Amazonbasin ofSouthAmerica. The istics havemade it particularly adaptablefor shuttles,picker
best-knownand most importantspeciesis H. courbaril, sticks, and other textile industry items that requireresilience
whichoccursthroughoutthe range ofthe genus. Courbaril is and strength. 1)egame was onceprizedforthe manufacture of
often calledjatoba in Brazil. archery bows and fishingrods. It is also suitablefor tool
handlesand turnely.
Sapwood of courbarilis gray—whiteand usuallyquitewide.
The heartwood, whichis sharplydifferentiated from the

1—20
Determa mediumand uniform. The grain variesfrom straightto
Determa(Ocotea rubra)is native to the Guianas,Trinidad, interlockedand wavy.
and the lowerAmazonregion ofBrazil.
Goncaloalves turnsreadily,finishesvery smoothly, and
The heartwoodis light reddishbrown with agolden sheen takes a high natural polish. The heartwoodis highly resis-
and distinctfrom the dull gray or pale yellowish brown tant to moistureabsorption; pigmentedareas may present
sapwood. The texture is rather coarse, and the grain is inter- some difficulties in gluingbecauseoftheir high density. The
lockedto straight.Determais a moderatelystrong and heavy heartwoodis very durable and resistantto both white- and
wood (density ofair-driedwood is 640 to 720 kg/rn3(40 to brown-rotorganisms. The high density(1,010 kg/rn3
45 lb/ft3));this wood is moderatelydifficultto air dry. Itcan (63 lb/ft3)) ofthe air-dried wood is accompaniedby equally
be workedreadily with hand and machinetools with little high strengthvalues, which are considerably higher in most
dulling effect. It can be glued readily andpolishedfairlywell. respectsthan those ofany U.S. species. Despite its s'rength,
Theheartwoodis durable to very durable in resistance to however, goncaloalves is imported primarilyfor its beauty.
decay fungi and moderatelyresistantto dry-woodtermites. In theUnitedStates, goncaloalves has the greatest vahiefor
Weatheringcharacteristics are excellent, andthe wood is
highly resistant to moisture absorption. specialtyitemssuch as archery bows,billiardcue butts,
brushbacks, and cutleryhandles,and in turneryand carving
Uses for detennâincludefurniture,general construction, boat applications.
planking,tanks and cooperage, heavy marineconstruction,
turnery,andparquetflooring. Greenheart
Greenheart (Chiorocardium rodiei [ Ocotea rodiei]) is
Ehie (see Benge) essentiallya Guyanatree although small stands alsooccur in
Suriname.
Ekki (see Azobe)
Ekop The heartwoodvariesfrom light to dark olive green or nearly
black. The texture is fine and uniform, and the grain .s
Ekopor gola (Tetraberlinia tubmaniana)grows only in straightto wavy. Greenheart is stronger and stifferthanwhite
Liberia. oak (Quercusalba)and generally more difficultto work with
The heartwoodis light reddish brown and is distinct from tools becauseofits high density;densityofair-driedwood is
the lightercoloredsapwood,whichmaybe up to 5 cm more than 960 kg/rn3(60 lb/ft3). The heartwoodis ratd as
(2 in.) wide. The wood is mediumto coarsetextured,and very resistantto decay fungiandtermites.It is also very
thegrain is interlocked, with anarrow stripedpatternon resistantto marineborers in temperatewaters but much less
so in warmtropicalwaters.
quarteredsurfaces. The wood weighsabout 735 kg/rn3
(46 lb/ft3) at 12% moisturecontent.It dries fairlywell but Greenheart isused principally wherestrengthandresistance
with amarkedtendencyto end and surface checks.Ekop
to wear arerequired. Uses includeship and dock building,
workswell with hand and machinetools and is an excellent lock gates, wharves, piers,jetties, vats, piling, plank.ng,
wood forturnery. It also slices well into veneerand has good industrial flooring, bridges, and some specialtyitems
gluingproperties.The heartwoodis only moderatelydurable (fishingrods and billiard cue butts).
and is moderatelyresistant to impregnation with preservative
treatments.
Guatambu (see Pau Marfim)
Ekop is ageneral utility wood that is used for veneer, Guayacan (see Ipe)
plywood, and furniture components.
Hura
Encino (see Oak) Hura (Hura crepitans)growsthroughoutthe West Indies
Gola (see Ekop) from CentralAmericato northernBrazil andBolivia.
Goncalo Alves It is a large tree, commonly reachinga height of30 to 43 m
Mostimportsofgoncaloalves (Astronium graveolensand (90 to 130 ft), with clear boles of 12 to 23 m (40 to 75 fi).
A.fraxinjfolium)have beenfrom Brazil. These species range The diameteroftenreaches ito 1.5 m (3 to 5 ft) and occa-
from southern Mexico throughCentralAmericainto the sionallyto 3 m (9 ft).
Amazonbasin.
The pale yellowish-brown or pale olive-gray heartwocdis
Freshly cut heartwoodis russet brown, orange—brown, or indistinctfrom the yellowish-white sapwood. The texaire is
reddishbrown to red with narrowto wide, irregular, me- fine to medium and the grain straightto interlocked. Hurais
dium-to very-darkbrown stripes. After exposure to air, the a low-strength and low-density wood (densityofair-dried
heartwoodbecomesbrown,red, or dark reddishbrownwith wood is 240 to 448 kg/rn3(15 to 28 lb/ft3)); the wood is
nearly black stripes. The sapwoodis grayishwhite and moderately difficult to air dry. Warping is variableand some-
sharply demarcatedfrom the heartwood. The textureis fme to timessevere. The wood usuallymachineseasily, but green
material is somewhat difficult to work becauseoftension

1—21

ft
wood, whichresultsin a fuzzy surface. The woodfinishes Ipe is used almostexclusively for heavy-dutyand durable
well and is easy to glue and nail. Hura is variablein resis- construction. Becauseofits hardness and good dimensional
tance to attack by decay fungi,but it is highlysusceptible to stability, it is particularlywell suited forheavy-dutyflooring
blue stainandvery susceptibleto wood termites. However, intrucks and boxcars. It is also used for decks,railroad
thewood is easy to treat with preservative. crossties, turnely,tool handles,decorativeveneers,and some
specialty itemsin textile mills.
Hura is often used in generalcarpentry, boxes and crates,and
lowergrade furniture. Otherimportant uses are veneerand
Ipil (see Merbau)
plywood, fiberboard,and particleboard.
Iroko
Ilomba Irokoconsistsoftwo species(Miliciaexcelsa [= Chioro-
Ilomba (Pycnanthusangolensis)is atree ofthe rainforestand phora excelsa] and M. regia[ C. regia]). Miliciaexceisa
rangesfrom Guineaand SierraLeonethroughtropical West growsacross the entirewidthoftropicalAfricafrom the Ivory
AfricatoUganda and Angola. Commonnames include Coast southward to Angolaand eastwardto EastAfrica.
pycnanthus,walele, and otie. Miliciaregia, however, is limitedto extremeWest Africa
from Gambiato Ghana; it is less resistant to droughtthan is
The wood is grayish white to pinkish brown and, in some M excelsa.
trees, auniform light brown. There is generallyno distinc-
tion betweenheartwoodand sapwood. The texture is me- The heartwoodvariesfrom a pale yellowishbrownto dark
dium to coarse, and the grain is generallystraight. This chocolatebrownwith lightmarkingsoccurringmost con-
species is generallysimilarto banak (Virola) but has a spicuously on flat-sawnsurfaces;the sapwoodis yellowish
coarsertexture. Air-drydensityis about 512 kg/rn3 white. The texture is mediumto coarse,and the grain is
(31 lb/ft3), and thewood is about as strong as yellow-poplar typically interlocked. Iroko can be workedeasily with hand
(Liriodendrontulipjfera). Ilombadries rapidlybut is prone ormachinetools butwith some tearing ofinterlockedgrain.
to collapse,warp, and splits. It is easily sawn and can be Occasional deposits ofcalciumcarbonate severelydamage
workedwell with hand and machine tools. It is excellentfor cutting edges. The wood dries rapidly with little or no
veneerand has goodgluing and nailingcharacteristics. Green degrade. The strengthis similar to that ofred male
wood is subjectto insect and fungal attack. Logsrequire (Acer rubrum),andthe weight is about 688 kg/m (43 lb/ft3)
rapid extractionand conversionto avoid degrade. Both at 12% moisture content. The heartwoodis very resistantto
sapwood andheartwoodarepermeable and can be treated decay fungi and resistant totermite andmarine borer attack.
with preservatives.
Because ofits color anddurability, iroko has been suggested
In the United States, this species is used only in the form of as a substitutefor teak(Tectonagrandis). Its durability
plywood for generalutility purposes.However, ilombais makes it suitablefor boat building, piles, other marine work,
defmitelysuited for furniturecomponents, interiorjoinery, andrailroadcrossties. Otheruses includejoinery,flooring,
andgeneral utility purposes. furniture, veneer, and cabinetwork.

Jacaranda (see Rosewood, Brazilian)


Ipe
Ipe, the commonnameforthe lapachogroup ofthe genus Jarrah
Tabebuia, consistsofabout 20 species oftrees and occurs in Jarrah(Eucalyptusmarginata) is nativeto the coastalbelt of
practicallyevery Latin Americacountryexcept Chile. Other southwestern Australiaand is one ofthe principalspeciesfor
commonly usednames are guayacan and lapacho. that country's sawmillindustry.
Sapwoodis relativelywide, yellowishgray orgray—brown, The heartwoodis a uniform pink to dark red, often turning
and sharplydifferentiated from heartwood, whichis light to to deepbrownishred with age and exposureto air. The
dark olive brown. The texture is fme to medium.The grain sapwoodis pale and usually very narrow in old trees. The
is straight to very irregularand oftennarrowlyinterlocked. texture is evenandmoderatelycoarse,and the grain is fre-
The wood is very heavy and averages about 1,025 kg/rn3
quently interlockedor wavy. The wood weighs about
(64 lb/ft3)at 12% moisture content. Thoroughly air-dried 865 kg/rn3 (54 lb/fl3) at 12% moisture content.The common
heartwoodspecimensgenerallysink in water. Because ofits defects ofjarrah include gum veins orpockets,which in
high densityand hardness,ipe is moderatelydifficultto extreme instances, separatethe log into concentricshells.
machine,but glassy smooth surfaces can be produced. Ipe is Jarrah is a heavy, hard timberpossessingcorrespondingly
very strong; in the air-driedcondition,it is comparable with high strengthproperties. It is resistant to attack by termites
greenheart(Chlorocardiumrodiel).Hardnessis two tothree andrated as very durablewith respectto decay.The wood is
timesthat ofwhite oak(Quercus alba) orkeruing (Diptero- difficult to work with hand and machine tools becauseofits
carpus). The wood is highly resistant to decay and insects, high density and irregulargrain.
includingboth subterranean and dry-wood termites, but
susceptibleto marine borer attack.The heartwoodis imper- Jarrah is used for deckingand underframing ofpiers,jetties,
meable,but the sapwoodcan be readilytreatedwith and bridges, as well as pilesand fendersfor docks and
preservatives.

1—22
harbors.As flooring, jarrahhas high resistance to wear,but it 12% moisturecontent. Strength propertiesare simiIar to
is inclinedto splinterunderheavy traffic. Itis also used for those ofkeruingatcomparable specificgravity. The heart-
railroadcrossties and other heavyconstruction. wood is rated resistantto attack by decay fungi;it i:; reported
to be vulnerable to termites. Kapur is extremelyresistantto
Jatoba (see Courbaril) preservative treatment.The woodworks with moderateease
in most hand and machineoperations,but bluntingofcutters
Jelutong
may be severe becauseofsilicacontent, particularly whenthe
Jelutong(Dyeracostulata)is an important species in Malay- dry woodis machined. A goodsurfacecan be obtainedfrom
sia where it is bestknown for its latex production in the variousmachiningoperations, but there is atendencytoward
manufacture ofchewinggum ratherthan for itswood. raisedgrain ifdull cuttersare used.Kapur takes nail[s and
screws satisfactorily. The wood glueswell with ureaformal-
The wood iswhite or strawcolored,and there is no differen-
dehyde but not with phenolicadhesives.
tiationbetween heartwoodand sapwood. The texture is
moderatelyfine and even. The grain is straight,and luster is Kapurprovidesgood and very durable construction wood
low. The wood weighs about 465 kg/rn3 (28 lb/fl3) at 12% and is suitable for all purposesfor whichkeruing
moisture content. The wood is very easy to dry with little (Dipterocarpus)is used in the United States.In addition,
tendencyto split or warp,but stainingmay cause trouble. It kapur is extensively used in plywoodeitheralone or with
is easy to work in all operations,finisheswell, and glues species ofShorea (lauan—meranti).
satisfactorily. The wood is rated as nondurablebut readily
permeable to preservatives. Karri
Becauseofits low density and easeofworking, jelutong is Karri (Eucalyptus diversicolor) is a very large tree limited to
well suited for sculptureand patternmaking,woodenshoes, southwestern Australia.
pictureframes,and drawing boards. Karriresembles jarrah (E. marginata)in structure ard general
appearance. It is usually paler in color and, on average,
Jequitiba (see Albarco) slightly heavier (913 kg/rn3(57 lb/fl3)) at 12% moisture
Kakaralli (see Manbarkiak) content. Karri is a heavyhardwoodwith mechanicalproper-
ties ofa correspondingly high order, evensomewhai higher
Kaneelhart thanthat ofjarrah. The heartwoodis rated as moderately
Kaneelhartor brownsilverballiare names appliedto the durable,though less so than that ofjarrah. It is extremely
genus Licaria. Species ofthis genus grow mostly in New difficulttotreat with preservatives. The wood is fairLy hard
GuineaandPapauNew Guinea and are found in association to machineand difficultto cut with hand tools. It is gener-
with greenheart(Chiorocardiumrodiei) on hilly terrain and ally more resistantto cutting than isjarrahand has a slightly
wallaba(Eperua)in forests. more dulling effecton tool edges.
The orangeor brownishyellowheartwooddarkensto yel- Karriis inferior tojarrah forunderground use and water-
lowishorcoffee brown on exposureto air. Thewood is works. However, where flexural strength is required, such as
sometimestinged with red or violet. The texture is fine to in bridges, floors, rafters, and beams, karri is an excellent
medium, and the grain is straightto slightly interlocked. wood. Karri is popularin heavy construction becauseofits
The wood has a fragrantodor, which is lost in drying. strengthand availabilityin large sizes and long lengths that
Kaneelhartis a very strong and very heavywood (densityof arefree ofdefects.
air-driedwood is 833 to 1,153 kg/rn3 (52 to 72 lb/fl3));the
wood is difficultto work. It cuts smoothlyand takes an Kauta (see Marishballi)
excellentfinishbut requfres care in gluing. Kaneelharthas
excellentresistance to both brown- andwhite-rotfungi andis Kempas
also rated very high in resistanceto dry-wood termites. Kempas (Koompassiamalaccensis)is distributedthroughout
the lowlandforestin rather swampyareas ofMalaysiaand
Uses ofkaneelhartinclude furniture, turnery,boat building, Indonesia.
heavy construction, andparquetflooring.
Whenexposed to air, the freshlycutbrick-redheartwood
Kapur darkens to an orange—red orred—brown with numerous yel-
low—brown streaks as aresult ofthe soft tissue(axialparen-
The genus Dryobalanopsconsistsofnine species distributed
over parts ofMalaysiaand Indonesia. For the exporttrade, chyma) associatedwith the pores. The texture is rather
thespecies arecombined under the namekapur. coarse, and the grain is typicallyinterlocked. Kempasis a
hard, heavy wood (densityofair-driedwood is 880 kg/rn3
The heartwoodis reddishbrownand clearly demarcatedfrom (55 lb/ft3));the wood is difficultto work with hand and
thepale sapwood.The wood is fairly coarsetextured but machine tools. The wood dries well, with some tendencyto
uniform. In general,the wood resembles keruing warp and check. The heartwoodis resistant to attack by
(Dipterocarpus),but on the whole, kapur is straighter decay fungibut vulnerable to termiteactivity.However, it
grainedand not quiteas coarse in texture. Densityofthe treatsreadilywith preservative retentionas high as
wood averages about 720 to 800 kglm3 (45 to 50 lb/fl3) at 320 kg/rn3 (20 lb/ft3).

1—23
Kempasis ideal for heavyconstruction work, railroad Lignumvitae is one ofthe heaviestand hardestwoodson the
crossties, and flooring. market. The wood is characterizedby its unique green color
and oily orwaxy feel. The wood has a fine uniformtexture
Keruing (Apitong) and closelyinterlockedgrain. Its resin contentmay consti-
Keruing or apitong(Dipterocarpus)is widely scattered tute upto one-fourth ofthe air-driedweightofthe heartwood.
throughoutthe Indo-Malaysian region.Most ofthe more
than 70 speciesin this genus are marketedunderthe name Lignumvitae wood is used chiefly for bearingor bushing
keruing.Other importantspeciesare marketedas apitong in blocks for ship propellershafts.The greatstrengthand tenac-
the PhilippineIslands and yang in Thailand. ity oflignumvitae, combined with self-lubricating properties
resulting from the high resin content,make it especially
The heartwoodvaries from light to dark red—brownor brown adaptable for underwater use. It is also used for such articles
to dark brown,sometimeswith apurple tint; theheartwood as mallets, pulley sheaves, caster wheels, stencil and chisel
is usually well defined from thegray orbuff-colored blocks, and turnedproducts.
sapwood. Similarto kapur (Dryobalanops),the texture of
keruing is moderatelycoarseand the grain is straight or Limba
shallowly interlocked. The wood is strong,hard, and heavy Limba (Terminaliasuperba), alsoreferredto as afara,is
(density ofair-driedwood is 720 to 800 kg/rn3 (45 to widely distributedfrom SierraLeone to Angolaand Zaire in
50 lbfft3));thiswood is characterized by the presenceofresin the rainforestandsavannaforest.Limbais alsofavored as a
ducts, whichoccur singlyor in short arcs as seen on end- plantation species in West Africa.
grain surfaces. This resinous condition andthe presence of
silicacan presenttroublesome problems.Sapwood and The heartwoodvariesfrom gray—whiteto creamyor yellow
heartwoodare moderatelyresistantto preservative treatments. brownandmay containdark streaksthat are nearly black,
However,the wood should be treatedwith preservatives producing an attractive figurethat is valuedfor decorative
when it is used in contactwith the ground. Durability varies veneer. The light color ofthe wood is consideredan impor-
with species,butthe wood is generallyclassified as moder- tant asset forthe manufacture ofblond furniture. The wood is
ately durable.Keruing generallytakes to sawingand machin- generally straight grained and ofuniformbut coarsetexture.
ing, particularlywhen green, but saws and cutters dull easily The wood is easy to dry and shrinkageis reported to be
as a result ofhigh silica content in thewood.Resin adheres rather low. Limbais not resistantto decay, insects,or ter-
to machineryand tools and may be troublesome. Also, resin mites. It is easy to work with all types oftools and is made
may cause gluingandfmishingdifficulties. into veneerwithoutdifficulty.

Keruing is used forgeneralconstruction work,framework for Principaluses includeplywood, furniture,interiorjoinery,


boats, flooring, pallets, chemicalprocessing equipment, and sliced decorative veneer.
veneerand plywood, railroadcrossties(iftreated), truck
floors,and boardwalks. Macacauba (see Macawood)
Macawood (Trebol)
Khaya (see Mahogany, African)
Macawood and trebol are common names appliedto species
Kokrodua(see Afrormosia) inthe genus Platymiscium. Other common names include
Korina(see Limba) cristobaland macacauba. This genus is distributedacross
continental tropicalAmericafrom southernMexicotothe
Krabak (see Mersawa) Brazilian Amazonregion and Trinidad.
KwiIa (see Merbau) The bright red to reddish or purplish brown heartwoodis
Lapacho (see Ipe) more or less striped.Darker specimenslook waxy, and the
sapwoodis sharplydemarcatedfrom the heartwood. The
Lapuna (see Ceiba) texture is mediumto fine, and the grain is straightto curly
Lauan (see Meranti Groups) or striped.The wood is not very difficultto work, and it
finishessmoothlyand takes on a high polish. Generally,
Lemonwood (see Degame) macawood air dries slowlywith a slight tendencyto warp
and check. Strength is quitehigh, and densityof air-dried
Lignumvitae wood rangesfrom 880 to 1,170kg/rn3 (55 to 73 lb/ft3). The
Formany years, the only speciesoflignumvitaeused on a heartwoodis reportedto be highly resistantto attack by
large scalewas Gualacumofficinale, whichis nativeto the decay fungi, insects, and dry-woodtermites. Althoughthe
West Indies, northernVenezuela,northernColombia, and
Panama. Withthe near exhaustion ofG. officinale, harvest- sapwoodabsorbspreservatives well,the heartwoodis resis-
tant to treatment.
ers turnedto G. sanctum,which is nowthe principalcom-
mercialspecies.Guaiacumsanctum occupies the same range Macawood is a fine furniture and cabinet wood. It is also
as G. officinalebut is more extensiveand includesthe used in decorative veneers, musical instruments, turnery,
Pacific side ofCentralAmericaas well as southern Mexico. joinery, and specialtyitems such as violin bows and
billiardcues.

1—24
Machinmango (see Manbarkiak) rotarycutsinto fme veneerwithout difficulty. It alsois easy
to finishandtakes an excellentpolish. The air-driedstrength
Mahogany ofAmerican mahogany is similarto that ofAmerican elm
The namemahoganyis presently applied to severaldistinct (Ulmus americana).Density ofair-driedwood varies from
kindsofcommercial wood. The original mahoganywood, 480 to 833 kg/rn3(30 to 52 lb/fl3).
producedbySwieteniamahagoni,camefromthe American
West Indies. This was the premierwood for fine furniture The principal uses formahogany are fine furniture and
cabinetwork and shipbuilding in Europeas earlyas the cabinets, interiorwoodwork, pattern woodwork, boat con-
1600s. Becausethe good reputationassociatedwith the name struction, fancy veneers, musicalinstruments, precision
mahoganyis based on this wood, American mahoganyis instruments, paneling, turnery,carving,and many other uses
sometimes referredto as truemahogany. A relatedAfrican that call for an attractive and dimensionallystable wood.
wood, ofthe genus Khaya, has long been marketedas
"Africanmahogany"and isusedformuch the same purposes Mahogany, Philippine (see MerantiGroups)
as American mahoganybecauseofits similarproperties and
overallappearance. A thirdkind ofwood calledmahogany, Manbarkiak
and the one most commonlyencounteredin the market,is Manbarklak is a commonnameappliedto species in the
"Philippinemahogany."This name is appliedto a group of genus Eschweilera. Othernamesincludekakarallimachin-
Asian woodsbelongingto the genus Shorea. In this chapter, mango,and mata—mata. About 80 species ofthis genus are
information on the "Philippinemahoganies"is given under distributed from easternBrazilthroughthe Amazonbasin,to
lauanand meranti groups. the Guianas,Trinidad,and Costa Rica.
Mahogany, African—Thebulk of"Africanmahogany" The heartwoodofmost species is light,grayish,reddish
shipped from west—central Africais Khayaivorensis, the brown,or brownish buff. The textureis fine and uniibrm, and
most widely distributedandplentiful species ofthe genus the grain is typically straight. Manbarklak is a very hard and
found in the coastalbelt ofthe so-called high forest. The heavywood (density ofair-driedwoodrangesfrom 768 to
closely allied species K anthothecahas amore restricted 1,185 kg/rn3 (48 to 74 lb/fl3))that is rated as fairlydifficultto
range and is found farther inlandinregionsoflowerrainfall dry. Most species are difficultto work becauseofthe high
but well withinthearea now being used fortheexporttrade. density and high silica content. Most speciesare highly
resistantto attackby decay fungi. Also, most specieshave
The heartwoodvariesfrom pale pink to dark reddish brown. gainedwide recognition for their high degreeofresisLanceto
The grain is frequentlyinterlocked, andthe texture is me- marineborer attack. Resistance to dry-woodtermite attack is
dium to coarse, comparablewith that ofAmerican mahogany variabledepending on species.
(Swieteniamacrophylla).The wood is easy to thy, but
machiningproperties are rather variable. Nailingand gluing Manbarklak is an ideal wood for marineand other hetvy
propertiesare good, and an excellentfinish is readilyob- construction uses. It is also used for industrial flooring, mill
tained. The wood is easy to slice and peel. In decay resis- equipment, railroad crossties, piles, and turnery.
tance, African mahogany is generally ratedas moderately
durable,whichis belowthe durabilityrating for American Manni
mahogany. Manni (Symphoniaglobul([era) is nativeto the West Indies,
Mexico, and Central, North, and South America. It lso
Principal usesforAfricanmahogany include furniture and occurs in tropicalWest Africa.Othernames include ossol
cabinetwork, interiorwoodwork, boat construction, and
veneer. (Gabon), anani (Brazil), waika(Africa), and chewstick
(Belize), anameacquiredbecauseofits use as aprimitive
Mahogany, American—True,American,or Honduras toothbrush and flossingtool.
mahogany(Swietenia macrophylla)rangesfrom southern The heartwoodis yellowish, grayish,orgreenishbrown and
Mexico through CentralAmericainto South Americaas far
southas Bolivia. Plantations have been established within is distinctfrom the whitish sapwood. The texture is coarse
its natural range and elsewherethroughoutthe tropics. andthe grain straightto irregular. The wood is very easy to
work with both hand andmachinetoots, but surfaces tend to
Theheartwoodvaries from palepink or salmon colored to roughenin planingand shaping.Manniair-driesrapidlywith
dark reddishbrown.The grain is generallystraighterthan only moderatewarpand checking. Its strengthis similarto
that ofAfricanmahogany(Khciyaivorensis); however, a wide that ofhickory(Carya),and the density ofair-driedwood is
varietyofgrain patternsare obtainedfrom American mahog- 704 kg/rn3 (44 lb/ft3). The heartwoodis durable in ground
any. The texture is rather fine to coarse. American mahogany contactbut only moderatelyresistantto dry-woodand sub-
is easily air orkilndried withoutappreciablewarp or checks, terraneantermites. The wood is rated as resistantto treat-
and it has excellentdimensional stability. It is rated as mentwith preservatives.
durablein resistance to decay fungiand moderately resistant
to dry-wood termites. Both heartwoodand sapwoodare Manniis a general purposewood that is used forrailroad
resistantto treatment with preservatives. The wood is very ties, general construction, cooperage, furniturecomponents,
easy to work with hand and machinetools, and it slices and flooring, and utility plywood.

1—25

is
Marishballi All merantishave axial resin ducts alignedin long, continu-
Marishballi is the commonname appliedto species ofthe ous, tangential linesas seen on the end surfaceofthe wood.
genus Licania. Othernames includekautaand anaura. Spe- These ducts sometimes containwhite depositsthat are visi-
cies ofLicania are widelydistributedin tropical Americabut bleto thenaked eye, butthe wood is notresinous like some
most abundant inthe Guianas andthe lowerAmazonregion keruing(Dipterocarpus)species that resemblemeranti. All
ofBrazil. themerantigroups are machinedeasilyexceptwhite meranti,
which dulls cuttersas a result ofhigh silica content in the
The heartwoodis generallya yellowishto dark brown, wood. The light red and white merantisdry easily without
sometimeswith areddish tinge. The texture is fme and degrade,but dark red and yellowmerantisdry more slowly
close, and the grain is usually straight. Marishballiis strong with atendencyto warp.The strengthand shrinkageproper-
and very heavy;densityofair-driedwood is 833 to ties ofthe merantigroupscompare favorably with that of
1,153 kg/rn3 (52 to 72 lb/ft3). The wood is rated as easy to northernred oak (Quercus rubra). The light red, white, and
moderatelydifficultto air dry. Becauseofits high density yellowmerantisare not durablein exposedconditions or in
and silica content, marishballiis difficultto work. The use of groundcontact, whereas darkred merantiis moderately
hardenedcutters is suggested to obtain smoothsurfaces. durable.Generally, heartwoodis extremelyresistantto mod-
Durabilityvaries with species,but marishballi is generally eratelyresistantto preservativetreatments.
consideredto have low to moderately low resistance to attack
by decayfungi. However,it is knownfor its high resistance Species ofmeranticonstitute a large percentage ofthe total
to attack bymarine borers. Permeability also varies, but the hardwoodplywoodimportedinto the UnitedStates. Other
heartwoodis generallymoderately responsiveto treatment. uses includejoinery,furnitureand cabinetwork, moulding
and millwork,flooring, andgeneral construction. Some dark
Marishballiis ideal for underwatermarine construction, red meranti is usedfor decking.
heavy construction above ground, andrailroadcrossties
(treated). Merbau
Merbau(Malaysia),ipil (Philippines), and kwila (New
Mata—Mata (see Manbarklak) Guinea)are names appliedto species ofthe genus Intsic,
most commonlyI. b/uga. Intsia is distributedthroughout
Mayflower (see Roble) the Indo—Malaysianregion,Indonesia,Philippines,and
Melapi (see Meranti Groups) many westernPacificislands,as well as Australia.
Meranti Groups Freshly cut yellowish to orange—brownheartwoodturns
Merantiis acommonname appliedcommercially to four brown or dark red—brown on exposureto air. Thetexture is
groupsofspecies ofShorea from southeast Asia,most com- rather coarse, and the grain is straight to interlockedor wavy.
monly Malaysia,Indonesia,and the Philippines. There are The strength ofair-driedmerbauis comparablewith that of
thousandsofcommonnames for the various species of hickory (Carva), but density is somewhatlower (800 kg/rn3
Shorea, but the names Philippinemahoganyand lauan are (50 lb/ft3) at 12% moisturecontent).The wood dries well
often substituted for meranti. The four groups ofmerantiare with little degradebut stainsblack in the presenceofiron
separated onthe basis ofheartwoodcolor and weight(Table andmoisture. Merbauis rather difficultto saw because it
1—3). About 70 species ofShorea belongto the light and sticksto saw teeth and dulls cutting edges.However,the
dark red meranti groups,22 speciesto the white meranti wood dresses smoothly in most operations and finisheswell.
group, and 33 speciesto the yellowmeranti group. Merbau has gooddurabilityand high resistanceto termite
attack. The heartwoodresists treatment,but the sapwoodcan
Merantispecies as awholehave a coarser texturethanthat of be treatedwith preservatives.
mahogany (Swieteniamacrophylla) and do nothave dark-
coloreddeposits in pores. The grain is usuallyinterlocked.

Table 1—3. Woods belonging to Shorea and Parashoreagenera


Name Color Density of air-dried wood
Dark red meranti (also called Dark brown; medium to deep red, some- 640+ kg/rn3 (40+ lbIft3)
tanguile and dark red seraya) times with a purplishtinge

Light red meranti (also called Variable—from almost white to pale pink, 400 to 640 kg/rn3, averaging 512 kg/rn3
red seraya) dark red, pale brown, ordeep brown (25 to 40 lb/fl3, averaging 32 lb/fl3)
White meranti (also called rnelapi) Whitishwhen freshly cut, becoming light 480 to 870 kg/rn3 (30 to 54 lb/ft3)
yellow-brownon exposureto air
Yellow meranti (also called yellow Light yelloworyellow-brown, sometimes with 480 to 640 kg/rn3 (30 to 40 lb/fl3)
seraya) a greenish tinge; darkens on exposure to air

1—26
Merbauis used in furniture,finejoinery,turnery,cabinets, Guatemala; the number diminishes southwardto Colombia,
flooring,musical instruments, and specialtyitems. whichhas two species. The usual Spanishname appliedto
the oaks is encino or roble,and both namesareused.inter-
Mersawa changeably irrespective ofspecies oruse ofthe wood.
Mersawais one ofthe common namesappliedto the genus In heartwoodcolor, texture, andgrain characteristics, tropical
Anisoptera,which has about 15 species distributedfromthe oaks are similarto the oaks in the UnitedStates, especially
PhilippineIslands and Malaysiato east Pakistan. Names live oak (Quercusvirginiana).In most cases,tropical oaks
appliedtothis wood vary with the source, and threenames are heavier(densityofair-driedwood is 704 to 993 kg/rn3
are generallyused inthe lumbertrade:krabak(Thailand),
mersawa(Malaysia), and palosapis(Philippines). (44 to 62 lb/fl3))than the U.S. species.Strengthdataare
available foronly four species, and the valuesfall between
Mersawa wood is light in color andhas amoderatelycoarse those ofwhite oak (Q. alba) and live oak(Q. virginana)or
texture. Freshlysawn heartwoodis pale yellowor yellowish are equaltothose oflive oak. Average specific gravilyfor the
brown and darkens on exposureto air. Somewoodmay tropical oaks is 0.72 basedon volumewhengreen and
show a pinkish cast or pink streaks, butthese eventually ovendry weight, with an observedmaximumaverage of0.86
for one species from Guatemala. Theheartwoodis rated as
disappearon exposure to air. The wood weighsbetween544
and 752 kg/rn3(34 and 47 lb/ft3) at 12% moisturecontent very resistantto decay fungianddifficultto treat with
and about 945 kg/rn3 (59 lb/ft3)when green.The sapwoodis preservatives.
susceptible to attack bypowderpostbeetles,and the heart- Utilizationofthe tropical oaks is very limitedat present
wood is not resistant to termites. The heartwoodis ratedas becauseofdifficulties encountered in the drying ofthe wood.
moderatelyresistantto fiurgal decay and shouldnot be used Themajorvolumeis used in theform ofcharcoal,bit the
under conditions that favor decay.The heartwooddoes not wood is used for flooring, railroadcrossties, mine timbers,
absorb preservativesolutionsreadily. The wood machines tight cooperage, boat and ship construction, and decorative
easily,but becauseofthe presence ofsilica,the wood se- veneers.
verely dulls the cuttingedges ofordinary tools and is very
hard on saws. Obeche
Obeche (TrIplochitonscieroxylon) treesofwest—central Africa
Themajor volumeofmersawawill probablybe used as
reacha height of50 m (150 ft) or more and a diameter ofup
plywoodbecauseconversioninthis form presents considera- to 2 m (5 ft). The trunk is usuallyfree ofbranchesfor a
bly less difficultythan does theproduction oflumber. considerable height so that clear lumberofconsiderable size
Mora can be obtained.
Mora (Mora excelsaand M gonggr/pii) is widely distrib- The wood is creamywhite to pale yellowwith little or no
utedinthe Guianas andalso occursin theOrinoco Deltaof difference betweensapwood and heartwood. The wocd is
Venezuela. fairlysoft, ofuniformmedium to coarsetexture, and the grain
is usually interlockedbut sometimes straight. Air-drywood
Theyellowishred—brown,reddishbrown, or dark red heart-
wood with pale streaksis distinctfrom the yellowishto pale weighsabout 385 kg/rn3(24 lb/ft3). Obeche dries readily
with little degrade.It is not resistantto decay, and green
brown sapwood. The texture is moderatelyfmeto rather sapwoodis subjectto blue stain. The wood is easy to work
coarse,and the grain is straight to interlocked. Mora is a and machine, veneers and glues well,and takes nails and
strong and heavy wood (densityofair-driedwood is 945 to screwswithout splitting.
1,040 kg/rn3 (59 to65 lb/fl3)); this wood is moderately
difficultto work but yields smoothsurfaces in sawing, plan- The characteristics ofobeche make it especiallysuitable for
ing, turning, and boring. The wood is generally rated as veneerand corestock. Otherusesincludefurniture,compo-
moderatelydifficultto dry. Mora isratedas durable to very nents,millwork, blockboard, boxes and crates,partic[eboard
durablein resistance to brown- and white-rot fungi.Mbra and fiberboard, patterns, and artificial limbs.
gonggrjjpiiis rated very resistantto dry-woodtermites, but
M excelsais considerablyless resistant. The sapwoodre- Ofram (see Limba)
spondsreadily to preservativetreatments,but the heartwood
resists treatment. Okoume
Thenaturaldistributionofokourne (Aucoumea klaineana)is
Mora is used for industrialflooring, railroadcrossties, ship- ratherrestricted; the species is found only in west—central
building,and heavy construction. Africa and Guinea. However, okoumeis extensively planted
throughout its natural range.
Oak (Tropical)
The oaks (Quercus)are abundantly representedin Mexico The heartwoodis salmon-pink in color,and the narrow
and CentralAmericawith about 150 species,whichare sapwoodis whitish or pale gray. The wood has a high luster
nearly equallydividedbetweenthe red andwhite oak groups. and uniform texture.The texture is slightly coarserthan that
Morethan 100 species occur in Mexicoand about25 in ofbirch (Betula). The nondurableheartwooddries readily
with little degrade. Sawn lumber is somewhat difficu't to

1—27
machinebecauseofthe silica content, but the wood glues, specific gravity, strength valuesarehigher thanthose ofsugar
nails, and peels into veneereasily. Okoumeoffers unusual maple, whichhas anaveragespecific gravityof0.56.
flexibility in fmishingbecausethe color,which is ofmedium
intensity, permitstoning to eitherlighter or darkershades. In its areas of growth, paumarfirnis used for much thesame
purposesas are sugarmaple and birch inthe United States.
In the UnitedStates,okoume is generallyusedfor decorative Introduced to the U.S. market in the late 1960s, pau martirn
plywood paneling,general utility plywood,and doors. has beenvery wellreceived and is especially esteemedfor
Otheruses include furniture components, joinery, and light tumery.
construction.
Peroba, White (see Peroba de Campos)
Opepe Peroba de Campos
Opepe (Nauclea diderrichii)is widelydistributed inAfrica Perobade campos (Paratecomaperoba),also referredto as
from SierraLeone to the Congoregionand eastwardto
white peroba, grows inthe coastalforests ofeasternBrazil,
Uganda.It is often found in pure stands.
ranging from Bahia to Rio de Janeiro. It is the only species
The orangeor goldenyellowheartwooddarkens on exposure in the genusParatecoma.
to air and is clearlydefmed from thewhitishor pale yellow The heartwoodvariesin color but is generallyshadesof
sapwood. The texture is rather coarse, and thegrain is usu- brownwith tendenciestoward olive and red. The sapwoodis
ally interlocked or irregular.The density ofair-driedwood a yellowish gray and is clearly definedfrom theheartwood.
(752 kg/rn3(47 lb/ft3)) is about the same as that oftrue hick- The textureis relatively fme andapproximates that ofbirch
ory (Carya),but strengthpropertiesare somewhat lower. (Betula).The grain is commonly interlocked, with a narrow
Quartersawn stock dries rapidlywith little checking or warp,
but flat-sawnlumbermaydevelopconsiderable degrade. The stripe orwavy figure. The wood machineseasily; howeer,
wood worksmoderatelywellwith hand and machine tools. particularcaremust betaken in planingto preventexcessive
It also glues and finishes satisfactorily. The heartwoodis grain tearing ofquartered surfaces. There is some evidence
ratedas very resistantto decay andmoderatelyresistantto that the fme dust from machiningoperations may produce
termite attacks. The sapwoodis permeable to preservatives, allergic responses in certain individuals.Densityofair-dried
wood averages about 738 kg/m3 (46 lb/ft3). Perobade cam-
but the heartwoodis moderatelyresistantto preservative
treatment. pos is heavierthan teak (Tectonagrandis) or white oak
(Quercusalba), and it is proportionately stronger than either
Opepe is a general constructionwood that is used in dock
ofthese species. The heartwoodofperobade campos is rated
and marine work, boat building, railroadcrossties, flooring, as very durable with respectto decayand difficult totreat
andfurniture. with preservatives.
In Brazil, perobade camposis used in themanufacture offme
Ossol (see Manni)
furniture,flooring, and decorative paneling. The principaluse
Otie (see Ilomba) in theUnitedStatesis shipbuilding, where perobade cam-
pos servesas substitute forwhite oak (Quercusalba)for all
Ovangkol (see Benge) purposesexceptbent members.
Palosapis (see Mersawa)
Peroba Rosa
Para—Angetim (see Sucupira) Peroba rosais the common name appliedto anumber of
Pau Marfim similar species in the genusAspidosperma.Thesespecies
Therangeofpau marfim(Balfourodendron riedelianum) is occur in southeastern Braziland parts ofArgentina.
rather limited,extendingfrom the State ofSao Paulo, Brazil,
into Paraguayand the provincesofCorrientes and Missiones The heartwoodis a distinctive rose-redto yellowish, often
ofnorthernArgentina. In Brazil, it is generallyknown as pau variegated or streakedwith purpleor brown, andbecomes
marfimand in Argentinaand Paraguay, as guatambu. brownishyellowto dark brownupon exposureto air; the
heartwoodis oftennot demarcated from the yellowish sap-
In color andgeneral appearance, pau marfimwood is very wood. The texture is fme and uniform, and the grain is
similarto birch (Betula)or sugarmaple(Acersaccharum) straight to irregular. The wood is moderatelyheavy; weight
sapwood.Althoughgrowth rings are present,they do not ofair-driedwood is 752 kg/rn3(47 lb/ft3). Strengthproperties
show as distinctlyas those in birch and maple. There is no are comparable with those ofU.S. oak (Quercus).Thewood
apparentdifference in color between heartwood and sapwood. dries with little checkingor splitting. It works with moder-
The wood is straightgrained and easy to work and finish, ate ease,and it gluesandfmishessatisfactorily. The heart-
but it is not consideredresistantto decay.In Brazil, average wood is resistantto decay fungi but susceptible to dry-wood
specific gravityofpau marfimis about 0.73 basedon volume termite attack. Although the sapwoodtakes preservative
ofgreenwood and ovendiyweight.Averagedensity ofair- treatment moderatelywell, theheartwoodresists treatment.
dried wood is about 802 kg/rn3(50 lb/ft3). On the basis of

1—28

at
Perobais suitedfor generalconstruction work and is favored limitedbecauseofits rather restrictedrange and relative
for fine furniture and cabinetwork and decorative veneers. scarcity ofnaturally growntrees. Recentplantations have
Otheruses include flooring, interiorwoodwork, sashesand increased the availability ofthis species andhave provideda
doors, and turneiy. more constantsource ofsupply.The quality ofthe rilanta-
tion-grown wood is equal in all respectsto the wood ob-
Pilon tainedfrom naturallygrowntrees.
The two main speciesofpilon are Hyeronimaalchorneoides The heartwoodis whitish to straw-yellow, and in some logs,
and H. lax?flora, also referredto as suradan. These species it may be tinted with pale brown or pinkishstreaks, The
range from southernMexicoto southernBrazilincluding the texture ismediumto rather coarse,andthe grain is straight
Guianas,Peru, and Colombia. Pilon species are also found to wavy, whichproducesawide varietyoffigurepatterns.
throughoutthe West Indies. The wood also has a very high luster. Shrinkage is rather
The heartwoodis a lightreddish brownto chocolatebrown low, and the wood shows ahigh degree ofdimensional
or sometimesdark red; thesapwoodis pinkish white. The stability. Despiteconsiderable grain variation,primtvera
textureismoderatelycoarseandthe grain interlocked. The machines remarkably well. The density ofair-driedwood is
wood air-driesrapidlywith only amoderateamountofwarp 465 kg/rn3(29 lb/ft3), and the wood is comparablein strength
and checking. It has good workingpropertiesin all opera- with watertupelo (Nyssaaquatica). Resistanceto both
tions exceptplaning,whichis ratedpooras a result ofthe brown- and white-rot fungivaries. Weathering characteristics
characteristic interlocked grain. The strengthofpilon is aregood.
comparable with that oftrue hickory(Carya), andthe density The dimensional stability, ease ofworking, and pleasing
ofair-driedwood rangesfrom 736 to 849 kglm3 (46to
53 lbIft3).Pilon is rated moderatelyto very durable in appearance makeprimavera asuitable choice for solid furni-
ture, paneling, interiorwoodwork, and specialexter.oruses.
groundcontactand resistantto moderatelyresistantto sub-
terraneanand dry-woodtermites. Both heartwoodand sap-
wood arereportedto be treatablewith preservativesby both Purpleheart
open tank andpressure vacuumprocesses. Purpleheart, alsoreferredto as amaranth, is the namoapplied
to species in thegenusPeltogyne. The centerofdistribution
Pilon is especially suited forheavy construction, railway is in the north-central partofthe Brazilian Amazonregion,
crossties, marinework, and flooring. Itis alsoused for furni- butthecombined range ofall species is from Mexicothrough
ture, cabinetwork, decorativeveneers,tumery,andjoinery, CentralAmericaand southwardto southernBrazil.

Piquia Freshlycut heartwoodis brown. It turns a deeppurple upon


Piquia is the commonname generallyappliedto species in exposureto air and eventually dark brownupon exposure to
thegenus Caryocar. This genus is distributedfrom Costa light. The texture is medium to fine, and the grain i usually
Rica southwardinto northernColombia andfrom the upland straight.This strong and heavy wood (densityofair..dried
forestofthe Amazon valleyto easternBrazilandthe wood is 800 to 1,057 kg/rn3 (50 to 66 lb/It3)) is rated as easy
Guianas. tomoderatelydifficult to air dry. It is moderately difficult to
work with using eitherhand or machinetools, and it dulls
The yellowishto light grayishbrown heartwoodis hardly cutters rather quickly.Gummyresin exudeswhenth wood
distinguishablefrom the sapwood.The texture is medium to is heatedby dull tools.A slow feedrate and specially hard-
rather coarse, and the grain is generallyinterlocked. The enedcuttersare suggested for optimalcutting. The wood
wood dries at a slowrate; warpingand checking may de- turns easily, is easy to glue, and takes finisheswell. The
velop, but only to a minor extent. Piquia is reportedto be heartwoodis rated as highlyresistantto attack by decay
easy to moderatelydifficultto saw; cutting edgesdull rap- fungiand very resistantto dry-wood termites. It is extremely
idly. The heartwoodis very durable and resistantto decay resistantto treatmentwith preservatives.
fungi and dry-woodtermitesbut only moderatelyresistantto
marineborers. The unusual and uniquecolor ofpurpleheart makesthis
wood desirable forturnery,marquetry, cabinets, fine :['urni-
Piquia is recommended forgeneraland marineconstruction, tare,parquetflooring, and many specialtyitems, such as
heavy flooring, railwaycrossties, boat parts,and furniture billiardcue butts andcarvings.Otheruses includeheavy
components. It is especiallysuitablewherehardness and construction, shipbuilding, and chemicalvats.
high wearresistance are needed.
Pycnanthus (see Ilomba)
Primavera Ramin
The naturaldistributionofprimavera(Tabebuiadonnell—
smithii [—Cybistaxdonnell-smithii]) is restrictedto south- Ramin(Gonyslylus bancanus)is native to southeastAsia
from the Malaysian Peninsulato Sumatraand Borneo.
westernMexico, the Pacific coastofGuatemala and El Sal-
vador,and north-central Honduras. Priniaverais regardedas Boththe heartwoodand sapwoodare the color ofpals straw,
one ofthe primarylight-coloredwoods,but its use has been yellow,or whitish. The grain is straightor shallowly

1—29
interlocked. The texture is even, moderatelyfme,and similar Forexample, Brazilian rosewoodis harder than any U.S.
to that ofAmerican mahogany(Swietenia macrophylla). The native hardwoodspecies used forfurnitureand veneer. The
wood is without figure or luster.Ramin is moderatelyhard wood machines andveneerswell. It canbe glued satisfacto-
and heavy,weighingabout 672 kg/rn3 (42 lb/fl3) in the air- rily, providedthe necessary precautionsare takento ensure
dried condition.The wood is easy to work, finisheswell, good glue bonds, with respect to oily wood. Brazilianrose-
and glues satisfactorily. Ramin is rated as not resistantto woodhas an excellentreputationfor durabilitywith respect
decay but permeable with respectto preservative treatment. to fungal and insectattack,includingtermites,althoughthe
wood is not used for purposeswhere durability is necessary.
Ramin is used forplywood,interiorwoodwork, furniture,
turnery,joinery, moulding,flooring, dowels, and handlesof Brazilian rosewoodis used primarilyin the form ofveneer for
nonstrikingtools (brooms),and as a generalutility wood. decorative plywood. Limitedquantitiesare usedin the solid
form for specialty items such as cutleryhandles,brush backs,
Roble billiardcue butts, and fancy turnery.
Roble,a species in theroble group ofTabebuía (generally
T rosea), rangesfrom southernMexicothroughCentral Rosewood, Indian
Americato Venezuelaand Ecuador. The nameroble comes Indian rosewood(Dalbergia latjfolia) is native to most
from the Spanishword for oak (Quercus). In addition, T. provincesofIndia exceptin the northwest.
rosea is calledroble becausethe wood superficially resem- The heartwoodvaries in color from goldenbrownto dark
bles U.S. oak. Othernames for T. rosea are mayflower and
purplishbrownwith denserblackishstreaks atthe end of
apamate. growthzones, giving rise to an attractivefigureon flat-sawn
surfaces. The narrow sapwoodis yellowish. The average
The sapwoodbecomesapalebrownupon exposureto air.
The heartwoodvaries from goldenbrownto dark brown,and weight is about 849 kg/rn3 (53 lb/fl3) at 12% moisture con-
it has no distinctiveodor or taste. The texture is medium tent. The texture is uniformand moderatelycoarse. Indian
andthe grain narrowlyinterlocked. The wood weighsabout rosewoodis quite similarin appearanceto Brazilian
642 kg/rn3 (40 lb/fl3) at 12% moisturecontent. Roble has (Dalbergianigra) and Honduran (Dalbergiastevensonhi)
rosewood. The wood is reported to kiln-drywell though
excellent working propertiesin all machine operations. It
finishesattractivelyin natural color and takes fmishes with slowly, and the color improves duringdrying. Indianrose-
wood is a heavywood with high strengthproperties;afler
good results. It weighs less than the average ofU.S. white
oaks (Quercus)but is comparablewith respectto bending drying, it is particularlyhard for its weight.The wood is
and compressionparallelto grain. The heartwoodofroble is moderately hard to work with hand tools and offers a fair
resistance in machine operations. Lumberwith calcareous
generallyrated as moderatelyto very durablewith respectto
decay; the darkerandheavierwood is regarded as more depositstends to dull tools rapidly. The wood turns well
resistantthan the lighter-colored woods. and has high screw-holding properties. If a very smooth
surface isrequiredfor certain purposes, pores(vessels) may
Roble is used extensively for furniture,interiorwoodwork, needto be filled.
doors, flooring, boat building, ax handles,and generalcon- Indianrosewood is essentiallya decorative wood forhigh-
struction. The wood veneerswell and producesattractive
quality furniture and cabinetwork. In the UnitedStates, it is
paneling. For some applications, roble is suggestedas a used primarily in the form ofveneer.
substituteforAmericanwhite ash (Fraxinusamericana)and
oak (Quercus). Sande
Practicallyall commercially availablesande (mostly
Rosewood, Brazilian Brosimum utile)comesfrom PacificEcuadorand Colombia.
Brazilian rosewood(Dalbergianigra), also referredto as However, the group ofspecies ranges from the AtlanticCoast
jacaranda,occurs in eastern Brazilian forestsfrom the Stateof in Costa Rica southwardto Colombiaand Ecuador.
Bahia to Rio de Janeiro. Since it was exploitedfor a long
time, Brazilianrosewoodis no longer abundant. The sapwoodand heartwoodshowno distinction;the wood
is uniformlyyellowishwhite to yellowish or light brown.
The heartwoodvarieswith respectto color,through shades The texture ismediumto moderatelycoarse and even, and
ofbrown,red, andviolet, and it is irregularlyand conspicu- thegrain can be widelyand narrowlyinterlocked. The den-
ouslystreakedwith black. It is sharplydemarcatedfromthe sity ofair-driedwood rangesfrom 384 to 608 kg/rn3 (24 to
white sapwood. Many kinds ofrosewoodare distinguished 38 lb/fl3), and the strengthis comparable with that ofU.S.
locallyonthe basis ofprevailingcolor. The texture is coarse, oak (Quercus).The lumberair dries rapidlywith little orno
and the grain is generallystraight. The heartwoodhas an degrade. However, materialcontainingtensionwood is
oily or waxyappearance and feel, and its odor is fragrant subjectto warp,and the tension wood may cause fuzzy grain
and distinctive.The wood is hard andheavy (weightofair- aswell as overheating ofsaws as aresult ofpinching.The
dried wood is 752 to 897 kg/rn3 (47 to 56 lb/fl3)); thor- wood is not durable with respect to stain, decay, and insect
oughly air-driedwood will barely float in water.Strength attack, and care must be exercised to prevent degradefrom
properties ofBrazilianrosewood arehigh and are more than these agents. The wood stainsand fmishes easily and
adequateforthe purposesforwhichthis wood is used. presents no gluingproblems.

1—30
Sandeis used for plywood, particleboard, fiberboard, carpen- The heartwoodis brownwith a pink or goldentinge that
try, light construction, furniture components, and moulding. darkens on exposure to air. Darkbrownorblack streaks
are sometimes present. The sapwoodis light gray, brown,
Santa Maria or straw-colored. The textureis moderatelyfine and even,
Santa Maria (Calophyllum brasiliense)ranges from the West andthe grain is narrowlyinterlocked. The strengthof sepetir
Indiesto southernMexicoand southward throughCentral is similarto that ofsheilbark hickory (Carya laciniosa),
Americainto northernSouthAmerica. and the density ofthe air-driedwood is also similar(640 to
720 kg/m3 (40 to 45 lb/fl3)). The wood dries well but rather
The heartwoodis pinkishto brick red or rich reddishbrown slowly, with a tendencyto end-split. The wood is difficultto
andmarkedby fme and slightly darkerstripingon flat-sawn workwith handtools and has a rather rapid dullingeffecton
surfaces. The sapwoodis lighterin color and generallydis- cutters. Gumsfrom the wood tend to accumulate on saw
tinct from the heartwood. The texture is medium and fairly teeth,whichcausesadditionalproblems. Sepetiris rated as
uniform,and the grain is generallyinterlocked. Theheart- nondurablein groundcontactunder Malaysian exposure. The
wood is rather similarin appearanceto dark red meranti heartwoodis extremely resistantto preservative treatment;
Shorea). The wood is moderatelyeasy to work and good however,the sapwoodis only moderatelyresistant.
surfaces can be obtainedwhenattentionis paidto machining
operations. The wood averagesabout 608 kg/rn3(38 lb/fl3)at Sepetiris ageneralcarpentry wood that is alsousedfor
12% moisture content. Santa Maria is in the density class of furniture and cabinetwork, joinely, flooring (especially truck
sugarmaple (Acersaccharum),and its strength properties are flooring), plywood, and decorative veneers.
generallysimilar;the hardness ofsugarmaple is superior to
that ofSanta Maria. The heartwoodis generallyratedas Seraya, Red and Dark Red (see Meranti Groups)
moderatelydurableto durable in contactwith the ground, Seraya, White
but it apparentlyhas no resistance againsttermitesand White serayaor bagtikan,as it is called in the Philippines,
marineborers.
is aname appliedto the 14 species ofParashorea, which
The inherent natural durability, color, and figureon the grow in Sabahand the Philippines.
quarter-sawn face suggestthat SantaMaria could be used as The heartwoodis light brownor straw-colored, sometimes
veneerforplywoodinboat construction. Otherusesare
with a pinkishtint. The texture is moderatelycoarse and the
flooring, furniture,cabinetwork, miliwork,and decorative
plywood. grain interlocked. White serayais very similar in appearance
and strength propertiesto light redmeranti,and sometimes
Sapele thetwo are mixed in themarket. Whiteserayadries easily
with little degrade,and works fairly wellwith hand and
Sapele (Entandrophrag,nacylindricum) is a largeAfricantree machine tools. The heartwoodis not durable to moderately
that occursfrom SierraLeonetoAngolaand eastward
durablein groundcontact,and it is extremelyresistantto
throughthe Congoto Uganda.
preservative treatments.
The heartwoodranges in color from that ofAmerican mahog-
Whiteseraya is usedforjoinery, light construction,
any (Swieteniamacrophylla)to a dark reddish orpurplish
brown. The lighter-coloredand distinctsapwoodmay be up mouldingand millwork,flooring, plywood,furniture,and
cabinet work.
to 10 cm(4 in.) wide. The texture is rather fine. The grain is
interlockedandproducesnarrowand uniform striping on
quarter-sawn surfaces.The wood averages about 674 kg/rn3 Seraya, Yellow (see Meranti Groups)
(42 lb/fl3)at 12% moisture content, and its mechanical prop- Silverballi,Brown (see Kaneelhart)
ertiesare in generalhigherthanthose ofwhite oak(Quercus
a/ba). The wood works fairlyeasily with machinetools, Spanish-Cedar
althoughthe interlockedgrain makesit difficultto plane. Spanish-cedar or cedro consists ofa group ofabout seven
Sapelefmishesand glueswell. The heartwoodis rated as species inthe genus Cedrela that are widelydistributed
moderately durableandis resistantto preservative treatment. in tropicalAmericafrom southernMexicoto northern
Argentina.
As lumber, sapeleis used for furniture and cabinetwork,
joinery,and flooring. As veneer,it is used for decoratiive Spanish-cedar is one ofonly a few tropicalspecies that are
plywood. ring-porous. The heartwoodvaries from light to dark reddish
brown, and the sapwoodis pinkishto white. The texture is
Selangan Batu (see Balau) rather fme and uniform to coarseanduneven. The grain is
not interlocked. The heartwoodis characterizedby a distinc-
Sepetir tive odor. The wood dries easily. Although Spanish-cedar is
Thenamesepetirappliesto species in the genus Sindoraand not high in strength, most other propertiesare similarto
to Pseudosindorapalustris. These species aredistributed those ofAmerican mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla),
throughoutMalaysia,Indochina, and the Philippines. except forhardnessandcompression perpendicular to the

1—31
grain,wheremahoganyis defmitelysuperior. Spanish-cedar ofLatinAmerica and Africa, andmany ofthese arenow
is considereddecayresistant;it works and glues well. producing teakwood.

Spanish-cedaris used locallyfor all purposesthat requirean The heartwoodvaries fromyellow—brownto dark golden—
easily worked,light but straightgrained,and durablewood. brownand eventually turns a rich brownupon exposureto
In the UnitedStates,thewood is favored for miliwork, air. Teakwoodhas a coarseuneventexture (ring porous), is
cabinets, fme furniture,boat building, cigar wrappers and usually straight grained,andhas a distinctlyoily feel. The
boxes, humidores,and decorative and utility plywood. heartwoodhas excellent dimensionalstabilityand avery
high degreeofnatural durability. Althoughteakis not gerler-
Sucupira (Angelin, Para-Angelim) ally used in the UnitedStateswhere strengthis ofprime
Sucupira,angelin,and para-angelimapply to species in four importance, its propertiesare generallyonpar with those of
U.S. oaks (Quercus).Teak is generallyworked with moder-
generaoflegumesfrom SouthAmerica. Sucupiraapplies to ate easewith hand andmachinetools.However,the presence
Bowdichia nitida from northernBrazil, B. virgilioides from
Venezuela,the Guianas,and Brazil, andDiplotropispur- ofsilica often dulls tools. Finishingand gluing aresatisfac-
pureafrom theGuianasand southernBrazil. Angelin tory, although pretreatmentmay be necessaryto ensure good
bonding offinishes and glues.
(Andirainermis)is awidespreadspecies that occurs
throughoutthe West Indies and from southernMexico Teak is one ofthe most valuable woods, but its use is lim-
throughCentralAmericato northern SouthAmericaand ited by scarcityandhigh cost. Because teak does not cause
Brazil. Para-angelim (Hymenolobium excelsum) is generally rust orcorrosionwhen in contactwith metal, it is extremely
restrictedto Brazil. usefulin the shipbuilding industry, fortanks and vats, and
The heartwoodofsucupirais chocolate-brown, red—brown, or for fixtures that require high acid resistance. Teakis currently
used inthe construction ofboats, furniture, flooring, decora-
light brown (especially in Diplotropispurpurea). Angelin tive objects, and decorative veneer.
heartwoodis yellowishbrown to dark reddishbrown;para-
angelimheartwoodturns palebrownupon exposure to air.
The sapwoodis generallyyellowishto whitish and is Torn1110
sharplydemarcatedfrom the heartwood. The textureofall Tornillo (Cedrelingacatenformis), also referredto as cedro-
threewoods is coarseanduneven, andthe grain can be inter- rana,growsin the LoretonHuanucoprovinces ofPeru and in
locked. The density ofair-driedwood ofthese species ranges thehumidterra firmaoftheBrazilian Amazonregion.
from 720 to 960 kg/rn3 (45 to 60 lb/ft3), whichmakesthem Tornillo can grow up to 52.5 m (160 ft) tall, with trunk
generallyheavierthan true hickory (Carya). Theirstrength diameters of 1.5 to 3 m (5 to 9 ft). Trees in Peru are often
properties are also higher than those oftruehickory.The smallerin diameter,with merchantable heights of 15 m
heartwoodis rated very durable to durable in resistance to (45 ft)or more.
decay fungibut only moderatelyresistantto attack by dry-
wood termites. Angelinis reportedtobe difficultto treat The heartwoodis pale brownwith a golden luster and
with preservatives, butpara-angelimand sucupira treat ade- prominently markedwith red vessellines; the heartwood
quately. Angelincan be sawn and workedfairlywell, except gradually merges into the lighter-coloredsapwood.
that it is difficultto planeto a smoothsurface becauseof The textureis coarse.The densityofair-driedmaterial
alternating hard (fibers)andsoft (parenchyma) tissue. Para- collected in Brazilaverages 640 kg/in3 (40 lb/fl3); for
angelimworks well in all operations.Sucupirais difficultto Peruvianstock, average density is about 480 kg/rn3
moderatelydifficultto work becauseofits high density, (30 lb/fl3). The wood is comparable in strength with Ameri-
irregulargrain, andcoarsetexture. can elm (Ulmus americana). Tornillocuts easily and can be
finishedsmoothly, but areas oftensionwood may result in
Sucupfra, angelin,and para-angelim are ideal forheavy woollysurfaces. The heartwoodis fairlydurable andreported
construction, railroad crossties,and other uses that do not to have goodresistance to weathering.
requiremuch fabrication. Other suggested uses include
flooring, boat building, furniture,turnely,tool handles, Tomillo is a general construction wood that can be used for
and decorative veneer. furniture components in lower-grade furniture.

Suradan (see Pilon) Trebol (see Macawood)


Tangare (see Andiroba) Virola (see Banak)
Tanguile (see Lauan—Meranti Groups) Waika (see Manni)
Teak Walele (see Ilomba)
Teak(Tectonagrandis)occursin commercial quantities in Wallaba
India, Burma,Thailand,Laos, Cambodia, North and South Wallabais a commonnameapplied to the speciesin the
Vietnam, and the East Indies. Numerousplantations have
been developedwithinits natural range and in tropicalareas genus Eperua. Othernames includewapa and apa. The
centerofdistributionis in the Guianas,but the species

1—32
extends into Venezuela and theAmazonregionofnorthern Growthrings are fairlydistinctand similartothose ofeastern
Brazil. Wallabagenerallyoccurs inpure stands or as the white pine (Pinusstrobus). The grain is not interlocked, and
dominant tree in the forest. thewoodtakes paint well,glues easily, and is free from resin
ducts,pitchpockets,and:pitch streaks. Densityofair-dried
Theheartwoodrangesfrom light to dark redto reddishor woodaverages545 kg/rn (34 lb/fl3). The strengthofparana
purplishbrownwith characteristically dark, gummystreaks. pine compares favorably with that ofU.S. softwoodspecies
The texture is rather coarse and the grain typicallystraight. ofsimilardensity and, in somecases, approaches that of
Wallabais a hard, heavywood; density ofair-driedwood is species with higherdensity. Paranapine is especiallystrong
928 kg/rn3 (58 lb/fl3). Its strengthis higher than thatof in shear strength, hardness,and nail-holding ability, but it is
shagbarkhickory (Carya ovata). The wood dries very slowly notably deficientin strengthin compressionacross the grain.
with a markedtendencyto check,split, and warp. Although The tendency ofthe kiln-driedwood to splitandwarp is
thewood has high density, it is easy to work with hand and caused by the presence ofcompression wood, an abnormal
machinetools. However,the high gum contentclogs saw- type ofwood with intrinsicallylarge shrinkage along the
teeth and cutters. Oncethe wood has beenkiln dried,gum
grain.Boardscontainingcompressionwood shouldbe
exudates are not a seriousproblem in machining. The heart- excluded from exacting uses.
wood is reportedto be very durable and resistantto subterra-
neantermitesand fairlyresistantto dry-wood termites. The principaluses ofparanapine includeframinglumber,
interiorwoodwork, sashes and door stock,furniture case
Wallabais well suitedforheavy construction, railroad goods,and veneer.
crossties, poles,industrial flooring, and tank staves. It is
alsohighly favored for charcoal.
Pine, Caribbean
Caribbean pine (Pinuscaribaea) occurs along the Caribbean
Wapa (see Wallaba) side ofCentral Americafrom Belizeto northeastern
Yang (see Keruing) Nicaragua. It is also nativeto the Bahamas and Cuba. This
low-elevation tree is widelyintroduced as a plantation
Softwoods species throughoutthe world tropics.
Cypress, Mexican The heartwoodis golden-to red-brownand distinctfrom the
Native to Mexico and Guatemala, Mexican cypress sapwood, which is light yellow and roughly2 to 5 m (ito
(Cupressuslusitanica) isnow widelyplantedat high eleva- 2 in.) wide.This softwoodspecieshas a strong resinous
tions throughoutthe tropical world. odor anda greasy feel. The weightvariesconsiderably and
mayrange from 416 to 817 kg/m3 (26 to 51 ib/ft3) at 12%
The heartwoodis yellowish, pale brown, or pinkish, with moisture content. Caribbean pine maybe appreciably heavier
occasionalstreaking or variegation. The textureis fine and than slash pine (P. elliottii), but the mechanical propertiesof
uniform, and the grain is usuallystraight.The wood is these two species are rather similar.The lumbercan be kiln
fragrantly scented. The density ofair-driedwood is driedsatisfactorily.Caribbeanpine is easy to work in all
512 kg/rn3 (32 lb/fl3), and the strengthis comparable with machiningoperations,but its high resin contentmay cause
that ofyellow-cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis) or western resin to accumulate on the equipment. Durabilityand resis-
hemlock(Tsuga heterophylla).The wood is easy to work tance to insect attackvary with resin content; in general, the
with hand and machine tools, and it nails, stains, and pol- heartwoodis rated as moderatelydurable.The sapwoodis
isheswell. Mexicancypressair dries very rapidlywith little highlypermeable andis easily treatedby open tank orpres-
orno end- or surface-checking. Reports on durability are sure—vacuum systems. Theheartwoodis ratedas moderately
conflicting. The heartwoodis nottreatableby the open tank resistantto preservative treatment,depending on resin
processand seemsto havean irregular response to pressure— content.
vacuumsystems.
Caribbeanpine is used for the same purposesas are the
Mexicancypressis used mainlyforposts and poles, furniture southernpines (Pinus spp.).
components, and generalconstruction.
Pine, Ocote
Parana Pine Ocote pine (Pinus oocarpa) is a high-elevation species that
The wood commonlycalled paranapine (Araucariaangusti- occurs from northwestern Mexicosouthward through
Jolla) is a softwoodbut not a true pine. It grows in south- Guatemala intoNicaragua. The largestand most extensive
easternBrazil and adjacentareas ofParaguay andArgentina. stands occur in Guatemala, Nicaragua, and Honduras.

Paranapine has many desirable characteristics. It is available The sapwoodis a pale yellowishbrown and generallyup to
in large-size clear boardswith uniformtexture.The small 7 cm (3 in.) wide. The heartwoodis a light reddish brown.
pinheadknots(leaftraces)that appearon flat-sawn surfaces The grain is not interlocked. The wood has a resinous odor,
and the lightorreddish-brown heartwoodprovidea desirable and it weighsabout 656 kg/rn3 (41 lb/ft3) at 12% moisture
figureformatchinginpanelingand interiorwoodwork. content. The strength properties ofocotepine are comparable
in most respectswith those oflongleafpine(P. palustris).

1—33
Decayresistancestudieshave shown ocote pine heartwoodto Building Research Establishment, Departmentof
be very durable with respectto white-rot fungalattackand Environment. 1977. A handbook of sofiwoods. London:
moderately durablewith respectto brown rot. H. M. Stationery Office.
Ocotepine is comparablewith the southernpines (Pinus) in Building Research Establishment, PrincesRisborough
workability and machiningcharacteristics. It is a general Laboratory;Farmer,R.H. 1972. Handbookofhardwoods.
construction wood suited for the same uses as are the Rev., 2d ed. London: H. M. Stationery Office.
southernpines. Chudnoff, Martin. 1984. Tropicaltimbers of the world.
Agric.Handb. 607. Washington DC: U.S. Departmentof
Pine, Radiata Agriculture.
Radiatapine (Pinus radkzta),also known as Monterey pine, Hardwood MarketReport: LumberNewsLetter. [Current
is planted extensively in the southernhemisphere, mainly in edition]. Memphis,Th.
Chile, New Zealand,Australia,and SouthAfrica.Plantation-
a
growntrees may reach height of26 to 30 m (80 to 90 ft) in Haynes, Richard W.; Adams, Darius M.; Mills, John R.
20 years. 1993. The 1993 RPA timber assessmentupdate. Gen. Tech.
Rep. RM—GTR—259. Fort Collins, Colorado:U.S. Depart-
The heartwoodfrom plantation-grown trees is light brownto ment ofAgriculture, Forest Service, RockyMountainForest
pinkishbrown and is distinctfrom the paler cream-colored and RangeExperimentStation.
sapwood.Growth rings are primarilywide and distinct.
False rings may be common. The texture is moderatelyeven Howard, James L. 1997. U.S. timber production,trade,
and fme, and the grain is not interlocked. Plantation-grown consumption, and price statistics, 1965—1994. (len. Tech.
radiatapine averagesabout 480 kg/rn3 (30 lb/ft3)at 12% Rep. FPL—GTR—98. Madison, Wisconsin:U.S. Department
moisture content. Its strength is comparable with that ofred ofAgriculture, Forest Service, Forest ProductsLaboratory.
pine (P. resinosa), although locationand growthrate may Keating, W.G.;Boiza, E. 1982. Characteristics, properties,
cause considerablevariationin strengthproperties. The wood and uses oftimbers: Vol. 1. SoutheastAsia, NorthernAits-
air or kiln dries rapidly with little degrade. The wood ma- tralia, and the Pacific. Melbourne, Australia: Inkata Press.
chineseasily althoughthe grain tends to tear aroundlarge
knots. Radiatapine nails and glues easily, and it takes paint Kukachka, B.F. 1970. Propertiesof importedtropical
and fmisheswell. The sapwoodis prone to attackby stain woods. Res. Pap. FPL 125. Madison, WI: U.S. Department
ofAgriculture, Forest Service,Forest Products Laboratory.
fungi and vulnerabletoboring insects. However, plantation-
grown stock is mostly sapwood,whichtreats readily with LittleE.L. 1979. Checklist ofUnited Statestrees (nati\e
preservatives. The heartwoodis rated as durable above and naturalized). Agric.Handb. 541. Washington, DC:
groundand is moderatelyresistantto preservativetreatment. U.S. Department ofAgriculture.
Radiatapine canbe used for the samepurposesas are the Markwardt,L.J. 1930. Comparative strengthpropertiesof
other pines grown in the United States. Theseuses include woods grown in the United States. Tech. Bull. 158. Wash-
veneer,plywood,pulp, fiberboard,construction, boxes,and ington, DC: U.S. Department ofAgriculture.
millwork. Panshin, A.J.; deZeeuw, C. 1980. Textbookofwood
technology. 4th ed. New York: McGraw—Hill.
References Record, S.J.; Hess, R.W. 1949. Timbers ofthe new world.
New Haven, CT: YaleUniversityPress.
Alden,H.A. 1995. HardwoodsofNorth America. (len.
Tech. Rep. FPL—GTR—83. Madison, WI: U.S. Department Ulrich, Alice H. 1981. U.S. timberproduction,trade, con-
ofAgriculture, Forest Service,Forest Products Laboratory. sumption, and price statistics, 1950—1980. Misc. Pub. 1408.
Washington, DC: U.S. DepartmentofAgriculture.
Alden, H.A. 1997. SofiwoodsofNorth America. Gen.
Tech. Rep. FPL—GTR—102. Madison, WI: U.S. Department USDA. 1990. An analysisofthe timber situationin the
ofAgriculture, Forest Service, Forest ProductsLaboratory. United States: 1989—2040. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM—199. Fort
Collins,CO: U.S. Department ofAgriculture, Forest Serv-
Berni, C.A.; Boiza, E.; Christensen, F.J. 1979. South ice, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range ExperimentStation.
American timbers—characteristics, properties, and uses of
190 species.Melbourne,Australia: Commonwealth
Scientificand IndustrialResearchOrganization, Division
ofBuildingResearch.
Boiza, E.; Keating,W.G. 1972. Africantimbers—the
properties, uses, and characteristics of700 species. Mel-
bourne,Australia: Commonwealth Scientificand Industrial
ResearchOrganization, DivisionofBuildingResearch.

1—34
I Cfiapter
Structure of Wood
Regis B. Miller

he fibrous nature ofwood strongly influences how it


Contents is used. Wood is primarilycomposed ofhollow,
elongate, spindle-shaped cellsthat are arranged
parallelto each other along the trunk ofa tree. Whenlumber
Bark, Wood, Branches, and Cambium 2—1 and otherproductsare cut from the tree, the characteristics of
these fibrous cells andtheir arrangement affectsuchproperties
Sapwoodand Heartwood 2—2 as strengthandshrinkageas well as thegrain pattern ofthe
wood.This chapterbrieflydescribessome elements ofwood
Growth Rings 2—2 structure.

Wood Cells 2—3


Bark, Wood, Branches,
ChemicalComposition 2—3 and Cambium
A cross sectionofatree (Fig. 2—1)showsthe following well-
SpeciesIdentification 2—4 defmed features (from outside to center): bark, which maybe
dividedinto an outer corkydeadpart (A), whosethikness
References 2—4 variesgreatlywith species and age oftrees, and an inner thin
livingpart (B), whichcarriesfood from the leaves tc growing
parts ofthe tree; wood,whichin merchantable trees ofmost
species is clearly differentiated into sapwood(D) and heart-
wood (E); and pith (F), a smallcore oftissue locatedatthe
centeroftree stems, branches, and twigsabout whichinitial
wood growthtakes place. Sapwoodcontainsboth livingand
deadtissue and carriessap from the roots to the leaves.
Heartwood is formed by agradualchange in the sapwoodand
is inactive. The wood rays (G), horizontallyorientedtissue
throughthe radialplaneofthe tree, vary in size fromonecell
wide and a few cells high to more than 15 cells wide and
several centimeters high. The rays connectvariouslayers
from pithtobark for storage and transferoffood.Th cam-
bium layer(C), whichis insidethe inner bark and forms
wood and bark cells,can be seen only with a microscope.
As thetree growsin height, branching is initiated by lateral
bud development. The lateral branchesare intergrown with
thewood ofthetrunk as long as they arealive.After a branch
dies, the trunk continuesto increase in diameterand. sur-
rounds that portionofthe branchprojectingfrom the trunk
whenthebranchdied. Ifthe deadbranches drop from thetree,
thedeadstubs become overgrown and clear wood is formed.

2—1
In general, heartwoodconsistsofinactivecells that do not
functionin eitherwater conduction or food storage.The
transition from sapwoodto heartwoodis accompaniedby an
increase in extractive content. Frequently, these extractives
darken the heartwood and give species such as black walnut
andcherrytheircharacteristic color.Lightercoloredheart-
wood occurs inNorth Americanspecies such as the spruces
(exceptSitka spruce), hemlocks, true firs, basswood,cotton-
wood,and buckeye, and intropical species such as ceiba
(Ce/bapentandra), obeche(Triplochitonscieroxylon), and
ramirt (Gonyslylus bancanus).In some species, suchas black
locust, western redcedar, andredwood,beartwoodextractyes
makethe woodresistantto fungi or insect attack. All darK-
coloredheartwoodis not resistantto decay,andsome nearly
colorlessheartwoodis decay resistant, as in northernwhite-
cedar. However, none ofthe sapwoodofany species is resis-
tant to decay.Heartwood extractives may also affectwood by
(a) reducing permeability, making theheartwoodslowerto
dry andmore difficult to impregnate with chemicalpreserva-
tives, (b) increasingstabilityin changing moisturecondi-
tions, and (c) increasingweight (slightly). However,as
Figure 2—1. Cross sectionofwhite oaktree trunk: sapwood changesto heartwood, no cells are addedor taken
(A) outer bark (dry dead tissue), (B) inner bark (living away, nor do any cells changeshape. The basic strengthof
tissue),(C) cambium, (D) sapwood, (E) heartwood, the wood is essentially not affectedby the transition from
(F) pith, and (0) wood rays. sapwoodcells to heartwoodcells.
In some species, such as the ashes, hickories,and certain
Most growth in thicknessofbark andwood is causedby cell oaks,the pores(vessels) becomepluggedto a greateror
division in the cambium(Fig. 2—iC).No growthin diame- lesser extentwith ingrowthsknownas tyloses. Heartwocdin
ter takes place in wood outsidethe cambialzone;new whichthe pores are tightlypluggedby tyloses, as in white
growthis purelythe addition and growthofnew cells,not oak, is suitable fortight cooperage, becausethe tyloses
thefurtherdevelopmentofold ones.New woodcells are preventthe passage ofliquid throughthe pores. Tyloses slso
formedon the insideofthe cambiumand new bark cells on make impregnation ofthe wood with liquidpreservatives
the outside. Thus,newwood is laid down to theoutsideof difficult
old wood and the diameterofthe woodytrunk increases.
Growth Rings
In most species, the existingbark is pushed outward by the
formation ofnew bark, andthe outer bark layersbecome Inmost species in temperate climates, thedifference between
stretched, cracked, andridged and are fmally sloughed off. woodthat is formed early in a growingseason and that
formed later is sufficient to produce well-marked annual
growthrings (Fig. 2—2).The age ofa tree at the stumpor the
Sapwood and Heartwood age at any cross sectionofthe trunk may be determinedby
Sapwood is located betweenthe cambium and heartwood
countingthese rings.However,ifthe growth in diameteris
interrupted, by drought or defoliation by insectsfor example,
(Fig. 2—iD). Sapwoodcontainsboth living and dead cells more than one ring maybe formed in the same season. In
and functionsprimarilyin the storage offood; in the outer such an event, the inner ringsusually do not have sharply
layersnearthe cambium, sapwoodhandlesthe transportof defmedboundaries andaretermed falserings.Trees that have
water or sap. The sapwoodmay vary in thicknessand num-
ber ofgrowthrings. Sapwoodcommonlyranges from 4 to only very small crowns or that have accidentally lostmost of
theirfoliagemay form an incomplete growthlayer,some-
6 cm(1-1/2 to 2 in.) in radial thickness. In certainspecies, times calleda discontinuous ring.
such as catalpaand blacklocust,the sapwoodcontains few
growthrings and usuallydoes not exceed 1 cm (1/2 in.) in The inner part ofthe growthring formedfirst in the growing
thickness. The maples,hickories,ashes, some southern seasonis called earlywoodand the outer part formed later in
pines,and ponderosapine ofNorth Americaand cativo thegrowingseason, latewood. Actualtime offormation of
(Prioriacopafera),ehie (Guibourtiaehie),and courbaril these two parts ofa ringmay vary with environmental and
(Hymenaeacourbaril) oftropicaloriginmayhave sapwood weatherconditions. Earlywood is characterized by cells with
8 to 15 cm (3 to 6 in.) or more in thickness,especiallyin
relativelylargecavitiesandthinwalls. Lateweodcells have
second-growth trees. As a rule,the more vigorously growing smallercavities and thickerwalls. The transitionfrom early-
treeshave wider sapwood. Many second-growth treesof woodto latewood may be gradualor abrupt, depending on
merchantable size consistmostly ofsapwood.

2—2
within atree and among species. Hardwood fibersaverage
about 1 mm (1/25 in.) in length; softwood fibers range from
3 to 8 mm (1/8 to 1/3 in.) in length.
In addition to fibers, hardwoods havecells ofrelatieIy large
diameterknown as vesselsor pores. Thesecells form the
main conduits in the movementofsap. Sofiwoods do not
containvesselsforconducting sap longitudinally in the tree;
this functionis performedby the tracheids.
Both hardwoods and softwoodshavecells (usuallygrouped
into structures ortissues)that are oriented horizontally in the
directionfrom pith towardbark. Thesegroupsofcells con-
duct sap radiallyacrossthe grain and are calledrays orwood
rays (Fig. 2—1G). The rays are most easily seen on dge-
grained orquartersawn surfaces, and theyvary greatly in size
in different species. In oaks and sycamores, therays are
conspicuous and addtothe decorative featuresofthi wood.
Raysalsorepresent planes ofweaknessalongwhich season-
ing checks readily develop.
Another type ofwood cells,knownas longitudinal oraxial
Figure 2—2. Cross sectionofponderosa pine tog parenchymacells, function mainlyinthe storage of Food.
showing growth rings. Lightbands are earlywoodE,
dark bands latewood. An annual (growth) ring is
composed of an innerearlywood zone andouter
Chemical Composition
latewoodzone. Dry woodis primarilycomposed of cellulose, lignio,hemi-
celluloses, andminor amounts (5% to 10%) ofextruneous
thekind ofwood and thegrowingconditionsat the time it materials. Cellulose, the major component,constitutes
was formed. approximately 50% ofwood substanceby weight. It is a
high-molecular-weight linearpolymerconsisting ofchains of
Growthrings are most readily seen in species with sharp 1 to more than 4 3-linked glucose monomers. During
contrastbetweenlatewood formed in oneyear and ea:rlywood growthofthetree,the celldlosemolecules are arranged into
formedin the followingyear, such as in the nativering- orderedstrands called fibrils, whichin turnare orgaiized into
poroushardwoodsash andoak, and in softwoods like south- thelargerstructural elementsthat makeupthecell wall of
ern pines. In some other species, such as water tupelo, aspen, wood fibers. Most ofthe cell wall celluloseis crystalline.
and sweetgum, differentiation ofearlywood and latewood is Delignified wood fibers, whichconsistmostlyofcellulose,
slight andthe annual growthrings are difficultto recognize. havegreatcommercial valuewhenformed into paper.Delig-
Inmany tropical regions, growthmay be practicallycontinu- nifiedfibersmay alsobe chemically alteredto form textiles,
ous throughoutthe year,andno well-defmedgrowthrings films, lacquers, and explosives.
are formed.
Ligninconstitutes 23% to 33% ofthe wood substance in
Whengrowth rings are prominent, as in most softwoods and softwoods and 16% to 25% in hardwoods. Although lignin
ring-porous hardwoods, earlywood differs markedly from late- occurs in wood throughout the cell wall, it is concentrated
wood in physical properties. Earlywoodis lighterin weight, towardthe outside ofthe cells and betweencells. L:Lgninis
softer, andweakerthan latewood. Becauseofthe greater often calledthe cementing agentthat binds individual cells
density of latewood, the proportionoflatewood is sometimes together. Lignin is a three-dimensional phenylpropanol
usedtojudge the strength ofthewood. This methodis polymer,and its structure and distributionin wood are still
usefulwith such species as the southernpines,Douglas-fir, not fullyunderstood. Ona commercial scale,it is necessary
andthe ring-porous hardwoods(ash, hickory, andoak). toremoveligninfrom wood to make high-grade paper or
other paperproducts.
Wood Cells Theoretically, lignin might be converted to a variety of
Woodcells—thestructuralelementsofwood tissue——are of chemical products, but in commercial practicea largeper-
various sizes and shapes andare quite firmly cementedto- centage ofthe lignin removedfrom wood during pulping
gether. Dry wood cells may be empty or partly filledwith operations is atroublesomebyproduct,which is often burned
forheat and recovery ofpulpingchemicals. One sizable
deposits,such as gums and resins, or with tyloses. The commercial use for lignin is in the formulation ofoil-well
majorityofwood cells areconsiderably elongated and
pointedat the ends; these cells are customarily called fibers drillingmuds. Lignin is also used in rubber compoitnding
or tracheids. The length ofwood fibers is highlyvariable and concrete mixes. Lesser amounts are processed toyield

2—3
vanillin for flavoringpurposesand to produce solvents. References
Currentresearch is examiningthe potential ofusinglignin in
themanufacture ofwood adhesives. Bratt, L.C. 1965. Trends in theproductionof silvichemi-
cals in the United States and abroad.Tappi Journal.
The hemicelluloses are associated with celluloseand are 48(7): 46A—49A.
branched, low-molecular-weight polymerscomposed of
several different kindsofpentoseandhexosesugarmono- Browning, B.L. 1975. The chemistry of wood. Huntington,
mers.The relative amounts ofthese sugarsvary markedly NY: RobertE. KriegerPublishingCompany.
with species. Hemicelluloses play an important role in fiber- Core, H.A.; Côté, W.A.; Day,A.C. 1979. Wood structure
to-fiberbonding in the papermaking process.The component and identification. 7th ed. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse
sugarsofhemicellulose are ofpotential interestfor conversion UniversityPress.
into chemicalproducts.
Desch, H.E.; revised by Dinwoodie, J.M. 1996. Timber,
Unlikethe major constituentsofwood,extraneous materials structure,properties, conversion, anduse. 7th ed. London:
arenot structural components.Both organicand inorganic MacMillan Press,Ltd.
extraneous materialsare found in wood.The organic compo-
nent takes the form ofextractives, whichcontribute to such Fengel, D.; Wegener, G. 1984. Wood: Chemistry,ultras-
wood propertiesas color,odor, taste,decay resistance, den- tructure,reactions. Berlin andNew York: W. deGruyter.
sity, hygroscopicity, and flammability. Extractives include Hamilton, J.K.; Thompson, N.C. 1959. A comparisonof
tanninsand other polyphenolics,coloringmatter, essential thecarbohydrates ofhardwoodsand softwoods. Tappi
oils, fats, resins, waxes, gum starch, and simplemetabolic Journal. 42: 752—760.
intermediates. This component is termed extractives because
it can be removed from wood by extractionwith solvents, Hoadley, RB. 1980. Identif'ing wood: Accurateresults
such as water, alcohol, acetone, benzene,or ether. Extractives with simple tools. Newtown, CT: Taunton Press.
may constitute roughly5% to 30% ofthe wood substance, Hoadley, R.B. 1990. Understandingwood: A craftsmen's
depending on such factorsas species,growthconditions,and guide to wood technology.Newtown, CT: Taunton Press.
time ofyearwhen the tree is cut.
Kribs, D.A. 1968. Commercial woods on the American
The inorganic component ofextraneous material generally market. New York: Dover Publications.
constitutes 0.2%to 1.0% ofthe wood substance, although
Panshin, A.J.; de Zeeuw, C. 1980. Textbookof wood
greatervaluesare occasionallyreported. Calcium, potassium,
and magnesiumare the more abundantelemental constitu- technology. 4th ed. New York: McGraw—Hill.
ents. Trace amounts (<100 parts per million)ofphosphorus, Rowell, R.M. 1984. The chemistry ofsolid wood.Advances
sodium, iron, silicon,manganese,copper, zinc, and perhaps in Chemistry Series No. 207. Washington, DC: American
a few otherelementsare usually present. ChemicalSociety.
Valuable nonfibrous productsproducedfrom wood include Sarkanen,K.V.; Ludwig, C.H. (eds.). 1971. Lignins:
naval stores, pulp byproducts,vanillin, ethyl alcohol, char- occurrence, formation, structure and reactions. New York:
coal, extractives, andproductsmadefrom bark. Wiley—lnterscience.

Sjöström, E. 1981. Woodchemistry:fundamentals and


Species identification applications. New York: Academic Press.

Many speciesofwood have unique physical,mechanical, or Stamm, A.J. 1964. Woodand cellulosescience.New YDrk:
chemical properties. Efficientutilization dictates that species RonaldPress Company.
shouldbe matchedto end-userequirements throughan un-
derstanding oftheir properties. This requiresidentification of
thespeciesin wood form, independentofbark, foliage, and
othercharacteristics ofthe tree.
Generalwood identification can often be madequickly on the
basisofreadily visible characteristics such as color,odor,
density,presenceofpitch, or grain pattern.Where more
positiveidentification is required, a laboratory investigation
must be made ofthe microscopicanatomyofthe wood.
Identifying characteristics are describedin publications such
as the Textbook ofWood Technology by Panshinand de
Zeeuwand Identifying Wood: AccurateResults WithSimple
Toolsby R.B. Hoadley.

2—4
I chapter 3
Physical Properties and
Moisture Relations of Wood
William Simpson and AntonTenWolde

Contents
Appearance 3—1

Gramand Texture 3—1


Plainsawnand Quartersawn 3—2
fl he versatility ofwood is demonstrated by a wide
varietyofproducts. This variety is a result ofa
spectrum ofdesirable physical characteristics or
properties among themany species ofwood. In many cases,
more than one property ofwood is importantto the end
product. For example, to select awood speciesfor a product,
Decorative Features the valueofappearance-type properties, such as texture,grain
3—2
pattern, or color,maybe evaluated againstthe influence of
MoistureContent 3—5 characteristics such as machinability, dimensionalstability,
Green WoodandFiber SaturationPoint 35 ordecay resistance.
Equilibrium MoistureContent 3—5 Woodexchanges moisture with air; the amountand direction
SorptionHysteresis 3—7
oftheexchange (gain or loss)depend on therelative humid-
ity and temperature ofthe air andthe currentamount ofwater
Shrinkage 3—7 in thewood. This moisture relationship has an important
Transverse and Volumetric 3—7 influence onwood properties andperformance. This chapter
discussesthe physicalproperties ofmost interestin the
Longitudinal 3—8 designofwood products.
Moisture—ShrinkageRelationship 3—8 Some physicalproperties discussedandtabulatedare influ-
Weight,Density,and Specific Gravity 3—11 enced by species as well as variableslike moisturecontent;
other propertiestend tobe independent ofspecies.ilie thor-
WorkingQualities 3—15
oughness ofsampling and the degree ofvariability influence
DecayResistance 3—15 the confidence with whichspecies-dependent properties are
ThermalProperties 3—15 known. In this chapter, an effortis madeto indicateeither
the general or specific natureoftheproperties tabulated.
Conductivity 3—15
Heat Capacity 3-17
ThermalDiffusivity 3—17
Appearance
ThermalExpansionCoefficient 3—21 Grain and Texture
ElectricalProperties 3—21 Theterms grain and textureare commonly usedrather
loosely in connection with wood.Grain is often used in
Conductivity 3—21 referenceto annualrings,as in fme grain and coarsegrain,
Dielectric Constant 3—22 but it is alsoused to indicatethedirectionoffibers, as in
straight grain, spiral grain, and curly grain. Grain,as a syno-
Dielectric PowerFactor 3—22 nym for fiberdirection,is discussedin detail relativeto
Coefficient ofFriction 3—22 mechanical properties in Chapter4. Woodfinishersrefer to
wood as open grainedand close grained, whichare terms
NuclearRadiation 3—23
reflecting the relative size ofthe pores, whichdetermines
References 3—23 whetherthe surface needsa filler. Earlywood andlatewood
withina growth incrementusuallyconsistofdifferentkinds
and sizes ofwood cells.The difference in cellsresults in
difference in appearance ofthe growth rings, and the resulting
appearance isthe textureofthe wood. Coarsetexturecan
result from wide bands oflargevessels, such as in oak.

3—1
"Even" texture generallymeansuniformityin cell dimen-
sions. Fine-texturedwoodshave small, even-textured cells.
Woods that have largereven-sizedcells are considered me-
dium-texturedwoods. When the wordsgrain or texture are
used in connectionwith wood,the meaningintendedshould
be madeclear(see Glossary).

Plainsawn and Quartersawn


Lumbercan be cut from a log intwo distinctways: (a) tan-
gentialto the annualrings, producing flatsawnor plainsawn
lumberin hardwoodsand flatsawnor slash-grained lumberin
softwoods, and (b) radiallyfrom the pith orparallelto the
rays, producing quartersawnlumberin hardwoods andedge-
grained or vertical-grainedlumberin softwoods(Fig. 3—1).
Quartersawn lumber is not usually cut strictlyparallelwith
therays. In plainsawnboards,thesurfaces nextto the edges
are often far from tangentialtothe rings.In commercial
practice, lumberwith rings at angles of45° to 900 tothe
wide surface is called quartersawn, and lumberwith ringsat
anglesof00 to 450 to thewide surface is calledplainsawn.
Hardwoodlumberin whichannualrings form angles of300
to 60° to thewide faces is sometimes called bastard sawn. A B
Figure 3—1. Quartersawn (A) and plainsawn (B)
Formany purposes,eitherplainsawnorquartersawnlumber boards cut froma log.
is satisfactory. Eachtype has certainadvantages that can be
importantfor a particularuse. Someadvantages ofplainsawn
and quartersawn lumberaregiven in Table 3—1. White sapwoodofcertainspecies, such as maple, may be
preferred tothe heartwood for specificuses. In most species,
heartwoodis darkerand fairlyuniform in color.In some
Decorative Features species,such as hemlock, spruce,the true firs, basswood,
The decorativevalue ofwood depends upon its color, figure, cottonwood, and beech,there is little orno difference in color
and luster, as wellas theway in whichitbleachesortakes betweensapwoodandheartwood. Table3—2describesthe
fillers, stains, and transparent fmishes.Becauseofthe combi- color and figureofseveral common domestic woods.
nationsofcolor andthe multiplicityofshades found in
wood, it is impossibleto give detailedcolor descriptions of Onthesurface ofplainsawn boardsand rotary-cut veneer,
the variouskinds ofwood. Sapwoodofmost species is light theannualgrowth rings frequently form ellipticand parabolic
in color;in some species, sapwoodis practicallywhite. patternsthat makestrikingfigures,especiallywhenthe rings
areirregularin widthand outlineonthe cutsurface.

Table 3—I. Some advantages of plainsawn and quartersawn lumber


Plainsawn Quartersawn

Shrinks and swells lessinthickness Shrinks and swells less in width


Surface appearanceless affectedby round orovalknots comparedtoeffect Cups, surface-checks,and splits less in seasoning and in use
ofspike knots in quartersawnboards; boardswith round or ovalknots not
asweakasboards withspikeknots
Shakes and pitchpockets,when present,extendthroughfewerboards Raisedgrain caused byseparation in annual rings does notbecome
aspronounced
Figure patterns resulting fromannual rings and some other types offigure Figure patterns resultingfrompronounced rays, interlocked grain,
broughtout more conspicuously and wavygrain are brought outmore conspicuously
Is less susceptible tocollapse in drying Does not allow liquids to passthrough readily insomespecies
Costs less because itiseasytoobtain Holds paint betterinsomespecies

Sapwood appears in boards atedgesand itswidth islimited bythe


width ofthelog

3—2
Table 3—2. Colorand figure of several common domestic woods

Type offigure
Plainsawn lumber or Quartersawn lumber or
Species Color ofdryheartwood8 rotary-cutveneer quarter-slicedveneer
Hardwoods
Alder, red Pale pinkishbrown Faintgrowth ring Scattered large flakes, sometimes
entirelyabsent
Ash, black Moderately darkgrayish brown Conspicuousgrowth ring; occasional Distinct, inconspicuousgrowth ring
burl stripe; occasional burl
Ash, Oregon Grayish brown, sometimes with Conspicuousgrowth ring; occasional Distinct, inconspicuousgrowth ring
reddishtinge burl stripe; occasional burl
Ash, white Grayish brown, sometimes with Conspicuousgrowth ring; occasional Distinct, inconspicuous growth ring
reddishtinge burl stripe; occasionalburl
Aspen Light brown Faint growth ring None
Basswood Creamy whiteto creamy brown, Faint growth ring None
sometimes reddish
Beech,American Whitewith reddish to reddish brown Faint growth ring Numerous small flakes upto 3.2 mm
tinge (1/8 in.) in height
Birch, paper Light brown Faint growth ring None
Birch, sweet Dark reddish brown Distinct, inconspicuousgrowth ring; Occasionally wavy
occasionallywavy
Birch, yellow Reddish brown Distinct, inconspicuousgrowth ring; Occasionally wavy
occasionally wavy
Butternut, light Chestnut brownwith occasional Faintgrowth ring None
reddish tinge or streaks
Cherry, black Light todark reddishbrown Faintgrowth ring; occasionalburl Occasional burl
Chestnut,American Grayish brown Conspicuousgrowth ring Distinct, inconspicuous growth ring
stripe
Cottonwood Grayish whitetolightgrayish brown Faintgrowth ring None
Elm, American & rock Light grayish brown, usuallywith Distinct, inconspicuous grown ring Faintgrowth ring stripe
reddishtinge with finewavypattem
Elm, slippery Dark brownwithshades ofred Conspicuousgrowth ring with fine Distinct, inconspicuous growth ring
pattern stripe
Hackberry Light yellowish orgreenish gray Conspicuousgrowth ring Distinct, inconspicuous growth ring
stripe
Hickory Reddish brown Distinct, inconspicuousgrowth ring Faintgrowth ring stripe
Honeylocust Cherry red Conspicuousgrowth ring Distinct, inconspicuousgrowth ring
stripe
Locust, black Golden brown, sometimes with tinge Conspicuousgrowth ring Distinct, inconspicuous growth rug
ofgreen stripe
Magnolia Light to darkyellowish brown with Faintgrowth ring None
greenish orpurplishtinge
Maple: black, bigleaf, Light reddish brown Faintgrowth ring, occasionally birds- Occasionally curlyand wavy
red, silver, and sugar eye, curly, and wavy

Oaks, all red oaks Light brown, usuallywith pinkorred Conspicuousgrowth ring Pronouncedflake; distinct, inconspicu-
tinge ousgrowth ring stripe
Oaks, allwhiteoaks Lightto dark brown, rarely with Conspicuousgrowth ring Pronouncedflake; distinct, inconspicu-
reddish tinge ousgrowth ring stripe
Sweetgum Reddish brown Faintgrowth ring; occasionalirregular Distinct, inconspicuous ribbon; occa-
streaks sional streak
Sycamore Light todark orreddish brown Faintgrowth ring Numerouspronouncedflakes up to 6.4
mm (1/4 in.) in height
Tupelo, black and water Pale to moderately darkbrownish Faintgrowth ring Distinct,not pronouncedribbon
gray
Walnut, black Chocolate brown, occasionally with Distinct, inconspicuousgrowth ring; Distinct, inconspicuous growth ring
darker, sometimes purplish streaks occasionallywavy, curly, burl, and stripe; occasionally wavy, curly, burl,
other types crotch,and other types
Yellow-poplar Light to darkyellowish brown with Faintgrowth ring None
greenish orpurplishtinge

3—3
Table 3—2. Color and figure of several common domestic woods—con.
Type offigure
Plainsawn lumber or Quartersawn lumberor
Species Color ofdry heartwooda rotary-cutveneer quarter-sliced veneer

Softwoods
Baldcypress Light yellowish to reddish brown Conspicuous irregulargrowth ring Distinct, inconspicuous growth ring
stripe
Cedar, Atlantic White Light brownwith reddish tinge. Distinct, inconspicuousgrowth ring None
Cedar, Eastern red Brickred todeepreddish brown Occasionallystreaks ofwhitesap- Occasionallystreaks ofwhitesapwood
wood alternatingwith heartwood alternatingwith heactwood
Cedar, incense Reddish brown Faint growth ring Faintgrowth ring stripe
Cedar, northernWhite Light to dark brown Faintgrowth nng Faint growth ring stripe
Cedar, Port-Orford Light yellow topale brown Faintgrowth ring None
Cedar, western red Reddish brown Distinct, inconspicuous growth ring Faint growth ring stripe
Cedar, yeflow Yellow Faintgrowth ring None
Douglas-fir Orange red to red,sometimes Conspicuousgrowth ring Distinct, inconspicuous growth ring
yellow stripe
Fir, balsam Nearly white Distinct, inconspicuousgrowth ring Faint growth ring stripe
Fir, white Nearly whiteto pale reddish brown Conspicuousgrowth ring Distinct, inconspicuous growth ring
stripe
Hemlock, eastern Light reddish brown Distinct, inconspicuous growth ring Faintgrowth ring stripe
Hemlock, western Light reddishbrown (Distinct, inconspicuousgrowth ring Faintgrowth ring stripe
Larch, western Russet to reddish brown Conspicuousgrowth ring Distinct, inconspicuous growth ring
stripe
Pine, eastern white Cream tolightreddish brown Faintgrowth ring None
Pine, lodgepole Light reddish brown Distinct, inconspicuous growth ring; None
faint pockedappearance
Pine, ponderosa Orange to reddish brown Distinct, inconspicuous growth ring Faintgrowth ring
Pine, red Orange to reddish brown Distinct, inconspicuousgrowth ring Faint growth ring
Pine, Southern:longleaf, Orange to reddish brown Conspicuousgrowth ring Distinct, inconspicuous growth ring
loblolly, shortleaf,and stripe
slash
Pine, sugar Light crearny brown Faint growth ring None
Pine, western white Cream to lightreddish brown Faint growth ring None
Redwood Cherry red todeepreddish brown Distinct, inconspicuous growth ring; Faintgrowth ring stripe; occasionally
occasionallywavyand burl wavy and burl
Spruce: black, Engel- Nearly white Faint growth ring None
mann, red, and white
Spruce, Sitka Light reddish brown Distinct, inconspicuous growth ring Faintgrowth ring stripe
Tamarack Russet brown Conspicuousgrowth ring Distinct, inconspicuous growth ring
stripe

Sapwoodofall species is lightin colororvirtually white unless discolored byfungus orchemical stains.

Onquartersawnsurfaces, these rings form stripes, whichare fillers ofdifferent colors. In softwoods, the annualgrowth
not especiallyornamentalunless they are irregularin width layers can be made to stand out by applyinga stain. The
and direction.The relativelylarge rays sometimes appearas visualeffectofapplying stainto softwoodis an overall
flecksthat can forma conspicuous figurein quartersawn oak darkeningand a contrastreversalwith earlywoodofinitially
andsycamore.With interlockedgrain, whichslopes in lightercolor absorbing more stain, thus becomingdarker
alternatedirections in successive layersfrom the centerofthe than latewood. The final contrastis often greaterthanthat
tree outward, quartersawn surfaces showa ribbon effect, either in unstainedsoftwoodand sometimes appearsunnatural.
becauseofthedifference inreflection oflight from successive
layerswhen the wood has a naturalluster or becausecross Knots, pin wormholes, bird pecks, decay in isolated
grain ofvarying degreeabsorbs stainsunevenly.Much ofthis pockets,birdseye,mineral streaks, swirls in grain, and
type offigure is lost in plainsawnlumber. ingrownbark are decorative in some species whenthe
wood is carefully selected fora particulararchitectural
In open-grained hardwoods, the appearance ofboth plainsawn treatment.
and quartersawnlumbercan be variedgreatlybythe use of

3-4
Moisture Content piece, cell walls may be saturatedand lumens partially or
completely filledwith water. It is even probablethnt a cell
Moisturecontentofwood is definedas the weightofwater in wall will begin to dry beforeall the water has left the lumen
a
wood expressed as a fraction, usually percentage, ofthe ofthat same cell. The fibersaturation point ofwood.averages
weightofovendiy wood. Weight, shrinkage, strengl:h, and about 30% moisture content, but in individual species and
other propertiesdependuponthe moisturecontentofwood. individual piecesofwood it can vary by severalpercentage
points from that value. The fibersaturationpoint also is
In trees, moisturecontentcanrange from about 30% to more often considered asthat moisturecontentbelowwh:ichthe
than 200% ofthe weightofwood substance. In softwoods, physicaland mechanical properties ofwood begin to change
themoisturecontentofsapwoodis usuallygreater than that as a function ofmoisture content. Duringdrying, the outer
ofheartwood. Inhardwoods, thedifference in moisture con- parts ofa boardcan be less than fibersaturation while the
tent betweenheartwoodand sapwooddepends onthe species. innerparts are still greaterthan fibersaturation.
The averagemoisturecontentofheartwood and sapwoodof
some domesticspecies is given in Table 3—3. These values
are considered typical,but there is considerable variation Equilibrium Moisture Content
within andbetweentrees. Variability ofmoisture content The moisturecontentofwood belowthe fiber saturation
existseven withinindividualboardscut from the same tree. point is a function ofboth relative humidityand temperature
Additionalinformation on moisture in wood is given in ofthe surrounding air. Equilibrium moisture content(EMC)
Chapter 12. is defined as that moisturecontentat whichthe wood is
neither gaining nor losingmoisture; an equilibriumcondi-
Green Wood and Fiber tionhas been reached.The relationship betweenEMC,
relativehumidity, and temperatureis shownin Table 3—4.
Saturation Point Formost practicalpurposes, thevalues in Table 3—4 may be
Moisture canexist inwood as liquid water (freewater) or appliedto wood ofany species. Data in Table 3—4 can be
water vapor in cell lumens and cavitiesand as water held approximated by the following:
chemically (boundwater) withincell walls. Green wood is
often definedas freshlysawn woodin whichthe cell wallsare Kh
M = 1,800 + K1Kh+ 2K1K2K2h2
(3—3)
completely saturated with water; however, green wood usu- W I —Kh 1+ K1Kh+ K1K2K2h2
ally contains additionalwater in the lumens. The moisture
contentat whichboth the cell lumens and cell walls are where h is relative humidity(%/l00), and M is moisture
completelysaturatedwith water is the maximum possible content (%).
moisturecontent. Specific gravity is the major determinantof
maximummoisturecontent. Lumenvolume decreases as For temperatureTin Celsius,
specific gravityincreases,so maximum moisturecontentalso W= 349 + 1.29T+ 0.0l35I
decreases as specific gravity increases becausethereis less
room available for free water.Maximum moisturecontent K = 0.805 + 0.000736T— 0.00000273T2
Mmfor any specific gravity can be calculated from K1 = 6.27 — 0.00938T— 0.0003037
Mm = IOO(l.54—Gb)/l.S4Gb (3—i) K2 = 1.91 + 0.0407T— 0.000293T2
where Gbis basic specificgravity(based on ovendry weight and fortemperature inFahrenheit
and green volume) and 1.54 is specific gravityofwoodcell W= 330 + 0.452T+ O.0041572
walls. Maximum possible moisture contentvaries from
267% at specificgravityof0.30 to 44% at specific gravity K = 0.791 + 0.000463 T— 0.00000084412
0.90. Maximumpossiblemoisture content is seldomat-
tained in trees. However,green moisturecontentcan be quite K1 = 6.34 ± 0.000775T— 0.0000935T2
high in some speciesnaturallyor throughwaterlogging. The 1(2 1.09 + 0.0284T— 0.000090412
moisture contentat which woodwill sink in water can be
calculated by Woodin service is exposed to both long-term (seasonal) and
short-term (daily)changes in relative humidityand tempera-
MSIflk = 100(1—Gb)/Gb (3—2) tureofthe surrounding air. Thus, wood is always undergo-
ing at least slight changesin moisturecontent. The;e
Conceptually, the moisturecontent at whichonly the cell
walls are completely saturated (all boundwater)butrio water changes usually are gradual, and short-term fluctuations tend
to influence only thewood surface. Moisturejonteni:changes
exists in cell lumens is called the fiber saturation point. can be retarded, but notprevented, byprotectivecoatings,
Whilea usefulconcept,the term fiber saturation point is not such as varnish, lacquer, or paint.The objectiveofwood
very precise. In concept,it distinguishes betweenthe two
ways water is held in wood. In fact, it is possible for all cell dryingis to bring the wood close to the moisturecontent a
lumens to be empty andhave partially dried cell walls in one fmishedproductwill have in service (Chs. 12 and 15).
part ofapiece ofwood,while in anotherpartofthe same

3—5
Table 3—3. Averagemoisture content ofgreenwood, by species
Moisture contenta (%) Moisture contenta (%)

Species Heartwood Sapwood Species Heartwood Sapwood

Hardwoods Softwoods
Alder, red — 97 Baldcypress 121 171

Apple 8t 74 Cedar,eastern red 33 —


Ash, black 95 — Cedar, incense 40 213
Ash, green — 58 Cedar, Port-Orford 50 98
Ash, white 46 44 Cedar,western red 58 249

Aspen 95 113 Cedar, yellow 32 166


Basswood, Amencan 81 133 Douglas-fir,coasttype 37 115

Beech, Amencan 55 72 Fir, balsam 88 173

Birch, paper 98 72 Fir, grand 91 136

Birch, sweet 75 70 Fir, noble 34 115

Birch, yellow 74 72 Fir, Pacific silver 55 164

Cherry, black 58 — Fir, white 96 160

Chestnut, American 120 — Hemlock, eastern 97 119


Cottonwood 162 146 Hemlock, western 85 170
Elm,American 95 92 Larch,western 54 119

Elm,cedar 66 61 Pine, loblolly 33 110

Elm,rock 44 57 Pine, lodgepole 41 120

Hackberry 61 65 Pine,longleaf 31 106

Hickory, bitternut B) 54 Pine, ponderosa 40 148

Hickory, mockernut 70 52 Pine, red 32 134

Hickory, pignut 71 49 Pine,shortleaf 32 122

Hickory, red 88 52 Pine,sugar 98 219


Hickory, sand 68 50 Pine,western white 62 148

Hickory, water 97 62 Redwood,old growth 66 210


Magnolia 80 104 Spruce, black 52 113

Maple, silver 58 97 Spruce,Engelmann 51 173

Maple, sugar 65 72 Spruce, Sitka 41 142

Oak, California black 76 75 Tamarack 49 —


Oak, northernred 80 88
Oak, southern red 83 75
Oak, water 81 81

Oak, white 64 78
Oak,willow 82 74
Sweetgurn 79 137

Sycamore, American 114 130

Tupelo, black 87 115

Tupelo, swamp 101 108

Tupelo, water 150 116

Walnut, black 50 73
Yellow-poplar 83 106

onweight when ovendry.

3-6
Table 3—4. Moisture content ofwood in equilibrium with stated temperatureand relative humidity
Temperature Moisture content (%) at various relative humidity values

(°C (°F)) 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 50% 55% 60% 65% 70% 75% 80% 85% 90% 95%

—1.1(30) 1.4 2.6 3.7 4.6 5.5 6.3 7.1 7.9 8.7 9.5 10.4 11.3 12.4 13.5 14.9 16.5 18.5 21024.3
4.4 (40) 1.4 2.6 3.7 4.6 5.5 6.3 7.1 7.9 8.7 9.5 10.4 11.3 12.3 13.5 14.9 16.5 18.5 21.0 24.3
10.0 (50) 1.4 2.6 3.6 4.6 5.5 6.3 7.1 7.9 8.7 9.5 10.3 112 12.3 13.4 14.8 16.4 18.4 20.9 24.3
15.6 (60) 1.3 2.5 3.6 4.6 5.4 6.2 7.0 7.8 8.6 9.4 102 11.1 12.1 13.3 14.6 162 18.2 20.7 24.1
21.1 (70) 1.3 2.5 3.5 4.5 5.4 6.2 6.9 7.7 8.5 9.2 10.1 11.0 12.0 13.1 14.4 16.0 17.9 20523.9
26.7 (80) 1.3 2.4 3.5 4.4 5.3 6.1 6.8 7.6 8.3 9.1 9.9 10.8 11.7 12.9 14.2 15.7 17.7 20.2 23.6

32.2(90) 1.2 2.3 3.4 4.3 5.1 5.9 6.7 7.4 8.1 8.9 9.7 10.5 11.5 12.6 13.9 15.4 17.3 19823.3
37.8(100) 12 2.3 3.3 4.2 5.0 5.8 6.5 7.2 7.9 8.7 9.5 10.3 112 12.3 13.6 15.1 17.0 19522.9
43.3(110) 1.1 2.2 3.2 4.0 4.9 5.6 6.3 7.0 7.7 8.4 9.2 10.0 11.0 12.0 132 14.7 16.6 19122.4
48.9 (120) 1.1 2.1 3.0 3.9 4.7 5.4 6.1 6.8 7.5 82 8.9 9.7 10.6 11.7 12.9 14.4 162 18.6 22.0

54.4(130) 1.0 2.0 2.9 3.7 4.5 52 5.9 6.6 7.2 7.9 8.7 9.4 10.3 11.3 12.5 14.0 15.8 18221.5
60.0(140) 0.9 1.9 2.8 3.6 4.3 5.0 5.7 6.3 7.0 7.7 8.4 9.1 10.0 11.0 12.1 13.6 15.3 17721.0
65.6(150) 0.9 1.8 2.6 3.4 4.1 4.8 5.5 6.1 6.7 7.4 8.1 8.8 9.7 10.6 11.8 13.1 14.9 17220.4
71.1(160) 0.8 1.6 2.4 3.2 3.9 4.6 5.2 5.8 6.4 7.1 7.8 8.5 9.3 10.3 11.4 12.7 14.4 16719.9
76.7 (170) 0.7 1.5 2.3 3.0 3.7 4.3 4.9 5.6 62 6.8 7.4 8.2 9.0 9.9 11.0 12.3 14.0 16.2 19.3
822(180) 0.7 1.4 2.1 2.8 3.5 4.1 4.7 5.3 5.9 6.5 7.1 7.8 8.6 9.5 10.5 11.8 13.5 15718.7
87.8(190) 0.8 1.3 1.9 2.6 3.2 3.8 4.4 5.0 5.5 6.1 6.8 7.5 82 9.1 10.1 11.4 13.0 15.1 18.1

93.3(200) 0.5 1.1 1.7 2.4 3.0 3.5 4.1 4.6 52 5.8 6.4 7.1 7.8 8.7 9.7 10.9 12.5 14,617.5
98.9(210) 0.5 1.0 1.6 2.1 2.7 32 3.8 4.3 4.9 5.4 6.0 6.7 7.4 8.3 9.2 10.4 12.0 14016.9
104.4 (220) 0.4 0.9 1.4 1.9 2.4 2.9 3.4 3.9 4.5 5.0 5.6 6.3 7.0 7.8 &8 9.9
110.0 (230) 0.3 0.8 12 1.6 2.1 2.6 3.1 3.6 4.2 4.7 5.3 6.0 6.7
115.6 (240) 0.3 0.6 0.9 1.3 1.7 2.1 2.6 3.1 3.5 4.1 4.6
121.1 (250) 02 0.4 0.7 1.0 1.3 1.7 2.1 2.5 2.9
.
126.7 (260) 02 0.3 0.5 0.7 0.9 1.1 1.4

1322 (270) 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.4

Sorption Hysteresis oftool handles, gaps in strip flooring, or performance


problems that detract from the usefulness ofthe wood prod-
The amount ofwater adsorbedfrom a dry condition to equi- uct. Therefore, it is important that these phenomenabe
librium with any relativehumidityis always less than the understood and considered whentheycan affect productin a
amountretainedin the processofdrying from a wettercondi- whichwood is used.
tion to equilibriumwith that same relative humidity. The
ratio ofadsorptionEMC to desorptionEMC is constantat With respect to shrinkage characteristics, wood is an aniso-
about 0.85. Furthermore,EMC in the initialdesorption tropic material.It shrinks most in the directionofthe annual
(that is, from the originalgreen condition ofthe tree) is growthrings (tangentially), about halfas much acro s the
always greaterthan in any subsequent desorptions. Data in rings (radially), and only slightly along the grain (longi-
Table 3—4 were derivedprimarilyunderconditions described tudinally). The combined effectsofradial andtangential
as oscillating desorption(Stammand Loughborough 1935), shrinkage can distortthe shape ofwood piecesbecaue ofthe
which is thoughtto representa condition midwaybetween difference in shrinkage andthe curvature ofannualrings.
adsorptionand desorption and a suitable and practical com- The majortypes ofdistortion as aresult ofthese effectsare
promise for use whenthe directionofsorption is not always illustrated in Figure3—3.
known.Hysteresisis shown in Figure 3—2.
Transverse and Volumetric
Shrinkage Datahavebeen collected to represent the average rad al,
Wood is dimensionallystable when the moisture contentis tangential,and volumetric shrinkage ofnumerous domestic
greaterthan the fibersaturation point. Woodchanges dimen- species by methods describedin American Society for Test-
sion as it gains or loses moisture belowthat point. It shrinks ing and Materials (ASTM)D143—Standard Methodof
whenlosingmoisture from the cell walls and swells when Testing Small Clear Specimens of Timber(ASTM [997).
gainingmoisture in the cell walls. This shrinking and swel- Shrinkage values, expressed as a percentage ofthe green
ling can result in warping, checking, splitting,and loosening dimension, are listed in Table3—5. Shrinkage values

3—7
Longitudinal
Longitudinalshrinkageofwood (shrinkageparallelto the
0 grain)is generallyquitesmall. Average valuesfor shrinkage
from green to ovendry are between0.1%and 0.2% for most
0 species ofwood.However, certain types ofwood exhibit
C
excessivelongitudinal shrinkage, and these should be
00 avoidedin uses where longitudinal stability is important.
Reactionwood,whethercompression wood in softwoods
Oscillating desorption.
or tensionwood in hardwoods, tends to shrink excessively
parallel tothe grain.Woodfrom near the centeroftrees
(juvenilewood)ofsomespecies also shrinks excessively
C
a) lengthwise. Reactionwood andjuvenile wood can shrink
0 2% from green to ovendry. Woodwith cross grain exhibits
a)
0. increasedshrinkage along the longitudinal axis ofthepiece.
Reactionwood exhibiting excessivelongitudinal shrinkage
0 50 60 70 80 90 100 canoccur in the sameboard with normalwood. The presence
Relative humidity (%) ofthis type ofwood, as well as cross grain, can cause serious
warping, such as bow, crook, ortwist, and cross breaks can
Figure3—2. Moisture content—relativehumidity developin the zonesofhigh shrinkage.
relationship forwood under adsorption and
variousdesorption conditions.
Moisture—ShrinkageRelationship
a
The shrinkageof smallpiece ofwood normallybeginsat
about the fibersaturation point and continuesin a fairly
linearmanneruntil the wood is completely dry. However,in
thenormaldrying oflumberorother large pieces,thesurface
ofthe wood dries first. Whenthesurface getsbelowthefiber
saturation point, it beginsto shrink. Meanwhile,the interior
canstill be quite wet and not shrink. The result is that
shrinkage oflumbercan begin beforethe average moisture
contentofthe entirepiece is belowthe fiber saturation point,
and the moisture content—shrinkagecurve can actuallylook
like the one inFigure3—4. The exact form ofthe curve
depends on several variables, principally size and shapeof
thepiece, species ofwood, and drying conditions used.
Considerable variationin shrinkage occursfor any species.
Shrinkage datafor Douglas-firboards,22.2 by 139.7 mm
(718 by 5-112in.) in cross section, are given in Figure 3—5.
The materialwas grown in one locality and dried undermild
conditions from green to near equilibrium at 18°C (65°F)
Figure 3—3. Characteristic shrinkage and distortion and 30% relative humidity.The figure shows that it is im-
of flat, square, and round pieces as affected
by directionofgrowthrings.Tangential shrinkage possibleto accurately predictthe shrinkage ofan individual
is about twice as greatas radial. piece ofwood; the average shrinkage ofa quantity ofpieces is
more predictable.

collected from the world literature for selected imported


Iftheshrinkage—moisturecontentrelationship is notknown
arelisted in Table 3—6. for a particularproductanddrying condition, data in
species Tables3—5 and3—6canbe usedto estimate shrinkage from
The shrinkageofwood is affected by anumberofvariables. the green conditionto any moisturecontent using
In general, greater shrinkage is associatedwith greaterden-
a
sity. The size andshape of piece ofwood can affectshrink- Sm = (3-4)
age, andtherate ofdiyingforsome species can affectshrink- s(30_MJ
age. Transverseand volumetric shrinkagevariability can be
a
expressed by coefficient ofvariation ofapproximately 15%. whereSm is shrinkage (%)fromthe green conditionto mois-
S
ture contentM (<30%), and is total shrinkage(radial.
tangential, orvolumetric (%)) from Table 3—5 or 3—6.

3—8
Table 3—5. Shrinkage values of domestic woods
Shrinkagea(%) fromgreen Shrinkag?(%) fromgreen
to ovendry moisture content toovendry moisture content
Species Radial Tangential Volumetric Species Radial Tangential Volumetric
Hardwoods Oak,white—con.
Alder, red 4.4 7.3 12.6 Chestnut
Ash Live 6.6 9.5 14.7
Black 5.0 7.8 152 Overcup 5.3 12.7 16.0
Blue 3.9 6.5 11.7 Post 5.4 9.8 16.2
Green 4.6 7.1 12.5 Swamp, chestnut 52 10.8 16.4
Oregon 4.1 8.i 132 White 5.6 10.5 16.3
Pumpkin 3.7 6.3 12.0 Persimmon, common 7.9 11.2 19.1
White 4.9 7.8 13.3 Sassafras 4.0 62 10.3
Aspen Sweetgum 5.3 102 15.8
Bigtooth 3.3 7.9 11.8 Sycamore, American 5.0 8.4 14.1
Quaking 3.5 6.7 11.5 Tanoak 4.9 11.7 17.3
Basswood,American 6.6 9.3 15.8 Tupelo
Beech, American 5.5 11.9 172 Black 5.1 8.7 14.4
Birch Water 42 7.6 12.5
Alaska paper 6.5 9.9 16.7 Walnut, black 5.5 7.8 12.8
Gray 52 — 14.7 Willow, black 3.3 8.7 13.9
Paper 6.3 8.6 16.2 Yellow-poplar 4.6 8.2 12.7
River 4.7 92 13.5 Softwoods
Sweet 6.5 9.0 15.6 Cedar
Yellow 7.3 9.5 16.8 Yellow 2.8 6.0 92
Buckeye,yellow 3.6 81 12.5 Atlantic white 2.9 5.4 8.8
Butternut 3.4 6.4 10.6 Eastemredcedar 3.1 4.7 7.8
Cherry, black 3.7 7.1 11.5 Incense 3.3 52 7.7
Chestnut, American 3.4 6.7 11.6 Northernwhite 22 4.9 72
Cottonwood Port-Orford 4.6 6.9 10.1
Balsam poplar 3.0 7.1 10.5 Western redcedar 24 5.0 6.8
Black 36 8.6 12.4 Douglas-fir,
Eastern 3.9 92 13.9 Coastb 4.8 7.6 12.4
Elm Interiornorth 3.8 6.9 10.7
American 42 9.5 14.6 lnteriorwesr 4.8 7.5 11.8
Cedar 4.7 102 15.4 Fir
81
Rock
Slippery
Winged
4.8
4.9
5.3
9
11.6
14.9
13.8
17.7
Balsam
California red
Grand
2.9
4.5
3.4
6.9
7.9
7.5
112
11.4
11.0
Hackberry 4.8 89 13.8 Noble 4.3 8.3 12.4
Hickory, pecan 4.9 8.9 13.6 Pacific silver 4.4 9.2 13.0
Hickory, true Subalpine 2.6 7.4 9.4
Mockemut 7.7 11.0 17.8 White 3.3 7.0 9.8
Pignut 72 11.5 17.9 Hemlock
Shagbark 7.0 10.5 16.7 Eastern 3.0 6.8 9.7
Shellbark 7.6 12.6 192 Mountain 4.4 7.1 11.1
Holly, American 4.8 9.9 16.9 Western 42 7.8 12.4
Honeylocust 42 6.6 10.8 Larch, western 4.5 9.1 14.0
Locust, black 4.6 72 102 Pine
Madrone,Pacific 5.6 12.4 18.1 Easternwhite 2.1 6.1 82
Magnolia Jack 3.7 6.6 10.3
Cucumbertree 52 88 13.6 Loblolly 4.8 7.4 12.3
Southern 5.4 6.6 12.3 Lodgepole 4.3 6.7 11.1
Sweetbay 4.7 83 12.9 Longleaf 5.1 7.5 122
Maple Pitch 4.0 7.1 10.9
Bigleaf 3.7 7.1 11.6 Pond 5.1 7.1 112
Black 4.8 9.3 14.0 Ponderosa 39 6.2 9.7
Red 4.0 82 12.6 Red 3.8 7.2 11.3
Silver 3.0 72 12.0 Shortleaf 4.6 7.7 12.3
Striped 32 8.6 12.3 Slash 5.4 7.6 12.1
Sugar 4.8 9.9 14.7 Sugar 2.9 5.6 7.9
Oak, red Virginia 42 72 11.9
Black 4.4 11.1 15.1 Western white 4.1 7.4 11.8
Laurel 4.0 9.9 19.0 Redwood
Northern red
Pin
4.0
4.3
6
9.5
13.7
14.5
Oldgrowth 2.6
22
4.4
4.9
6.8
7.0
Young growth
Scarlet 4.4 10.8 14.7 Spruce
Southern red 4.7 11.3 16.1 Black 4.1 6.8 11.3
Water 4.4 9.8 16.1 Engelrnann 38 7.1 11.0
Willow 5.0 9.6 18.9 Red 3.8 7.8 11.8
Oak,white 4.4 8.8 12.7 Sitka 4.3 7.5 11.5
Bur 5.3 10.8 16.4 Tamarack 3.7 7.4 13.6

Expressedas a percentageofthegreen dimension.


Coast type Douglas-fir isdefined asDouglas-fir growing inthe States ofOregon and Washingtonwest ofthesummit ofthe Cascade Mountaiiis.
InteriorWest indudes the State ofCaliforniaand allcounties in Oregon and Washingtoneast ofbutadjacent tothe Cascade summit. Interior Nlorth
indudesthe remainderofOregon and Washingtonand theStates ofIdaho,Montana,and Wyoming.

3—9
Table 3—6. Shrinkage for some woods imported intothe United Statesa
Shrinkagebfrom Shnnkage" from
green to ovendry green to ovendry
moisture content (%) moisture content (%)

Tan- Volu- Loca- Tan- Volu-- Loca-


Species Radial gential metric tionC Species Radial gential metric tjOflc

Afrormosia (Pericopsis elata) ao 6.4 10.7 AF Lauan,white(Pentacme conto,ta) 4.0 7.7 11.7 AS
Albarco (Canniana spp.) 2.8 5.4 9.0 AM Limba (Terminalia superba) 4.5 62 10.8 AF
Aridiroba (Carapa guianensis) 3.1 7.6 10.4 AM Macawood (Platymscium spp.) 2.7 3.5 6.5 AM
AngeHn(Andira inermis) 4.6 9.8 12.5 AM Mahogany,African (Khayaspp.) 2.5 4.5 8.8 AF
Angelique (Dico,ynia guianens!s) 52 8.8 14.0 AM Mahogany, true (Swieteniamacrophylla) 3.0 4.1 7.8 AM
Apitong (Dipterocarpusspp.) 5.2 10.9 16.1 AS Manbarkiak (Eschweileraspp.) 5.8 10.3 15.9 AM
Avodire (Turreanthus africanus) 4.6 6.7 12.0 AF Manni (Symphonia globulifera) 5.7 9.7 15.6 AM
Azobe (Lophira alata) 8.4 11.0 17.0 AM Marishballi (Licania spp.) 7.5 11.7 17.2 AM
Balata (Manhlkarabidenfata) 6.3 9.4 16.9 AM Meranti,white (Shorea spp.) 3.0 6.6 7.7 AS
Balsa (Ochiomapyramidale) 3.0 7.6 10.8 AM Meranti,yellow (Shorea spp.) 3.4 8.0 10.4 AS
Banak (Virola spp.) 4.6 8.8 13.7 AM Merbau (lntsia biuga and I. palembanica) 2.7 4.6 7.8 AS
Benge (Guibourtiaamoldiana) 52 8.6 13.8 AF Mersawa (Anisopteraspp.) 4.0 9.0 14.6 AS
Bubinga (Guibourtia spp.) 5.8 8.4 142 AF Mora (Mora spp.) 6.9 9.8 18.8 AM
Bulletwood (Manhlkarabidentata) 6.3 9.4 16.9 AM Obeche (Thplochitonscleroxylon) 3.0 5.4 92 AF
Caribbean pine (Pinus caribaea) 6.3 7.8 12.9 AM Ocota pine (Pinus occalpa) 4.6 7.5 12.3 AM
Cativo (Pnoria copaifera) 2.4 5.3 8.9 AM Okoume (Aucoumeaklaineana) 4.1 6.1 11.3 AF
Ceiba (Ceiba penfandra) 2.1 4.1 10.4 AM Opepe (Naucleaspp.) 4.5 8.4 12.6 AF
Cocobolo (Dalbergia retusa) 2.7 43 7.0 AM Ovangkol (Guibourtaehie 4.5 82 12 AF
Courbaril (Hymenaea courbaril) 4.5 8.5 12.7 AM Para-angelium(Hymenolobium excelsum) 4.4 7.1 102 AM
Cuangare (Dialyanthera spp.) 42 9.4 12.0 AM Paranapine Araucariaangustifolia) 4.0 7.9 11.6 AS
Degame (Calycophyllum cand 4.8 8.6 132 AM Pau Marfim (Balfourodendron 4.6 8.8 13.4 AM
idissimum) riedelianum)
Determa (Ocotea rubra) 3.7 7.6 10.4 AM Perobadecampos (Paratecomaperoba) 3.8 6.6 10.5 AM
Ebony, East Indian (Diospyros spp.) 5.4 8.8 142 AS Peroba Rosa (Aspidospermaspp.) 3.8 6.4 11.6 AM
Ebony, African (Diospyros spp.) 9.2 10.8 20.0 AF Piquia (Caxyocarspp.) 5.0 8.0 13.C AM
Ekop (Tetraberlinia tubmaniana) 5.6 102 15.8 AF Pilon (Hyeronima spp.) 5.4 11.7 17.0 AM
Gmelina (Gmelina arborea) 2.4 4.9 8.8 AS Primavera (Cybistex donnell-smithi:) 3.1 5.1 9.1 AM
Goncalo alves(Astronium graveolens) 4.0 7.6 10.0 AM Purpleheart(Peltogynespp.) 3.2 6.1 9. AM
Greenheart (Ocotea rodiaei) 88 9.6 17.1 AM Ramin (Gonystylus spp.) 4.3 8.7 13.4 AS
Hura (Huracrepitans) 2.7 4.5 7.3 AM Roble (Quercus spp.) 6.4 11.7 18.5 AM
Ilomba (Pycnarthus angolensis) 4.6 8.4 12.8 AF Roble (Tabebuiaspp. Roble group) 3.6 6.1 9.5 AM
Imbuia (Phoebe porosa) 2.7 6.0 9.0 AM Rosewood, Brazilian (Dalbergianigra) 2.9 4.6 8.5 AM
Ipe (Tabebuiaspp.) 6.6 8.0 132 AM Rosewood,Indian (DalbergiaIatifolia) 2.7 5.8 8.5 AS
Iroko(Chlorophora excelsa and C. regia) 2.8 3.8 8.8 AF Rubberwood (Heveabrasiliensis) 2.3 5.1 7.4 AM
Jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) 7.7 11.0 18.7 AS Sande (Brosimum spp. Utilegroup) 4.6 8.0 13.6 AM
Jelutong (Dyera costulata) 2.3 5.5 7.8 AS Sapele (Entandrophragmacylindncum) 4.6 7.4 14.0 AF
Kaneelhart (Licana spp.) 5.4 7.9 12.5 AM Sepetir (Pseudosirrdoraspp. and 3.7 7.0 10.5 AS
Sindora spp.)
Kapur(D,yobalanops spp.) 4.6 10.2 14.8 AS Spanish-cedar (Cedrela spp.) 4.2 63 10.3 AM
Karri(Eucalyptus diversicolo?) 7.8 12.4 202 AS Sucupira (Diplotropispuipurea) 4.6 7.0 11.8 AM
Kempas (Koompassia malaccensis) 6.0 7.4 14.5 AS Teak(Tectona grarrdis) 2.5 5.8 7.0 PS

Keruing (Dipterocarpus spp.) 5.2 10.9 16.1 AS Wallaba (Eperua spp.) 3.6 6.9 10.0 AM
Lauan, light red and red (Shorea spp.) 4.6 8.5 14.3 AS

Lauan, dark red (Sho,ea spp.) 3.8 7.9 13.1 AS

aShrinkagevalues were obtained fromworld literatureand may not representatrue species average.
bpreed as a percentageofthe green dimension.
CAF isAfrica; AM isTropical America; AS isAsia and Oceania.

3—10
0
(0 Weight, Density, and
ci,
E Specific Gravity
.
Ca)
ci)
Two primaryfactors affectthe weightofwoodproducts:
density ofthe basic wood structure andmoisturecorLtent. A
third factor, minerals and extractable substances, has a
markedeffectonly on a limited numberofspecies.
C
ci
0 The density ofwood,exclusive ofwater, variesgreatlyboth
ci)
withinand betweenspecies. Although the density ofmost
0
Moisture content(%) species fallsbetweenabout 320 and 720 kg/rn3 (20 arid
45 lb/fl3),the range ofdensityactuallyextendsfrom about
Figure 3—4. Typical moisture content—shrinkage 160 kg/rn3(10 lb/fl3)forbalsa to more than 1,040 kg/rn3
curves. (65 lb/fl3)for someother imported woods. A coefficient of
variationofabout 10% is considered suitable fordescribing
7 thevariabilityofdensity withincommondomesticspecies.
6 Woodis used in a wide range ofconditions and has wide
a)
range ofmoisturecontentvalues in use. Moisturemakesup
0) 5
(ci
part ofthe weight ofeach productin use;therefore, tie den-
C
°0O 0
00 00 sity must reflectthis fact. This has resultedin the de:risityof
4 wood often being determined and reportedon the basis of
Co 00 moisture contentin use.
3.
C The calculated density ofwood,includingthe water con-
ci)
0) 2-
I
C

1
tained in the wood, is usuallybased on averagespecies
characteristics. This valueshouldalwaysbe consideredan
approximation becauseofthe naturalvariationin anatomy,
I I I I I .c.......i moisturecontent,andratio ofheartwoodto sapwoodthat
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 occurs. Nevertheless, this determination ofdensityth;ually
Moisture content(%) is sufficiently accurate to permitproperutilization ofwood
Figure 3—5. Variation in individualtangential shrinkage productswhereweightis important. Such applications range
values ofseveral Douglas-fir boardsfrom one locality, from the estimation ofstructural loadsto the calculation of
dried from green condition. approximateshippingweights.
To standardize comparisons ofspecies orproductsandesti-
mationsofproductweight,specificgravityis used as a
Ifthe moisturecontentat whichshrinkage fromthegreen standard reference basis,rather than density. The traditional
condition begins is knownto be other than 30% for a spe- definition ofspecific gravity is the ratio ofthe density ofthe
cies,the shrinkageestimatecan be improvedby replacingthe wood to the density ofwaterat a specified reference tempera-
valueof30 in Equation(3—4)with the appropriate moisture
contentvalue.
ture(often4.4°C (40°F))wherethedensity ofwater i
1.0000 g/cm3).Toreduce confusion introducedby tha vari-
able ofmoisture content, the specificgravityofwood usually
Tangentialvalues for S0shouldbe used for estimating width is basedon theovendry weight andthe volume at some
shrinkage offlatsawn material and radialvaluesfor quarter-
sawn material.For mixed or unknownring orientations, specified moisture content.
tangential values are suggested. Shrinkage valuesfor indi-
vidual pieceswill vary from predictedshrinkage values. As Commonlyused basesfor determining specific gravityare
noted previously, shrinkage variabilityis characterizecL by a ovendryweightand volumeat(a) green, (b) ovendry. and
coefficientofvariationofapproximately 15%. This applies to (c) 12% moisturecontent. Ovendry weightand green volume
are often used in databases to characterize specific gravity of
pure tangentialor radial ring orientation and is probably species, whichis referredto asbasic specific gravity. Some
somewhat greater in commercial lumber, where ring olienta-
tion is seldom alignedperfectlyparallelorperpendicular to specific gravitydata are reportedin Tables4—3, 4—4, and
4—5 (Ch. 4) on both the 12% and green volumebasi.
boardfaces. Chapter12 containsadditional discussion of A coefficient ofvariation ofabout 10% describes the vari-
shrinkage—moisturecontentrelationships,including a
methodto estimate shrinkage for the relativelysmallrnois- ability inherent in many common domestic species.
ture contentchangesofwood in service. Shrinkage assump-
Designspecifications forwood, such as containedin Ihe
tions for commercial lumber, whichtypically is notperfectly National DesignSpecflcationfor WoodConstruction, are
plainsawnor quartersawn, are discussedin Chapter6. basedon ovendry weightand ovendiyvolume.

3—11
0.82 usage ofFigure3—6 is direct calculation ofGm using the
following:
0.78
Gm =Gb/(l—O.26SaGb) (3—5)
0.74
whereGm is specific gravity basedon volume at moisture
C
0.70 '
contentM, Gb is basic specific gravity(basedon green ol-
0
o 066 ume), and a = (30 — M)/30, where M < 30.
0.62 Alternatively, the density values in Table 3—7 can be calcu-
0 latedby
E 0.58
C p 1,000 Gm(1 + M/100) (kg/rn3) (3—6a)
0.54
C.) p = 62.4 Gm(1 + M/100) (lb/ft3) (36b)
0.50
It is often usefulto know theweightof lumberon avolumet-
0.46 ric basis. We can make these estimates using Table 3—7 or
0.42 with equations only. Theseresultsassume an average
shrinkage—specific gravityrelationship and providea good
0.38 estimate. Both methods are illustrated. For weights based on
theactualshrinkage ofindividual species,refertotheDry
0.34 Kiln Operator's Manual (Simpson 1991).
0
0. 0.30 Method i—Use of Table3—7
Cl)
0.26
Determine the weightper actualunit volume(cubicmeter
0.22 or 1,000 board feet) ofsugarmapleat 20% moisture con-
tent and at 50% moisture content. From Table 4—3a, the
specific gravity Gb (ovendryweight—greenvolume)i; 0.56.
0.18
0 2 4 68 1012141618202224262830 Becausethe specificgravity in Table 3—7 isbasedon
Moisture content (%)
volumeat tabulated moisture contentGm, we must convert
Figure 3—6. Relationship ofspecific gravityand Gb to Gm by either Figure 3—6or Equation (3—5):
moisture content.
At 20%,
Ifthe specific gravityofwood is known,based on ovendry G = 0.56/{1 — 0.265[(30 — 20)/30]0.56} = 0.59
weightand volumeat a specifiedmoisturecontent, the Determine the density from Table 3—7 at Gm = 0.59 and
specific gravity atany other moisture contentbetween0 and 20% moisturecontent. The result is approximately
30% can be approximated from Figure 3—6. This figure 708 kg/rn3 (44.1 lb/fl3) (by interpolation).
adjustsforaverageshrinkage and swelling that occurs below
30% moisturecontentand affectsthe volumeofwood. The At 50%,
specificgravityofwood basedon ovendry weightdoes not
change at moisturecontentvalues aboveapproximately 30%
Gm G 0.56

(the approximate fiber saturation point) becausethe volume Determinethe density from Table 3—7 at Gm = 0.56
does not change. To use Figure 3—6, locate the inclined line and 50% moisturecontent. The result is 840 kg/rn3
corresponding to the knownspecific gravity (volume when (52.4lb/fl3).
green). Fromthis point, move left parallel to the inclined
linesuntilverticallyabove the target moisturecontent. Method 2—Use ofequations only
Then,readthe new specificgravitycorresponding to this At 20%, Gm is calculatedas 0.589 as in Method 1.
point at the left-handside ofthe graph. Density is then calculatedfrom Equation(3—6)as
Forexample,to estimatethe density ofwhite ash at 12%
= 1,000 Gm(1+M/100)
moisture content, consultTable 4—3a in Chapter4. The =
1,000 (0.58 (1+20/100) 707 kg/rn3
average green (basic)specific gravityGb for thisspecies is
0.55. Using Figure3—6, the 0.55 green specificgravitycurve p= 62.4 Gm(1+M/100)
is foundto intersect with thevertical 12% moisturecontent = 62.4(0.589)(1+20/100)= 44.1 lb/ft3
line at a point corresponding to a specific gravityof0.605
basedon ovendryweightandvolume at 12% moisturecon- At 50%,
tent, Gm (see dashed lines in Fig. 3—6). The densityofwood p = 1,000 (0.56)(1+50/100) = 840 kg/rn3
includingwater at this moisture contentcan then be obtained
from Table 3—7, which converts the specific gravityof p = 62.4(0.56)(1+50/l00)= 52.4 lb/ft3
0.605to a density of675 kg/rn3 (42 lb/fl3). An alternativeto

3—12
Table 3—7a. Density of woodas a function of specificgravity and moisture content (metric)
Moisture . . .
oontent Density (kg/rn 3) when the specific gravity Gm IS
ofwood
(%) 0.30 0.32 0.34 0.36 0.38 0.40 0.42 0.44. 0.46 0.48 0.50 0.52 0.54 0.56 0.58 0.60 0.62 0.64 0.66 Ci.68 0.70

0 300320340360380400420440460480 500520540560580600620640660380700
4 312 333 354 374 395 416 437 458 478 499 520 541 562 582 603 624 645 666 686 '707 728

8 324 346 367 389 410 432 454 475 497 518 540 562 583 605 626 648 670 691 713 '734 756

12 336 358 381 403 426 448 470 493 515 538 560 582 605 627 650 672 694 717 739 '762 784

16 348 371 394 418 441 464 487 510 534 557 580 603 626 650 673 696 719 742 766 '789 812

ai 360 384 408 432 456 480 504 528 552 576 600 624 648 672 696 720 744 768 792 316 840

24 372 397 422 446 471 496 521 546 570 595 620 645 670 694 719 744 769 794 818 343 868

28 384 410 435 461 486 512 538 563 589 614 640 666 691 717 742 768 794 819 845 370 896

32 396 422 449 475 502 528 554 581 607 634 560 686 713 739 766 792 818 845 871 398 924

36 408 435 462 490 517 544 571 598 626 653 680 707 734 762 789 816 843 870 898 325 952

40 420 448 476 504 532 560 588 616 644 672 700 728 756 784 812 840 868 896 924 352 980

44 432 461 490 518 547 576 605 634 662 691 720 749 778 806 835 864 893 922 950 379 1,008

48 444 474 503 533 562 592 622 651 681 710 740 770 799 829 658 888 918 947 977 1,006 1,036

52 456 486 517 547 578 608 638 669 699 730 760 790 821 851 882 912 942 973 1,003 1,034 1,064

56 468 499 530 562 593 624 655 686 718 749 780 811 842 874 905 936 987 998 1,030 1,1)61 1,092

60 480 512 544 576 608 640 672 704 736 768 800 832 864 896 928 960 992 1,024 1,056 1,1)88 1,120
64 492 525 558 590 623 656 689 722 754 787 820 553 886 918 951 984 1,017 1,050 1,082 1,115 1,148
68 504 538 571 605 638 672 706 739 773 806 540 874 907 941 974 1,008 1,042 1,075 1109 1,142 1,176
72 516 550 585 619 854 688 722 757 791 826 860 894 929 863 998 1032 1,066 1,101 1,135 1,170 1,204
76 528 563 598 634 669 704 739 774 810 845 880 915 950 986 1,021 1,056 1,091 1,126 1,162 1,197
80 540 576 612 648 684 720 756 792 828 864 990 936 972 1,008 1044 1,080 1,116 1,152 1,188
84 552 589 626 662 699 736 773 810 846 883 920 957 994 1030 1,067 1,104 1,141 1,178

85 564 602 639 677 714 752 790 827 865 902 940 978 1,015 1,053 1,090 1,128 1,166
92 576 614 653 691 730 768 806 845 883 922 960 998 1,037 1,075 1,114 1,152 1,190

96 588 627 666 706 745 784 823 862 902 941 980 1,019 1,058 1,098 1,137 1,176
100 600 640 680 720 760 80) 840 880 920 960 1,000 1,040 1,080 1,120 1,160 1,200

110 630 672 714 756 798 840 832 924 966 1,008 1,050 1,092 1,134 1,176 1,218
120 660 704 748 792 836 880 924 968 1,012 1,056 1,100 1,144 1,188 1,232

130 690 736 782 828 874 920 906 1,012 1,058 1,104 1,150.1,196 1,242 1,288
140 720 768 816 864 912 960 1,008 1,056 1,104 1,152 1,200 1,248 1296
150 750 800 850 950 1,000 1,050 1,100 1,150 1,200 1,250 1,300 1,350

3—i3
Table 3—7b. Density ofwoodas a functionofspecificgravityand moisture content (inch—pound)
Moisture
content Density (lb/ft3) whe n the specific, gravity Gm is
ofwood
(%) 0.30 0.320.340.36 0.380A00.420.44 0.46 0.48 0.50 0.52 0.54 0.56 0.580.600.620.64 0.660.680.70
0 18.720.021222.523.725.026.227.528.730.031232.433.734.936237.438.739.9
41.2 42,443.7
4 19.5 20.8221 24.726.027.228.6 29.831.232.4 33.735.036.6 37.638.940.241.5 42.8 44.1454
23.4

8 20221.622.924.325.627.028.329.631.032.333.735.036.437.739.140.441.843.1 44.545.84"2
12 21.022.423.825226.628.029.430.832233.534.936.337.739.l 40.541.943.344.7 46.1 47,548.9
16 21.7 23.224.626.0 27.529.030.431.8 33.334.736.2 37639.1 40.542.043.444.946.3 47.8 49250.7
20 22.524.025.527.028.430.031.432.934.435.937.438.940.441.943.444.946.447.9 49.4 50,952.4
24 232 24.8 26.3 27.8 29.4 31.0 3Z5 34.0 35.6 37.1 38.7 402 41.8 43.3 44.9 46.4 48.0 49.5 51.1 52.6 542
28 24.025.627228.830.431.933.535.136.738.339.941.543.144.746.347.949.551.1 52.754.355.9
32 24.726.428.029.731.332.934.636237.939.541242.844.546.l47.849.451152.7 54.4 56,057.7
36 25.5 272 28.9 30.6 322 33.9 35.6 37.3 39.0 40.7 42.4 44.1 45.8 47.5 492 50.9 52.6 54.3 56.0 57.7 59.4
40 26.2 28.0 29.7 31.4 332 34.9 36.7 38.4 40.2 41.9 43.7 45.4 47.2 48.9 50.7 52.4 54.2 55.9 57.7 59.4 6L2
44 27.0 28.830.632.3 34.1 35.937.739.541.343.144.9 46.748.550.3 52.1 53.955.757.5 59.3 61162.9
48 27.7 29.6 31.4 33.2 35.1 36.9 38.8 40.6 42.5 44.3 46.2 48.0 49.9 51.7 53.6 55.4 57.3 59.1 61.0 62.8 64.6
52 28.530.432234136.037.939.841.743.645.547.449.351253.155.056.958.86Q,7 62.6 64,566.4
56 29.231.233.135.037.038.940.942.844.846.748.750.652.654.556.558.460.462.3 642 66.2681
60 30.0 31.933.935.9 37.939.941.943.9 45.947.949.9 51.953.955.9 57.959.961.963.9 65.9 67969.9
64 30.7 32.734.836.8 38.940.943.045.0 47.1 49.1512 5a255.357.3 59.461.46a465.5 67.5 69671.6
68 31.433.535.637.739.841.944.046.148.250.352.454.556.658.760.862.965.067.1 69.2 71373.4
72 32.234.336.538.640.842.945.147.249.451.553.755.858.060.1 62.364.466.568.7 70.8 73075.1
76 32.9 35.1 37.3 39.5 41.7 43.9 46.1 48.3 50.5 52.7 54.9 57.1 59.3 61.5 63.7 65.9 68.1 70.3 72.5
80 33.7 35.9 382 40.4 42.7 44.9 47.2 49.4 51.7 53.9 56.2 58.4 60.7 62.9 65.1 67.4 69.6 71.9 74.1

84 34.4 36.7 39.0 41.3 43.6 45.9 48.2 50.5 52.8 55.1 57.4 59.7 62.0 64.3 66.6 68.9 712 73.5
88 352 37.5 39.9 422 44.6 46.9 493 51.6 54.0 56.3 58.7 61.0 63.3 65.7 68.0 70.4 72.7

g2 35.9 38.3 40.7 43.1 45.5 47.9 50.3 52.7 55.1 57.5 59.9 62.3 64.7 67.1 69.5 71.9 74.3

56 36.7 39.1 41.6 44.0 46.5 48.9 51.4 53.8 56.3 58.7 612 63.6 66.0 68.5 70.9 73.4

100 37.4 39,9 42.4 44.9 47.4 49.9 52.4 54.9 57.4 59.9 62.4 64.9 67.4 69.9 72.4 74.9

110 39.3 41.9 44.6 472 49.8 52.4 55.0 57.7 60.3 62.9 65.5 68.1 70.8 73.4 76.0

120 412 43.9 46.7 49.4 52.2 54.9 57.7 60.4 63.1 65.9 68.6 71.4 74.1 76.9

130 43.1 45.9 48.8 51.7 54.5 57.4 60.3 63.1 66.0 68.9 71.8 74.6 77.5 80.4

140 44.9 47.9 50.9 53.9 56.9 59.9 62.9 65.9 68.9 71.9 74.9 77.9 80.9

150 46.8 49.9 53.0 562 59.3 62.4 65.5 68.6 71.8 74.9 78.0 81.1 842

3—14
Considerable difference in service life can be obtainedfrom
Working Qualities piecesofwood cut from the same species, even from the
The ease ofworkingwood with hand tools generally varies same tree, and used under apparently similarconditions.
directlywith the specificgravityofthe wood. The lower There are further complications because, in a few species,
the specific gravity,the easierit is to cutthewood with a such as the spruces and the true firs (notDouglas-fir), heart-
sharptool. Tables 4—3 and 4—5(Ch. 4) listthe specific wood and sapwoodare so similarin color that they cannot
gravityvalues for variousnativeand importedspecies. These be easily distinguished.
specificgravity valuescan be used as a general guide to the Marketable sizes ofsome species,such as the southern and
ease ofworkingwith hand tools. easternpines and baldcypress, are becoming primarilysecond
A wood speciesthat is easy to cut does not necessarily growthand contain a high percentage ofsapwoo1. Conse-
developa smoothsurface when it is machined. Conse- quently,substantial quantitiesofheartwoodlumberofthese
quently,tests have been made with many U.S. hardwoods to species are not available.
evaluatethem for machining properties. Resultsofthese
Precise ratings ofdecay resistance ofheartwood ordifferent
evaluationsare given in Table 3—8.
species are not possible becauseofdifferences within species
Machining evaluations are not available for many imported and the varietyofserviceconditions to whichwood is ex-
woods.However,threemajor factorsother thandensitycan posed.However, broadgroupings ofmany nativespecies,
affectproduction ofsmoothsurfaces during woodmachining: basedonservicerecords, laboratory tests, and generalexperi-
interlockedand variablegrain, hard mineral deposits, and ence,arehelpfulin choosing heartwoodforuse undercondi-
reactionwood, particularlytension wood in hardwoods. tions favorable to decay.Table 3—10 lists such groupingsfor
Interlocked grain is characteristic ofa few domestic species some domestic and importedwoods,accordingto their
and many tropical species, and it presents difficultyin plan- average heartwooddecay resistance. The extent ofvariations
ing quartersawn boardsunless attention is paid to feed rate, in decay resistance ofindividual treesor wood samples ofa
cutting angles, and sharpnessofknives. Harddepositsin the species is much greaterfor most ofthe more resistantspecies
cells, such as calciumcarbonate and silica, can havea pro- than forthe slightlyor nonresistant species.
nounceddulling effect on all cutting edges. This dulling
effectbecomesmore pronounced as the wood is driedto the Wheredecayhazards exist, heartwoodofspecies in the resis-
usual in-service requirements. Tensionwood can cause tant or very resistantcategory generallygivessatisfactory
fibrousand fuzzy surfaces. It can be veiy troublesome in service, butheartwoodofspecies in the other two categories
will usuallyrequiresome form ofpreservative treatment.For
speciesoflowerdensity.Reactionwood can also berespon- mild decay conditions, a simplepreservativetreatment—
sible forthe pinchingeffecton saws as aresult ofstressrelief.
The pinching canresult inburning and dullingofthe saw such as a shortsoak in preservative after all cuttingand
teeth. Table 3—9lists some importedspecies that have ir- boringoperations are complete—will be adequate for wood
low in decay resistance. Formore severe decay hazards,
regular grain, hard deposits, or tensionwood.
pressure treatment is often required. Even the very decay-
resistantspecies may require preservative treatment for im-
Decay Resistance portantstructural usesor other useswhere failure would
Wood kept constantlydry does not decay.In addition, if endanger life orrequireexpensive repairs.Preservative treat-
wood is kept continuouslysubmerged in water,even for long ments and methods for wood are discussedin Chapter14.
periods oftime, it does not decay significantly by the com-
mon decay fungiregardless ofthe wood species orthe pres- Thermal Properties
ence ofsapwood. Bacteria and certain soft-rot fungican attack
Four importantthermalpropertiesofwood are thermalcon-
submergedwood, butthe resultingdeterioration is very
slow. A large proportionofwood in use is kept sc dry at all ductivity, heat capacity, thermal diffusivity, andcoefficient of
times that it lasts indefmitely. thermal expansion.
Moisture andtemperature, whichvary greatlywith local
conditions, are the principalfactors that affectrate ofdecay. Conductivity
Wooddeteriorates more rapidlyin warm,humid areas than Thermalconductivityis ameasureofthe rate ofheat flow
a
in cool or dry areas. High altitudes, as rule, areless favor- throughone unit thicknessofa material subjected to a tem-
able to decay than are low altitudes because the average peraturegradient. The thermal conductivity ofcommon
temperatures at higheraltitudes are lowerand the growing structural woods is much less than the conductiviiy ofmetals
seasonfor fungi,whichcause decay,is shorter. The heart- with whichwood often is mated in construction. ILt is about
woodofcommonnativespecies ofwoodhas varyingdegrees two to fourtimesthat ofcommoninsulatingmaterial. For
ofnaturaldecay resistance. Untreated sapwoodofsubstan- example, the conductivity ofstructural softwoodlumberat
tially all species has low resistanceto decay and usually has 12% moisture contentis in the range of0.1 to 1.4 W/(mK)
a shortservicelife under decay-producing conditions. The (0.7 to 1.0 Btu.in/(hft2.°F)) comparedwith 216 (1,500)for
decay resistance ofheartwoodis greatlyaffected by aluminum,45 (310) for steel,0.9 (6) forconcrete,1 (7) for
differences in the preservative qualities ofthewood extrac- glass,0.7 (5) for plaster, and 0.036(0.25) for minral wool.
tives, the attackingfungus,and the conditions ofexposure.

3—15
Table 3—8. Some machining and related properties ofselected domestic hardwoods
Shaping: Turning: Boring: Mortising: Sanding: Steam Nail splitting: Screwsplitting:
Planing: goodto fairto goodto fair to goodto bending: pieces free pieces free
perfect excellent excellent excellent excellent excellent unbroken fromcomplete fromcomplete
pieces pieces pieces pieces pieces pieces pieces splits splits
Kind ofwood0 (0/) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%)
)___________________________________________________
Alder, red 61 20 86 64 52 — — — —
Ash 75 55 79 94 58 75 67 65 71

Aspen 7 55 78 55
Basswood 64 10 68 76 51 17 2 79 ss
BeeCh 83 24 99 99 92 49 75 42 58

Birch
.
Birch, paper

Cherry, black a) 99 88 100 100 — — — —


Chestnut 74 28 87 91 70 64 55 55 99

Cottonwoodb 21 3 70 70 52 19 . 44 92 78

Elm,softb 33 13 65 94 75 55 74 88 74

Hackberry 74 10 72 — 94 63 63

Hickory 76 20 64 100 99 88 76 35 63

Magnolia 65 71 37 85 73 76

Maple, bigleaf 55 99 ice a)


Maple, hard 99 95 38 57 27 52

Maple, soft 41 25 76 88 34 37 55 58 61

Oak, red 91 28 84 99 95 81 85 55 78

Oak, white 57 35 85 95 99 83 91 99 74

Pecan 88 40 89 100 99 — 78 47 58

Sweetgumb 51 92 58 Z 67 55 55

Sycamore' 22 12 85 96 99 21 29 79 74

Tanoak 99 39 81 100 100 — — —

Tupelo, waters' 52 79 52 33 34 46 64 63

Tupelo, blackb 48 75 52 24 21 42 65 63

Walnut, black 52 34 91 100 96 — 78 50 55

Willow 52 5 58 71 24 24 73 89 52

Yellow-poplar 70 13 81 87 63 19 58 77 67

8Commerdal lumbernomenclature.
blfllocked grain present.

3—16
Table 3—9. Some characteristics of imported woods Therefore, we do not providevaluesfor moisture content
that may affectmachining values >25%.
Hard mineral
Reactionwood The effectoftemperature onthermal conductivily is relatively
Irregularand deposits (silica
interlocked grain orcalcium carbonate) (tensionwood) minor: conductivity increases about 2% to 3% per 10°C
(1% to 2% per 10°F).
Avodire Angehque Andiroba
Courbaril Iroko Banak
Ekop Kapur Cativo Heat Capacity
Goncaloalves Ceiba
Keruing (Apftong) Heat capacityis defmed as the amountofenergyneededto
lpe Manbarklak Hura
Iroko Marishballi increase one unit ofmass(kg or lb) one unit in temperature
Mahogany,African
Jarrah Mersawa Mahogany,American (K or °F). Theheatcapacityofwood depends on the tem-
Kapur Okoume Sande perature andmoisturecontentofthe wood but is practically
Karri Rosewood,Indian Spanish-cedar independent ofdensity or species. Heat capacity ofdry wood
Keruing (Apitong) Teak co(kJfkg.K,Btullb°F) is approximately relatedto tempera-
Kokrodua turet (K, °F ) by
Lauan/meranti
= 0.1031 + 0.003867t (metric) (3—8 a)
Lignumvitae
Limba = 0.2605 + 0.0005132t (inch—pound) (3—8b)
Mahogany,African
Merasawa
Obeche
Theheatcapacity ofwoodthat containswater is greaterthan
Okoume that ofdry wood. Below fiber saturation, it is the sum ofthe
Rosewood,Indian heat capacity ofthe dry wood and that ofwater (c) andan
Santa Maria additional adjustment factorA that accounts for the addi-
Sapele tionalenergyin the wood—waterbond:

c,
= (co+0.01Mc)I(l + 0.OlM)+A (3—9)
Thethermal conductivity ofwood is affected by a numberof
where Mis moisturecontent(%). The heat capacityofwater
basic factors: density,moisturecontent, extractive content,
is about 4.19 kJ/kgK(I BtuJlb.°F). The adjustnientfactor
grain direction, structural irregularities such as checks and can be derived from
knots, fibril angle, and temperature. Thermal conductivity
increases as density, moisturecontent, temperature, or extrac- A=M(b+b2t+b,M)
live content ofthe wood increases.Thermalconductivity is
nearlythe same in the radial and tangential directions with
with b1 = —0.06191, b, = 2.36 x i0, and b3 —1.33 x 10
with temperature in kelvins (b1 = —4.23 x
respect to the growthrings. Conductivity along the grain has
beenreported as 1.5 to 2.8 times greaterthan conductivity b2= 3.12 x l0, and b3 —3.17 x 10 with temperaturein
acrossthe grain, with an average ofabout 1.8, but reported °F). Theseformulas are valid forwood belowfiber saturation
values vary widely. at temperatures between7°C (45°F)and 147°C (297°F).
Representative values forheat capacity canbe found in
Formoisture content levelsbelow25%, approximatethermal Table 3—12. The moisture above fiber saturation contributes
conductivity kacross the grain can be calculated with a linear to specific heat according to thesimplerule ofmixtures.
equation ofthe form
k= G(B + CM) + A Thermal Diffusivity
(3—7)
Thermaldiffusivity is a measureofhow quickly material
whereG is specificgravity based on ovendry weight and canabsorb heat from its surroundings; it is theral:ioofther-
volume at a given moisturecontentM(%) andA, B, and C mal conductivity to the product ofdensity and heatcapacity.
are constants. For specific gravity>0.3, temperaturesaround Diffusivity is defmedas the ratio ofconductivity 1:0 the prod-
24°C (75°F), and moisture contentvalues <25%, uctofheat capacity and density;therefore, conclu;ionsre-
A = 0.01864,B 0.1941, and C = 0.004064(with k in gardingits variation with temperature and density are often
W/(mK)) çor A = 0.129, B = 1.34,and C 0.028 with kin basedon calculating the effectofthese variables o:i heat
BtwinJ(hft .F)). Equation (3—7)was derived from measure- capacityand conductivity. Becauseofthe low thermal
mentsmadeby severalresearcherson a varietyofspecies. conductivity and moderatedensity andheatcapac[ty of
Table3—11 providesaverage approximate conductivity wood,the thermaldiffusivityofwood is much lowerthan
values for selectedwood species,based on Equation (3—7). that ofother structural materials,such as metal, brick, and
However,actual conductivity may vary as much as 20% stone. A typicalvalue for wood is 0.161 x l0_6m2/s
from the tabulated values. (0.00025 in2/s) compared with 12.9 x lO_6m2/s (102 in2/s)
for steel and 0.645 x 10_6m2/s (0.001 in2/s) for mineral
Althoughthermalconductivity measurements have been wool. For this reason,wood does not feel extremelyhot or
madeat moisturecontentvalues >25%, measurements have cold to the touch as do some other materials.
been few innumber and generally lackingin accuracy.

3—17
Table 3—10. Grouping of some domestic and imported woods according to average heartwood
decay resistance
Resistant orvery resistant Moderatelyresistant Slightly ornonresistant

Domestic
Baldcypress,old growth Baldcypress,young growth Alder, red

Catalpa Douglas-fir Ashes


Cedar Larch, western Aspens
Atlantic white Pine, longleaf, old growth Beech
Eastern redcedar Pine, slash,oldgrowth Birches
Incense Redwood,younggrowth Buckeye
Northern white Tamarack Butternut
Port-Orford Cottonwood
Western redcedar Elms
Yellow Pine,eastern white, oldgrowth Basswood
Cherry, black Firs, true
Chestnut Hackberry
Cypress, Arizona Hemlocks
Junipers Hickories
Locust, Magnolia
Black° Maples
Honeylocust Pines (other than thoselisted)b
Mesquite Spruces
Mulberry, red8 Sweetgum
Oaks, whiteb Sycamore
Osage orange8 Tanoak
Redwood, oldgrowth Willows
Sassafras Yellow-poplar
Walnut, black
Yew,Pacific8

Imported
Aflotmosia (Kokrodua) Andiroba Balsa

Angelique8 Avodire Banak

Apamate (Roble) Benge Cativo


Azobe8 Bubinga Ceiba
Balata8 Ehie Hura
Balau" Ekop Jelutong
Courbaril Keruingb Limba
Determa Mahogany,African Meranti, light redb
Goncalo alves8 Meranti, dark redb Meranti, yellowb
Greenheart° Mersawab Meranti, whiteb

Ipe (lapacho)8 Sapele Obeche


Iroko Teak, younggrowth Okoume
Jarrah8 Tornillo Parana pine
Kapur Ramin
Karri Sande

Kempas Sepitir
Lignurnvitae8 Seraya, white

Mahogany, American
Manni
Purpleheart°
Spanish-cedar
Sucupira
Teak, old growth8
Wallaba

8Exceptionallyhigh decay resistance.


bMore thanone speciesinduded, someofwhich mayvaryin resistance fromthat indicated.

3—18
Table 3—11. Thermal conductivity ofselected hardwoodsand softWoodsa
Conductivity Resistivity
(W/mK (Btuin/hft2°F)) (Km/W (hft2•°F/Btu•in)) —

Species Specific gravity Ovendry 12% MC Ovendry 12% MC

Hardwoods
Ash
Black 0.53 0.12(0.84) 0.15(1.0) 8.2(1.2) 6.8 (0.98)
White 0.63 0.14 (0.98) 0.17 (1.2) 7.1 (1.0) 5.8 (0.84)
Aspen
Btooth 0.41 0.10(0.68) 0.12 (0.82) 10(1.5) 8.5(1.2)
Quaking 040 0.10 (0.67) 0.12 (0.80) 10(1.5) 8.6(1.2)
Basswood,American 0.38 0.092(0.64) 0.11 (0.77) 11(1.6) 9.0(1.3)
Beech,American 0.68 0.15(1.0) 0.18(1.3) 6.6 (0.96) 5.4(0.78)
Birch
Sweet 0.71 0.16 (1.1) 0.19(1.3) 6.4(0.92) 5.2(0.75)
Yellow 0.66 0.15(1.0) 0.18(1.2) 6.8(0.98) 5.6(0.81)
Cherry, black 0.53 0.12 (0.84) 0.15 (1.0) 8.2(1.2) 6.8 (0.93)
Chestnut, American 0.45 0.11(0.73) 0.13(0.89) 9.4(1.4) 7.8(1.1)
Cottonwood
Black 0.35 0.087(0.60) 0.10(0.72) 12(1.7) 9.6 (1.4)
Eastern 0.43 0.10(0.71) 0.12(0.85) 9.8(1.4) 8.1 (1.2)
Elm
American 0.54 0.12(0.86) 0.15 (1.0) 8.1 (1.2) 6.7(0.93)
Rock 0.67 0.15(1.0) 0.18 (1.3) 6.7 (0.97) 5.5 (0.80)
Slippery 0.56 0.13(0.88) 0.15(1.1) 7.9(1.1) 6.5 (0.9:3)
Hackberry 0.57 0.13(0.90) 0.16(1.1) 7.7(1.1) 6.4(0.92)
Hickory, pecan 0.69 0.15 (1.1) 0.19 (1.3) 6.6 (0.95) 5.4(0.77)
Hickory, true
Mockemut 0.78 0.17 (1.2) 0.21 (1.4) 5.9 (0.85) 4.8(0.69)
Shagbark 0.77 0.21 (1.4) 5.9(0.86)
0.17(1.2) 4.9(0.70)
Magnolia, southern 0.52 0.12 (0.83) 0.14(1.0) 8.4(1.2) 6.9(1.0)
Maple
Black 0.60 0.14(0.94) 0.16(1.1) 7.4(1.1) 6.1 (0.813)
Red 0.56 0.13(0.88) 0.15(1.1) 7.9(1.1) 6.5(0.93)
Silver 0.50 0.12 (0.80) 0.14(0.97) 8.6 (1.2) 7.1 (1.1))
Sugar 0.66 0.15 (1.0) 0.18(1.2) 6.8(0.98) 5.6(0.81)
Oak, red
Black 0.66 0.15 (1.0) 0.18(1.2) 6.8(0.98) 5.6 (0.81)
Northern red 0.65 0.14 (1.0) 0.18 (12) 6.9(1.0) 5.7(0.82)
Southern red 0.62 0.14(0.96) 0.17 (12) 7.2(1.0) 5.9 (0.85)
Oak, white
Bur 0.66 0.15(1.0) 0.18(12) 6.8(0.98) 5.6(0.81)
White 0.72 0.16 (1.1) 0.19 (1.3) 6.3(0.91) 5.2(0Th)
Sweetgum 0.55 0.13(0.87 0.15 (1.1) 8.0(1.2) 6.6(0.9t5
Sycamore, American 0.54 0.12(0.86) 0.15(1.0) 8.1 (1.2) 6.7(0.96)
Tupelo
Black 0.54 0.12 (0.86) 0.15(1.0) 8.1 (1.2) 6.7(0.96)
Water 0.53 0.12(0.84) 0.15(1.0) 8.2(1.2) 6.8(0.98)
Yellow-poplar 0.46 0.11 (0.75) 0.13(0.90) 9.3(1.3) 7.7(1:)

3—19
Table 3—Il. Thermal conductivity of selected hardwoods and softwOodsa_con.
Conductivity Resistivity
(W/mK (Btuin/hft2°F)) - (W/rnK(hft2°F/Btuin))

Species Specific gravity Ovendry 12% MC Ovendry 12% MC

Softwoods
Baldcypress 0.47 0.11(0.76) 0.13(0.92) 9.1 (1.3) 7.5(1.1)
Cedar
Atlantic white 0.34 0.085(0.59) 0.10 (0.70; 12(1.7) 9.9(1.4)
Eastern red 0.48 0.11 (0.77) 0.14(0.94) 8.9(1.3) 7.4(1.1)
Northern white 0.31 0.079(0.55) 0.094(0.65) 13(1.8) 11(1.5)
Port-Orford 0.43 0.10(0.71) 0.12 (0.85 9.8(1.4) 8.1 (1.2)
Western red 0.33 0.083(0.57) 0.10(0.68) 12(1.7) 10(1.5)
Yellow 0.46 0.11 (0.75) 0.13(0.90) 9.3(1.3) 7.7(1.1)
Douglas-fir
Coast 0.51 0.12 (0.82) 0.14(0.99) 8.5(1.2) 7.0(1.0)
Interior north 0.50 0.12(0.80) 0.14(0.97) 8.6(1.2) 7.1 (1.0)
Interior west 0.52 0.12(0.83) 0.14(1.0) 8.4(1.2) 6.91.0)
Fir
Balsam 0.37 0.090 (0.63) 0.11 (0.75' 11(1.6) 9.2(1.3)
White 0.41 0.10(0.68) 0.12(0.82; 10(1.5) 8.5(1.2)
Hemlock
Eastern 0.42 0.10(0.69) 0.12(0.84; 10(1.4) 8.3(1.2)
Western 0.48 0.11 (0.77) 0.14(0.94) 8.9(1.3) 7.4(1.1)
Larch,western 0.56 0.13(0.88) 0.15 (1.1) 7.9(1.1) 6.5(0.93)
Pine
Eastern white 0.37 0.090(0.63) 0.11 (0.75) 11(1.6) 9.2(1.3)
Jack 0.45 0.11 (0.73) 0.13(0.89) 9.4(1.4) 7.8(1.1)
Loblolly 0.54 0.12(0.86) 0.15(1.0) 8.1 (1.2) 6.7 (0.96)
Lodgepole 0.43 0.10(0.71) 0.12(0.85) 9.8(1.4) 8.1 (1.2)
Longleaf 0.62 0.14(0.96) 0.17 (1.2) 7.2(1.0) 5.9(0.85)
Pitch 0.53 0.12(0.84) 0.15(1.0) 8.2(1.2) 6.8(0.98)
Ponderosa 0.42 0.10(0.69) 0.12(0.84) 10(1.4) 8.3(1.2)
Red 0.46 0.11 (0.75) 0.13(0.90) 9.3(1.3) 7.7(1.1)
Shortleaf 0.54 0.12(0.86) 0.15(1.0) 8.1 (1.2) 6.7 (0.96)
Slash 0.61 0.14(0.95) 0.17(1.2) 7.3(1.1) 6.0 (0.86)
Sugar 0.37 0.090(0.63) 0.11 (0.75) 11(1.6) 9.2(1.3)
Western white 0.40 0.10(0.67) 0.12(0.80) 10(1.5) 8.6(1.2)
Redwood
Old growth 0.41 0.10(0.68) 0.12(0.82) 10(1.5) 8.5(1.2)
Young growth 0.37 0.090(0.63) 0.11(0.75) 11(1.6) 9.2(1.3)
Spruce
Black 0.43 0.10(0.71) 0.12 (0.85) 9.8(1.4) 8.1 (1.2)
Engelmann 0.37 0.090 (0.63) 0.11 (0.75) 11(1.6) 9.2(1.3)
Red 0.42 0.10(0.69) 0.12(0.84) 10(1.4) 8.3(1.2)
Sitlca 0.42 0.10(0.69) 0.12 (0.84) 10(1.4) 8.3(1.2)
White 0.37 0.090 (0.63) 0.11 (0.75) 11(1.6) 9.2(1.3)

Values inthistable are approximateand should be used with caution;actual conductivitiesmay vary byasmuchas20%.
Thespecific gravitiesalso do not representspecies averages.

3—20
Table 3—12. Heatcapacity of solid wood at selected temperatures and ma isture contents
Temperature Specific heat (kJ/kgK(Btullb°F))

(K) (°C (°F)) Ovendry 5% MC 12% MC 20% MC

280 7 (45) 1.2(0.28) 1.3(0.32) 1.5 (0.37) 1.7(0.41)


290 17 (75) 1.2(029) 1.4(0.33) 1.6 (0.38) 1.8 (0.43)
3(X) 27 (80) 1.3(0.30) 1.4 (0.34) 1.7 (0.40) 1.9 (0.45)
320 47 (116) 1.3(0.32) 1.5 (0.37) 1.8 (0.43) 2.0(0.49)
340 67 (152) 1.4(0.34) 1.6 (0.39) 1.9 (0.46) 2.2 (0.52)
360 87 (188) 1.5(0.36) 1.7(0.41) 2.0(0.49) 2.3(0.56)

Thermal Expansion Coefficient Even in the longitudinal (grain) direction, where dimensional
changecausedby moisturechange is very small, such
The coefficientofthermalexpansion is ameasureofthe changes will still predominateover corresponding dimen-
changeofdimension causedby temperature change. The sional changes as aresult ofthermal expansion unless the
thermalexpansion coefficients ofcompletely dry wood are wood is very dry initially.For wood at usual mcisture
positivein all directions;that is, wood expands on heating levels,net dimensional changes will generallybe negative
and contracts on cooling. Limitedresearchhas been carried afterprolonged heating.
out to explorethe influence ofwood propertyvariability on
thermalexpansion. The thermalexpansion coefficient of
ovendry wood parallelto the grain appearsto be independent Electrical Properties
ofspecific gravityand species. In tests ofboth hardwoods The most important electrical propertiesofwood are conduc-
and softwoods, the parallel-to-grain values haverangedfrom
about 0.000031 to 0.0000045 per K (0.0000017 to tivity,dielectric constant, and dielectric power fa:tor. The
0.0000025 per °F). conductivity ofa material determines the electric currentthat
will flow whenthe material is placed under a given voltage
The thermalexpansion coefficients acrossthegrain (radial gradient. The dielectricconstantofanonconducting material
andtangential)are proportionalto wood specific gravity. determines the amountofpotential electricenergy, in the
Thesecoefficients range from about 5 to morethan10 times form ofinducedpolarization, that is storedin a given volume
ofthematerial whenthat materialisplacedin an electric
greater thantheparallel-to-grain coefficients and are ofmore field. The powerfactorofa nonconducting matethl deter-
practicalinterest. The radial andtangentialthermal expan- minesthe fractionofstoredenergy that is dissipai:edas heat
sion coefficients for ovendrywood, CLr and x,, can be ap-
whenthe material experiences a complete polarizc—depo1arize
proximatedby the followingequations, over an ovendry
specific gravityrange ofabout 0.1 to 0.8: cycle.

cz,.= (32.4G+ 9.9)10_6per K (3—11a) Examples ofindustrial wood processesand applications in


whichelectrical properties ofwood are importantinclude
a= (18G + 5.5)10_6 per °F (31lb) crossarms andpoles forhigh voltagepowerlines, utility
a,= (32.4G + 18.4)10_6 per K (3—12a) worker's tools,andthe heat-curing ofadhesivesin wood
productsby high frequency electric fields. Moisturemeters
a= (18G + 10.2)l0_6 per °F (312b) forwoodutilize therelationship betweenelectrical properties
and moisture contentto estimate the moisturecontent.
Thermal expansion coefficients can be considered independ-
entoftemperature over the temperaturerange of—51.1°C to
54.4°C (—60°F to 130°F). Conductivity
Woodthat containsmoisturereacts differently to varying The electrical conductivity ofwood varies slightly with
temperaturethan does dry wood. Whenmoist wood is appliedvoltageandapproximately doubles for each tempera-
heated,it tendsto expandbecauseofnormalthermalexpan- ture increase of10°C (18°F). The electrical conductivity of
sion and to shrink becauseofloss in moisturecontent. Un- wood (or its reciprocal, resistivity)varies greatlywith mois-
less the wood is very dry initially (perhaps3% or 4% mois- ture content, especiallybelowthe fibersaturation point. As
ture contentor less), shrinkage causedby moistureloss on the moisture content ofwoodincreases fromnear zeroto fiber
heatingwill be greater than thermalexpansion,so thenet
dimensionalchangeon heatingwillbe negative.Woodat
intermediate moisture levels (about8% to 20%) will expand
creases) by 1010to
1016 m
i'
saturation, electrical conductivity increases (resistivityde-

for ovendry wood and iø to i04 m i0


times. Resistivityis about to
for wood at
when firstheated, then gradually shrink to a volume smaller fibersaturation. As the moisture contentincreases from fiber
thanthe initial volume as the wood graduallyloseswater saturation to complete saturation ofthe wood structure, the
while in the heated condition.

3—21
6 The dielectric constantofovendry wood ranges from ab6ut
2 to 5 at room temperature and decreasesslowly but steadily
with increasing frequency ofthe appliedelectric field. It
w
C-) increases as eithertemperature or moisture contentincreases.
with a moderate positiveinteraction betweentemperatureand
(I)
U, moisture. There is an intensenegativeinteractionbetween
G)
moisture and frequency. At20 Hz, the dielectricconstant
Ce
mayrange from about 4 for dry wood to near 1,000,000 for
2 wet wood; at 1 kHz, from about 4 when dry to about 5,000
C-)

a)
whenwet; and at 1 MHz, from about 3 when dry to about
100 whenwet. The dielectric constant is larger for polariza-
0.
E tion parallelto the grain than acrossthe grain.

0 Dielectric Power Factor


-J
- Whenanonconductor is placedin an electric field, it absorbs
-2
6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 and stores potential energy.The amountofenergy storedper
Moisture content unit volumedepends upon the dielectricconstant and the
(%)
magnitudeofthe appliedfield. An ideal dielectric releasesall
Figure 3—7. Change in electrical resistance of wood with this energy tothe external electriccircuitwhen the field is
varying moisturecontentlevelsfor many U.S. species; removed,but practicaldielectrics dissipate some ofthe en-
90%of testvalues are represented by the shaded area. ergy as heat. The powerfactoris ameasureofthat portion of
thestored energy converted to heat. Powerfactorvalues
alwaysfall betweenzero and unity. Whenthe powerfactor
furtherincreasein conductivity is smallerand erratic, gener- does not exceedabout 0.1, the fractionofthe stored energy
ally amountingto less than a hundredfold. that is lost in one charge—dischargecycle is approximately
equalto 2it timesthe power factor ofthe dielectric; for larger
Figure3—7illustratesthe change in resistance along the grain power factors, this fractionis approximated simplyby the
with moisturecontent, based on tests ofmany domestic powerfactor itself
species. Variability between test specimens is illustrated by
theshadedarea.Ninetypercent oftheexperimental data The powerfactor ofwood is large compared with that ofinert
pointsfall within this area.The resistancevalueswere ob- plasticinsulating materials, but somematerials,for example
tainedusing a standardmoisturemeter electrode at27°C some formulations ofrubber,haveequallylargepowerfac-
(80°F). Conductivityis greater along the grain than across tors. Thepower factor ofwood variesfrom about 0.01 for
thegrain and slightlygreater in theradial directionthan in dry, low density woods to as largeas 0.95 for dense woods
thetangentialdirection.Relativeconductivity values in the at high moisture levels. The power factor is usually, but not
longitudinal, radial, and tangential directions are relatedby always, greaterforelectricfields along the grain than across
the approximateratio of 1.0:0.55:0.50. thegrain.
Whenwood containsabnormalquantities ofwater-soluble The powerfactor ofwood is affected by several factors,in-
salts or other electrolyticsubstances, such as preservative or cluding frequency, moisture content, and temperature. These
fire-retardant treatment,or is inprolongedcontact with factors interact in complexways to cause the power factor to
seawater, electrical conductivity can be substantially in- have maximum andminimumvaluesat various combina-
creased.The increaseis smallwhenthe moisture content of tions ofthese factors.
thewood is less thanabout 8% but quicklyincreases as the
moisture contentexceeds 10% to 12%.
Coefficient of Friction
Dielectric Constant The coefficient offrictiondepends on the moisture contentof
the wood and the roughnessofthe surface. It varies little
The dielectricconstant is the ratio ofthe dielectricpermittiv- with species except forthose species, such as lignumvitae,
ity ofthe materialto that offree space;it is essentially a that contain abundantoily or waxyextraôtives.
measureofthe potentialenergyperunitvolume stored in the
material in the form ofelectricpolarization whenthe material Onmost materials, thecoefficients offrictionfor wood in-
is in agiven electricfield. As measuredby practicaltests, the crease continuously as the moisturecontentofthe wood
dielectric constantofa material is the ratio ofthe capacitance increases from ovendry to fibersaturation, then remain about
ofa capacitorusingthematerialas thedielectric tothe constantas the moisture contentincreases furtheruntil con-
capacitance ofthe same capacitor usingfree spaceas the siderable free water is present. Whenthe surface is flooded
dielectric. withwater,the coefficient offriction decreases.

3—22
Static coefficients offriction are generally greaterthan sliding When neutronsinteractwith wood, an additional result is
coefficients, andthe latter depend somewhat on the speedof theproduction ofradioactive isotopes oftheelementspresent
sliding. Sliding coefficientsoffrictionvary only slightly in thewood. The radioisotopes producedcan be identifiedby
with speedwhen the wood moisture contentis less than thetype, energy, andhalf-lifeoftheir emissions, and the
about 20%;at high moisture content, the coefficient offric- specific activity ofeach indicatesthe amountofisotope
tion decreasessubstantially as the speedincreases. present. This procedure, called neutronactivation analysis,
provides asensitive nondestructive methodofanalysisfor
Coefficients ofslidingfriction for smooth, dry wood against trace elements.
hard, smoothsurfaces commonly range from 0.3 to 0.5; at
intermediatemoisture content, 0.5 to 0.7; and near fiber In the previousdiscussions, moderateradiationlevels that
saturation,0.7 to 0.9. leavethe wood physically unchanged havebeen ansumed.
Verylargedoses ofyraysorneutronscan cause substantial
Nuclear Radiation degradation ofwood. The effectoflargeradiationdoses on
themechanical properties ofwood is discussedin Chapter4.
Radiationpassingthrough matter is reducedin intensity
according tothe relationship References
I = Joexp(—px) (3—i3) ASHIRAE. 1981. American Society ofHeating, Refrigera-
tion, and Air-Conditioning Engineershandbook, [.981
I
where is the reducedintensityofthe beamat depthx in the fundamentals. Atlanta, GA:American Society ofHeating,
material,jo is the incident intensity ofa beamofradiation, Refrigeration, and Air-Conditioning Engineers.
and t, the linearabsorptioncoefficient ofthe material,is the
fraction ofenergy removedfrom the beamper unitdepth ASTM. 1997. Standard methods for testing smallclear
traversed. Whendensity is a factorofinterestin energy specimens oftimber.ASTM D143. West Consh&iocken,
absorption, the linear absorption coefficient is divided by the PA: American Society for Testing and Materials.
density ofthe materialto derivethe massabsorptioncoeffi- Beall,F.C. 1968. Specific heat ofwood—further rsearch
cient.The absorptioncoefficient ofamaterialvaries withthe requiredto obtain meaningful data. Res. Note FPL—RIN--
type and energyofradiation. 0184. Madison, WI: U.S. DepartmentofAgriculture, Forest
The linearabsorptioncoefficient ofwood for 'yradiationis Service, Forest Products Laboratory.
knownto vary directlywith moisturecontent and density James,W.L. 1975. Electricmoisturemeters for wood. Gen.
and inversely with the yray energy.As an example,the Tech. Rep. FPL—GTR—6.Madison WI: U.S. Department of
irradiation ofovendry yellow-poplar with 0.047-MeV 'yrays Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory.
yields linearabsorptioncoefficients rangingfrom about 0.065 Kleuters, W. 1964. Determining local density of'woodby
to about 0.11 cm1over theovendryspecific gravityrange of betaray method.Forest ProductsJournal. 14(9): 414.
about 0.33 to 0.62.An increase in the linear absorption
coefficient ofabout 0.01 cm4occurs with an increase in Kollman, F.F.P.; Côté, W.A., Jr. 1968. Principlesof
moisture contentfrom ovendry to fiber saturation. Absorp- wood scienceandtechnologyI—solid wood.New York,
tion ofyrays in wood is ofpracticalinterest,in part for Springer—Verlag NewYork, Inc.
measuringthe densityofwood.
Kubler, H.; Liang, L.; Chang, L.S. 1973. Thermal ex-
J
The interaction ofwood with radiation is similar in pansionofmoist wood. Wood and Fiber. 5(3): 257—267.
characterto that with yradiation, exceptthat the absorption
Kukaehka, B.F. 1970. Properties ofimportedtropical
coefficients are larger. The linearabsorption coefficient of woods. Res. Pap. FPL—RP—125. Madison, WI: U.S.
woodwith a specific gravityof0.5 for a 0.5-MeVJ3ray
Department ofAgriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products
is about 3.0 cm'. The result ofthelargercoefficient is that Laboratory.
evenvery thin wood productsare virtuallyopaque to rays.
Lin,R.T. 1967. Reviewofdielectricproperties of wood and
The interaction ofneutronswith wood is ofinterestbecause cellulose. Forest Products Journal. 17(7): 61.
wood andthe water itcontainsare compoundsofhydrogen,
andhydrogenhas a relatively largeprobabilityofinteraction McKenzie,W.M.; Karpovich, H. 1968. Frictional behavior
with neutrons. Higherenergyneutronsloseenergy much ofwood. Munich: WoodScience and Technology. 2(2):
more quickly throughinteractionwith hydrogenthan with 138.
other elementsfound in wood.Lowerenergyneutronsthat Murase, Y. 1980. Frictional properties ofwood at high
result from this interaction are thus a measureofthe hydro- sliding speed. Journal oftheJapanese WoodResearch
gen densityofthe specimen. Measurement ofthe lower Society. 26(2): 61—65.
energylevel neutronscan be relatedto the moisture content
ofthewood. Panshin,A.J.; deZeeuw, C. 1980. Textbookofwood
technology. New York: McGraw—Hill.Vol. 1, 4th ed.

3—23
Simpson, W.T., ed. 1991. Dry kiln operator's manual. Steinhagen, H.P. 1977. Thermal conductivepropertiesof
Agric. Handb. 188. Washington,DC: U.S. Department of wood, green or dry, from —40° to +100°C: a literaturere-
Agriculture,Forest Service. view. Gen. Tech. Rep. FPL—GTR—9. Madison, WI: U.S.
Department ofAgriculture, Forest Service, ForestProducts
Simpson, W.T. 1993. Speciflc gravity, moisturecontent,
and density relationships for wood. U.S. Department of Laboratory.
AgricultureGen. Tech. Rep. FPL—GTR—76.Madison, WI: TenWolde, A., McNatt, J.D., Krahn, L. 1988. Thermal
U.S. Department ofAgriculture,Forest Service,Forest
ProductsLaboratory. propertiesofwood panelproductsfor use in buildings.
ORNLISub/87—21697/l. Oak Ridge, TN: Oak Ridge
Skaar, C. 1988. Wood—waterrelations. New York: NationalLaboratory.
Springer—Verlag.New York, Inc.
Weatherwax, R.C.; Stamm, A.J. 1947. The coefficientscf
Stamm,A.J.; Loughborough, W.K. 1935. Thermody- thermalexpansion ofwood and wood products.Transactions
namicsofthe swellingofwood.Journal ofPhysical ofAmerican Society ofMechanical Engineers. 69(44):
Chemistry.39(1): 121. 421—432.

3—24
I Cfiapterl4
Mechanical Properties of Wood
David W. Green, JerroldE. Winandy,and David E. Kretschmann

he mechanical properties presentedin this chapter


Contents were obtainedfromtests ofsmallpieces ofwood
OrthotropicNatureofWood 4—1 i termed"clear" and "straightgrained"becausethey
Elastic Properties 4—2 did not containcharacteristics such as knots, cross grain,
ModulusofElasticity 4—2 checks,and splits. Thesetest pieces did have anatomical
characteristics such as growthrings that occurred in consis-
Poisson's Ratio 4--2
tent patternswithineach piece.Clearwood specimens are
Modulusof Rigidity 4—3
usually considered "homogeneous" in wood mechanics.
StrengthProperties 4—3
CommonProperties 4—3 Many ofthe mechanical properties ofwood tabulated in this
Less CommonProperties 4—24 chapterwere derivedfrom extensive sampling and analysis
VibrationProperties 4—25 procedures. Theseproperties are represented as the average
Speedof Sound 4—25 mechanical properties ofthe species. Some properties, such
InternalFriction 4—26 as tension parallelto thegrain, and all propertiesfor some
Mechanical Properties ofClearStraight-Grained Wood 4—26 importedspecies arebased on a more limited numberof
Natural Characteristics AffectingMechanical Properties 4—27 specimens that were not subjected to the same sampling and
analysis procedures. The appropriateness ofthese latter prop-
Specific Gravity 4—27 ertiesto represent the average properties ofa species is uncer-
Knots 4—27 tain; nevertheless, the properties represent the best ioforma-
Slope ofGrain 4—28 tion available.
Annual Ring Orientation 4—30
ReactionWood 4—31 Variability, or variationin properties, is common to all
Juvenile Wood 4—32 materials. Because wood is a natural material andthe tree is
CompressionFailures 4—33 subjectto many constantly changing influences (suchas
Pitch Pockets 4—33 moisture, soil conditions, andgrowing space), wood proper-
Bird Peck 4—33 ties vary considerably, evenin clearmaterial.This chapter
Extractives 4—33 providesinformation, wherepossible,on the nature and
magnitudeofvariability inproperties.
Properties ofTimberFrom Dead Trees 4—33
Effects ofManufacturing and Service Environments 4—34 This chapteralsoincludes a discussion ofthe effect ofgrowth
MoistureContent 4—34 features, such as knotsand slope ofgrain,on clearwood
Temperature 4—35 properties. The effects ofmanufacturing and service environ-
Time Under Load 4—37 ments on mechanical properties are discussed,andtheir
Aging 4—41 effectson clearwood and material containing growthfeatures
are compared. Chapter6 discusses howthese researchresults
Exposureto Chemicals 4—41 have beenimplemented in engineering standards.
ChemicalTreatment 4—41
NuclearRadiation 4—43
Mold and Stain Fungi 4—43 Orthotropic Nature of Wooci
Decay 4—43
InsectDamage 4—43
References 4—44
has uniqueand independent mechanical properties the i
Wood may be describedas an orthotropic material;that is, it

directions ofthreemutuallyperpendicular axes: longitudinal,


radial, and tangential.The longitudinal axis L is parallelto
thefiber (grain); theradialaxis R is normaltothe growth
rings(perpendicular to the grain inthe radial direction); and

4—1
.
V
Longitudinal
Rathal, e

Tangential

Figure 4—1. Threeprincipalaxes of wood with


respect to grain direction and growth rings.
Table 4—I. Elastic ratios for various species at
approximately 12%moisturecontenta
Species

Ash,white
Balsa
Basswood
Birch, yellow
Cherry, black
Cottonwood,eastern
Mahogany,African
Mahogany,Honduras
Maple, sugar
Maple, red
Oak, red
Oak, white
ED'EL

0.027
0.050
0.086
0.047
0.050
0.064
0.065
0.067
0.082
0.072
ER/EL

Hardwoods
0.080
0.015
0.125
0.046
0.066
0.078
0.197
0.083
0.111
0.107
0.132
0.140
0.154
0.163
GLRIEL

0.109
0.054
0.056
0.074
0.147
0.076
0.088
0.066
0.111
0.133
0.089
0.086
GL7/EL

0.077
0.037
0.046
0.068
0.097
0.052
0.059
0.086
0.063

0.081

GR7/Et


0.005

0.017


0.021
0.028




Sweetgum 0.050 0.115 0.089 0.061
Walnut, black 0.056 0.106 0.085 0.062
Yellow-poplar 0.043 0.092 0.075 0.069 0.011
the tangentialaxis T is perpendicularto the grain but tangent
to thegrowth rings. These axes are shownin Figure 4—1. Softwoods
Baldcypress 0.039 0.084 0.063 0.054 0.007
Cedar, northernwhite 0.081 0.183 0210
Elastic Properties Cedar,western red 0.055
0.050
0.081
0.068
0.087
0.064
0.086
0.078 0.007
Douglas-fir
Twelve constants(nine are independent) are neededto de- Fir, subalpine 0.039 0.102 0.070 0.058
scribethe elasticbehaviorofwood: threemoduliofelasticity Hemlock, western 0.031 0.058 0.038 0.032

E, three moduli ofrigidity G, and six Poisson's ratios t. Larch, western


Pine
0.065 0.079 0.063
The moduli ofelasticityand Poisson's ratios are relatedby Loblolly 0.078 0.113 0.082 0.081 0.013
expressions ofthe form Lodgepole 0.068 0.102 0.049 0.046
Longleaf 0.055 0.102 0.071 0.012
Pond 0.041 0.071 0.050 0.009
i,j=L,R,T (4—1) Ponderosa 0.083 0.122 0.138 0.115 0.017
Red 0.044 0.088 0.096 0.081 0.011
Slash 0.045 0.074 0.055 0.053 0.010
Generalrelationsbetweenstress and strain for a homogene- Sugar 0.087 0.131 0.124 0.113
0.048
0.019
0.005
Western white 0.038 0.078
ousorthotropic materialcanbe foundintexts on anisotropic Redwood 0.089 0.087 0.066 0.077 0.011
elasticity. Spruce, Sitka 0.043 0.078 0.064 0.061 0.003
Spruce, Engelmann 0.059 0.128 0.124 0.120

Modulus of Elasticity °EL maybe approximatedbyincreasing modulus ofelasticity values


inTable 4—3by 10%.
Elasticity impliesthat deformations producedby low stress
are completely recoverable after loadsare removed. When
loadedtohigher stress levels,plasticdeformationorfailure This adjustedbendingEL can be used to determineER and E:r
occurs. The three moduliof elasticity, whichare denotedby based on the ratios in Table 4—1.
EL,ER, and E respectively,are the elastic modulialong the
longitudinal, radial, andtangentialaxes ofwood.These
moduli are usually obtainedfrom compression tests; how- Poisson's Ratio
E
ever,data for ER and are not extensive. Average values of When a member is loadedaxially,the deformationperpen-
ER andETfor samples from a few species are presented in dicularto the directionofthe load is proportionalto the
Table4—1 as ratios with EL; the Poisson's ratios are shown deformation parallelto the directionofthe load. The ratio of
in Table4—2. The elasticratios, as well as the elasticcon- the transverse to axial strain is called Poisson's ratio. The
stantsthemselves,vary within and between species and with
moisture content and specificgravity.
Poisson's ratios are denotedby I-LLR, u, lILT, /-LTL, JIRT, and
The firstletter ofthe subscript refers to directionof
The modulusofelasticitydeterminedfrom bending, EL, appliedstress andthe secondletter to directionoflateral
deformation. For example,Jil.]?is the Poisson's ratio for
rather than from an axial test, may be the only modulusof deformationalong the radial axiscausedby stress along the
elasticity available for a species. Average EL values obtained
from bending tests are given in Tables4—3 to4—5. Represen- longitudinal axis. Averagevalues ofPoisson's ratios for
tative coefficients ofvariationofEL determined with bending samples ofa few species are given in Table4—2. Values for
4Ujuand1Um are less preciselydeterminedthan are those for
tests for clear wood are reportedin Table4—6. As tabulated, the other Poisson's ratios. Poisson's ratios vary within and
EL includes an effectofshear deflection; EL frombendingcan
between species andare affected by moisturecontent and
be increased by 10% to removethis effectapproximately.
specific gravity.

4—2
Table 4—2. Poisson's ratiosforvarious species at made to evaluate work to maximumload in bending, impact
approximately 12% moisture content bendingstrength, tensilestrengthperpendicularto grain, and
Species ILR l.LLT l.IRT I.LTR l.LRL l.LTL
hardness.Theseproperties, grouped according to the broad
forest tree categories ofhardwood andsoftwood(riotcone-
Hardwoods latedwith hardness or softness), are given in Tables4—3 to
Ash, white 0.371 0.440 0.684 0.360 0.059 0.051 4—5 for many ofthe commercially important species. Average

Aspen,quaking 0.489 0.374 0.496 0.054 0.022
coefficients ofvariation forthese properties from alimited
Balsa 0.229 0.488 0.665 0.231 0.018 0.009
Basswood 0.364 0.406 0.912 0.346 0.034 0.022 sampling of specimens are reported in Table4—6.
0.426 0.451 0.697 0.426 0.043 0.024
Birch, yellow Modulus of rupture—Reflectsthe maximum load-
Cherry, black 0.392 0.428 0.695 0282 0.086 0.048
Cottonwood,eastern 0.344 0.420 0.875 0.292 0.043 0.018 canying capacity ofa member inbendingand is propor-
Mahogany,African 0297 0.641 0.604 0.264 0.033 0.032 tional to maximum momentborne by the specimen.
Mahogany,Honduras 0.314 0.533 0.600 0.326 0.033 0.034 Modulusofrupture is an accepted criterionofstrength, al-
though it is not a true stress becausethe formulaby which
Maple,sugar 0.424 0.476 0.774 0.349 0.065 0.037
Maple, red 0.434 0.509 0.762 0.354 0.063 0.044
it is computed is valid only to the elastic limjt.
Oak,red 0.350 0.4.48 0.560 0.292 0.064 0.033
Oak,white 0.369 0.428 0.618 0.300 0.074 0.036 Work to maximum load in bending—Abilityto absorb
Sweet gum 0.325 0.403 0.682 0.023
0.309 0.044 shock with some permanentdeformationand more or less
Walnut, black 0.495 0.632 0.718 0.378 0.052 0.035
Yellow-poplar 0.318 0.392 0.703 0.329 0.030 0.019 injury to a specimen. Workto maximum load is a meas-
ure ofthe combined strength and toughness ofwood under
Softwoods
Baldcypress 0.338 0.326 0.411 0.356 — — bendingstresses.
Cedar, northernwhite 0.337 0.340 0.458 0.345 — — Compressive strengthparallel to grain—Maximum
Cedar, western red 0.378 0.296 0.484 0A03 — — stress sustained by a compression parallel-to-grain speci-
Douglas-fir 0.292 0449 0.390 0.374 0.036 0.029
— — men havinga ratio oflengthto least dimensionofless
Fir, subalpine 0.341 0.332 0.437 0.336
Hemlock, western 0.485 0.423 0.442 0.382 — — than 11.
— —
Larch, western
Pine
0.355 0.276 0.389 0.352 Compressive stress perpendicular to grain——Reported
0.328 0.292 0.382 0.362 — — as stress at proportional limit. There is no clearlydefmed
Loblolly
0.316 0.347 0.469 0.381 — — ultimate stress for this property.
Lodgepole
Longleaf 0.332 0.365 0.384 0.342 — — Shear strengthparallel to grain—Abilityto resist inter-
— —
Pond 0.280 0.364 0.389 0.320
— — nalslippingofone part upon anotheralongthe grain.
Ponderosa 0.337 0.400 0.426 0.359
Red 0.347 0.315 0.408 0.308 — — Valuespresented are average strength in radialand tangen-
Slash 0.392 0.444 0.447 0.387 — — tial shearplanes.
— —
Sugar
Western white
0.356
0.329
0.349
0.344
0.428
0.410
0.358
0.334 — — Impact bending—In theimpactbendingtest, a hammer
Reciwood 0.360 0.346 0.373 0.400 — — ofgiven weightis droppedupon abeam from successively
Spruce, Sitka 0.372 0.467 0.435 0.245 0.040 0.025 increased heights untilruptureoccurs or thebeam deflects
Spruce, Engelmann 0.422 0.462 0.530 0.255 0.083 0.058 152 mm (6 in.) or more. The height ofthe maximum
drop, or the drop that causes failure, is a comparative value
that represents the abilityofwood to absorb shocks that
Modulus of Rigidity cause stressesbeyondthe proportionallimit.
The modulus of rigidity, also called shear modulus, indi- Tensile strengthperpendicularto grain—Rsistance of
catesthe resistance todeflectionofa member caused by shear wood to forcesactingacross the grain that tend to splita
stresses. The three moduli ofrigidity denotedby GLT, G, member. Valuespresented are the average ofradialand
and GRTare the elastic constantsin the LR,LT, arid RT tangential observations.
planes, respectively.For example,
based on shear strain in the LR
G
is themodulusof Hardness—Generallydefined as resistance to indentation
a
rigidity planeand shear using modifiedJankahardnesstest, measuredbythe load
stressesinthe LTandRTplanes.Averagevalues ofshear requiredto embed a 11.28-mm (0.444-in.) bal] to one-half
modulifor samples ofa few species expressed as ratioswith its diameter. Valuespresentedare the averageofradialand
EL are given in Table4—1. As with moduliof elasticity, the tangential penetrations.
moduliofrigidity vary within and betweenspecies and with Tensile strength parallelto grain—Maximumtensile
moisture contentand specific gravity. stress sustainedin directionparallelto grain. Relatively
few dataare available on thetensilestrengthofvarious
Strength Properties species ofclear wood parallelto grain. Table4—7lists av-
Common Properties eragetensile strengthvaluesfor a limited numberof
specimens ofafew species. Inthe absenceofsufficient ten-
Mechanical properties most commonly measuredandrepre- sion test data,modulusofrupturevalues are sometimes
sentedas "strengthproperties"for designincludemodulusof substituted for tensile strength ofsmall, clear, straight-
rupture in bending,maximumstress in compression parallel grainedpieces ofwood.The modulusofruptureis consid-
to grain, compressivestressperpendicularto grain,and shear eredto be a low or conservative estimate oftensilestrength
strengthparallelto grain.Additionalmeasurements are often for clear specimens (this is not true forlumber'i.

4—3
Table 4-3a. Strength properties of some commercially important woods grown in the United States (metric)a
Static bending Corn-
Work to Corn- pression Shear Tension
Modulus Modulus maxi- pression perpen- parallel perpen- Side
of of mum Impact parallel dicular to dicular hard-
Common species Moisture Specific rupture elasticityc load bending to grain to grain grain to grain ness
names content gravityb (kPa) (MPa) (kJ/rn3) (mm) (kPa) (kPa) (kPa) (kPa) (N)

Hardwoods
Alder, red Green 0.37 45,000 8,100 55 560 20,400 1,700 5,300 2,700 2,000
12% 0.41 68,000 9,500 58 510 40100 3,000 7,400 2,900 2,600
Ash
Black Green 0.45 41,000 7,200 83 840 15,900 2,400 5,900 3,400 2,300
12% 0.49 87,000 11,000 103 890 41,200 5,200 10,800 4,800 3,800
Blue Green 0.53 66,000 8,500 101 — 24,800 5,600 10,600 — —
12% 0.58 95,000 9,700 99 — 48,100 9,800 14,000 — —
Green Green 0.53 66,000 9,700 81 890 29,000 5,000 8,700 4,100 3,900
12% 0.56 97,000 11,400 92 810 48,800 9,000 13,200 4,800 5,300
Oregon Green 0.50 52,000 7,800 84 990 24,200 3,700 8,200 4,100 3,500
12% 0.55 88,000 9,400 99 840 41,600 8,600 12,300 5,000 5,200
White Green 0.55 66,000 9,900 108 970 27,500 4,600 9,300 4,100 4,300
12% 0.60 103,000 12,000 115 1,090 51,100 8,000 13,200 6,500 5,900
Aspen
Green 0.36 37,000 7,700 39 — 17,200 1,400 5,000 — —
Bigtooth
12% 0.39 63,000 9,900 53 — 36,500 3,100 7,400 — —
Quaking Green 0.35 35,000 5,900 44 560 14,800 1,200 4,600 1,600 1,300
12% 0.38 58,000 8,100 52 530 29,300 2,600 5,900 1,800 1,600
Basswood,American Green 0.32 34,000 7,200 37 410 15,300 1,200 4,100 1,900 1,100
12% 0.37 60,000 10,100 50 410 32,600 2,600 6,800 2,400 1,800
Beech, American Green 0.56 59,000 9,500 82 1,090 24,500 3,700 8,900 5,000 3,800
12% 064 103,000 11,900 104 1,040 50,300 7,000 13,900 7,000 5,800
Birch
Paper Green 0.48 44,000 8,100 112 1,240 16,300 1,900 5,800 2,600 2,500
12% 0.55 85,000 11,000 110 860 39,200 4,100 8,300 — 4,000
Sweet Green 0.60 65,000 11,400 108 1,220 25,800 3,200 8,500 3,000 4,300
12% 0.65 117,000 15,000 124 1,190 58,900 7,400 15,400 6,600 6,500
Yellow Green 0.55 57,000 10,300 111 1,220 23,300 3,000 7,700 3,000 3,600
12% 0.62 114,000 13,900 143 1,400 56,300 6,700 13,000 6,300 5,600
Butternut Green 0.36 37,000 6,700 57 610 16,700 1,500 5,200 3,000 1,700
12% 0.38 56,000 8,100 57 610 36,200 3,200 8,100 3,000 2,200
Cherry, black Green 0.47 55,000 9,000 88 840 24,400 2,500 7,800 3,900 2,900
12% 0.50 85,000 10,300 79 740 49,000 4,800 11,700 3,900 4,200
Chestnut, American Green 0.40 39,000 6,400 48 610 17,000 2,100 5,500 3,000 1,900
12% 0.43 59,000 8,500 45 480 36,700 4,300 7,400 3,200 2,400
Cottonwood
Balsam poplar Green 0.31 27,000 5,200 29 — 11,700 1,000 3400 — —
12% 0.34 47,000 7,600 34 — 27,700 2,100 5,400 — —
Black Green 0.31 34,000 7,400 34 510 15,200 1,100 4,200 1,900 1,100
12% 0.35 59,000 8,800 46 560 31,000 2,100 7,200 2,300 1,600
Eastern Green 0.37 37,000 7,000 50 530 15,700 1,400 4,700 2,800 1,500
12% 0.40 59,000 9,400 51 510 33,900 2,600 6,400 4,000 1,900
Elm
American Green 0.46 50,000 7,700 81 970 20,100 2,500 6,900 4,100 2,800
12% 0.50 81,000 9,200 90 990 38,100 4,800 10,400 4,600 3,700
Rock Green 0.57 66,000 8,200 137 1,370 26,100 4,200 8,800 — —
12% 0.63 102,000 10,600 132 1,420 48,600 8,500 13,200 — —
Slippery Green 0.48 55,000 8,500 106 1,190 22,900 2,900 7,700 4,400 2,900
12% 0.53 90,000 10,300 117 1,140 43,900 5,700 11,200 3,700 3,800
Hackberry Green 0.49 45,000 6,600 100 1,220 18,300 2,800 7,400 4,300 3,100
12% 0.53 76,000 8,200 88 1,090 37,500 6,100 11,000 4,000 3,900

4-4
Table 4—3a. Strength properties of some commercially important woods grown in the United States (metric)a._con.
Static bending Corn-
Work to Corn- pression Shear Tension
Modulus Modulus maxi- pression perpen- parallel perpen- Side
of of mum Impact parallel dicular to dicular hard-
Common species Moisture Specific rupture elasticityc load bending to grain to grain grain to grain ness
names content gravityb (kPa) (MPa) (kJ/m3) (mm) (kPa) (kPa) (kPa) (kPa) (N)
Hickory, pecan
Bitternut Green 0.60 71,000 9700 138 1,680 31,500 5,500 8,500 — —
12% 0.66 118,000 12,300 125 1,680 62,300 11,600 — — —
Nutmeg Green 0.56 63,000 8,900 157 1,370 27,400 5,200 7,100 — —
12% 0.60 114,000 11,700 1.73 — 47,600 10,800 — — —
Pecan Green 0.60 68,000 9,400 101 1,350 27,500 5,400 10,200 4,701) 5,800
12% 0.66 94,000 11,900 95 1,120 54,100 11,900 14,300 — 8,100
Water Green 0.61 74,000 10,800 130 1,420 32,100 6,100 9,900 — —
12% 0.62 123,000 13,900 133 1,350 59,300 10,700 — — —
Hickory,true
Mockernut Green 0.64 77,000 10,800 180 2,240 30,900 5600 8,800 — —
12% 0.72 132,000 15,300 156 1,960 61,600 11,900 12,000 — —
Pignut Green 0.66 81,000 11,400 219 2,260 33,200 6,300 9,400 — —
12% 0.75 139,000 15,600 210 1,880 63,400 13,700 14,800 — —
Shagbark Green 0.64 76,000 10,800 163 1,880 31,600 5,800 10,500 — —
12% 0.72 139,000 14,900 178 1,700 63,500 12,100 16,800 — —
Shellbark Green 0.62 72,000 9,200 206 2,640 27,000 5,600 8,200 — —
12% 0.69 125,000 13,000 163 2,240 55,200 12,400 14,500 — —
Honeylocust Green 0.60 70,01)0 8,900 87 1,190 30,500 7,900 11,400 6,400 6,200
12% — 101,000 11,200 92 1,190 51,700 12,700 15,500 6,200 7,000
Locust, black Green 0.66 95,000 12,800 106 1,120 46,900 8,000 12,100 5,301) 7,000
12% 0.69 134,000 14,100 127 1,450 70,200 12,600 17100 4,400 7,600
Magnolia
Cucumbertree Green 0.44 51,000 10,800 69 760 21,600 2,300 6,800 3,000 2,300
12% 0.48 85,000 12,500 84 890 43,500 3,900 9,200 4,600 3,100
Southern Green 0.46 47,000 7,700 106 1,370 18,600 3,200 7,200 4,200 3,300
12% 0.50 77,000 9,700 88 740 37,600 5,900 10,500 5,100 4,500
Maple
Bigleaf Green 0.44 51,000 7,600 60 580 22,300 3,100 7,700 4,100 2,800
12% 0.48 74,000 10,000 54 710 41,000 5,200 11,900 3,700 3,800
Black Green 0.52 54,000 9,200 88 1,220 22,500 4,100 7,800 5,000 3,700
12% 0.57 92,000 11,200 86 1,020 46,100 7,000 12,500 4,600 5,200
Red Green 0.49 53,000 9,600 79 810 22,600 2,800 7,900 — 3,100
12% 0.54 92,000 11,300 86 810 45,100 6,900 12,800 — 4,200
Silver Green 0.44 40,000 6,500 76 740 17,200 2,600 7,200 3,900 2,600
12% 0.47 61,000 7,900 57 640 36,000 5,100 10,200 3,400 3,100
Sugar Green 0.56 65,01)0 10,700 92 1,020 27,700 4,400 10,100 — 4,300
12% 063 109,000 12,600 114 990 54,000 10,100 16,100 — 6,400
Oak, red
Black Green 0.56 57,000 8,100 84 1,020 23,900 4,900 8,400 — 4,700
12% 0.61 96,000 11,300 94 1,040 45,000 6,400 13,200 — 5,400
Cherrybark Green 0.61 74,000 12,300 101 1,370 31,900 5,200 9,100 5,500 5,500
12% 0.68 125,000 15,700 126 1,240 60,300 8,600 13,800 5,800 6,600
Laurel Green 0.56 54,000 9,600 77 990 21,900 3,900 8,100 5,300 4,400
12% 0.63 87,000 11,700 81 990 48,100 7,300 12,600 5,400 5,400
Northern red Green 0.56 57,000 9,300 91 1,120 23,700 4,200 8,300 5,200 4,400
.12% 0.63 99,000 12,500 100 1,090 46,600 7,000 12,300 5,500 5,700
Pin Green 0.58 57,000 9,100 97 1,220 25,400 5,000 8,900 5,500 4,800
12% 0.63 97,000 11,900 102 1,140 47,000 7,000 14,300 7,200 6,700
Scarlet Green 0.60 72,000 10,200 103 1,370 28,200 5,700 9,700 4,800 5,300
12% 0.67 120,000 13,200 141 1,350 57,400 7,700 13,000 6,000 6,200
Southern red Green 0.52 48,000 7,900 55 740 20,900 3,800 6,400 3,300 3,800
12% 0.59 75,000 10,300 65 660 42,000 6,000 9,600 3,500 4,700
Water Green 0.56 61,000 10,700 77 990 25,800 4,300 8,500 5,700 4,500
12% 0.63 106,000 13,900 148 1,120 46,700 7,000 13,900 6,300 5,300

4—5
Table 4—3a. Strength properties of some commercially important woods grown in the United States (metric)a_con.
Static bending Corn-
Work to Corn- pression Shear Tension
Modulus Modulus maxi- pression perpen- parallel perpen- Side
of of mum Impact parallel dicular to dicular hard-
Common species Moisture Specific rupture elasticityc load bending to grain to grain grain to grain ness
names content gravityb (kPa) (MPa) (kJIm3) (mm) (kPa) (kPa) (kPa) (kPa) (N)
Oak, red—con.
WIlow Green 0.56 51,000 8,900 61 890 20,700 4,200 8,100 5,200 4,400
12% 0.69 100,000 13,100 101 1,070 48,500 7,800 11,400 — 6,500
Oak, white
Bur Green 0.58 50,000 6,100 74 1,120 22,700 4,700 9,300 5,500 4,900
12% 0.64 71,000 7,100 68 740 41,800 8,300 12,500 4,700 6,100
Chestnut Green 0.57 55,000 9,400 65 890 24,300 3,700 8,300 4,800 4,000
12% 0.66 76 1,020 47,100 5,800 10,300 — 5,000
92,000 11,000
85 — 14,100 15,200 — —
Live Green 0.80 82,000 10,900 37,400
12% 0.88 127,000 13,700 130 — 61,400 19,600 18,300 — —
Overcup Green 0.57 55,000 7,900 87 1,120 23,200 3,700 9,100 5,000 4,300
12% 0.63 87,000 9,800 108 970 42,700 5,600 13,8006,500 5,300
Post Green 0.60 56,000 7,500 76 1,120 24,000 5,900 8,800 5,400 5,000
12% 0.67 91,000 10,400 91 1,170 45,300 9,900 12,700 5,400 6,000
Swamp chestnut Green 0.60 59,000 9,300 88 1,140 24,400 3,900 8,700 4,600 4,900
12% 0.67 96,000 12,200 83 1,040 50,100 7,700 13,700 4,800 5,500
Swamp white Green 0.64 68,000 11,000 100 1,270 30,100 5,200 9,000 5,900 5,200
12% 0.72 122,000 14,100 132 1,240 59,300 8,200 13,800 5,700 7,200
White Green 0.60 57,000 8,600 80 1,070 24,500 4,600 8,600 5,300 4700
12% 0.68 105,000 12,300 102 940 51,300 7,400 13,800 5,500 6,000
49 — 18,800 2,600 6,600 — —
Sassafras Green 0.42 41,000 6,300
0.46 62,000 60 — 32,800 5,900 8,500 — —
12% 7,700
Sweetgum Green 0.46 49,000 8,300 70 910 21,000 2,600 6,800 3,700 2,700
12% 0.52 86,000 11,300 82 810 43,600 4,300 11000 5,200 3,800
Sycamore,American Green 0.46 45,000 7,300 52 660 20,100 2,500 6,900 4,300 2,700
12% 0.49 69,000 9,800 59 660 37,100 4,800 10,100 5,000 3,400
Tanoak Green 0.58 72,000 10,700 92 — 32,100 — — — —
12% — — — — — — — — — —
Tupelo
Black Green 0.46 48,000 7,100 55 760 21,000 3,3007,600 3,900 2,800
12% 0.50 66,000 8,300 43 560 38,100 6,4009,200 3,400 3,600
Water Green 0.46 50,000 7,200 57 760 23,200 3,3008,200 4,100 3,200
12% 0.50 66,000 8,700 48 580 40,800 11,000 4,800 3,900
6,000
Walnut, black Green 0.51 66,000 9,800 101 940 29,600 3,400 8,400 3,900 4,000
12% 0.55 101,000 11,600 74 860 52,300 7,000 9,400 4,800 4,500
76 — 1,200 4,700 — —
Willow, black Green 0.36 33,000 5,400 14,100
0.39 54,000 — 28,300 3,000 8,600 — —
12% 7,000 61
Yellow-poplar Green 0.40 41,000 8,400 52 660 18,300 1,900 5,400 3,500 2,000
12% 0.42 70,000 10,900 61 610 38,200 3,400 8,200 3,700 2,400
Softwoods
Baldcypress Green 0.42 46,000 8,100 46 640 24,700 2,800 5,600 2,100 1,700
12% 0.46 73,000 9,900 57 610 43,900 5,000 6,900 1,900 2,300
Cedar
Atlanticwhite Green 0.31 32,000 5,200 41 460 16,500 1,700 4,800 1,200 1,300
12% 0.32 47,000 6,400 28 330 32,400 2,800 5,500 1,500 1,600
Eastern redcedar Green 0.44 48,000 4,500 103 890 24,600 4,800 7,000 2,300 2,900
12% 0.47 57 560 41,500 6,300 — — 4,000
61,000 6,100
Incense Green 0.35 43,000 5,800 44 430 21,700 2,600 5,700 1,900 1,700
12% 0.37 55,000 7,200 37 430 35,900 4,100 6,100 1,900 2,100
Northern white Green 0.29 29,000 4,400 39 380 13,700 1,600 4,300 1,700 1,000
12% 0.31 45,000 5,500 33 300 27,300 2,100 5,900 1,700 1,400

4—6
Table 4—3a. Strength properties of some commercially important woods grown in the United States (metric)a_con.
Static bending Corn-
Work to Corn- pression Shear Tension
Modulus Modulus maxi- pression perpen- parallel perpen- Side
of of mum Impact parallel dicular to dicular hard-
Common species Moisture Specific rupture elasticityc load bending to grain to grain grain to grain ness
names content gravityb (kPa) (MPa) (kJ/m3) (mm) (kPa) (kPa) (kPa) (kPa) (N)
Cedar—con.
Port-Orford Green 0.39 45,000 9,000 51 530 21,600 2,100 5,800 1,2)0 1,700
12% 0.43 88,000 11,700 63 710 43,100 5,000 9,400 2,8)0 2,800
Western redcedar Green 0.31 35,900 6,500 34 430 19,100 1,700 5,300 1,6)0 1,200
12% 0.32 51,700 7,700 40 430 31,400 3,200 6,800 1,5)0 1,600
Yellow Green 0.42 44,000 7,900 63 690 21,000 2,400 5,800 2,300 2,000
12% 0.44 77,000 9,800 72 740 43,500 4,300 7,800 2,500 2,600
Douglasfird
Coast Green 0.45 53,000 10,800 52 660 26,100 2,600 6,200 2,100 2,200
12% 0.48 85,000 13,400 68 790 49,900 5,500 7,800 2300 3,200
Interior West Green 0.46 53,000 10,400 50 660 26,700 2,900 6,500 2,000 2,300
12% 0.50 87,000 12,600 73 810 51,200 5,200 8,900 2,400 2,900
Interior North Green 0.45 51,000 9,700 56 560 23,900 2,500 6,600 2,300 1,900
12% 0.48 90,000 12,300 72 660 47,600 5,300 9,700 2,700 2,700
Interior South Green 0.43 47,000 8,000 55 380 21,400 2,300 6,600 1,700 1,600
12% 0.46 82,000 10,300 62 510 43,000 5100 10,400 2,300 2,300
Fir
Balsam Green 0.33 38,000 8,600 32 410 18,100 1,300 4,600 1,21)01,300
12% 0.35 63,000 10,000 35 510 36,400 2,800 6,500 1,21)01,800
Californiared Green 0.36 40,000 8,100 44 530 19,000 2,300 5,300 2,61)01,600
12% 0.38 72,400 10,300 61 610 37,600 4,200 7,200 2,700 2,200
Grand Green 0.35 40,000 8,600 39 560 20,300 1,900 5,100 1,700 1,600
12% 0.37 61,400 10,800 52 710 36,500 3,400 6,200 1,700 2,200
Noble Green 0.37 43,000 9,500 41 480 20,800 1,900 5,500 1,600 1,300
12% 0.39 74,000 11,900 61 580 42,100 3,600 7,200 1,500 1,800
Pacific silver Green 0.40 44,000 9,800 41 530 21,600 1,500 5,200 1,700 1,400
12% 0.43 75,800 12,100 64 610 44,200 3,100 8,400 — 1,900
Subalpine Green 0.31 34,000 7,200 — — 15,900 1,300 4,800 — 1,200
12% 0.32 59,000 8,900 — — 33,500 2,700 7,400 — 1,600
White Green 0.37 41,000 8,000 39 560 20,000 1900 5,200 2,100 1,500
12% 0.39 68,000 10,300 50 510 40,000 3,700. 7,600 2,100 2,100
Hemlock
Eastern Green 0.38 44,000 7,400 46 530 21,200 2,500 5,900 1,600 1,800
12% 0.40 61,000 8,300 47 530 37,300 4,500 7,300 — 2,200
Mountain Green 0.42 43,000 7,200 76 810 19,900 2,600 6,400 2,300 2,100
12% 0.45 79,000 9,200 72 810 44,400 5,900 10,600 — 3,000
Western Green 0.42 46,000 9,000 48 560 23,200 1,900 5,900 2,000 1,800
12% 0.45 78,000 11,300 57 580 49,000 3,800 8,600 2,300 2,400
Larch, western Green 0.48 53,000 10,100 71 740 25,900 2,800 6,000 2,300 2,300
12% 0.52 90,000 12,900 87 890 52,500 6,400 9,400 3,000 3,700
Pine
Easternwhite Green 0.34 34,000 6,800 36 430 16,800 1,500 4,700 1,700 1,300 .
12% 0.35 59,000 8,500 47 460 33,100 3,000 6,200 2,100 1,700
Jack Green 0.40 41,000 7,400 50 660 20,300 2,100 5,200 2,500 1,800
12% 0.43 68,000 9,300 57 690 39,000 4,000 8,100 2,900 2,500
Loblolly Green 0.47 50,000 9,700 57 760 24,200 2,700 5,900 1,800 2,000
12% 0.51 88,000 12,300 72 760 49,200 5,400 9,600 3,200 3,100
Lodgepole Green 0.38 38,000 7,400 39 510 18,000 1,700 4,700 1,500 1,500
12% 0.41 65,0C)0 9,200 47 510 37,000 4,200 6,100 2,000 2100
Longleaf Green 0.54 59,0C)0 11,000 61 890 29,800 3,300 7,200 2,300 2,600
12% 0.59 100,0C)0 13,700 81 860 58,400 6,600 10,400 3,200 3,900
Pitch Green 0.47 47,0C)0 8,300 63 — 20,300 2,500 5,900 — —
12% 0.52 74,OC)0 9,900 63 — 41,000 5,600 9,400 — —

4—7
Table 4—3a. Strength properties of some commercially important woods grown in the United States (metric)a_con.
Static bending Corn-
Work to Corn- pression Shear Tension
Modulus Modulus maxi- pression perpen- parallel perpen- Side
of of mum Impact parallel dicular to dicular hard-
Common species Moisture Specific rupture elasticityc load bending to grain grain grain to grain ness
to
names content gravityb (kPa) (MPa) (kJ/m3) (mm) (kPa) (kPa) (kPa) (kPa) (N)
Pine—con.
Pond Green 0.51 51,000 8,800 52 — 25,200 3,000 6,500 — —
12% 0.56 80,000 12,100 59 — 52,000 6,300 9,500 — —
Ponderosa Green 0.38 35,000 6,900 36 530 16,900 1,900 4,800 2,100 1,400
12% 0.40 65,000 8,900 49 480 36,700 4,000 7,800 2,900 2,000
Red Green 0.41 40,000 8,800 42 660 18,800 1,800 4,800 2,100 1,500
12% 0.46 76,000 11,200 68 660 41,900 4,100 8,400 3,200 2,500
Sand Green 0.46 52,000 7,000 66 — 23,700 3,100 7,900 — —
12% 0.48 80,000 9,700 66 — 47,700 5,800 — — —
Shortleaf Green 0.47 51,000 9,600 57 760 24,300 2,400 6,300 2,200 2,000
12% 0.51 90,000 12,100 76 840 50,100 5,700 9,600 3,200 3,100
Green 0.54 66 — 26,300 3,700 6,600 — —
Slash 60,000 10,500
12% 0.59 91 — 56,100 7,000 11,600 —- —
112,000 13,700
Green 0.41 — — 19,600 1,900 6,200 — 2,000
Spruce 41,000 6,900
12% 0.44 — — 39,000 5,000 10,300 — 2,900
72,000 8,500
Sugar Green 0.34 34,000 7,100 37 430 17,000 1,400 5,000 1,900 1,200
12% 0.36 57,000 8,200 38 460 30,800 3,400 7,800 2,400 1,700
Virginia Green 0.45 50,000 8,400 75 860 23,600 2,700 6,100 2,800 2,400
12% 0.48 90,000 10,500 94 810 46,300 6,300 9,300 2,600 3,300
Westernwhite Green 0.36 32,000 8,200 34 480 16,800 1,300 4,700 1,800 1,200
12% 0.38 67,000 10,100 61 580 34,700 3,200 7,200 — 1,900
Redwood
Old-growth Green 0.38 52,000 8,100 51 530 29,000 2,900 5,500 1,800 1,800
12% 0.40 69,000 9,200 48 480 42,400 4,800 6,500 1,700 2,100
Young-growth Green 0.34 41,000 6,600 39 410 21,400 1,900 6,100 2,100 1,600
12% 0.35 54,000 7,600 36 380 36,000 3,600 7,600 1,700 1,900
Spruce
Black Green 0.38 42,000 9,500 51 610 19,600 1,700 5,100 700 1,600
0.46 72 580 41,100 3,800 8,500 — 2,300
12% 74,000 11,100
Engelmann Green 0.33 32,000 7,100 35 410 15,000 1,400 4,400 1,700 1,150
12% 0.35 64,000 8,900 44 460 30,900 2,800 8,300 2,400 1,750
Red Green 0.37 41,000 9,200 48 460 18,800 1,800 5,200 1,500 1,600
12% 0.40 74,000 11,100 58 640 38,200 3,800 8,900 2,400 2,200
Sitka Green 0.33 34,000 7,900 43 610 16,200 1,400 4,400 1,700 1,600
12% 0.36 65,000 9,900 65 640 35,700 3,000 6,700 2,600 2,300
White Green 0.37 39,000 7,400 41 560 17,700 1,700 4,800 1,500 1,400
12% 0.40 68,000 9,200 53 510 37,700 3,200 7,400 2,500 2,100
Tamarack Green 0.49 50,000 8,500 50 710 24,000 2,700 5,900 1,800 1,700
12% 0.53 80,000 11,300 49 580 49,400 5,500 8,800 2,800 2,600
aResults of tests on small clear specimensin the green and air-dried conditions, convertedto metric units directly from
Table 4—3b. Definition of properties: impact bending is height of drop that causes complete failure, using
0.71-kg (50-Ib) hammer; compression parallel to grain is also called maximum crushing strength; compression
perpendicularto grain is fiber stress at proportional limit; shear is maximum shearing strength;tension is maximum
tensile strength; and side hardnessis hardnessmeasured when load is perpendicularto grain.
bSpeciflc gravity is based on weight when ovendry and volume when green or at 12% moisturecontent.
cModulus of elasticity measuredfrom a simply supported, center-loaded beam, on a span depth ratio of 14/1. To correct
for shear deflection, the moduluscan be increasedby 10%.
dCoast Douglas-firis definedas Douglas-firgrowingin Oregon and Washington State west of the Cascade Mountains
summit. InteriorWest includes Californiaand all counties in Oregon and Washington east of, but adjacentto, the
Cascade summit; Interior North, the remainderof Oregon and Washington plus Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming; and
Interior South, Utah, Colorado,Arizona, and New Mexico.

4—8
Table 4—3b. Strength properties ofsome commercially important woods grown in the United States (inch_pound)a
Static bending Corn-
Corn- pression Shear Tension
Modulus Modulus Work to pression perpen- parallel perpen- Side
of of maximum Impact parallel dicular to dic'jlar hard-
Common species Moisture Specific rupture elasticityc load bending to grain to grain grain to grain ness
names content gravityb (Ibf/in2) (xlO6lbfIin2) (in-Ibflin3) (in.) (lbf/in2) (Ibf/in2) (lbf/in2) (lbf'1n2) (lbt)

Hardwoods
Alder, red Green 0.37 6,500 1.17 8.0 22 2,960 250 770 390 440
12% 0.41 9,800 1.38 8.4 20 5,820 440 1,080 420 590
Ash
Black Green 0.45 6,000 1.04 12.1 33 2,300 350 860 490 520
12% 0.49 12,600 1.60 14.9 35 5,970 760 1570 700 850
Blue Green 0.53 9,600 1.24 14.7 — 4,180 810 1,540 —. —
12% 0.58 13,800 1.40 14.4 — 6,980 1,420 2,030 —. —
Green Green 0.53 9,500 1.40 11.8 35 4,200 730 1,260 59) 870
12% 0.56 14,100 1.66 13.4 32 7,080 1,310 1,910 70) 1,200
Oregon Green 0.50 7,600 1.13 12.2 39 3,510 530 1,190 59) 790
12% 0.55 12,700 1.36 14.4 33 6,040 1,250 1,790 72) 1,160
White Green 0.55 9,500 1.44 15.7 38 3,990 670 1,350 59') 960
12% 0.60 15,000 1.74 16.6 43 7,410 1,160 1,910 94') 1,320
Aspen
Green 0.36 5,400 1.12 5.7 — 2,500 210 730 —. —
Bigtooth
12% 0.39 9,100 1.43 7.7 — 5,300 450 1,080 —. —
Quaking Green 0.35 5,100 0.86 6.4 22 2,140 180 660 230 300
12% 0.38 8,400 1.18 7.6 21 4,250 370 850 260 350
Basswood,American Green 0.32 5,000 1.04 5.3 16 2,220 170 600 280 250
12% 0.37 8,700 1.46 7.2 16 4,730 370 990 350 410
Beech, American Green 0.56 8,600 1.38 11.9 43 3,550 540 1,290 720 850
12% 0.64 14,900 1.72 15.1 41 7,300 1,010 2,0101,010 1,300
Birch
Paper Green 0.48 6,400 1.17 16.2 49 2,360 270 840 381) 560
12% 0.55 12,300 1.59 16.0 34 5,690 600 1,210 — 910
Sweet Green 0.60 9,400 1.65 15.7 48 3,740 470 1,240 431) 970
12% 0.65 16,900 2.17 18.0 47 8,540 1,080 2,240 951) 1,470
Yellow Green 0.55 8,300 1.50 16.1 48 3,380 430 1,110 431) 780
12% 0.62 16,600 2.01 20.8 55 8,170 970 1,880 921) 1,260
Butternut Green 0.36 5,400 0.97 8.2 24 2,420 220 760 430 390
12% 0.38 8,100 1.18 8.2 24 5,110 460 1,170 441) 490
Cherry,black Green 0.47 8,000 1.31 12.8 33 3,540 360 '1,130 571) 660
12% 0.50 12,300 1.49 11.4 29 7,110 690 1,700 561) 950
Chestnut, American Green 0.40 5,600 0.93 7.0 24 2,470 310 800 441) 420
12% 0.43 8,600 1.23 6.5 19 5,320 620 1,080 460 540
Cottonwood
Balsam, poplar Green 0.31 3,900 0.75 4.2 — 1,690 140 500 —
12% 0.34 6800 1.10 5.0 — 4,020 300 790 —
Black Green 0.31 4,900 1.08 5.0 20 2,200 160 610 270 250
12% 0.35 8,500 1.27 6.7 22 4,500 300 1,040 330 350
Eastern Green 0.37 5,300 1.01 7.3 21 2,280 200 680 410 340
12% 0.40 8,500 1.37 7.4 20 4,910 380 930 580 430
Elm
American Green 0.46 7,200 1.11 11.8 38 2,910 360 1,000 590 620
12% 0.50 11,800 1.34 13.0 39 5,520 690 1,510 660 830
Rock Green 0.57 9,500 1.19 19.8 54 3,780 610 1,270 — 940
12% 0.63 14,800 1.54 19.2 56 7,050 1,230 1,920 — 1,320
Slippery Green 0.48 8,000 1.23 15.4 47 3,320 420 1,110 640 660
12% 0.53 13,000 1.49 16.9 45 6,360 820 1,630 530 860
Hackberry Green 0.49 6,500 0.95 14.5 48 2,650 400 1,070 630 700
12% 0.53 11,000 1.19 12.8 43 5,440 890 1,590 580 880

4—9
Table 4—3b. Strength properties ofsome commerclally important woods grown in the United States (inch_pound)a_con.
Static bending Corn-
Corn- pression Shear Tension
Modulus Modulus Work to pression perpen- parallel perpen- Side
of of maximum Impact parallel dicular to dicular hard-
Common species Moisture Specific rupture elasticityc load bending to grain to grain grain to grain ness
names content gravity" (lbf/in2) (x106 bf/in2) (in-lbf/in3) (in.) (lbf/in2) (lbf/in2) (lbf/in2) (lbf/in2) (lbf

Hickory, pecan — —
Bitternut Green 0.60 10,300 1.40 20.0 66 4,570 800 1,240
12% 0.66 1.79 18.2 66 9,040 1,680 — — —
17,100
Green 0.56 1.29 22.8 54 3,980 760 1,030 — —
Nutmeg 9,100
0.60 1.70 25.1 — 6,910 1,570 — — —
12% 16,600
Pecan Green 0.60 9,800 1.37 14.6 53 3,990 780 1,480 680 1,310
12% 0.66 13,700 1.73 13.8 44 7,850 1,720 2,080 — 1,820
0.61 1.56 18.8 56 4,660 880 1,440 — —
Water Green 10,700
2.02 19.3 53 8,600 1,550 — — —
12% 0.62 17,800
Hickory, true — —
Mockernut Green 0.64 11,100 1.57 26.1 88 4,480 810 1,280
12% 0.72 2.22 22.6 77 8,940 1,730 1,740 —
19,200
Green 0.66 1.65 31.7 89 4,810 920 1,370 — —
Pignut 11,700
12% 0.75 2.26 30.4 74 9,190 1,980 2,150 — —
20,100 —
0.64 1.57 23.7 74 4,580 840 1,520 —
Shagbark Green 11,000 —
0.72 2.16 25.8 67 9,210 1,760 2,430 —
12% 20,200
0.62 1.34 29.9 104 3,920 810 1,190 — —
Shelibark Green 10,500
12% 0.69 18,100 1.89 23.6 88 8,000 1,800 2,110 — —.

Honeylocust Green 0.60 10,200 1.29 12.6 47 4,420 1,150 1,660 930 1,390
12% — 14,700 1.63 13.3 47 7,500 1,840 2,250 900 1,580
Locust, black Green 0.66 13,800 1.85 15.4 44 6,800 1,160 1,760 770 1,570
12% 0.69 19,400 2.05 18.4 57 10,180 1,830 2,480 640 1,700
Magnolia 440 520
Cucumbertree Green 0.44 7,400 1.56 10.0 30 3,140 330 990
12% 0.48 12,300 1.82 12.2 35 6,310 570 1,340 660 700
Southern Green 0.46 6,800 1.11 15.4 54 2,700 460 1,040 610 740
12% 0.50 11,200 1.40 12.8 29 5,460 860 1,530 740 1,020
Maple 600 620
Bigleaf Green 0.44 7,400 1.10 8.7 23 3240 450 1,110
12% 0.48 10,700 1.45 7.8 28 5,950 750 1,730 540 850
Black Green 0.52 7,900 1.33 12.8 48 3,270 600 1,130 720 840
12% 0.57 13,300 1.62 12.5 40 6,680 1,020 1,820 670 1,180
— 700
Red Green 0.49 7,700 1.39 11.4 32 3,280 400 1,150
12% 0.54 1.64 12.5 32 6,540 1,000 1,850 — 950
13,400
Green 0.44 5,800 0.94 11.0 29 2,490 370 1,050 560 590
Silver
12% 0.47 8,900 1.14 8.3 25 5,220 740 1,480 500 700
0.56 1.55 13.3 40 4,020 640 1,460 — 970
Sugar Green 9,400
12% 0.63 1.83 16.5 39 7,830 1,470 2,330 — 1,450
15,800
Oak, red —
Black Green 0.56 8,200 1.18 12.2 40 3,470 710 1,220 1,060
12% 0.61 1.64 13.7 41 6,520 930 1,910 — 1,210
13,900
Green 0.61 10,800 1.79 14.7 54 4,620 760 1,320 800 1,240
Cherrybark
12% 0.68 18,100 2.28 18.3 49 8,740 1,250 2,000 840 1,480
Laurel Green 0.56 7900 1.39 11.2 39 3,170 570 1,180 770 1,000
12% 0.63 12,600 1.69 11.8 39 6,980 1,060 1,830 790 1,210
Northernred Green 0.56 8300 1.35 13.2 44 3,440 610 1,210 750 1,000
12% 0.63 14,300 1.82 14.5 43 6,760 1,010 1,780 800 1,290
Pin Green 0.58 8300 1.32 14.0 48 3,680 720 1,290 800 1,070
12% 0.63 14000 1.73 14.8 45 6,820 1,020 2,080 1,050 1,510
Scarlet Green 0.60 10,400 1.48 15.0 54 4,090 830 1,410 700 1,200
12% 0.67 17400 1.91 20.5 53 8,330 1,120 1,890 870 1,400
0.52 1.14 8.0 29 3,030 550 930 480 860
Southern red Green 6,900
12% 0.59 10,900 1.49 gA 26 6,090 870 1,390 510 1,060

4—10
Table 4—3b. Strength properties ofsome commercially important woods grown in the United States (inch_pouIld)a—con.
Static bending Corn-
Corn- pression Shear Tension
Modulus Modulus Work to pression perpen- parallel perpen- Side
of of maximum Impact parallel dicular to dicular hard-
Common species Moisture Specific rupture elasticityc load bending to grain to grain grain to grain ness
names content gravityb (lbf/in2) (xl 06 lbf/in2) (in-lbf/in3) (in.) (lbf/in2) (lbf/in2) (lbf/1n2) (lbf/in2) (lbt)

Oak, red—con.
Water Green 0.56 8,900 1.55 11.1 39 3,740 620 1,240 820 1,010
12% 0.63 15,400 2.02 21.5 44 6,770 1,020 2,020 920 1,190
Wllow Green 0.56 7400 1.29 8.8 35 3,000 610 1,180 760 980
12% 0.69 14,500 1.90 14.6 42 7,040 1,130 1,650 — 1,460
Oak, white
Bur Green 0.58 7,200 0.88 10.7 44 3,290 680 1,350 800 1,110
12% 0.64 10,300 1.03 9.8 29 6,060 1,200 1820 680 1,370
Chestnut Green 0.57 8,000 1.37 9.4 35 3,520 530 1,210 690 890
12% 0.66 13,300 1.59 11.0 40 6,830 840 1,490 — 1,130
Live Green 0.80 11,900 1.58 12.3 — 5,430 2,040 2,210 — —
12% 0.88 18,400 1.98 18.9 — 8,900 2,840 2,660 — —
Overcup Green 0.57 8,000 1.15 12.6 44 3,370 540 1,320 730 960
12% 0.63 12,600 1.42 15.7 38 6,200 810 2,000 940 1,190
Post Green 0.60 8,100 1.09 11.0 44 3,480 860 1,280 790 1,130
12% 0.67 13,200 1.51 13.2 46 6,600 1,430 1,840 780 1,360
Swamp chestnut Green 0.60 8,500 1.35 12.8 45 3,540 570 1,260 670 1,110
12% 0.67 13,900 1.77 12.0 41 7,270 1,110 1,990 690 1,240
Swamp white Green 0.64 9,900 1.59 14.5 50 4,360 760 1,300 850 1,160
12% 0.72 17,700 2.05 19.2 49 8,600 1,190 2,000 830 1,620
White Green 0.60 8,300 1.25 11.6 42 3,560 670 1,250 770 1,060
12% 0.68 15,200 1.78 14.8 37 7,440 1,070 2,000 8D0 1,360
Sassafras Green 0.42 6,000 0.91 7.1 — 2,730 370 950 —
12% 0.46 9,000 1.12 8.7 — 4,760 850 1,240 —
Sweetgum Green 0.46 7,100 1.20 10.1 36 3,040 370 990 540 600
12% 0.52 12,500 1.64 11.9 32 6,320 620 1,600 730 850
Sycamore,American Green 0.46 6,500 1.06 7.5 26 2,920 360 1,000 630 610
12% 0.49 10,000 1.42 8.5 26 5,380 700 1,470 720 770
Tanoak Green 0.58 10,500 1.55 13.4 — 4,650
12% — —
Tupelo
Black Green 0.46 7,000 1.03 8.0 30 3,040 480 1,100 570 640
12% 0.50 9,600 1.20 6.2 22 5,520 930 1,340 500 810
Water Green 0.46 7,300 1.05 8.3 30 3,370 480 1,190 600 710
12% 0.50 9,600 1.26 6.9 23 5,920 870 1,590 700 880
Walnut, Black Green 0.51 9,500 1.42 14.6 37 4,300 490 1,220 570 900
12% 0.55 14,600 1.68 10.7 34 7,580 1,010 1,370 690 1,010
Willow, Black Green 0.36 4,800 0.79 11.0 2,040 180 680 -— —
12% 0.39 7,800 1.01 8.8 4,100 430 1,250 .— —
Yellow-poplar Green 0.40 6,000 1.22 7.5 26 2,660 270 790 510 440
12% 0.42 10,100 1.58 8.8 24 5,540 500 1,190 540 540
Softwoods
Baldcypress Green 0.42 6,600 1.18 6.6 25 3,580 400 810 300 390
12% 0.46 10,600 1.44 8.2 24 6,360 730 1,000 270 510
Cedar
Atlanticwhite Green 0.31 4,700 0.75 5.9 18 2,390 240 690 1130 290
12% 0.32 6,800 0.93 4.1 13 4,700 410 800 220 350
Eastern redcedar Green 0.44 7,000 0.65 15.0 35 3,570 700 1,010 330 650
12% 0.47 8,800 0.88 8.3 22 6,020 920 — -— —
Incense Green 0.35 6,200 0.84 6.4 17 3,150 370 830 280 390
12% 0.37 8,000 1.04 5.4 17 5,200 590 880 270 470
NorthernWhite Green 0.29 4,200 0.64 5.7 15 1,990 230 620 240 230
12% 0.31 6,500 0.80 4.8 12 3,960 310 850 240 320

4—Il
Table 4—3b. Strength properties of some commercially important woods grown in the United States (inch_pound)a__con.
Static bending Corn-
Corn- pression Shear Tension
Modulus Modulus Work to pression perpen- parallelperpen- Side
of of maximum Impact parallel dicular to dicular hard-
Common species Moisture Specific rupture elasticityc load bending to grain to grain grain to grain ness
names content gravityb (lbf/in2) (x106 lbf/in2) (in-lbf/in3) (in.) (lbf/in2) (lbf/in2) (lbf/in2) (lbf/in2) (lb1

Cedar—con.
Port-Orford Green 0.39 6,600 1.30 7.4 21 3,140 300 840 180 380
12% 0.43 12,700 1.70 9.1 28 6,250 720 1,370 400 630
Western redcedar Green 0.31 5200 0.94 5.0 17 2,770 240 770 230 260
12% 0.32 7,500 1.11 5.8 17 4,560 460 990 220 350
Yellow Green 0.42 6,400 1.14 9.2 27 3,050 350 840 330 440
12% 0.44 11,100 1.42 10.4 29 6310 620 1,130 360 580
Douglas_fird
Coast Green 0.45 7,700 1.56 7.6 26 3,780 380 900 300 500
12% 0.48 12,400 1.95 9.9 31 7,230 800 1,130 340 710
Interior West Green 0.46 7,700 1.51 7.2 26 3,870 420 940 290 510
12% 0.50 12,600 1.83 10.6 32 7,430 760 1,290 350 660
Interior North Green 0.45 7,400 1.41 8.1 22 3,470 360 950 340 420
12% 0.48 13,100 1.79 10.5 26 6,900 770 1,400 390 600
Interior South Green 0.43 6,800 1.16 8.0 15 3,110 340 950 250 360
12% 0.46 11,900 1.49 9.0 20 6,230 740 1,510 330 510
Fir
Balsam Green 0.33 5,500 1.25 4.7 16 2,630 190 662 180 290
12% 0.35 9,200 145 5.1 20 5,280 404 944 180 400
California red Green 0.36 5,800 1.17 6.4 21 2,760 330 770 380 360
12% 0.38 10,500 1.50 8.9 24 5,460 610 1,040 390 500
Grand Green 0.35 5,800 1.25 5.6 22 2,940 270 740 240 360
12% 0.37 8,900 1.57 7.5 28 5,290 500 900 240 490
Noble Green 0.37 6,200 1.38 6.0 19 3,010 270 800 230 290
12% 0.39 10,700 1.72 8.8 23 6,100 520 1,050 220 410
Pacific silver Green 0.40 6400 1.42 6.0 21 3,140 220 750 240 310
12% 0.43 11,000 1.76 9.3 24 6,410 450 1,220 — 430
Green 0.31 4,900 1.05 — — 2,300 190 700 — 260
Subalpine —
12% 0.32 8,600 1.29 — — 4,860 390 1,070 350
White Green 0.37 5,900 1.16 5.6 22 2,900 280 760 300 340
12% 0.39 9,800 1.50 7.2 20 5,800 530 1,100 300 480
Hemlock
Eastern Green 0.38 6,400 1.07 6.7 21 3,080 360 850 230 400
12% 0.40 1.20 6.8 21 5,410 650 1,060 — 500
8,900
Mountain Green 0.42 6,300 1.04 11.0 32 2,880 370 930 330 470
12% 0.45 11,500 1.33 10.4 32 6,440 860 1,540 — 630
Western Green 0.42 6,600 1.31 6.9 22 3,360 280 860 290 410
12% 0.45 11300 1.63 8.3 23 7,200 550 1,290 340 540
Larch, western Green 0.48 7,700 1.46 10.3 29 3,760 400 870 330 510
12% 0.52 13,000 1.87 12.6 35 7,620 930 1,360 430 830
Pine
Eastern white Green 0.34 4900 0.99 5.2 17 2,440 220 680 250 290
12% 0.35 8,600 1.24 6.8 18 4,800 440 900 310 380
Jack Green 0.40 6,000 1.07 7.2 26 2,950 300 750 360 400
12% 0.43 9,900 1.35 8.3 27 5,660 580 1,170 420 570
LobloIly Green 0.47 7,300 1.40 8.2 30 3,510 390 860 260 450
12% 0.51 12,800 1.79 10.4 30 7,130 790 1,390 470 690
Lodgepole Green 0.38 5,500 1.08 5.6 20 2,610 250 680 220 330
12% 0.41 9,400 1.34 6.8 20 5,370 610 880 290 480
Longleaf Green 0.554 8,500 1.59 8.9 35 4,320 480 1,040 330 590
12% 0.59 14,500 1.98 11.8 34 8,470 960 1,510 470 870
Pitch Green 0.47 6,800 1.20 9.2 — 2,950 360 860 — —
12% 0.52 10,800 1.43 9.2 — 5,940 820 1,360 — —

4—12
Table 4—3b. Strength properties of some commercially important woods grown in the United States (inch.pound)a_con.
Static bending Corn-
Corn- pression Shear Tension
Modulus Modulus Work to pression perpen- parallel perpen- Side
of of maximum Impact parallel dicular to dicular hard-
Common species Moisture Specific rupture elasticityc load bending to grain to grain grain to grain ness
names content gravityb (lbf/in2) (xlO6lbfTin2) (in-lbf/in3) (in.) (lbf/in2) (lbf/in2) (lbf/in2) (lbf/in2) (lb1
Pine—con.
Pond Green 0.51 7,401) 1.28 7.5 — 3,660 440 940 — —
12% 0.56 11,600 1.75 8.6 — 7,540 910 1,380 — —
Ponderosa Green 0.38 5,100 1.00 5.2 21 2,450 280 700 310 320
12% 0.40 9,400 1.29 7.1 19 5,320 580 1,130 420 460
Red Green 0.41 5,800 1.28 6.1 26 2,730 260 690 300 340
12% 0.46 11,001) 1.63 9.9 26 6,070 600 1,210 460 560
Sand Green 0.46 7,500 1.02 9.6 — 3,440 450 1,140 — —
12% 0.48 11,600 1.41 9.6 — 6,920 836 — — —
Shortleaf Green 0.47 7,400 1.39 8.2 30 3,530 350 910 320 440
12% 0.51 13,100 1.75 11.0 33 7,270 820 1,390 470 690
Slash Green 0.54 8,700 1.53 9.6 — 3,820 530 960 — —
12% 0.59 16,300 1.98 13.2 — 8,140 1020 1,680 — —
Spruce Green 0.41 6,000 1.00 — — 2,840 280 900 — 450
12% 0.44 10,400 1.23 — — 5,650 730 1,490 — 660
Sugar Green 0.34 4,900 1.03 5.4 17 2,460 210 720 270 270
12% 0.36 8,200 1.19 5.5 18 4,460 500 1,130 350 380
Virginia Green 0.45 7,300 1.22 10.9 34 3,420 390 890 400 540
12% 0.48 13,000 1.52 13.7 32 6,710 910 1,350 380 740
Westernwhite Green 0.35 4,700 1.19 5.0 19 2,430 190 680 260 260
12% 0.38 9,700 1.46 8.8 23 5,040 470 1,040 — 420
Redwood
Old-growth Green 0.38 7,500 1.18 7.4 21 4,200 420 800 260 410
12% 0.40 10,000 1.34 6.9 19 6,150 700 940 240 480
Young-growth Green 0.34 5,900 0.96 5.7 16 3,110 270 890 300 350
12% 0.35 7,900 1.10 5.2 15 5,220 520 1,110 250 420
Spruce
Black Green 0.38 6,100 1.38 7.4 24 2,840 240 739 100 370
12% 0.42 10,800 1.61 10.5 23 5,960 550 1,230 — 520
Engelmann Green 0.33 4,70(1 1.03 5.1 16 2,180 200 640 240 260
12% 0.35 9,300 1.30 6.4 18 4,480 410 1,200 350 390
Red Green 0.37 6,00(1 1.33 6.9 18 2,720 260 750 220 350
12% 0.40 10,80() 1.61 8.4 25 5,540 550 1,290 350 490
Sitka Green 0.37 5,700 1.23 6.3 24 2,670 280 760 250 350
12% 0.40 10,200 1.57 9.4 25 5,610 580 1,150 370 510
White Green 0.33 5,000 1.14 6.0 22 2,350 210 640 220 320
12% 0.36 9,40(1 1.43 7.7 20 5,180 430 970 360 480
Tamarack Green 0.49 7,200 1.24 7.2 28 3,480 390 860 260 380
12% 0.53 11,60(1 1.64 7.1 23 7,160 800 1,280 400 590
aResults of tests on small clear specimensin the green and air-driedconditions.Definition of properties: impact bending is
height of drop that causes complete failure, using 0.71-kg (50-Ib) hammer; compression parallel to grain is also called maxi-
mum crushing strength; compressionperpendicularto grain is fiber stress at proportional limit; shear is maximum shearing
strength; tension is maximumtensile strength; and side hardnessis hardnessmeasured when load is perpendicularto grain.
bSpecjfic gravity is based on weightwhen ovendryand volume when green or at 12% moisture content.
cModulus of elasticity measured from a simply supported, center-loaded beam, on a span depth ratio of 14/1. To correct for
shear deflection,the moduluscan be increasedby 10%.
dCoast Douglas-firis definedas Douglas-fir growingin Oregon and WashingtonState west of the Cascade Mountainssummit.
Interior West includes Californiaand all counties in Oregon and Washingtoneast of, but adjacentto, the Cascade summit;
Interior North, the remainderof Oregon and Washington plus Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming; and Interior South, Utah,
Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico.

4—13
Table 4—4a. Mechanical properties of some commercially important woods grown in Canada and imported into
the United States (metric)a
Staticbending Shear
Compression Compression
Common species Moisture Specific Modulusof Modulus of parallel to perpendicular parallel to
names content gravity rupture (kPa) elasticity (MPa) grain (kPa) tograin(kPa) grain (kPa)
Hardwoods
Aspen
Quaking Green 0.37 38000 9,000 16,200 1,400 5,000
12% 68,000 11,200 36,300 3,500 6,800
Big-toothed Green 0.39 36,000 7,400 16,500 1,400 5,400
12% 66,000 8,700 32,800 3,200 7,600
Cottonwood
Black Green 0.30 28,000 6,700 12,800 700 3,900
12% 49,000 8,800 27,700 1,800 5900
Eastem Green 0.35 32,000 6,000 13,600 1,400 5,300
12% 52,000 7,800 26,500 3,200 8,000
Balsam, poplar Green 0.37 34,000 7,900 14,600 1,200 4,600
12% 70,000 11,500 34,600 2,900 6,100
Softwoods
Cedar
Northern white Green 0.30 27,000 3,600 13,000 1,400 4,600
12% 42,000 4,300 24,800 2,700 6,900
Western redcedar Green 0.31 36,000 7,200 19,200 1,900 4,800
12% 54,000 8,200 29,600 3,400 5,600
Yellow Green 0.42 46,000 9,200 22,300 2,400 6,100
12% 80,000 11,000 45,800 4,800 9,200
Douglas-fir Green 0.45 52,000 11,100 24,900 3,200 6,300
12% 88,000 13,600 50,000 6,000 9,500
Fir
Subalpine Green 0.33 36,000 8,700 17,200 1800 4,700
12% 56,000 10,200 36,400 3,700 6,800
Pacific silver Green 0.36 38,000 9,300 19,100 1,600 4,900
12% 69,000 11,300 40,900 3,600 7,500
Balsam Green 0.34 36,000 7,800 16,800 1,600 4,700
12% 59,000 9,600 34,300 3,200 6,300
Hemlock
Eastern Green 0.40 47,000 8,800 23,600 2,800 6,300
12% 67,000 9,700 41,200 4,300 8,700
Western Green 0.41 48,000 10,200 24,700 2,600 5,200
12% 81,000 12,300 46,700 4,600 6,500
Larch, western Green 0.55 60,000 11400 30,500 3,600 6,300
12% 107,000 14,300 61,000 7,300 9,200
Pine
Eastern white Green 0.36 35,000 8,100 17,900 1,600 4,400
12°/a 66,000 9,400 36,000 3,400 6,100
Jack Green 0.42 43,000 8,100 20,300 2,300 5,600
12% 78,000 10,200 40,500 5,700 8,200
Lodgepole Green 0.40 39,000 8,800 19,700 1,900 5,000
76,000 10,900 43,200 3,600 8,500
Ponderosa Green 0.44 39,000 7,800 19,600 2,400 5,000
12% 73,000 9,500 42,300 5,200 7,000
Red Green 0.39 34,000 7,400 16,300 1,900 4,900
12% 70,000 9,500 37,900 5,200 7,500
Western white Green 0.36 33,000 8,200 17,400 1,600 4,500
64,100 10,100 36,100 3,200 6,300
Spruce
Black Green 0.41 41,000 9,100 19,000 2,100 5,500
12% 79,000 10,500 41600 4,300 8,600
Engelmann Green 0.38 39,000 8,600 19,400 1,900 4,800
12% 70,000 10,700 42,400 3,700 7,600
Red Green 0.38 41,000 9,100 19,400 1,900 5,600
12% 71,000 11,000 38,500 3,800 9,200
Sitka Green 0.35 37,000 9,400 17,600 2,000 4,300
12°/a 70,000 11,200 37,800 4,100 6,800
White Green 0.35 35,000 7,900 17,000 1,600 4,600
12% 63,000 10,000 37,000 3,400 6,800
Tamarack Green 0.48 47,000 8,600 21,600 2,800 6,300
12% 76,000 9,400 44,900 6,200 9,000
aResuftoftestson small, dear, straight-grainedspecimens. Property values basedonASTMStandard D2555—88. Informationon additional
properties can be obtained fromDepartmentof Forestry,Canada, PublicationNo. 1104. Foreach species, values in thefirst line are from
testsofgreen material; those in the second line are adjustedfromthe green conditionto 12% moisture content using dryto green clearwood
property ratios as reportedinASTMD2555—88. Specificgravity is based on weightwhen ovendry and volumewhen green.

4—14
Table 4—4b. Mechanical properties ofsome commercially important woods grown in Canada and imported iiito the
UnitedStates (inch_pound)a
Staticbending Compression Compression Shear
Common species Moisture Specific Modulusof Modulus ofelas- parallel to perpendicular parallelto
names content gravity rupture (tbflin2) ticity(xl06lbf/in2) grain (lbf/in2) to grain (lbf/1n2) grain(Ibf/in2)
Hardwoods
Aspen
Quaking Green 0.37 5,500 1.31 2,350 200 720
12% 9,800 1.63 5,260 510 980
Bigtooth Green 0.39 5,300 1.08 2,390 210 790
9,500 1.26 4,760 470 1,100
Cottonwood
Balsam,poplar Green 0.37 5,000 1.15 2,110 180 670
12% 10,100 1.67 5,020 420 890
Black Green 0.30 4,100 0.97 1,860 100 560
12% 7,100 128 4,020 260 860
Eastern Green 0.35 4,700 0.87 1,970 210 770
12% 7,500 1.13 3,840 470 1,160
Softwoods
Cedar
Northern white Green 0.30 3,900 0.52 1,890 200 660
12% 6,100 0.63 3,590 390 1,000
Western redcedar Green 0.31 5,300 1.05 2,780 280 . 700
12% 7,800 1.19 4,290 500 810
Yellow Green 0.42 6,600 1.34 3,240 350 880
12% 11,600 1.59 6,640 690 1,340
Douglas-fir Green 0.45 7,500 1.61 3,610 460 920
12% 12,800 1.97 7,260 870 1380
Fir
Balsam Green 0.34 5,300 1.13 2,440 240 680
12% 8,500 1.40 4,980 460 910
Pacific silver Green 0.36 5,500 1.35 2,770 230 710
12% 10,000 1.64 5,930 520 1,190
Subalpine Green 0.33 5,200 1.26 2,500 260 680
12°/a 8,200 1.48 5,280 540 980
Hemlock
Eastern Green 0.40 6,800 127 3,430 400 910
12% 9,700 1.41 5,970 630 1,260
Western Green 0.41 7,000 1.48 3,580 370 750
12% 11,800 1.79 6,770 660 940
Larch, western Green 0.55 8,700 1.65 4,420 520 920
12% 15,500 2.08 8,840 1,060 1,340
Pine
Eastern white Green 0.36 5,100 1.18 2,590 240 640
12% 9,500 1.36 5,230 490 880
Jack Green 0.42 6,300 1.17 2,950 340 820
12% 11,300 1.48 5,870 830 1,190
Lodgepole Green 0.40 5,600 127 2,860 280 720
11,000 1.58 6,260 530 1,240
Ponderosa Green 0.44 5700 1.13 2,840 350 720
12% 10,600 1.38 6,130 760 1,020
Red Green 0.39 5,000 1.07 2,370 280 710
12% 10,100 1.38 5,500 720 1,090
Western white Green 0.36 4,800 1.19 2,520 240 650
9,300 1.46 5,240 470 920
Spruce
Black Green 0.41 5,900 1.32 2,760 300 800
12% 11,400 1.52 6,040 620 1,250
Engelmann Green 0.38 5,700 125 2,810 270 700
12% 10,100 1.55 6,150 540 1,100
Red Green 0.38 5,900 1.32 2,810 270 810
12% 10,300 1.60 5,590 550 1,330
Sitka Green 0.35 5,400 1.37 2,560 290 630
12% 10,100 1.63 5,480 590 980
White Green 0.35 5,100 1.15 2,470 240 670
12% 9,100 1.45 5,360 500 960
Tamarack Green 0.48 6,800 1.24 410
3,130 920
12% 11,000 1.36 6,510 900 1,300
°Resultsoftests onsmall, clear, straight-grainedspecimens.Propertyvalues basedonASTM StandarlD2555—88. Informationon additional
propertiescan beobtained fromDepartmentofForestry,Canada, PublicationNo. 1104. Foreach species,values inthe firstline are from
testsofgreen material; those inthe second line are adjustedfromthe green conditionto 12% moisture contentusing dryto green clearwood
propertyratios as reportedinASTMD2555—88. Specificgravity is basedonweight when ovendry and volume when green.

4—15
Table 4—5a. Mechanical properties of some woods imported intothe United States otherthan Canadian
imports (metric)a
Static bending Corn-
Modulus Modulus Work to pression Shear Side
of of maximum parallel parallel hard-
Common and botanical Moisture Specific rupture elasticity load to grain to grain ness Sample
names of species content gravity (kPa) (MPa) (kJ/m3) (kPa) (kPa) (N) originb

Afrormosia (Pericopsis elata) Green 0.61 102,000 12,200 135 51,600 11,500 7,100 AF
- 12% 126,900 13,400 127 68,500 14,400 6,900
Albarco (Carinianaspp.) Green 0.48 — — AM
12% 100,000 10,300 95 47,000 15,900 4,500
Andiroba(Carapaguianensis) Green 0.54 71,000 11,700 68 33,000 8,400 3,900 AM
12% — 106,900 13,800 97 56,000 10,400 5,000
Green 0.65 — — AF
Angelin (Andira inermis)
12% 124,100 17,200 63,400 12,700 7,800
Angelique(Dicotynia Green 0.6 78,600 12,700 83 38,500 9,200 4,900 AM
12% — 120,000 15,100 105 60,500 11,400 5,700
guianensis)
Avodire(Turraeanthus Green 0.48 — — AF
africanus) 12% 87,600 10,300 65 49,300 14,000 4,800
Azobe(Lophiraalata) Green 0.87 116,500 14,900 83 65,600 14,100 12,900 AF
12% 168,900 17,000 86,900 20,400 14,900
Balsa(Ochromapyramidale) Green 0.16 AM
12% 21,600 3,400 14 14,900 2,100 —
Banak (Virolaspp.) Green 0.42 38,600 11,300 28 16,500 5,000 1,400 AM
12% — 75,200 14,100 69 35,400 6,800 2,300
Green 0.65 — — AF
Benge(Guibourtiaamoldiana)
12% 147,500 14,100 — 78,600 14,400 7,800
Green 0.71 — — AF
Bubinga (Gu!bourtia spp.)
12% 155,800 17100 — 72,400 21,400 12,000
Bulletwood(Manilkara Green 0.85 119,300 18,600 94 59,900 13,100 9,900 AM
bidentata) 12% 188,200 23,800 197 80,300 17,200 14,200
Cativo (Prioria copaifera) Green 0.4 40,700 6,500 37 17,000 5,900 2,000 AM
12% — 59,300 7,700 50 29,600 7,300 2,800
Ceiba (Ceiba pentandra) Green 0.25 15,200 2,800 8 7,300 2,400 1,000 AM
12% 29,600 3,700 19 16,400 3,800 1,100
Green 0.71 88,900 12,700 101 40,000 12,200 8,800 AM
Courbaril(Hymenaea
12% — 133,800 14,900 121 65,600 17,000 10,500
courbaril)
Green 0.31 27,600 7,000 — 14,300 4,100 1,000 AM
Cuangare (Dialyantheraspp.)
12% 50,300 10,500 — 32,800 5,700 1,700
Green 0.93 — 19,900 6,600 1,500 AF
Cypress, Mexican (Cupressus 42,700 6,300
12% 71,000 7,000 — 37,100 10,900 2,000
lustianica)
Green 0.67 98,600 13,300 128 42,700 11,400 7,300 AM
Degame (Calycophyllum
candidissimum) 12% 153,800 15,700 186 66,700 14,600 8,600
Determa (Ocotea rubra) Green 0.52 53,800 10,100 33 25,900 5,900 2,300 AM
12% 72,400 12,500 44 40,000 6,800 2,900
Green 0.6 — — AF
Ekop(Tetraberlinia
12% 115,100 15,200 62,100 — —
tubmaniana)
Goncalo alves (Astronium Green 0.84 83,400 13,400 46 45,400 12,100 8,500 AM
12% — 114,500 15,400 72 71,200 13,500 9,600
graveolens)
Greenheart(Chiorocardium Green 0.8 133,100 17,000 72 64,700 13,300 8,400 AM
12% 171,700 22,400 175 86,300 18,100 10,500
rodie,)
Hura (Hura crepitans) Green 0.38 43,400 7,200 41 19,200 5,700 2,000 AM
12% 60,000 8,100 46 33,100 7,400 2,400

4—16
Table 4—5a. Mechanical properties ofsomewoods imported into the United States otherthan Canadian
imports (metric)a_con.
Static bending Corn-
Modulus Modulus Work to pression Shear Side
of of maximum parallel parallel hard-
Common and botanical Moisture Specific rupture elasticity load to grain to grain ness Sample
names of species content gravity (kPa) (MPa) (kJlm3) (kPa) (kPa) (N) origin
Ilomba (Pycnanthus Geen 0.4 37900 7,900 20,000 5,800 2,100 AF
angolensis) 12% 68,300 11,000 38,300 8,900 2,700
Ipe (Tabebuiaspp., Green 0.92 155,800 20,100 190 71,400 14,600 13,600 AM
lapachogroup) 12% 175,100 21,600 152 89,700 14,200 16,400
Iroko (Chiorophora spp.) Green 0.54 70,300 8,900 72 33,900 9,000 4,800 AF
12% 85,500 10,100 62 52,300 12,400 5,600
Jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) Green 0.67 68,300 10,200 35,800 9,100 5,700 AS
12% — 111,700 13,000 61,200 14,700 8,500
Jelutong (Dyera costulata) Green 0.36 38,600 8,000 39 21,000 5,200 1,500 AS
15% 50,300 8,100 44 27,000 5,800 1,700
Kaneelhart (Licana spp.) Green 0.96 153,800 26,300 94 92,300 11,600 9,800 AM
12% 206,200 28,000 121 120,000 13,600 12,900
Kapur (Dryobalanopsspp.) Green 0.64 88,300 11,000 108 42,900 8,100 4,400 AS
12% 126,200 13,000 130 69,600 13,700 5,500
Karri (Eucalyptusdiversico!o,) Green 0.82 77,200 13,400 80 37,600 10,400 6,000 AS
12% 139,000 17,900 175 74,500 16,700 9,100
Kempas (Koompassia Green 0.71 100,000 16,600 84 54,700 10,100 6,600 AS
malaccensis) 12% 122,000 18,500 106 65,600 12,300 7,600
Keruing (Dipterocarpusspp.) Green 0.69 82,000 11,800 96 39,200 8,100 4,700 AS

Lignumvitae(Guaiacumspp.)
12%
Green
12%
1.05

-
137,200


- -
14,300


162


-
78,600
- -
72,400 14,300


5,600

20,000
AM

Limba(Terminaliasuperba) Green 0.38 41,400 5,300 53 19,200 600 1,800 AF


12% 60,700 7,000 61 32,600 9,700 2,200
Macawood (Platymiscium spp.) Green 0.94 153,800 20,800 — 72,700 12,700 14,800 AM
12% 190,300 22,100 — 111,000 17,500 14000
Mahogany, African Green 0.42 51,000 7,900 49 25,700 6,400 2,800 AF
(Khaya spp.) 12% 73,800 9,700 57 44,500 10,300 3,700
Mahogany, true Green 0.45 62,100 9,200 63 29,900 8,500 3,300 AM
(Swieteniamacrophylla) 12% — 79,300 10,300 52 46,700 8,500 3,600
Manbarkiak (Eschweilera spp.) Green 0.87 117,900 18,600 120 50,600 11,200 10,100 AM
12% 182,700 21,600 230 77,300 14,300 15,500
Manni (Symphonia globulifera) Green 0.58 77,200 13,500 77 35,600 7,900 4,200 AM
12% 116,500 17,000 114 60,800 9,800 5,000
Marishballi(Lincania spp.) Green 0.88 117,900 20,200 92 52300 11,200 10,000 AM
12% 191,000 23,000 98 92,300 12,100 15,900
Merbau (lntsia spp.) Green 0.64 88,900 13,900 88 46,700 10,800 6,100 AS
15% — 115,800 15,400 102 58,200 12,500 6,700
Mersawa (Anisoptera spp.) Green 0.52 55,200 12,200 — 27,300 5,100 3,900 AS
12% 95,100 15,700 — 50,800 6,100 5,700
Mora (Moraspp.) Green 0.78 86,900 16,100 93 44,100 9,700 6,400 AM

Oak (Quercus spp.)


12%
Green 0.76
152,400 20,400 128

114
-
81,600

— —
-
13100
-
10,200
AM
12% 158,600 20,800 11,100
Obeche(Thplochiton Green 0.3 35,200 5,000 43 17,700 4,600 1,900 AF
scleroxylon) 12% 51,000 5,900 48 27,100 6,800 1,900

4—17
Table 4—5a. Mechanical properties of some woods imported into the United States otherthan Canadian
imports(metric)a__con.
Static bending Corn-
Modulus Modulus Work to pression Shear Side
of of maximum parallel parallel hard-
Common and botanical Moisture Specific rupture elasticity load to grain to grain ness Sample
names of species content gravity (kPa) (MPa) (kJ/m3) (kPa) (kPa) (N) originb
Okoume (Aucoumea Green 0.33 — — — — — — AF
kiaineana) 12% 51,000 7,900 — 27,400 6,700 1,700
Opepe (Nauclea diderrichi:) Green 0.63 93,800 11,900 84 51,600 13,100 6,800 AF
12% 120,000 13,400 99 71,700 17,100 7,300
Ovangkol (Guibourtiaehie) Green 0.67 — — — — — — AF
12% 116,500 17,700 — 57,200 — —
Para-angelim (Hymenolobium Green 0.63 100,700 13,400 88 51,400 11,000 7,700 AM
excelsum) 12% 121,300 14,100 110 62,000 13,900 7,700
Parana-pine(Araucaria Green 0.46 49,600 9,300 67 27,600 6,700 2,500 AM
augustifolia) 12% — 93,100 11,100 84 52,800 11,900 3,500
Pau marfim (Balfourodendron Green 0.73 99,300 11,400 — 41,900 — — AM
riedellanum) 15% 130,300 — — 56,500 — —
Peroba de campos Green 0.62 — — — — — — AM
(Paratecoma peroba) 12% 106,200 12,200 70 61,200 14,700 7,100
Peroba rosa (Aspidosperma Green 0.66 75,200 8,900 72 38,200 13,000 7,000 AM
spp., peroba group) 12% 83,400 10,500 63 54,600 17,200 7,700
Pilon (Hyeronimaspp.) Green 0.65 73,800 13,000 57 34,200 8,300 5,400 AM
12% 125,500 15,700 83 66,300 11,900 7,600
Pine, Caribbean(Pinus Green 0.68 77,200 13,000 74 33,800 8,100 4,400 AM
caribaca) 12% — 115,100 15,400 119 58,900 14,400 5,500
Pine, ocote (Pinus oocarpa) Green 0.55 55,200 12,000 48 25,400 7,200 2,600 AM
12% — 102,700 15,500 75 53,000 11900 4,000
Pine, radiata (Pinus radiata) Green 0.42 42,100 8,100 — 19,200 5,200 2,100 AS
12% — 80,700 10,200 — 41,900 11,000 3300
Piquia (Ca,yocarspp.) Green 0.72 85,500 12,500 58 43,400 11,300 7,700 AM
12% 117,200 14,900 109 58,000 13,700 7,700
Primavera (Tabebuia Green 0.4 49,600 6,800 50 24,200 7,100 3,100 AM
donnell—smithi:) 12% 65,500 7,200 44 38600 9,600 2,900
Purpleheart(Peltogynespp.) Green 0.67 9,400 13,800 102 48,400 11,300 8,100 AM
12% 132,400 15,700 121 71,200 15,300 8,300
Ramin (Gonystylusbancanus) Green 0.52 67,600 10,800 62 37,200 6,800 2,800 AS
12% — 127,600 15,000 117 69,500 10,500 5,800
Robe (Tabebuiaspp., Green 0.52 74,500 10,000 81 33,900 8,600 4,000 AM
roble group) 12% 95,100 11,000 86 50,600 10,000 4,300
Rosewood, Brazilian Green 0.8 97,200 12,700 91 38,000 16,300 10,900 AM
(Dalbergianigra) 12% — 131,000 13,000 — 66,200 14,500 12,100
Rosewood, Indian(Dalbergia Green 0.75 63,400 8,200 80 31,200 9,700 6,900 AS
latifolia) 12% 116,500 12,300 90 63,600 14,400 14,100
Sande (Brosimumspp., Green 0.49 58,600 13,400 — 31,000 7,200 2,700 AM
utile group) 12% 98,600 16,500 — 56,700 8,900 4,000
Santa Maria(Calophyllum Green 0.52 72,400 11,000 88 31,400 8700 4,000 AM
brasiliense) 12% — 100,700 12,600 111 47,600 14,300 5,100
Sapele (Entandrophragma Green 0.55 70,300 10,300 72 34,500 8,600 4,500 AF
cylindricum) 12% — 105,500 12,500 108 56,300 15,600 6,700
Sepetir (Pseudosindora Green 0.56 77,200 10,800 92 37,600 9,000 4,200 AS
palustris) 12% 118,600 13,600 92 61,200 14,000 6,300

4—18
Table 4—5a. Mechanical properties ofsome woods imported intothe United States otherthan Canadian
imports (metric)a_con.
Static bending Corn-
Modulus Modulus Work to pression Shear Side
of of maximum parallel parallel hard-
Common and botanical Moisture Specific rupture elasticity load to grain to grain ness Sample
names of species content gravity (kPa) (MPa) (kJ/m3) (kPa) (kPa) (N) orginb
Shorea (Shorea spp., Green 0.68 80,700 14,500 — 37,100 9,900 6,000 AS
baulaugroup) 12% 129,600 18,000 — 70,200 15,100 7,900
Shorea, lauan—merantigroup
Dark red meranti Green 0.46 64,800 10,300 59 32,500 7,700 3,100 AS
12% 87,600 12,200 95 50,700 10,000 3,500
Light red meranti Green 0.34 45,500 7,200 43 23,000 4,900 2,000 AS
12% 65,500 8,500 59 40,800 6,700 2,000
White meranti Green 0.55 67,600 9,000 57 37,900 9,100 4,400 AS
15% 85,500 10,300 79 43,800 10,600 5,100
Yellow meranti Green 0.46 55,200 9,000 56 26,800 7,100 3,300 AS
12% 78,600 10,700 70 40,700 10,500 3,400
Spanish-cedar (Cedrelaspp.) Green 0.41 51,700 9,000 49 23,200 6,800 2,400 iM
12% — 79,300 9,900 65 42,800 7,600 2,700
Sucupira (Bowdichiaspp.) Green 0.74 118,600 15,700 — 67,100 — —
15% 133,800 — — 76,500 — —
Sucupira (Dipiotropispurpurea) Green 0.78 120,000 18,500 90 55,300 12,400 8,800 PM
12% 142,000 19,800 102 83,700 13,500 9,500
Teak (Tectona grandis) Green 0.55 80,000 9,400 92 41,100 8,900 4,100 AS
12% 100,700 10,700 83 58,000 13,000 4,400
Tornillo(Cedrelinga Green 0.45 57,900 — — 28,300 8,100 3,900 PM
cateniformis) 12% — — — — — — —
Wallaba (Eperua spp.) Green 0.78 98,600 16,100 — 55,400 — 6,900 PM
12% — 131,700 15,700 — 74,200 — 9,100
8Results of tests on small, clear, straight-grained specimens. Propertyvalues were taken from world literature
(not obtained from experimentsconducted at the Forest Products Laboratory). Otherspecies may be reported
in the world literature, as well as additional data on many of these species. Some propertyvalues have been
adjustedto 12% moisture content.
bAF is Africa; AM, America; AS, Asia.

4—19
Table 4—Sb. Mechanical properties ofsome woods imported into the United States otherthan Canadian imports
(jnc._pOund)a
Static bending Corn-
Modulus Modulus Work to pression Shear Side
of of maximum parallel parallel hard-
Common and botanical Moisture Specific rupture elasticity load to grain to grain ness Sample
names of species content gravity (lbfliri2) (x106 lbf/in2) (in-lbf/in3) (lbf/in2) (lbf/in2) (lbl orjginb
Afrormosia (Pericopsiselata) Green 0.61 14,800 1.77 19.5 7,490 1,670 1,600 AF

Albarco(Carinianaspp.)
12%
Green
12%
0.48
18,400

1.94

1.5
18.4

13.8
- - -
9,940 2,090 1,560
AM
14,500 6,820 2,310 1,020
Andiroba(Carapaguianensis) Green 0.54 10,300 1.69 9.8 4,780 1,220 880 AM
12% — 15,500 2 14 8,120 1,510 1,130
Angelin(Andira inermis) Green 0.65 — — — — — AF
12% 18,000 2.49 — 9,200 1,840 1,750
Angelique(Dico,ynia Green 0.6 11,400 1.84 12 5,590 1,340 1,100 AM
guianensis) 12% — 17,400 2.19 15.2 8,770 1,660 1,290
Avodire(Turraeanthus Green 0.48 — — — — — — AF
africanus) 12% 12,700 1.49 9.4 7,150 2,030 1,080
Azobe (Lophira alata) Green 0.87 16,900 2.16 12 9,520 2,040 2,890 AF

Balsa (Ochromapyramidale)
12%
Green 0.16
24,500

2.47

0.49

2.1
- - -
12,600 2,960 3,350

300 —
AM
12% 3,140 2,160
Banak (Virola spp.) Green 0.42 5,600 1.64 4.1 2,390 720 320 AM
12% — 10,900 2.04 10 5,140 980 510
Green 0.65 — — — — — AF
Benge (Guibourtiaamoidiana)
12% 21,400 2.04 — 11,400 2,090 1,750
Green 0.71 — — — — — — AF
Bubinga (Guibourtia spp.)
12% 22,600 2.48 — 10,500 3,110 2,690
Bulletwood (Manllkara Green 0.85 17,300 2.7 13.6 8,690 1,900 2,230 AM
bidentata) 12% 27,300 3.45 28.5 11,640 2,500 3,190
Cativo (Prioria copaifera) Green 0.4 5,900 0.94 5.4 2,460 860 440 AM
12% — 8,600 1.11 7.2 4,290 1,060 630
Ceiba (Ceiba pentandra) Green 0.25 2,200 0.41 1.2 1,060 350 220 AM
12% 4,300 0.54 2.8 2,380 550 240
Courbaril (Hymenaea Green 0.71 12,900 1.84 14.6 5,800 1,770 1,970 AM
12% — 19,400 2.16 17.6 9,510 2,470 2,350
courbari!)
Green 0.31 4,000 1.01 — 2,080 590 230 AM
Cuangare (Dialyantheraspp.)
12% 7,300 1.52 — 4,760 830 380
Cypress, Mexican (Cupressus Green 0.93 6,200 0.92 — 2,880 950 340 AF
lustianica) 12% 10,300 1.02 — 5,380 1,580 460
Degame(Calycophyllum Green 0.67 14,300 1.93 18.6 6,200 1,660 1,630 AM
candidissimum) 12% 22,300 2.27 27 9,670 2,120 1,940
Determa (Ocotea rubra) Green 0.52 7,800 1.46 4.8 3,760 860 520 AM
12% 10500 1.82 6.4 5,800 980 660
Ekop(Tetraberlinia Green 0.6 — — — — — — AF
tubmaniana) 12% 16,700 2.21 9,010 — —
Goncalo alves (Astronium Green 0.84 12,100 1.94 6.7 6,580 1,760 1,910 AM
graveolens) 12% — 16,600 2.23 10.4 10,320 1,960 2,160
Greenheart (Chlorocardium rodie,) Green 0.8 19,300 2.47 10.5 9,380 1,930 1,880 AM
12% 24,900 3.25 25.3 12,510 2,620 2,350
Hura (Hura crepitans) Green 0.38 6,300 1.04 5.9 2,790 830 440 AM
12% 8,700 1.17 6.7 4,800 1,080 550

4—20
Table 4—5b. Mechanical properties ofsome woods imported into the United States otherthan Canadian imports
(inch_pound)a__con.
Static bending Corn-
Modulus Modulus Work to pression Shear Side
of of maximum parallel parallel hard-
Common and botanical Moisture Specific rupture elasticity load to grain to grain ness Sample
names of species content gravity (lbf/in2) (x106 lbf/in2) (in-lbf/in3) (lbf/in2) (lbflin2) (lbf) originb
Ilomba (Pycnanthus Geen 0.4 5,500 1.14 — 2,900 840 470 AF
angolensis 12% 9,900 1.59 — 5,550 1,290 610
Ipe (Tabebuia spp., Green 0.92 22,600 2.92 27.6 10,350 2,120 3,060 AM
lapachogroup) 12% 25,400 3.14 22 13,010 2,060 3,680
lroko(Chlorophoraspp.) Green 0.54 10,200 1.29 10.5 4,910 1,310 1,080 AF
12% 12,400 1.46 9 7,590 1,800 1,261)
Jarrah (Eucalyptusmarginata) Green 0.67 9,900 1.48 — 5,190 1,320 AS
1,290
12% —- 16,200 1.88 — 8,870 2,130 1,910
Jelutong (Dyera costulata) Green 0.36 5,600 1.16 5.6 3,050 760 330 AS
15% 7,300 1.18 6.4 3,920 840 390
Kaneelhart (Licaria spp.) Green 0.96 22,300 3.82 13.6 13,390 1,680 2,210 AM
12% 29,900 4.06 17.5 17,400 1,970 2,900
Kapur (Diyobaianopsspp.) Green 0.64 12,800 1.6 15.7 6,220 1,170 980 AS
12% 18,300 1.88 18.8 10,090 1,990 1,230
Karri (Eucalyptusdiversicolot) Green 0.82 11,200 1.94 11.6 5,450 1,510 1,360 AS
12% 20,160 2.6 25.4 10,800 2,420 2,040
Kempas (Koompassia Green 0.71 14,500 2.41 12.2 7,930 1,460 1,480 AS
malaccensis 12% 17,700 2.69 15.3 9,520 1,790 1,710
Keruing (Dipterocarpusspp.) Green 0.69 11,900 1.71 13.9 5,680 1,170 1,060 AS

Lignumvitae (Guaiacumspp.)
12%
Green
12%
1 .C)5
--
19,900


-
2.07


-
23.5


- - -
10,500

11,400
2,070


1,270
AM
4,500
Limba (Terminaliasuperba) Green 0.38 6,000 0.77 7.7 2,780 88 400 AF
12% 8,800 1.01 8.9 4,730 1,410 490
Macawood (Platymiscium spp.) Green 0.94 22,300 3.02 — 10,540 1,840 3,320 AM
12% 27,600 3.2 — 16,100 2,540 3,150
Mahogany, African (Khaya spp.) Green 0.42 7,400 1.15 7.1 3,730 931 640 AF
12% 10,700 1.4 8.3 6,460 1,500 830
Mahogany, true Green 0.45 9,000 1.34 9.1 4,340 1,240 740 AM
(Swieteniamacrophylla) 12% —- 11,500 1.5 7.5 6,780 1,230 800
Manbarkiak(Eschweilera spp.) Green 0.87 17,100 2.7 17.4 7,340 1,630 2,280 AM
12% 26,500 3.14 33.3 11,210 2,070 3,480
Manni(Symphonia globuilfera) Green 0.58 11,200 1.96 11.2 5,160 1,140 94C AM
12% 16,900 2.46 16.5 8,820 1,420 1,120
Marishballi (Lincaniaspp.) Green 0.88 17,100 2.93 13.4 7,580 1,620 2,250 AM
12% 27,700 3.34 14.2 13,390 1,750 3,570
Merbau (lntsia spp.) Green 0.64 12,900 2.02 12.8 6,770 1,560 1,380 AS
15% —- 16,800 2.23 14.8 8,440 1,810 1,500
Mersawa (Anisoptera spp.) Green 0.52 8,000 1.77 — 3,960 740 880 AS
12% 13,800 2.28 — 7,370 890 1,290
Mora (Moraspp.) Green 0.78 12,600 2.33 13.5 6,400 1,400 1,450 AM

Oak (Quercus spp.)


12%
Green
12%
0.76
22,100
— -
2.96

3.02
-
18.5

16.5
- - -
11,840


1,900


2,300
AM
23,000 2,500
Obeche(Triplochiton Green 0.3 5,100 0.72 6.2 2,570 660 420 AF
scieroxylon) 12% 7,400 0.86 6.9 3,930 990 430

4—21
Table 4—5b. Mechanical properties ofsome woods imported intothe United States otherthan Canadian imports
(inch.pound)a_con.
Static bending Corn-
Modulus Modulus Work to pression Shear Side
of of maximum para to parallel hard-
Common and botanical Moisture Specific rupture elasticity load grain Ilel to grain ness Sample
names of species content gravity (lbflin2) (x106 lbf/in2) (in-lbf/in3) (lbu/in2) (lbf/in2) (lbf) originb
Okoume (Aucoumea Green 0.33 — — — — — — AF
klaineana) 12% 7,400 1.14 — 3,970 970 380
Opepe (Naucleadiderrichi,) Green 0.63 13,600 1.73 12.2 7,480 1,900 1,520 AF
12% 17,400 1.94 14.4 10,400 2,480 1,630
Ovangkol (Guibourtiaehie) Green 0.67 — — — — — — AF
12% 16,900 2.56 — 8,300 — —
Para-angelim (Hyrnenolobium Green 0.63 14,600 1.95 12.8 7,460 1,600 1720 AM
excelsum) 12% 17,600 2.05 15.9 8,990 2,010 1,720
Parana-pine (Araucaria Green 0.46 7,200 1.35 9.7 4,010 970 560 AM
augustifolia) 12% — 13,500 1.61 12.2 7,660 1,730 780
Pau marfim (Balfourodendron Green 0.73 14,400 1.66 — 6,070 — — AM
nedelianum) 15% 18,900 — — 8,190 — —
Peroba de campos Green 0.62 — — — — — — AM
(Paratecomaperoba) 12% 15,400 1.77 10.1 8,880 2,130 1,600
Peroba rosa (Aspidosperma Green 0.66 10,900 1.29 10.5 5,540 1,880 1,580 AM
spp., peroba group) 12% 12,100 1.53 9.2 7,920 2,490 1,730
Pilon (Hyeronima spp.) Green 0.65 10,700 1.88 8.3 4,960 1,200 1,220 AM
12% 18,200 2.27 12.1 9,620 1,720 1,700
Pine, Caribbean(Pinus canbaea) Green 0.68 11,200 1.88 10.7 4,900 1,170 980 AM
12% — 16,700 2.24 17.3 8,540 2,090 1,240
Pine, ocote (Pinus oocarpa) Green 0.55 8,000 1.74 6.9 3,690 1,040 580 AM
12% — 14,900 2.25 10.9 7,680 1,720 910
Pine, radiata (Pinus radiata) Green 0.42 6,100 1.18 — 2,790 750 480 AS
12% — 11,700 1.48 — 6,080 1,600 750
Piquia (Cwyocarspp.) Green 0.72 12,400 1.82 8.4 6,290 1,640 1,720 AM
12% 17000 2.16 15.8 8,410 1,990 1,720
Primavera(Tabebuia Green 0.4 7,200 0.99 7.2 3,510 1,030 700 AM
donnell—smithil) 12% 9,500 1.04 6.4 5,600 1,390 660
Purpleheart(Peltogynespp.) Green 0.67 1,370 2 14.8 7,020 1,640 1,810 AM
12% 19,200 2.27 17.6 10,320 2,220 1,860
Ramin (Gonystylus bancanus) Green 0.52 9,800 1.57 9 5,390 990 640 AS
12% — 18,500 2.17 17 10,080 1,520 1,300
Robe (Tabebuiaspp., Green 0.52 10,800 1.45 11.7 4,910 1,250 910 AM
roble group) 12% 13,800 1.6 12.5 7,340 1,450 960
Rosewood, Brazilian Green 0.8 14,100 1.84 13.2 5,510 2,360 2,440 AM
(Dalbergianigra) 12% — 19,000 1.88 — 9,600 2,110 2,720
Rosewood, Indian (Dalbergia Green 0.75 9,200 1.19 11.5 4,530 1,400 1,560 AS
latifolia) 12% 16,900 1.78 13.1 9,220 2,090 3,170
Sande (Brosimumspp., Green 0.49 8,500 1.94 — 4,490 1,040 600 AM
utile group) 12% 14,300 2.39 — 8,220 1,290 900
Santa Maria (Calophylium Green 0.52 10,500 1.59 12.7 890 AM
4,560 1,260
brasillense) 12% — 14,600 1.83 16.1 6,910 2,080 1,150
Sapele(Entandrophragma Green 0.55 10,200 1.49 10.5 5,010 1,2501,020 AF
cylindricum) 12% — 15,300 1.82 15.7 8,160 2,260 1,510
Sepetir (Pseudosindorapalustris) Green 0.56 11,200 1.57 13.3 5,460 1,310 950 AS
12% 17,200 1.97 13.3 8,880 2,030 1,410

4—22
Table4—5b. Mechanical properties ofsome woods imported into the United States otherthan Canadianimports
(inch_pound)a__con.
Static bending Corn-
Modulus Modulus Work to pression Shear Side
of of maximum parallel parallel hard-
Common and botanical Moisture Specific rupture elasticity load to grain to grain ness Sample
names of species content gravity (lbf/in2) (x106 lbf/in2) (in-lbf/in3) (lbf/in2) (lbf/in2) (lbf) originb
Shorea (Shorea spp., Green 0.68 11,700 2.1 — 5,380 1,440 1,350 AS
bullau group) 12% 18,800 2.61 — 10,180 2,190 1,780
Shorea,lauan—meranti group
Dark red meranti Green 0.46 9,400 1.5 8.6 4,720 1,110 700 AS
12% 12,700 1.77 13.8 7,360 1,450 780
Light red meranti Green 0.34 6,600 1.04 6.2 3,330 710 440 AS
12% 9,500 1.23 8.6 5,920 970 460
White meranti Green 0.55 9,800 1.3 8.3 5,490 1,320 1,000 AS
15% 12,400 1.49 11.4 6,350 1,540 1,140
Yellow meranti Green 0.46 8,000 1.3 8.1 3,880 1,030 750 AS
12% 11,400 1.55 10.1 5,900 1,520 770
Spanish-cedar (Cedrelaspp.) Green 0.41 7,500 1.31 7.1 3,370 990 550 AM
12% -— 11,500 1.44 9.4 6,210 1,100 600
Sucupira(Bowdichiaspp.) Green 0.74 17,200 2.27 — 9,730 — — AM
15% 19,400 — — 11,100 — —
Sucupira (Diplotropispurpurea) Green 0.78 17,400 2.68 13 8,020 1,800 1,980 AM
12% 20,600 2.87 14.8 12,140 1,960 2,140
Teak(Tectonagrandis) Green 0.55 11,600 1.37 13.4 5,960 1,290 930 AS
12% 14,600 1.55 12 8,410 1,890 1,000
Tornillo(Cedrelinga Green 0.45 8,400 — — 4,100 1,170 870 AM
cateniformi.s) 12% -— — — — — — —
Wallaba(Eperua spp.) Green 0.78 14,300 2.33 — 8,040 — 1,540 AM
12% -— 19,100 2.28 — 10,760 — 2,040
aResults of tests on small, clear, straight-grained specimens. Propertyvalues were taken from world literature
(not obtained from experimentsconducted at the Forest Products Laboratory). Other speciesmay be reported
in the world literature, as well as additional data on many of these species. Some property values have been
adjustedto 12% moisture content.
bAF is Africa; AM, America; AS, Asia.

Table 4—6. Average coefficients of variation for some mechanical properties


ofclearwood
Coefficientof variationa
Property (%)
Static bending
Modulusof rupture 16
Modulusof elasticity 22
Work to maximum load 34
Impact bending 25
Compression parallel to grain 18
Compression perpendicularto grain 28
Shear parallel to grain, maximumshearing strength 14
Tension parallelto grain 25
Side hardness 20
Toughness 34
Specific gravity rn
°Values based on results cf tests of green wood from approximately50 species.
Values for wood adjustedto 12% moisture content may be assumed to be
approximatelyof the same magnitude.

4—23
Table 4—7. Average parallel-to-grain tensile strengthof Table 4—8. Averagetoughnessvalues fora few hardwood
some wood speciesa speciesa
Tensilestrength Toughness
Species (kPa (lb/in2))
Moisture Specific Radial Tangential
Hardwoods Species content gravity (J (in-lbf)) (J (in-lbf))
Beech,American 86,200 (12,500)
Birch, yellow 12% 0.65 8,100 (500) 10,100 (620)
Elm, cedar 120,700 (17,500)
Maple, sugar 108,200 (15,700) Hickory (mocker- Green 0.64 11,400 (700) 11,700 (720)
Oak nut, pignut,sancO 12% 0.71 10,100 (620) 10,700 (660)
Overcup 77,900 (11300) 14% 0.64
Maple,sugar 6,000 (370) 5,900 (360)
Pin 112,400 (16,300)
Poplar, balsam 51,000 Oak, red
(7,400)
Sweetgum 93,800 (13,600) Pin 12% 0.64 7,000 (430) 7,000 (430)
Willow, black 73,100 (10,600) Scarlet 11% 0.66 8,300 (510) 7,200 (440)
Yellow-poplar 109,600 (15,900) Oak,white
Softwoods Overcup Green 0.56 11,900 (730) 11,100 (680)
Baldcypress 58,600 (8,500) 13% 0.62 5,500 (340) 5,000 (310)
Cedar
Sweetgum Green 0.48 5,500 (340) 5,400 (330)
Port-Orford 78,600 (11,400) 13% 0.51 4,200 (260) 4,200 (260)
Western redcedar 45,500 (6,600)
Douglas-fir, interior north 107,600 (15,600) Willow,black Green 0.38 5,000 (310) 5,900 (360)
Fir 11% 0.4 3,400 (210) 3,700 (230)
California red 77,900 (11,300) Yellow-poplar Green 0.43 5,200 (320) 4,900 (3C0)
Pacific silver 95,100 (13,800) 12% 0.45 3,600 (220) 3,400 (210)
Hemlock, western 89,600 (13,000)
Larch, western 111,700 (16,200)
Pine
Eastern white 73,100 (10,600) Creep and durationofload—Time-dependentdeforma-
Loblolly 80,000 (11,600) tionofwood under load. Ifthe load is sufficiently high and
Ponderosa 57,900 (8,400) thedurationof loadis long, failure (creep—rupture)will
Virginia 94,500 (13,700)
Redwood eventuallyoccur. The time requiredto reachruptureis
Virgin 64,800 (9,400) commonly calleddurationofload. Durationofload is an
Young growth 62,700 (9,100) important factor in settingdesignvalues forwood. Creep
Spruce and durationofloadare describedin later sections ofthis
Engelmann 84,800 (12,300) chapter.
Sitka 59,300 (8,600)
Fatigue—Resistance to failure under specific combinations
aResultsoftestsonsmall, dear, straight-grained specimens tested ofcyclicloading conditions: frequency andnumber of
green. Forhardwood species, strength ofspecimenstested at
12% moisture content averagesabout 32% higher:forsofiwoods, cycles, maximum stress,ratio ofmaximumto minimum
about 13% higher. stress, andother less-important factors. The main factors
affecting fatiguein wood are discussedlater in this chapter.
The discussionalso includesinterpretation offatiguedata
and information on fatigueas a function ofthe service
Less Common Properties environment.
Strength propertiesless commonlymeasuredin clear wood Rolling shear strength—Shearstrength ofwood where
include torsion, tougimess,rollingshear, and fracturetough- shearing force is in alongitudinal plane and is acting per-
ness. Otherpropertiesinvolvingtime under load include pendicularto the grain. Few test values ofrolling shear in
creep, creeprupture ordurationofload,and fatiguestrength. solid wood havebeen reported.In limitedtests, rolling
shearstrength averaged 18% to 28% ofparallel-to-grain
Torsionstrength—Resistanceto twistingabout a longi- shearvalues. Rollingshear strength is about the same in
tudinal axis. For solid wood members,torsionalshear thelongitudinal—radialand longitudinal—tangentialplanes.
strengthmay be taken as shear strengthparallelto grain. Fracturetoughness—Abilityofwood to withstandflaws
Two-thirdsofthe valuefortorsionalshear strength may be that initiate failure. Measurement offracture toughness
usedas an estimateofthetorsionalshear stress at thepro-
portional limit. helps identif'the length ofcriticalflawsthat initiatefailure
in materials.
Toughness—Energyrequired to cause rapid complete
failure in a centrallyloaded bendingspecimen. Tables4—8 To date there is no standardtestmethod for determining
and4—9give averagetoughnessvaluesfor samples ofa few fracturetoughness in wood. Threetypes ofstress fields, and
hardwoodand softwoodspecies. Average coefficients of associated stress intensity factors, canbe definedat a crack
variationfortoughnessas determinedfrom approximately tip: openingmode (I), forwardshearmode (II), and transverse
50 species are shownin Table4—6. shearmode (III) (Fig.4—2a). A crackmay lie in one ofthese

4—24
Table4—9. Average toughness values for a fewsoftwood (a) Failuremodes
specie?
Toughness
Moisture Specific Radial Tangential
Spees content gravity (J (in-lbt)) (J (in-Ibf))
Cedar
Western red 9% 0.33

t<i
1,500 (90) 2,100 (130) (b)Orientations
Yellow 10% 0.48 3,400 (210) 3,700 (230)
Douglas-fir
Coast Green 0.44 3,400 (210) 5,900 (360)
12% 0.47 3,300 (200) 5,900 (360)
Interior west Green 0.48 3,300 (200) 4,900 (300)
13% 0.51 3,400 (210) 5,500 (340)
Interior north Green 0.43 2,800 (170) 3,900 (240)
14% 0.46 2,600 (160) 4,100 (250)
Interiorsouth Green 0.38 2,100 (130) 2,900 (180)
14% 0.4 2,000 (120) 2,900 (180)
Fir Figure 4—2. Possible crack propagation systems for
California red Green 0.36 wood.
2,100 (130) 2,900 (180)
12% 0.39 2,000 (120) 2,800 (170)
Noble Green 0.36 3,900 (240) three planesand may propagate in one oftwo directions in
12% 0.39 3,600 (220)
Pacific silver
each plane. This givesrise to six crack-propagation systems
Green 0.37 2,400 (150) 3,700 (230)
13% 0.4 2,800 (170) 4,200 (260) (RL, TL, LR, TR, LT, and RT) (Fig. 4—2b). Ofthese crack-
White Green 0.36 2,300 (140) 3,600 (220) propagation systems, four systemsare ofpractica] impor-
13% 0.38 2,100 (130) 3,300 (200) tance:RL, TL, TR, and RT. Each ofthese four syttems allow
Hemlock forpropagation ofa crackalong the lowerstrength path
Mountain Green 0.41 4,100 (250) 4,600 (280) parallelto the grain. The RL and TL orientations in wood
14% 0.44 2,300 (140) 2,800 (170) (whereRor T is perpendicular tothe crackplaneand L is the
Western Green 0.38 2,400 (150) 2,800 (170) direction in whichthe crackpropagates) will predominate as
12% 0.41 2,300 (140) 3,400 (210) aresult ofthelow strength and stiffness ofwoodperpendicu-
Larch, western Green 0.51 4,400 (270) 6,500 (400) lar tothe grain. It is thereforeone ofthese two orientations
12% 0.55 3,400 (210) 5,500 (340)
Pine that ismost often tested.Valuesfor Mode I fracture
Eastern white Green 0.33 2,000 (120) 2,600 (160) toughness range from 220 to 550 kPa'I (200 to
12% 0.34 1,800 (110) 2,000 (120)
Jack Green 0.41
500 lbf/ in2V)and for Mode II range from 1,650 to
3,300 (200) 6,200 (380)
12% 0.42 2,300 (140) 3,900 (240) 2,400kPaV (1,500 to 2,200 lbf/in2./). Table 4—10
Loblolly Green 0.48 5,000 (310) 6,200 (380) summarizes selected mode I and mode II test resultsat 10%
12% 0.51 2,600 (160) 4,200 (260) to 12% moisturecontent available in the1iteratur. The
Lodgepole Green 0.38 2,600 (160) 3,400 (210) limitedinformation available onmoisture contenteffects on
Ponderosa Green 0.38 3,100 (190) 4,400 (270) fracture toughness suggests that fracture toughness is either
11% 0.43 2,400 (150) 3,100 (190)
Red insensitive to moisturecontentor increases as the material
Green 0.4 3,400 (210) 5,700 (350)
12% 0.43 2,600 (160) 4,700 (290) dries,reachinga maximum between6% and 15% moisture
Shortleaf Green 0.47 4,700 (290) 6,500 (400) content; fracture toughness thendecreases with furtherdrying.
13% 0.5 2,400 (150) 3,700 (230)
Slash Green
12%
0.55
0.59
5,700
3,400
(350)
(210)
7,300
5,200
(450)
(320)
Vibration Properties
Green 0.45
Virginia 5,500 (340) 7,600 (470) The vibration properties ofprimaryinterestin structural
12% 0.49 2,800 (170) 4,100 (250)
Redwood materials are speedofsound and internalfriction(damping
Old-growth Green 0.39 1,800 (110) 3,300 (200)
capacity).
11% 0.39 1,500 (90) 2,300 (140)
Young-growth Green
12%
0.33 1,800
0.34 1,500
(110) 2,300 (140) Speed of Sound
(90) 1,800 (110)
Spruco, Green 0.34 2,400 (150) 3,100 (190) The speed ofsound in a structural material is a function of
Enelmann 12% 0.35 1,800 (110) 2,900 (180) themodulusofelasticityand density.In wood, the speedof
aResuftsoftestson small, clear, straight-grainedspecimens. sound alsovarieswith grain directionbecausethe transverse
modulusof elasticity is much less than the longitudinal
value(as little as 1/20); the speed ofsoundacross the grain
is about one-fifth to one-thirdofthelongitudinal value.
Forexample,a piece ofwood with a modulus
lonitudinal
ofelasticity of12.4 GPa(1.8 x 106lbt7in ) and of
de:risity

4—25
Table 4—10. Summary ofselected fracturetoughness Similarly, there are temperaturesat which internalfrictionis
results minimum, and the temperatures ofminimuminternalfriction
vary with moisturecontent. The temperaturesofminimum
Fracturetoughness (kPaJ (lbf/in2JI)) internal frictionarehigher as the moisturecontent is de-
ModeI Mode II creased.Fortemperatures above0°C (32°F) andmoisture
Species TL RL TL RL contentgreaterthan about 10%, internalfrictionincreases
strongly as temperature increases,with a strongpositive
320 360
Douglas-fir 2,230 interaction with moisturecontent.For very dry wood,there
(290) (330) (2,030)
Western hemlock 375 2,240 is a generaltendency for internal frictionto decreaseas the
(340) (2,040) temperature increases.
Pine
Western white 250 260 The valueofinternal friction, expressed by logarithmic
(225) (240) decrement, rangesfrom about 0.1 for hot, moist wood to less
Scots 440 500 2,050 than0.02 for hot, dry wood. Cool wood, regardless ofmois-
(400) (455) (1,860) turecontent, would havean intermediatevalue.
Southern 375 2,070
(340) (1,880)
Ponderosa 290
(265) Mechanical Properties of
Red spruce 420
(380)
2,190
(1,990)
1,665
(1,510) Clear Straight-Grained Wood
Northernredoak 410
(370) The mechanicalpropertieslistedin Table4—1 through
Sugarmaple 480 Table4—9are basedon a variety ofsampling methods.
(430) Generally, the most extensive samplingis representedin
Yellow-poplar 517
Tables4—3 and 4—4. The values in Table 4—3 are averages
(470)
derivedfor anumber ofspecies grownin the UnitedStates.
The tabulated valueis an estimateofthe average clear WOOd
480 kg/rn3 (30 lb/fl3) would have a speedofsound in the property ofthe species. Many valueswere obtainedfromtest
specimens taken at a height of2.4 to 5 m (8 to 16 ft) above
longitudinal directionofabout 3,800 rn/s (12,500 ftls). thestumpofthe tree. Valuesreportedin Table4—4represent
Inthetransversedirection,modulusofelasticity would be estimates ofthe average clear woodproperties ofspecies
about 690 MPa (100 x i03 lbf/in2) and the speed of sound
grown in Canadaand commonlyimportedinto the United
approximately 890 rn/s (2,900 ftfs). States.
The speedofsound decreases with increasing temperature or Methods ofdata collection andanalysischangedover the
moisturecontentinproportionto the influence ofthese
variableson modulusofelasticityand density.The speed of years during whichthe datain Tables4—3 and4—4were
collected. In addition, the character ofsome forests has
sound decreases slightly with increasingfrequency andam-
changedwith time. Becausenot all the species were reevalu-
plitude ofvibration, althoughformost common applications ated to reflect these changes, the appropriateness ofthedata
this effect is too smallto be significant. There is no recog- shouldbereviewedwhen usedfor criticalapplications such
nizedindependent effectofspecies on the speedofsound. as stress grades oflumber.
Variability in the speed ofsound in wood is directlyrelated
to the variabilityofmodulusofelasticityand density. Valuesreportedin Table4—5 were collected from the world
literature; thus, the appropriateness ofthese propertiesto
Internal Fricfion representa species is notknown.The propertiesreported in
Tables 4—1, 4—2, 4—5, 4—7, 4—8, 4—9 and 4—10 may not
Whensolid materialis strained, somemechanicalenergyis necessarily represent average species characteristics becauseof
dissipatedasheat. Internalfriction isthe termused to denote inadequate sampling; however, they do suggestthe relative
themechanismthat causesthis energydissipation. The influence ofspecies and otherspecimen parameters on the
internalfrictionrnechanisrn in wood is a complexfunction of mechanical behaviorrecorded.
temperatureand moisturecontent. In general, there is a value
ofmoisturecontent at which internalfrictionis minimum. Variability in propertiescan be importantin both production
Oneither sideofthis minimum, internal frictionincreases as and consumption ofwoodproducts. The fact that a piece
moisturecontent varies down to zero orup to the fiber satu- maybe stronger, harder, or stifferthanthe averageis often of
ration point. The moisture content at whichminimuminter- less concern to the userthan ifthe piece is weaker;however,
nalfrictionoccursvarieswith temperature. Atroom tempera- this may not be true iflightweight material is selectedfor a
ture(23°C (73°F)), the rninimum occursat about 6% specific purposeor ifharderortoughermaterial is difficultto
moisture content; at —20°C (—4°F), it occurs at about 14% work. Someindication ofthe spreadofpropertyvalues is
moisture content, and at 70°C(158°F), at about 4%. At therefore desirable. Average coefficients ofvariationformany
90°C (194°F), the minimumis not well defmedand occurs mechanical properties are presentedin Table4—6.
nearzeromoisturecontent.

4—26
The mechanical propertiesreportedin the tables are signifi- gums, resins,and extractives, which contribute1Ettle to
cantly affectedby specimenmoisture contentat time oftest. mechanical properties.
Some tables includeproperties that were evaluatedat differ-
Approximate relationships betweenvariousmechanical
ing moisture levels; these moisturelevels are reported. As
indicated in the tables,many ofthe dry testdatawere ad- properties and specific gravity for clear straight-giained wood
ofhardwoods and softwoods are given in Table4—11 as
justed to a commonmoisture contentbase of I2%.
powerfunctions. Thoserelationships arebased on average
Specific gravityis reportedin many tables becausethis valuesfor the 43 softwood and 66 hardwood species pre-
property is usedas an index ofclearwood mechanical proper- sentedin Table4—3. The average data vary aroundthe rela-
ties. The specificgravity values given in Tables4—3 and 4—4 tionships, so that the relationships do not accuralelypredict
represent the estimatedaverage clear wood specific gravity of individual average species values or an individual specimen
thespecies.In theother tables, the specific gravityvalues a
value. Infact, mechanical properties within species tendto
representonly the specimens tested.The variabililyofspe- be linearly, ratherthan curvilinearly, relatedto spcific grav-
cific gravity, represented by the coefficient ofvariation de- ity; where dataare available forindividual specie, linear
rived from tests on 50 species, is includedin Table4—6. analysis is suggested.

Mechanical and physicalproperties asmeasuredandreported Knots


oftenreflectnot only the characteristics ofthe woodbut also
the influenceofthe shapeand size ofthe test specimen and Aknot is that portion of abranchthat has become incorpo-
the test mode. The testmethodsusedto establish properties rated in thebole ofa tree. The influenceofakno on the
in Tables 4—3, 4—4, 4—7, 4—8 and 4—9 arebased on standard mechanical properties ofa wood member is due to the inter-
procedures (ASTM D143).The test methods for properties ruptionofcontinuity andchange in the directionofwood
presentedinother tables are referencedin the selectedbibli- fibers associated with theknot. The influenceofknotsde-
ography atthe end ofthis chapter. pends on their size, location, shape, and soundness; atten-
dant local slope ofgrain; andtype ofstress to whichthe
Commonnamesofspecieslisted inthe tables conform to wood memberis subjected.
standard nomenclature ofthe U.S. Department ofAgriculture,
Forest Service. Other namesmay be used locally fora spe- The shape(form) ofa knot on asawn surface depends upon
cies. Also, one commonname may be appliedto groups of the directionofthe exposing cut. A nearlyroundknot is
species for marketing. producedwhen lumber is sawn from alog and abranchis
sawn through atright anglesto its length (as in a flatsawn
board). An ovalknot is producedifthe saw cut diagonal
Natural Characteristics to thebranchlength (as in a bastard-sawn board)and a
"spiked"knot when the cut is lengthwise to the branch(as
Affecting Mechanical Properties in a quartersawn board).
Clearstraight-grainedwoodis used fordeterminin.gfunda- Knotsare further classified as intergrown or encaed
mentalmechanical properties; however, becauseofnatural
(Fig. 4—3). As long as a limb remainsalive,there is con-
growthcharacteristics oftrees, wood products vary in specific tinuousgrowthat thejunction ofthe limb and the bole ofthe
gravity, may contain cross grain, or may haveknots and tree, and theresultingknot is calledintergrown. After the
localizedslopeofgrain.Naturaldefects such as pitchpockets branchhas died,additional growthon the trunk enclosesthe
may occur as a result ofbiologicalor climaticelements dead limb,resulting in an encasedknot; bole fibers are not
influencingthe livingtree. Thesewood characteristics must continuous with the fibersofthe encasedknot. Encasedknots
be taken into accountin assessingactual properties or esti- and knotholes tend to be accompaniedby less cross-grain
matingthe actualperformance ofwood products. than are intergrown knotsand are therefore generallyless
problematic with regardtomost mechanical properties.
Specific Gravity Most mechanical properties are lower in sections containing
The substanceofwhichwood is composed is actually heav- knotsthan in clear straight-grained woodbecause (a) the clear
ier than water; its specificgravityis about 1.5 regardless of wood is displaced by the knot, (b) the fibersaround the knot
wood species. In spite ofthis, the dry wood ofmost species are distorted, resultingin cross grain, (c) the discontinuity of
floats in water, and it is thus evidentthatpart ofthe volume wood fiberleads to stress concentrations, and (d) checking
ofapiece ofwood is occupiedby cell cavitiesandpores. oftenoccursaroundthe knotsduringdrying. Hardness and
Variations in the size ofthese openings and in the thickness strength in compression perpendicular to the grain are excep-
ofthe cell walls cause some species to have morewood tions, whereknots may be objectionable only in that they
substance per unit volumethanother species and Iherefore cause nonuniform wear or nonuniform stress distributions at
higherspecificgravity. Thus,specificgravityis an excellent contact surfaces.
index ofthe amountofwood substance contained in a piece
ofwood; it is a good index ofmechanicalproperties as long Knotshavea much greatereffecton strength inaxial tension
as the wood is clear,straightgrained,and free from defects. thanin axial short-column compression, and the ffects on
However, specific gravity valuesalsoreflectthe presence of bendingare somewhat less than those in axial tension.

4—27
Table 4—ha. Functions relating mechanical properties to specific gravity of clear, straight-grained wood (metric)

Specific gravity—strength relationship


Green wood Wood at 12% moisture content
Propertya Softwoods Hardwoods Softwoods Hardwoods
Static bending
MOR (kPa) 109,600G1°1 118,700G116 170,700G1°1 171,300G°13
MOE(MPa) 16,100 G°76 13,900 G°72 20,500 G° 16,500 G°7
WML (kJ/m3) 147 G121 229 G152 179 G1 219 G1
Impact bending (N) 353 G'35 422 G139 346 G139 423 G165
Compression parallel (kPa) 49,700 G°' 49,000 G111 93,700G°97 76,000G°89
Compression perpendicular(kPa) 8,800 G153 18,500 G2'48 16,500 G157 21,600 G2°9
Shear parallel(kPa) 11,000 G°'73 17,800 G124 16,600 G°65 21,900 G113
Tensionperpendicular(kPa) 3,800 G°7° 10,500 G137 6,000 G111 10,100G13
Side hardness(N) 6,230 G141 16,550 G231 85,900 G15 15,300G2°9
acompressionparallelto grain is maximumcrushingstrength; compression perpendicularto grain is fiber stress at
proportionallimit. MOR is modulus of rupture; MOE, modulus of elasticity; and WML, work to maximumload. For green
wood, use specific gravity based on ovendry weightand green volume;for dry wood, use specific gravity based on
ovendry weight and volume at 12% moisture content.

Table 4—1 lb. Functions relating mechanical properties to specificgravityofclear, straight-grained wood (inch—pound)
Specific gravity—strength relationship -
Green wood Wood at 12% moisture content
Propertya Softwoods Hardwoods Softwoods Hardwoods

Static bendinq
MOR (lb/in 15,890 G1°1 17,210 G116 24,760 G1°1 24,850 G°13
MOE(xl 06 lb/in2) 2.33 G°76 2.02 G°72 2.97 G° 2.39 G°7
WML (in-lbf/in3) 21.33 G121 33.2 G152 25.9 G1 31.8 GlM
Impact bending (lbf) 79.28 G1 94.9 G1 77.7 G139 95.1 G165
Compression parallel (lb/in2) 7,210 G° 7,110 G111 13,590 G°97 11,030 G°89
Compression perpendicular(lb/in2) 1,270 G1 2,680 G2 2,390 G157 3,130 G2°9
Shear parallel (lb/in2) 1,590 G°73 2,580 G124 2,410 G°85 3,170 G113
Tension perpendicular(lb/in2) 550 G°78 1,520 G1'37 870 G111 1,460 G13
Side hardness (lbf) 1,400 G141 3,720 G 1,930 G15 3,440 G2°9
aCompression parallel to grain is maximumcrushingstrength; compression perpendicularto grain is fiber stress at
proportionallimit. MOR is modulusof rupture; MOE, modulus of elasticity; and WML, work to maximumload. For green
wood, use specific gravity based on ovendryweight and green volume;for dry wood, use specific gravity based on
ovendry weight and volume at 12% moisture content.

Forthis reason, in a simplysupportedbeam, a knot on the timbersthere is no discontinuity in wood fibers, which
lowerside(subjectedto tensile stresses) has a greatereffect resultsfrom sawing throughboth local andgeneral slope of
on the load the beam willsupportthan does a knot on the grain.
upperside (subjectedto compressive stresses). The effectsofknotsin structural lumberare discussedin
In long columns,knots are importantbecausethey affect Chapter6.
stiffness. In shortor intermediate columns, the reductionin
strengthcausedby knots is approximately proportionalto Slope of Grain
their size; however,largeknots have asomewhat greater In somewood productapplications,thedirectionsofimpor-
relative effectthan do smallknots. tant stressesmay not coincide with the natural axes offiber
Knots in round timbers,such as poles and piles, have less orientation in the wood. This may occur by choicein
effect on strengththan do knots in sawn timbers. Although design,fromthe waythe wood was removedfrom the log, cr
thegrain is irregulararound knots in both formsoftimber, becauseofgrain irregularities that occurred whilethe tree was
theangleofthegrain to the surface is smaller in naturally growing.
round timberthan in sawn timber. Furthermore, in round

4—28
1.0
0)

2 0.8
ci.
0.6

ov
C
0
0.4
-'----:
_-Q/P 0.20
=
C.)
CO 0.2
U-

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
Angle to fiber direction (deg)

Figure 4—4. Effect of grain angle on mechanical property


ofclearwoodaccording to Hankinson-typeformula.
Q/P is ratio of mechanical property acrossthe grain (Q)
to that parallel to the grain (P); n is an empirically
determined constant.

The Hankinson-typeformulacan be graphically depictedas a


functionof Q/P and n. Figure4—4shows the strengthin any
directionexpressed as a fraction ofthe strength parallel to
fiber direction, plottedagainstangletothe fiberdirection0.
The plotis for a range ofvalues ofQ/P and n.
The term slope ofgrain relatesthe fiberdirectionto the edges
ofa piece.Slope ofgrainis usually expressed bythe ratio
Figure 4—3. Types of knots. A, encased knot; between25 mm(1 in.) ofthe grain from the edgcor long
B, intergrown. axis ofthe piece and the distance in millimeters(inches)
withinwhichthis deviationoccurs(tan 9). The effectofgrain
Elastic propertiesin directions other than along the natural slope onsome propertiesofwood,as determined from tests,
axes can be obtainedfrom elastictheory. Strength properties is shownin Table 4—12. The values for modulusofrupture
in directions ranging from parallel to perpendicular tothe fall very close to the curve in Figure4—4 for Q/P = 0.1 and
fiberscanbe approximated usinga Hankinson-type formula n = 1.5. Similarly, the impactbendingvalues fall closeto
(Bodig and Jayne 1982): thecurve for Q/P= 0.05 and n =1.5, andthecompression
values for the curve for Q/P = 0.1,n = 2.5.
N= PQ The term cross grain indicatesthe conditionmeasuredby
(4—2)
Psing 9+ Qcos slopeofgrain.Two importantforms ofcross grain are spiral
and diagonal(Fig. 4—5). Othertypes are wavy, dipped,
whereN is strengthat angle0 from fiberdirection, interlocked, andcurly.
Q strength perpendicularto grain,P strength parallelto
grain,andn an empiricallydeterminedconstant. Spiralgrain is causedby windingor spiral growlhofwood
fibersabout the boleofthetree insteadofverticallgrowth. In
This formulahas been used formodulusofelasticityas well sawnproducts,spiral grain canbe defmed as fibers lying in
as strength properties. Valuesofn and associated ratios of thetangential planeofthegrowthrings,ratherthan parallel
Q/P tabulated from available literature are as follows: to thelongitudinal axis ofthe product (see Fig. Li_S for a
simplecase).Spiralgrainin sawn productsoften goes unde-
Property n Q/P tected by ordinary visual inspection. The besttest for spiral
Tensile strength 1.5—2 0.04—0.07 grain is to splita sample sectionfrom the piece in the radial
Compression strength 2—2.5 0.03—0.40 direction. A visual method ofdetermining the presenceof
Bending strength 1.5—2 0.04—0.10 spiralgrain is to note the alignmentofpores, rays, and resin
Modulus of elasticity 2 0.04—0.12 ductson aflatsawn face.Drying checks ona flatsawn surface
Toughness 1.5—2 0.06—0.10 follow the fibers and indicatethe slopeofthe fiber. Relative

4—29
Table 4—12. Strength of woodmembers with various change in electrical capacitance is an effective technique for
grain slopes compared with strengthofa straight- measuring slopeofgrain.
grained membera
Maximumslope Modulus Impact Compression
Diagonal grain is cross grain causedby growth ringsthat ar
not parallel to one or both surfaces ofthe sawn piece. Diago-
of grain in of rupture bending parallelto grain nalgrain is producedby sawing a log with pronounced taper
member (%) (%) (%)
parallel to the axis(pith) ofthe tree. Diagonal grain also
100 100 100 occurs in lumbersawn from crooked logs or logs with butt
Straight-grained
swell.
1in25 96 95 100
lin2O 93 90 100 Crossgrain can be quitelocalizedas a result ofthe distur-
linl5 89 81 100 bance ofa growthpattern by a branch.This condition,
linlO 81 62 99 termedlocal slope ofgrain,may be presenteventhough the
branch (knot) may havebeenremovedby sawing. The degree
lin5 55 36 93
oflocal cross grain mayoften be difficultto determine. Any
almpactbending is height of drop causing complete form ofcross grain canhavea deleterious effect onmechanical
failure (0.71-kg (50-Ib) hammer); compression parallel properties ormachiningcharacteristics.
to grain is maximumcrushing strength.
Spiraland diagonalgrain can combineto produce amore
complexcross grain.To determinenet cross grain, regardless
oforigin,fiberslopes onthecontiguous surface ofa piece
must be measuredand combined. The combinedslope of
grain is determinedby taking the square root ofthe sum of
the squares ofthe two slopes. For example,assumethat the
spiral grain slopeon the flat-grained surfaceofFigure4—5D
is 1 in 12 and thediagonal-grainslope is I in IS. The com-
bined slope is

j(l/l8)2÷(l/l2)2 = 1/10
or a slope of 1 in 10.
A regularreversal ofrightand left spiraling ofgrain in a tree
stemproducesthe condition knownas interlockedgrain.
Interlocked grain occurs in somehardwoodspecies (Ch. 3,
Table3—9)and markedly increases resistanceto splitting in
the radialplane. Interlocked grain decreasesboth the static
bending strengthandstiffnessofclear wood specimens. The
data from tests ofdomestichardwoodsshownin Table4—3
do not includepiecesthat exhibitedinterlockedgrain. Some
mechanical property valuesin Table4-5 are basedon speci-
menswith interlockedgrain becausethat is a characteristic cf
somespecies. The presence ofinterlockedgrain altersthe
relationship betweenbendingstrengthand compressive
E F strength oflumbercut from tropicalhardwoods.

Annual Ring Orientation


Stresses perpendicular to the fiber(grain)directionmay be
at any anglefrom 00 (T) to 90° (R) to thegrowth rings
(Fig.4—6). Perpendicular-to-grain propertiesdependsome-
what upon orientation of annualrings with respectto the
G H
directionofstress. The compression perpendicular-to-grain
Figure 4—5. Relationship offiber orientation (0-0) to valuesin Table 4—3 were derivedfrom tests in whichthe
axes, as shown by schematic ofwoodspecimens load was appliedparallelto the growthrings (Tdirection);
containing straightgrain and cross grain. Specimens A shearparallel-to-grain and tension perpendicular-to-grain
through D have radial and tangential surfaces; valuesare averages ofequalnumbersofspecimens with 0°
E throughH do not. Specimens A and E contain no and 90° growthring orientations. In some species, there is
cross grain; B, D, F, and H have spiral grain; no difference in 0° and 90°orientation properties. Other
C, D, G, and H have diagonal grain.
species exhibit slightly higher shearparallel ortensionper-
pendicular-to-grain properties forthe 00 orientation than for

4—30
Ii 90°(R) 45° 00 (T)

Figure 4—6. Direction of load in relation to direction of


annual growth rings: 90° or perpendicular (R), 450, 00
or parallel (T).

the 900orientation;the converseis true for about an equal


numberofspecies.
The effectsofintermediate annualringorientations havebeen
studied in a limitedway. Modulusofelasticity, compressive
perpendicular-to-grain stress atthe proportionallimit, and
tensile strengthperpendicular to the grain tendto be about
the same at 45° and 0°, but for somespecies these valuesare
40% to 60% lower at the 45° orientation. For those species
with lowerpropertiesat 45° ring orientation, propertiestend
to be about equal at 0° and 90° orientations. For species with
about equalpropertiesat 0° and 45° orientations, properties Figure 4—7. Projecting tensionwoodfibers on sawn
tend to be higher atthe 90° orientation. surface ofmahogany board.

Reaction Wood
frequentlyhas arelatively lifeless appearance, especially in
Abnormalwoodytissue is frequently associatedwith leaning woods inwhichthe transitionfrom earlywoodto latewood is
boles and crookedlimbs ofboth conifers and hardwoods. It abrupt. Becausecompression wood is more opaquethan
is generallybelievedthat such wood is formedas a natural normalwood, intermediate stages ofcompression.wood can
response ofthe tree to return its limbs or bole to a more be detectedby transmitting lightthrough thin cross sections;
normalposition,hence the term reactionwood. In soft- however, borderline forms ofcompression wood l:hatmerge
woods,the abnormal tissue is called compression wood; it with normalwood can commonly be detectedonly by mi-
is commonto all softwoodspecies and is foundon thelower croscopic examination.
side ofthe limb or inclinedbole. In hardwoods, the abnor-
mal tissue is knownas tensionwood; it is locatedon the Tensionwood is more difficultto detectthan is compression
upper side ofthe inclinedmember,althoughin somein- wood.However, eccentric growthas seen on the transverse
stancesit is distributedirregularlyaroundthe cross section. sectionsuggestsits presence.Also, becauseit is difficult to
Reactionwood is more prevalentin some species than in cleanlycut thetoughtensionwoodfibers,the sur[hces of
others. sawn boards are "woolly,"especiallywhen the boardsare
sawn in the green condition (Fig. 4—7). In some species,
Many ofthe anatomical, chemical, physical, andmechanical tensionwoodmay be evidenton a smoothsurface as areas of
properties ofreaction wood differ distinctly fromthose of contrasting colors. Examples ofthis are the silvetyappear-
normal wood. Perhapsmost evident is the increase in den- ance oftension wood in sugarmaple andthe darlercolor of
sity compared with that ofnormalwood. The specific gravity tension wood in mahogany.
ofcompression wood is commonly 30% to40% greaterthan
that ofnormalwood; the specific gravityoftension wood Reactionwood,particularlycompression wood in the green
commonly rangesbetween 5% and 10% greaterthanthat of condition, may be stronger than normalwood. However,
normalwood, but it may be as much as 30% greater. compared with normalwood with similar specificgravity,
reactionwood is defmitely weaker.Possibleexceptionsto
Compressionwood is usually somewhat darkerthan normal this are compression parallel-to-grain properties cfcompres-
woodbecauseofthe greaterproportionoflatewood, and it sion wood and impact bendingpropertiesoftensionwood.

4—31
Mature wood
a>
C)
C—
0)
—c
8
a>
.
o'
UJQ)

Figure 4-8. Effects ofcompression wood.A, eccentric


growth about pith in crosssectioncontaining compres- 0)0
sion wood—dark area in lowerthird of crosssectionis (I)
OC
compression wood; B, axial tensionbreak caused by >s
excessive longitudinal shrinkage of compression wood; > ()U)—
C, warpcaused by excessive longitudinal shrinkage. ;U)
Because ofthe abnormal propertiesofreactionwood,it may
flffl
)
cL'5 .:
COOO)Ol-Q
a>
Maturewood

be desirableto eliminatethis wood from raw material, hi


logs, compression wood is characterized by eccentric growth
about the pith and the large proportionoflatewood at the
point ofgreatest eccentricity (Fig.4—8A). Fortunately, pro-
nouncedcompression wood in lumbercan generallybe Pith 5-20 rings Bark
detectedby ordinary visualexamination.
Figure 4—9. Properties ofjuvenilewood.
Compressionand tensionwood undergo extensive longitu-
dinal shrinkagewhen subjectedto moistureloss below the
fiber saturation point. Longitudinalshrinkagein compression and cellulosefibrils),whichcauseslongitudinal shrinkage
wood may be up to 10 times that in normalwood and in that may be more than 10 timesthat ofmature wood.Corn-
tension wood, perhaps up to 5 timesthat in normal wood. pressionwood and spiral grain are also more prevalentin
Whenreactionwood and normalwood are present inthe juvenile wood than in mature wood and contributeto longi-
same board,unequallongitudinal shrinkagecauses internal tudinal shrinkage.In structural lumber, the ratioofmodulus
stressesthat result in warping.In extremecases,unequal ofrupture, ultimate tensile stress,and modulusofelasticity
longitudinal shrinkageresults in axial tensionfailure over a forjuvenile to maturewood ranges from 0.5 to 0.9, 0.5 to
portion ofthe cross sectionofthe lumber(Fig.4—8B). Warp 0.95, and 0.45 to 0.75,respectively.Changesin shear
sometimes occurs in rough lumberbut more often in planed, strengthresultingfrom increases injuvenile wood content
ripped, or resawn lumber (Fig. 4—8C). can be adequately predicted by monitoring changes in den-
sity alonefor all annualring orientations. The same is true
Juvenile Wood for perpendicular-to-grain compressive strengthwhenthe load
is applied in thetangential direction. Compressivestrength
Juvenilewood is the wood producednearthe pith ofthe tree; perpendicular-to-grain for loadsappliedin the radial direc-
for softwoods, it is usuallydefmedas thematerial 5 to tion,however, is more sensitive to changes in juvenile wood
20 rings from thepith dependingon species.Juvenilewood contentand may be up to eight times less than that sug-
has considerably differentphysicaland anatomical properties gestedby changesin density alone. The juvenile wood to
than that ofmature wood (Fig. 4—9). In clear wood,the maturewoodratio is lowerforhigher grades of lumberthan
propertiesthat havebeen foundto influence mechanical for lowergrades,whichindicatesthat juvenile wood has
behavior includefibril angle, cell length, and specific gravity, greaterinfluence in reducing themechanical properties of
the latter acompositeofpercentage oflatewood, cell wall high-grade structural lumber. Only a limitedamountof
thickness,and lumen diameter.Juvenile wood has a high research has beendone onjuvenilewood in hardwood
fibril angle(angle between longitudinal axis ofwood cell species.

4—32
Products containingvisiblecompression failureshavelow
strength properties, especially in tensile strengthand shock
resistance. The tensile strength ofwood containingcompres-
sion failures may be as low as one-third the strengthof
matched clear wood. Even slight compression fail[ures,visi-
ble only under a microscope, may seriously reduce strength
and cause brittlefracture. Because ofthe low strerLgth associ-
ated with compression failures, many safetycodesrequire
certain structural members, such as ladderrails and scaffold
planks, tobe entirely free ofsuch failures.

Pitch Pockets
Apitch pocketis a well-defmed openingthat containsfree
resin. The pocket extendsparallelto the annualrings; it is
almostflat on the pith side and curvedon the barc side.
Pitch pocketsare confined to such species as thepines,
spruces, Douglas-fir, tamarack, and western larch.
The effectofpitch pocketson strength depends upontheir
number, size,and location in the piece.A large numberof
pitchpockets indicates a lack ofbondbetweenannualgrowth
layers, and a piecewith pitchpocketsshould be inspected for
shake orseparationalongthe grain.

Bird Peck
Maple, hickory, white ash, and a numberofother species are
often damaged by smallholes madebywoodpeckers.
Thesebirdpecks often occur in horizontal rows, ometimes
a
encircling thetree, and brown orblack discoloration known
as a mineralstreakoriginates from each hole. Holes fortap-
ping mapletrees are alsoa sourceofmineral streaks. The
streaks are causedby oxidation and other chemical changes
in thewood.Bird pecks and mineralstreaks are not generally
important in regardto strengthofstructural lumber, although
theydo impair the appearance ofthe wood.
Figure 4—10. Compression failures.A, compression
failureshown by irregularlines acrossgrain; B, fiber
breakage in end-grain surfaces ofspruce lumber caused Extractives
by compression failures below dark line. Many wood species containremovable extraneous materials
or extractives that do not degradethe cellulose—ligninstruc
tare ofthe wood.These extractives are especially abundant in
Compression Failures species such as larch,redwood, westernredcedar, and black
locust.
Excessive compressive stresses along the grain that produce
minutecompression failures can be caused by excessive A smalldecreasein modulusofruptureand strengthin
bendingofstanding trees from wind orsnow; felling oftrees compression parallelto grain has been measuredfor some
across boulders,logs, or irregularities in the ground;or species after the extractives have beenremoved.The extentto
roughhandlingoflogs orlumber. Compressionfailures whichextractives influence strengthis apparently a function
shouldnotbe confusedwith compression wood. In some oftheamount ofextractives, the moisturecontentofthe
instances, compression failures are visibleon the surface of piece,and the mechanical property underconsideration.
a boardas minutelines or zones formed by crumpling or
buckling of cells (Fig.4—1OA), althoughthe failuresusually
appearas white lines ormay evenbe invisibleto thenaked Properties of Timber From Dead Trees
eye. The presenceofcompression failures may be indicated Timber from treeskilled by insects,blight, wind, or fire may
by fiberbreakage on end grain (Fig.4—lOB). Since compres- be as good for any structural purposeas that from live trees,
sion failures are often difficult to detectwith theunaidedeye,
providedfurtherinsect attack, staining, decay, or drying
specialefforts, including optimum lighting,may be required degrade has not occurred. In a living tree, the heactwood is
for detection. The most difficult cases are detectedonly by
entirely deadand only a comparatively few sapwoodcells are
microscopic examination. alive. Therefore, most wood is deadwhencut, regardless of

4—33
whetherthe tree itselfis livingor not. However, ifatree Table 4—13. Intersection moisture content values
stands on the stumptoo long afterits death, the sapwoodis selected speciesa
likelyto decay orto be attacked severely by wood-boring M
insects,and eventuallythe heartwoodwill be similarly Species (%)
affected. Such deterioration also occurs in logs that havebeen
Ash, white 24
cutfrom live trees andimproperly caredforafterwards. Be- 27
cause ofvariations in climatic and other factors that affect Birch, yellow
Chestnut, American 24
deterioration,the time that deadtimbermay stand or lie in Douglas-fir 24
theforestwithout seriousdeterioration varies. Hemlock, western
Larch, western 28
Tests on wood from trees that had stood as long as 15 years 21
Pine, loblolly
after being killed by fire demonstrated that this woodwas as Pine, longleaf 21
sound and strong as wood from live trees. Also, the heart- Pine, red 24
wood oflogs ofsome more durablespecies has been foundto Redwood 21
be thoroughlysound after lying in theforestfor manyyears. Spruce, red 27
Spruce, Sitka
Ontheother hand, in nonresistantspecies, decay may cause Tamarack 24
great loss ofstrengthwithin a very brieftime, both in trees
standingdead on the stumpand in logs cut from live trees alntersection moisture content is point at which
and allowedto lie on the ground. The importantconsidera- mechanical propertiesbegin to changewhen wood
tion is not whetherthe trees from whichwoodproductsare is dried from the green condition.
cutarealive or dead, butwhethertheproductsthemselves are
free from decay or otherdegrading factors that would render
them unsuitableforuse.
example, suppose you want to fmd the modulusofruptureof
white ash at 8% moisturecontent. Using informationfrom
Effects of Manufacturing and Tables4—3a and 4—13,
Service Environments
=119,500kPa
Moisture Content P8

Many mechanicalpropertiesare affected by changes in mois- Careshouldbe exercised whenadjustingpropertiesbelow


turecontentbelowthe fiber saturation point.Most properties 12% moisture. Although most propertieswill continueto
reportedinTables 4—3, 4—4, and 4—5 increase with decrease increase while wood is dried to very low moisture content
in moisture content.The relationshipthat describesthese
changesin clear wood propertyat about 21°C (70°F) is levels,for most species somepropertiesmay reach a
maximum valueandthen decreasewith furtherdrying
I 12—M (Fig. 4—11). For clear SouthernPine, the moisture content
at whicha maximum propertyhas been observedis given
P (4-3) in Table 4—14.
[P]MP_12
This increase in mechanical properties with dryingassumes
whereP is the property atmoisture contentM (%), P12 the small, clear specimens in a dryingprocess in whichno
same propertyat 12% MC,Pgthe same property for green deterioration ofthe product(degrade) occurs.For 51-mm-
wood, and M moisturecontentat the intersection ofa (2-in.-)thick lumbercontainingknots, the increasein prop-
horizontal line representingthe strengthofgreen wood and erty with decreasingmoisturecontent is dependentupon
an inclinedline representingthe logarithm ofthestrength— lumberquality.Clear, straight-grained lumbermay show
moisture contentrelationship fordry wood.This assumed increases in properties with decreasingmoisture contentthat
linearrelationshipresults in an M value that is slightlyless approximate those ofsmall, clear specimens. However,as the
than the fiber saturationpoint. Table4—13 gives valuesofM frequency and size ofknots increase, the reductionin strength
for afew species;for other species,M = 25 may be assumed. resultingfrom theknots beginsto negatethe increasein
propertyin the clear wood portion ofthe lumber.Very low
Average property valuesofP12 andPg are given formany qualitylumber, whichhas many large knots, may be insensi-
species in Tables 4—3 to 4—5. The formulaformoisture tive to changes in moisturecontent.Figures4-12 and 4-13
contentadjustmentis not recommendedforwork to maxi-
illustrate the effectofmoisturecontenton the properties of
mum load,impact bending, and tensionperpendicular to
lumberas afunctionofinitiallumberstrength(Greenand
grain. Thesepropertiesareknown to be erratic in their others 1989). Application ofthese results in adjustingallow-
responseto moisturecontentchange. able propertiesoflumberis discussedin Chapter6.
The formulacan be usedto estimate apropertyat anymois-
ture contentbelowM from the species datagiven. For Additional information on influencesofmoisture content
on dimensionalstability is includedin Chapter 12.

4—34
22.0 120 -
16

(0
a-
16.5
o Z80
ii.o.>.
0
0)
0.
0
0.
t
0)
a,
=
5.5 2
a-
4O-
10 15 20 5
—_----------------.
_______________________
4 ;
Moisture content (%) E
I
Figure 4—11. Effectof moisture content on wood 0 I
—0
strength properties. A, tension parallel to grain.; 8 12 16 20 24
B, bending; C, compression parallel to grain; Moisturecontent (%)
D, compression perpendicular to grain; and Figure 4—12. Effect ofmoisturecontent on tensile
E, tension perpendicular to grain. strengthof lumberparallel to grain.

Table 4—14. Moisture content formaximum property 90 -


value in drying clearSouthern Pinefrom green to 0 12 (\1

4% moisture content
Moisture content C
0
OD

at which peak a) x
60
Property
property occurs
(%)
a)
>
8c C
0)
(0
(0
a, (0
Ultimate tensile stress
parallelto grain
Ultimate tensile stress
perpendicularto grain
12.6

10.2
4 (0

Q.
E
0
MOEtension perpendicularto grain 4.3 C,
MOEcompressionparallelto grain 4.3 J30 a,
ce
Modulusof rigidity, GRT 10.0 0 E
8 12 16 20 24
Moisturecontent (%)

Figure 4-13. Effect of moisture contenton


Ternperature compressive strengthof lumberparallel to grain.
Reversible Effects
In general, themechanical properties ofwood decrease when The width ofthe bands illustratesvariabilitybetweenand
heatedand increase when cooled. At a constantmoisture withinreportedtrends.
contentandbelow approximately 150°C (302°F), mechanical
properties are approximately linearlyrelatedtotemperature. Table 4—15 lists changesin clear wood propertiesat —50°C
The changein propertiesthat occurswhenwood is quickly (—58°F) and 50°C (122°F) relativeto those at 20°C (68°F) for
heatedor cooled and then tested at that condition is termed a numberofmoisture conditions.The largechangesat
an immediateeffect. Attemperaturesbelow 100°C(212°F), —50°C (—58°F) for green wood (at fiber saturation point or
theimmediateeffectis essentially reversible;that is, the wetter) reflectthe presence ofice. in the wood cell cavities.
propertywill returnto the valueat the original temperature The strengthofdry lumber, at about 12% moisturecontent,
ifthe temperature changeis rapid. maychangelittleas temperature increases from —29°C
Figure 4—14 illustrates the immediate effectoftemperature on (—20°F) to 38°C (100°F). For green lumber,strengthgener-
modulusofelasticityparallelto grain,modulusofrupture, ally decreases with increasing temperature. However, for
and compressionparallelto grain, 20°C(68°F), based on a temperaturesbetweenabout 7°C (45°F) and 38°C (100°F),
thechanges may not differsignificantly from thoseat room
composite ofresults forclear,defect-free wood. Thisfigure
represents an interpretation ofdata from several investigators. temperature. Table4-16 providesequationsthat havebeen

4—35
200 Table 4—15. Approximate middle-trend effects of
(a) temperature on mechanical properties of clearwood
12%moisture content atvariousmoisture conditions
Relativechange in
0 150 mechanical property
U)
(5 from20°C(68°F) at
a)
0 Moisture —50°C +50°C
(0 0% moisture content
100 conditiona (—58°F) (+122°F
Property (%) (%) (%) —
0
E MOE parallel tograin 0 +11 —6

12 +17 —7
50
(5 >FSP +50 —
a)
MOE perpendicularto grain 6 — —20

12 — —35

-200 -100 0 100 200 300 20 — -38


Shear modulus >FSP — —25
250 Bendingstrength 4 +18 —10
(b)
11—15 +35 —20
18%moisture content 18—20 +60 —25
200
>FSP +110 —25
Tensile strength paralleltograin 0—12 — —4

Compressive strength parallel 0 +20 —10


0 150 to grain 12-45 +50 —25
(/)
12%moisture content 0% Shear strengthparallelto grain >FSP — —25
•0 moisture content
0 100 - Tensilestrength perpendicular 4—6 — —10
E tograin 11—16 — —20
ci) 18 — —30
>
(5 0-6 — —20
50 Compressive strength perpen-
a) dicular to grain atproportional 10 — —35
limit
0 aFSp indicates moisture content greaterthanfibersaturation point.
I U

-200 -150 -100 -50 0 50 100 150

300 - used to adjust some lumber propertiesforthe reversible


(0) effects oftemperature.
12%moisture content
250 Irreversible Effects
II) In addition tothereversible effectoftemperature onwood,
200 there is an irreversible effectat elevated temperature. This
permanent effectis one ofdegradation ofwood substance,
whichresults in loss ofweightand strength. The loss de-
Cl)
150
pends on factors that includemoisturecontent, heatingme-
E
0
0 0% moisture content dium,temperature, exposureperiod, and to some extent,
a) species and size ofpiece involved.
>
50 Thepermanentdecrease ofmodulus ofrupturecaused by
heatingin steam andwater is shownas a functionoftempera-
ture and heatingtime in Figure4—i5, based on tests ofclear
-200 -100 0 100 200 300 pieces ofDouglas-firand Sitka spruce.In the same studies,
Temperature (°C) heatingin water affected work to maximumloadmore than
modulusofrupture (Fig.4—16). The effect ofheatingdry
Figure 4—14. Immediate effectof temperature at two wood (0% moisturecontent) on modulusofrupture and
moisturecontentlevels relative to valueat 20°C (68°F) modulusofelasticityis shown in Figures4—17 and 4—18,
for clear, defect-free wood: (a) modulus of elasticity respectively, as derivedfrom testsonfoursoftwoods andtw
parallel to grain, (b) modulus of rupturein bending, hardwoods.
(c) compressive strengthparallel to grain. Theplot is a
composite of results from several studies.Variability
in reported trends is illustratedby width of bands.

4—36
Table 4—16. Percentagechange in bending properties of lumber with change in temperaturea
Lumber Moisture ((P—P70) F'70) 100 = A + BT + CT2
I Temperature range
Property gradeb content A B C Tmi, Tmax

MOE All Green 22.0350 —0.4578 0 0 32


Green 13.1215 —0.1793 0 32 150
12% 7.8553 —0.1108 0 —15 150
MOR SS Green 34.13 —0.937 0.0043 —20 46
Green 0 0 0 46 100
12% 0 0 0 —20 100
No. 2 Green 56.89 —1.562 0.0072 —20 46
or less Green 0 0 0 46 100
Dry 0 0 0 —20 100
aFor equation, P is property at temperature T in °F; P70, propertyat 21°C (70°F).
bSS is Select Structural.

Figure4—19 illustratesthe permanentloss in bending Time Under Load


strengthofSpruce—Pine—Fir standard38- by 89-mm
(nominal2- by 4-in.) lumber heatedat 66°C (150F) and Rate of Loading
about 12% moisture content. Duringthis same,period, Mechanicalpropertyvalues, as given in Tables4—3, 4—4,
modulusofelasticitybarely changed. Most in-service and 4—5, are usuallyreferredto as staticstrengthvalues.
exposures at 66°C(150°F)would be expectedto result in Staticstrengthtests are typicallyconductedata rate ofload-
much lowermoisturecontentlevels. Additionalresults for ing or rate ofdeformationto attain maximum loadin about
other lumberproductsandexposureconditions wilil be re- 5 min.Higher valuesofstrengthareobtainedfor wood
portedas ForestProducts Laboratory studiesprogress. loadedat a more rapid rate and lowervalues are obtainedat
The permanentpropertylosses discussed here arebased on slowerrates. For example, the loadrequiredto produce
tests conducted after the specimens were cooledto room failure in awood memberin 1 s is approximately 10%
temperatureand conditioned to arange of7% to 12% mois- higher thanthat obtainedin a standardstatic strengthtest.
ture content. Ifspecimens are tested hot,the percentage of Over several ordersofmagnitudeofrate ofloading, strength
strength reductionresultingfrom permanenteffects is based is approximately an exponential function ofrate. See
on values alreadyreducedby theimmediate effects. Repeated Chapter6 for application to treatedwoods.
exposure to elevatedtemperature has a cumulative effecton Figure4—20 illustrates how strengthdecreaseswith time to
wood properties. For example,at a given temperature the maximum load. The variabilityin the trend sho'wn is based
propertyloss will be aboutthe same after six 1-month expo- onresultsfrom several studiespertainingto bend:Lng, com-
sure as itwould be aftera single6-monthexposure. pression, andshear.
The shapeand size ofwoodpieces are important in analyzing
the influenceoftemperature. Ifexposure is for only a short Creep and Relaxation
When initially loaded,a wood member deformselastically.
time, so that the inner parts ofa largepiece do notreach the
temperatureofthe surrounding medium,the immediate effect Ifthe loadis maintained, additional time-dependent deforma-
on strengthofthe inner parts will be less than that for the tion occurs. This is called creep. Creepoccursat evenvery
outer parts.However,thetype ofloading must be consid- low stresses, and it will continueover a period ofyears. For
ered. Ifthe memberis to be stressedin bending, the outer sufficiently high stresses, failure eventually occurs.This
fibersofapiece will be subjectedto the greateststress and failure phenomenon, calleddurationofload (or creep
willordinarily govern theultimatestrengthofthepiece; rupture), is discussedin the next section.
hence,under this loadingcondition,the fact that the inner
part is at alowertemperaturemay be oflittle significance. At typical design levels and use environments, after several
For extendednoncyclicexposures, it can be assumedthat the years the additional deformation caused by creepnay
entire piece reaches the temperature oftheheatingmedium approximately equalthe initial, instantaneous elastic
andwill thereforebe subjectto permanent strengthlosses deformation. For illustration, a creepcurve basedon creep as
a function ofinitial deflection (relative creep)at several stress
throughoutthe volume ofthe piece, regardless of size and levels is shown in Figure4—21; creepis greater underhigher
mode ofstress application. However,in ordinary construc-
tion wood often will notreach the dailytemperature extremes stresses than underlowerones.
oftheair aroundit; thus, long-term effectsshouldbebased
ontheaccumulated temperature experience ofcritical
structural parts.

4—37
100
0 0
a) a)
c,)
a) 90
C—
ed) 15°C (240°F)
03
IN 0. C
.— 0
80

.
eQ
ccci •V 70
2 60
(275°F)

2> 155°C(310°F)
00 -o
0 50
175°C (350°F) 175°C (350°F)
I I I —— I — I —

16 24 32 0 50 100 150 300 200 250


Heating period (h) Time of exposure (days)
Figure 4—15. Permanent effectof heating in water Figure 4—17. Permanenteffectof oven heating at four
(solidline)and steam (dashed tine) on modulus of rup- temperatures on modulus of rupture, based on clear
ture of clear, defect-free wood.All data based on tests pieces offour softwood and two hardwood species.
of Douglas-fir and Sitka spruce at roomtemperature. All tests conducted at room temperature.

•3 100
0
C
0
C.)

a)
a)
a)
C
0
9OT-
80 93°C
0
Cd
C
a)—.100

.2i
104
102

98
96
C(240°F)
135°C (275°F)

a)
0) 70 - (ace
a) 94
C
a)
C) 92
60 -
a)
0.
>'
— Modulus of rupture — —— D
0 90 (350°F)
———Work
0
a) 50 I I I I I
88 13'5°C I I I
0 0 10050 150 200 250 300 0 50 100 150 200 250 300
a- Time of exposure (days)
Heating period (days)
Figure 4—16. Permanent effectof heating in wateron Figure 4—18. Permanenteffectof oven heating atfour
work to maximum loadand modulus of ruptureof clear, temperatures on modulus ofelasticity,based on clear
defect-freewood.All data based on tests of Douglas-fir pieces of foursoftwood and two hardwood species.
and Sitka spruceat roomtemperature. All tests conducted at roomtemperature.

Ordinary climaticvariations in temperature andhumidity Relative creepat low stress levels is similar in bending,
will cause creepto increase. An increase ofabout 28°C (50°F) tension, or compression parallelto grain, although itmay be
a
in temperature cancause two- to threefoldincrease in creep. somewhat less intensionthan in bending or compression
Greenwoodmay creepfourto six timesthe initial deforma- undervaryingmoistureconditions. Relativecreepacross the
tion as it dries under load. grain is qualitatively similar to, but likely to be greater than,
creepparallel to the grain.The creep behaviorofall species
Unloadinga memberresults in immediateand complete studiedis approximately the same.
recovery ofthe original elastic deformation and aftertime, a
recovery ofapproximately one-halfthe creep at deformation as Ifinsteadofcontrollingload or stress, a constantdeformation
well. Fluctuations in temperatureand humidityincreasethe is imposed and maintainedon a wood member,theinitial
magnitudeofthe recovereddeformation. a
stress relaxesat decreasingrate to about 60% to 70% ofits
originalvaluewithin a few months. This reduction of stress
with time is commonly called relaxation.

4—38
Ci) 2 Stress
0
C 0 MPa x103 lbf/in
0 C)
C) C). 3.4 0.5

0
0
..—0
— 6.9
13.8
— — 27.6
1.0
2.0
0.8 4.0
C)
——
U) 1650f-1 5E
0 0.7 C)
C)-
>< .0 C
C) C)-
C)
C) a)
0.6
CC 0
0
0.5
0 12 24 36 48 60 72
0 100 200 300 400 500
Timeunder load (days)
Exposure time(months)

Figure 4—19. Permanenteffect of heating at 66°C (150°F) Figure 4—21. Influence of four levels of stresson creep
on modulus of rupturefortwo grades of machine-stress- (Kingston 1962).
rated Spruce—Pine—Firlumberat 12%moisturecontent.
Alt tests conducted at roomtemperature.

140 120
6% and 12% moisture content
0
120
12% moisture content 0
C)
100
0)
CC
100 C
0 280
80
CC
C
C) 60
60 C)0
C,

40
C).

(I,
C,
(C
U)
C
40

a,
20 00 20

.
(C
0
io- 100 102 106 108
0
1 0-6 b-4 10-2 100 102 10 106
Timeto ultimate stress (s) Timeto failure (h)
Figure 4—20. Relationship of ultimate stressat short- Figure 4—22. Relationship betweenstressdue to constant
timeloadingto that at 5-mm loading, based on com- load and time to failure forsmall clearwood specimens,
posite of results from rate-of-loadstudieson bending, based on 28 s at 100% stress. The figure is a composite
compression, and shear parallel to grain. Variability oftrendsfrom several studies; moststudiesinvolved
in reported trends is indicated by width of band. bending but some involved compression parallel to grain
and bending perpendicular to grain. Variability in
reported trendsis indicated by width of band.
In limitedbendingtests carriedoutbetweenapproximately
18°C (64°F) and 49°C (120°F)over 2 to 3 months, the curve
ofstress as afunctionoftime that expressesrelaxationis important factorin determining the load that the membercan
approximately themirror image ofthe creepcurve safelycarry. The duration ofloadmaybeaffectedby changes
(deformation as a functionoftime).Thesetests were carried in temperatureand relative humidity.
out at initialstresses up to about 50% ofthe bending
strengthofthe wood.As with creep, relaxationis markedly The constant stress that a wood membercan sustainis ap-
affectedby fluctuations intemperature and humidity. proximately an exponential functionoftime to failure,as
illustratedin Figure4—22. This relationshipis a composite
Duration of Load ofresults ofstudieson small, clearwood specimens, con-
The duration ofload, orthe time duringwhich a load acts on ductedat constanttemperatureandrelativehumidity.
a wood membereither continuouslyor intermittently, is an

4—39
Foramemberthat continuouslycarriesa load for a long Table 4—17. Summary of reported results on cyclic
period,the load requiredtoproduce failure is much lessthan fatiguea
that determinedfrom the strengthproperties in Tables4—3 to
Approxi-
4—5. Based on Figure 4—22, a wood memberunderthe Maximum mate
Cyclic
continuous actionofbendingstress for 10 years maycany fre- stressper fatigue
only 60% (orperhaps less) ofthe load requiredtoproduce Property
Range
ratio
quency cycleb life
failure in the same specimenloadedin a standardbending (Hz) (%) (x106cycles)

strengthtest ofonly a few minutesduration. Conversely, if Bending,dear,


the duration ofloadis very short,theload-carrying capacity straightgrain
Cantilever 0.45 3) 45
maybe higherthan that determined from strengthproperties Cantilever 0 3) 40
30
30
given in the tables. Cantilever —1.0 30 30 30
Center-point 40 30 4
Timeunder intermittentloadinghas a cumulative effect. In —1.0

tests wherea constant loadwas periodically placedon a


beam andthen removed,the cumulativetime the load was
Rotational
Third-point
—1.0
0.1

8-1/3 )
28 30
2

actuallyappliedtothe beambefore failure was essentially Bending,third-point


equalto the time to failurefor a similarbeam underthe same
Small knots 0.1 8-1/3 2
Clear, 1:12 slope 0.1 8-1/3 50 2
load applied continuously. ofgrain
Small knots, 1:12 0.1 8-1/3 40 2
The time to failure under continuous or intermittent loading slope ofgrain
is lookedupon as a creep—ruptureprocess; amemberhasto
Tension parallel
undergo substantial deformation before failure. Deformation at tograin
failure is approximately the same for durationofload tests as Clear, straight grain 0.1 15 3)
for standard strengthtests. Clear, straight grain 0 40 3.E
Scarfjoint 0.1 15 50 30
Changes in climaticconditions increase the rate ofcreepand Fingerjoint 0.1 15 40 30
shortenthe durationduringwhich a membercan supporta
Compression parallel
given load. This effect can be substantial for very smallwood tograin
specimens under largecyclic changes in temperature and Clear, straight grain 0.1 40 75 3.5
relativehumidity. Fortunately,changesin temperatureand
relativehumidityare moderatefor wood in the typicalservice Shear paralleltograin
Glue-laminated 0.1 15 45 30
enviromnent.
alnial moisture contentabout 12%to15%.
Fatigue bPercontageofestimatedstaticstrength.
In engineering, the term fatigueis defined as the progressive
damagethat occursin amaterial subjected to cyclic loading.
This loadingmay be repeated(stressesofthe same sign; that strength, is associatedwith the fatigue life given in millions
is, always compressionoralways tension)orreversed ofcycles.The firstthree lines ofdata,which listthesame
(stressesofalternatingcompression and tension). When cyclicfrequency (30 Hz), demonstrate the effectofrangeratio
sufficiently high and repetitious, cyclicloadingstresses can on fatiguestrength (maximumfatiguestress that can be
result in fatiguefailure. maintained for a given fatiguelife); fatiguebendingstrength
decreases as rangeratio decreases. Third-pointbending re-
Fatiguelife is a term used to definethe numberofcyclesthat sults showthe effectofsmallknots orslope ofgrain on
are sustainedbeforefailure.Fatiguestrength, the maximum fatiguestrength ata range ratio of0.1 and frequency of
stress attainedin the stress cycle usedto determine fatigue 8.33 Hz. Fatiguestrengthis lowerfor wood containingsmall
life, is approximately exponentially relatedto fatiguelife; knotsor a 1-in-12 slopeofgrainthan for clear straight-
that is, fatiguestrengthdecreasesapproximately linearlyas grainedwood and evenlowerforwood containinga combi-
thelogarithm ofnumber ofcyclesincreases. Fatigue strength nation ofsmallknotsand a 1-in-i2 slope ofgrain. Fatigue
andfatiguelife also depend on several other factors: frequency strengthis the same for a scarfjoint in tensionas for tension
ofcycling; repetition or reversalofloading; range factor (ratio parallelto the grain, but alittle lowerfor a fmgerjointin
ofminimumto maximumstress per cycle); and otherfactors tension. Fatigue strengthis slightlylower in shear than in
such as temperature,moisturecontent, and specimen size. tensionparallel to the grain. Othercomparisonsdo not have
Negativerange factorsimplyrepeatedreversing loads, muchmeaningbecauserangeratios or cyclicfrequency differ;
whereaspositiverange factors implynonreversing loads. however,fatiguestrengthis high in compressionparallelto
thegrain compared with other properties. Little is known
Results from severalfatigue studieson wood are given in about otherfactorsthat may affectfatigue strength inwood.
Table 4—17.Most ofthese resultsare forrepeatedloading
with a range ratioof 0.1, meaningthat the minimumstress Creep,temperature rise, and loss ofmoisturecontentoccur in
per cycle is 10% ofthemaximum stress.The maximum tests ofwood for fatiguestrength. At stressesthat cause
stress per cycle,expressedas a percentage ofestimatedstatic failurein about 106 cyclesat40 Hz, a temperature rise of

4—40
15°C (27°F) has beenreportedforparallel-to-grain compres- use is recommended wherepossible. Forexample,large
sion fatigue (range ratio slightlygreaterthan zero),parallel- cypress tanks havesurvivedlong continuous use where
to-graintensionfatigue(rangeratio = 0), and reversed bend- exposureconditions involved mixed acids at the boiling
ing fatigue(rangeratio = —1). The rate oftemperature rise is point. Woodis also used extensively in cooling 1:owers
high initially but then diminishes to moderate; a moderate becauseofits superiorresistance to mild acids and solutions
rate oftemperaturerise remainsmore or less constantduring ofacidicsalts.
a largepercentage offatiguelife. During the latter stages of
fatigue life, the rate oftemperature rise increases until failure Chemical Treatment
occurs. Smaller rises in temperature wouldbe expectedfor
slowercyclicloadingor lowerstresses. Decreases in mois- Woodis often treatedwith chemicals to enhance its fire
ture contentare probablyrelatedto temperature rise. performance or decay resistance in service. Eachset of
treatment chemicals andprocesses has a unique effectonthe
mechanical properties ofthe treatedwood.
Aging
In relatively dry and moderatetemperature conditions where Fire-retardant treatments andtreatmentmethods distinctly
wood is protectedfrom deteriorating influences such as de- reducethe mechanical properties ofwood. Somefire-
retardant-treated products haveexperienced significant in-
cay, the mechanical propertiesofwoodshow little change
with time. Test results for very old timbers suggest that service degradation on exposure to elevated temperatures
whenused as plywood roofsheathingor roof-truss lumber.
significant losses in clearwood strength occur only after
several centuries ofnormal aging conditions. The soundness New performance requirements withinstandards setbythe
ofcenturies-old wood in some standing trees(redwood, for American Standards forTestingand Materials (A:STM)and
American WoodPreservers'Association (AWPA) preclude
example) also attests to the durabilityofwood.
commercializationofinadequatelyperforming fire-retardant-
treated products.
Exposure to Chemicals
The effectofchemicalsolutions on mechanical properties Although preservative treatments and treatment methods
generally reducethe mechanical properties ofwool,any
depends onthe specific type ofchemical. Nonswel]Ling liq- initial loss in strength from treatmentmust be balanced
uids,such as petroleumoils andcreosote, haveno apprecia-
ble effectonproperties. Properties are loweredin the presence againstthe progressive loss ofstrength from decay when
untreated wood is placed inwetconditions. The effectsof
ofwater, alcohol, or other wood-swelling organicliquids
eventhough these liquids do not chemically degradethe preservative treatments on mechanical propertiesare directly
related to wood quality, size, and various pretreatment,
wood substance. The loss in properties depends largelyon
the amountofswelling,and this loss is regainedupon re- treatment, and post-treatment processingfactors.The key
factors include preservative chemistry or chemical type,
moval ofthe swellingliquid.Anhydrousammoniamarkedly
reduces the strength and stiffness ofwood,but these proper- preservative retention, initialkiln-dryingtemperature, post-
treatment drying temperature, and pretreatment incising(if
ties are regainedto a great extentwhen the ammoniais
removed. Heartwoodgenerallyis less affected thanapwood required). North American design guidelinesaddress the
effects ofincising onmechanical properties ofrefratory wood
becauseit ismore impermeable. Accordingly, wood treat-
ments that retard liquidpenetrationusually enhance natural species andthe short-term duration-of-load adjustments for
resistance to chemicals. all treatedlumber. These guidelines are describedin
Chapter6.
Chemicalsolutions that decompose wood substance (by
hydrolysis or oxidation)havea permanenteffecton strength. Oil-Type Preservatives
The following generalizations summarize the effectof Oil-type preservatives cause no appreciablestrenglh loss
chemicals: becausethey do not chemically react with wood cell wall
• Somespecies are quiteresistant to attack by dilute components. However,treatment with oil-typepreservatives
mineral and organic acids. can adversely affectstrength ifextreme in-retort seasoning
parameters are used (for example,Boultonizing, steaming, or
• Oxidizing acids such as nitric acid degradewood more vapordryingconditions) or ifexcessivetemperaturesor
than do nonoxidizingacids. pressuresare usedduringthetreating process. To preclude
• Alkalinesolutions are more destructivethanare acidic strength loss,the usershould follow specific treatment proc-
solutions. essing requirements as describedin the treatmentstandards.
• Hardwoods are more susceptible to attackby both acids Waterborne Preservatives
and alkalis than are softwoods. Waterbome preservative treatments can reducethe mechanical
• Heartwood is lesssusceptible to attack by both acidsand properties ofwood. Treatment standards includespecific
alkalis than is sapwood. processingrequirements intendedto preventor liniit strength
reductions resulting fromthe chemicals andthe wai;erborne
Because both species and application are extremely impor-
preservative treatment process. The effects ofwaterborne
tant, referenceto industrial sources with a specific historyof preservative treatmenton mechanical properties are relatedto

4—41
species,mechanical properties, preservative chemistry or affects the relative ratio oftreatment-induced weightgain
type,preservativeretention,post-treatment dryingtempera- to originalwood weight.
ture, size and grade ofmaterial,producttype, initialkiln-
dryingtemperature, incising, and both temperature and Gradeofmaterial—Theeffectofwaterbome preservative
moisturein service. treatment is aquality-dependent phenomenon. Higher
grades ofwood are more affected thanlowergrades. When
Species—Themagnitude ofthe effectofvarious water- viewed over a range ofquality levels,higher qualitylum-
bornepreservativeson mechanical propertiesdoes not ber is reducedin strength to aproportionately greater
appearto vary greatlybetweendifferentspecies. extentthan is lower qualitylumber.

Mechanicalproperty—Waterbornepreservatives affect Producttype—The magnitudeofthetreatmenteffecton


eachmechanical property differently. Iftreatedaccording to strength for laminated veneerlumberconfonns closely to
AWPAstandards,the effectsare as follows: modulusof effects noted forhighergradesofsolid-sawn lumber. The
elasticity(MOE), compressivestrengthparallel to grain, effects ofwaterbome preservative treatment onplywood
and compressive stress perpendicular to grain areunaffected seem comparable to that on lumber. Fiber-basedcomposite
or slightlyincreased; modulusofrupture (MOR) and ten- productsmay be reducedin strength to a greater extent
sile strengthparallelto grain are reducedfrom 0% to 20%, than is lumber. This additional effecton fiber-basedcom-
dependingon chemicalretentionand severityofrediying a
positesmaybe more functionofinternalbond damage
temperature; andenergy-related properties (for example, caused by waterborne-treatment-induced swelling rather
work to maximumload and impact strength)are reduced than actualchemical hydrolysis.
from l0%toSO%.
Initial kiln-drying temperatnre—Although initialkiln
Preservative chemistry ortype—Waterbornepreservative dryingofsome lumberspecies at 100°Cto 116°C (212°F
chemical systemsdiffer in regardto their effecton strength, to 240°F) for short durations has little effect on structural
but the magnitudeofthese differences is slight compared properties, such drying resultsin more hydrolyticdegrada-
with the effectsoftreatmentprocessing factors. Chemistry- tion ofthe cell wall than does dryingat lowertemperature
related differences seem to be related tothe reactivity ofthe kiln schedules. Subsequent preservativetreatment and
waterborne preservativeandthe temperature during the redrying ofmaterial initially dried at high temperatures
fixation/precipitation reactionwith wood. causes additional hydrolyticdegradation. Whenthe mate-
rial is subsequently treated,initialkilndrying at 113°C
Retention—Waterbomepreservative retention levels of (235°F) has been shown to result in greaterreductionsover
l 6 kg/rn3 ( 1.0 lb/fl3)have no effecton MOE or compres- the entirebendingand tensile strengthdistributions than
does initialkiln drying at 91°C (196°F). Because Southern
sive strengthparallelto grain and a slight negative effect
(—5% to —10%) on tensile or bending strength. However, Pine lumber, the most widelytreated product,is most of-
energy-related properties are often reducedfrom 15% to teninitially kiln dried at dry-bulbtemperatures near or
30%.At a retentionlevel of40 kg/rn3(2.5 lb/ft3), above 113°C (235°F),treatmentstandardshave imposed a
MORand energy-related properties are further reduced. maximum redrying temperaturelimitof74°C (165°F) to
preclude the cumulative effectofthermalprocessing.
Post-treatment drying temperature—Air drying after
treatmentcausesno significantreductionin the static Incising—Incising, a pretreatment mechanical process in
whichsmallslits(incisions) arepunchedin the surface of
strengthofwood treatedwith waterbome preservative at a thewood product,is used to improvepreservativepenetra-
retentionlevel of 16 kg/rn3(1.0 lb/fl3). However, energy-
tion and distributionin difficult-to-treat species. Incising
relatedproperties are reduced. Thepost-treatment redrying
temperature used formaterial treatedwith waterborne pre- mayreducestrength; however, becausethe increase in
servative has been found to be criticalwhentemperatures treatability providesa substantial increase in biological
exceed 75°C (167°F). Redryinglimitationsin treatment performance, this strengthloss must be balancedagainst
standards haveprecluded the need foran across-the-board theprogressiveloss in strengthofuntreatedwood from the
incidence ofdecay.Most incisingpatternsinducesome
designadjustment factorfor waterborne-preservative-treated strengthloss,and the magnitudeofthis effect is relatedto
lumberin engineeringdesignstandards.The limitationon
thesize ofmaterial being incisedandthe incisiondepth
post-treatmentkiln-dryingtemperature is setat 74°C and density(that is, number ofincisionsperunitarea).
(165°F). In less than 50 mm(2 in.) thick, dry lumber, incisingand
Size ofmaterial—Generally,largermaterial, specifically preservative treatmentinduces lossesin MOE of5% to
15% and in staticstrengthpropertiesof20% to 30%. In-
thicker, appearsto undergo less reductionin strengththan
does smallermaterial.Recallingthat preservative treat- cising and treatingtimbersortie stock at an incisionden-
mentsusuallypenetratethe treatedmaterial to adepth of l (
sity of ,500 incisions/rn2 140 incisions/fl2) andto a
only 6 to 51 mm (0.25 to 2.0 in.), dependingon species depth of 19 mm (0.75 in.) reduces strengthby 5% to 10%.
and other factors, the difference in size effect appears to be
afunctionoftheproduct's surface-to-volume ratio,which

4—42
In-serviceternperature—Both fire-retardantand preserva- Although low levels ofbiologicalstaincause little loss in
tive treatments accelerate thethermaldegradation of strength, heavystainingmayreduce specificgravty by 1%
bendingstrengthoflumberwhenexposedtotemperatures to 2%, surfacehardnessby 2% to 10%, bending and crushing
above 54°C (130°F). strength by 1% to 5%, and toughnessor shock resistanceby
15% to 30%.Althoughmolds and stainsusually do not
In-servicemoisturecontent—Currentdesignvalues apply have amajor effecton strength, conditions that favorthese
to material dried to 19% maximum(15%average)mois- organismsalsopromotethe development ofwood-destroying
ture content or to green material. No differences in strength (decay) fungiand soft-rotfungi (Ch. 13). Pieceswith mold
havebeen found betweentreatedanduntreatedmaterial and stainshouldbe examined closely for decay ifthey are
whentested green or atmoisture contents above 12%. used for structural purposes.
Whenvery dry treatedlumberofhigh gradewas tested at
10% moisturecontent,its bending strength was reduced
Decay
compared with that ofmatched dry untreatedlumber.
Unlike mold and stain fungi, wood-destroying (decay) fungi
Durationof load—Whensubjectedto impact loads, seriously reduce strength by metabolizing the cellulose
wood treated with chromated copperarsenate (CCA)does fraction ofwood that gives wood its strength.
not exhibitthe same increase in strengthas that exhibited
by untreatedwood. However, whenloadedover along Earlystages ofdecay are virtuallyimpossible to detect.For
period, treatedanduntreatedwood behavesimilarly. example, brown-rot fungimayreducemechanical properties
in excess of 10% beforea measurable weightloss is observed
Polymerization andbefore decay is visible.Whenweight loss reaches5% to
Wood is also sometimesimpregnatedwith monomers, such 10%, mechanical properties arereducedfrom 2O% to 80%.
as methyl methacrylate, which are subsequently polymerized. Decayhas the greatesteffect on toughness, impact bending,
Many ofthemechanicalpropertiesofthe resultantwood— and work tomaximumload in bending, the least effecton
plasticcompositeare higherthan those ofthe originalwood, shear and hardness, and an intermediate effecton etherprop-
generallyas a result offillingthe void spaces inthe wood erties. Thus,when strengthis important, adequate measures
structure with plastic. The polymerization process andboth shouldbe takento (a) preventdecay beforeit occurs,
thechemical nature andquantity ofmonomersinfluence (b) controlincipientdecay by remedialmeasures(Ch. 13), or
compositeproperties. (c)replaceany wood memberin whichdecayis evidentor
believed to existin a criticalsection. Decay can be prevented
from starting or progressing ifwood is kept dry (below20%
Nuclear Radiation moisture content).
Wood is occasionallysubjected to nuclear radiation. Exam-
Nomethodis knownfor estimatingthe amount ofreduction
plesare woodenstructures closely associatedwith nuclear in strength from the appearance ofdecayed wood. Therefore,
reactors, the polymerizationofwood with plasticusing
nuclearradiation,and nondestructive estimation ofwood whenstrength is an importantconsideration, the sLfeproce-
dure is to discardevery piece that contains evena small
density and moisturecontent. Verylarge doses ofgamma amount ofdecay.An exception may be piecesinwhichdecay
rays orneutronscan cause substantial degradation ofwood.
In general, irradiation with gammarays in doses UI) to about occurs in a knot but does not extend into the surrounding
1 megaradhas little effect on the strength properties ofwood. wood.
As dosageexceeds 1 megarad,tensilestrength parallelto
grain and toughnessdecrease. At a dosageof300 megarads, Insect Damage
tensilestrengthis reducedabout 90%. Gammarays also
affectcompressive strengthparallel to grainat a dosageabove Insect damage may occur in standingtrees, logs, and undried
1 megarad, but higherdosagehas agreatereffectontensile (unseasoned) ordried (seasoned) lumber. Althoughdamage
strengththan on compressivestrength; only approximately is difficultto controlin thestandingtree, insectdamage can
one-thirdofcompressivestrengthis lost whenthe total dose be eliminatedto agreat extentby propercontrolmethods.
is 300 megarads. Effectsofgammarays on bendingand shear Insectholesare generallyclassified as pinholes,giub holes,
andpowderpost holes.Becauseoftheirirregularburrows,
strengthare intermediate between the effects on tensile and
compressivestrength. powderpost larvae may destroymost ofa piece's interior
while only smallholes appearon the surface,andthe
strength ofthe piece may be reducedvirtually to zero. No
Mold and Stain Fungi methodis known for estimating the reductionin strength
Moldandstainfungidonot seriously affectmost mechanical from the appearance ofinsect-damaged wood.Whenstrength
properties ofwoodbecausesuch fungifeedon substances is an important consideration, the safeprocedureis to elimi-
withinthe cell cavityor attachedto the cell wall rather than nate pieces containing insectholes.
on the structural wall itself.The durationofinfection and the
species offungi involved are important factors in determining
theextentofdegradation.

4—43
References Green,D.W.; Shelley,B.E.; Vokey, H.P. (eds). 1989.
In-grade testingofstructural lumber. Proceedings 47363.
ASTM. [Current edition}. Standardmethods for testing Madison, WI: Forest ProductsSociety.
small clear specimensoftimber. ASTM D143-94.West
Hearmon, R.F.S. 1948. The elasticityofwood and ply-
Conshohocken, PA: American Society for Testing and wood. Special Rep. 7. London,England: Department of
Materials.
Scientific and Industrial Research, ForestProductsResearch.
Bendtsen, B.A. 1976.Rollingshear characteristics ofnine
structuralsoftwoods. Forest ProductsJournal. Hearmon, R.F.S. 1961. An introductionto applied aniso-
tropic elasticity. London, England: OxfordUniversityPress.
26(11): 51—56.
Bendtsen, B.A.; Freese, F.; Ethington,R.L. 1970. Meth- Kingston, R.S.T. 1962. Creep, relaxation,and failure of
wood.ResearchAppliedin Industry. 15(4).
ods for sampling clear, straight-grained woodfrom the forest.
Forest Products Journal. 20(11): 38—47. Kollmann, F.F.P.; Cote, W.A., Jr. 1968. Principlesof
woodscienceand technology. New York: SpringerVerlag.
Bodig, J.; Goodman, J.R. 1973. Predictionofelastic
parametersfor wood. WoodScience.5(4): 249—264. Koslik, C.J. 1967. Effect ofkiln conditions on the strength
ofDouglas-firand westernhemlock. Rep. D—9. Corvallis,
Bodig, J.; Jayne, BA. 1982. Mechanics of wood and wood OR: OregonState University, SchoolofForestry,Forestry
composites. New York: Van NostrandReinhold Company. Research Laboratory.
Boiler, K.H. 1954. Wood at low temperatures. Modem Little, E.L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States trees
Packaging.28(1): 153—157. (nativeand naturalized). Agric. Handb. 541. Washington,
Chudnoff, M. 1987. Tropicaltimbers of the world. Agric. DC: U.S. Department ofAgriculture.
Handb. 607. WashingtonDC: U.S. Department of
Kretschmann, D.E.; Bendtsen, B.A. 1992. Ultimate
Agriculture. tensile stress and modulusofelasticityoffast-grown planta-
Coffey, D.J. 1962. Effects ofknots and holes on the fatigue tionloblollypine lumber. Woodand Fiber Science. 24(2):
strengthofquarter-scale timberbridgestringers. Madison, 189—203.
WI: UniversityofWisconsin,DepartmentofCivil
Kretschmann, D.E.; Green, D.W. 1996. Modelingmois-
Engineering.M.S. Thesis. ture content—mechanicalproperty relationships for clear
Gerhards,C.C. 1968. Effectsoftype oftesting equipment Southern Pine. Wood and Fiber Science.28(3): 320—337.
and specimen size on toughnessofwood. Res. Pap. FPL—
RP—97. Madison, WI: U.S. Department ofAgriculture,
Kretschmann, D.E.; Green, D.W.; Malinauskas, V.
1991. Effect ofmoisture content on stress intensity factors in
Forest Service,Forest Products Laboratory. SouthernPine. In: Proceedings, 1991 international timber
Gerhards,C.C. 1977. Effect ofduration and rate ofloading engineering conference; 1991 September 2—5; London.
on strengthofwood and wood based materials.Res. Pap. London: TRADA: 3.391—3.398. Vol. 3.
FPL—RP—283. Madison, WI: U.S. Department ofAgricul-
LeVan, S.L.; Winandy, J.E. 1990. Effects offire-retardant
ture, Forest Service,Forest ProductsLaboratory. treatments on wood strength: a review. Wood and Fiber
Gerhards,C.C. 1979. Effectofhigh-temperature drying on Science.22(1): 113—13 1.
tensile strengthofDouglas-fir2 by 4's. Forest Products
Journal. 29(3): 39—46. MacLean, J.D. 1953. Effectofsteamingon the strength or
wood.AmericanWood-Preservers' Association. 49: 88—112.
Gerhards,C.C. 1982. Effectofmoisturecontentand tem- MacLean, J.D. 1954. Effectofheatingin water on the
perature on themechanicalpropertiesofwood: an analysis of
immediateeffects. WoodandFiber. 14(1): 4—36. strengthpropertiesofwood.AmericanWood-Preservers'
Association.50: 253—281.
Green,D.W.; Evans,J.W. 1994. Effectofambienttem- Mallory, M.P.; Cramer S. 1987. Fracture mechanics: a tool
peratureson the flexural propertiesoflumber. In: PTEC94 forpredicting ood component strength. Forest Products
Timbershapingthe future: Proceedings, Pacifictimberengi- Journal. 37(7/8): 39—47.
neeringconference; 1994 July 11—15; GoldCoast,Australia.
FortitudeValley MAC, Queensland,Australia: Timber Mark, R.E.; Adams, S.F.; Tang, R.C. 1970. Moduli of
ResearchDevelopment andAdvisoryCouncil: 190—197. rigidity of Virginiapine and tulip poplar relatedto moisture
Vol. 2. content. WoodScience.2(4): 203—211.
Green, D.W.; Rosales, A. 1996. Propertyrelationships for McDonald,K.A.; Bendtsen, B.A. 1986. Measuringlocal-
tropical hardwoods. In: Proceedings, international wood ized slopeofgrain by electrical capacitance. Forest Products
engineering conference; 1996October21—3 1; New Orleans, Journal. 36(10): 75—78.
LA. Madison, WI: Forest Products Society: 3-516—3-521.

4—44
McDonald, K.A.; Hennon,P.E.; Stevens, J.H,.; Wilcox,W.W. 1978. Reviewofliterature on the effects of
Green, D.W. 1997. Mechanicalpropertiesofsalvaged earlystagesofdecay onwood strength. Woodand Fiber.
yellow-cedar in southeasternAlaska—Phase I. Res. Pap. 9(4): 252—257.
FPL—RP---565.Madison,WI: U.S. Department ofAgricul-
ture, Forest Service,Forest ProductsLaboratory. Wilson, T.R.C. 1921. The effectof spiral grain onthe
strength ofwood. Journal ofForestry. 19(7): 740—747.
Millett, M.A.; Gerhards,C.C. 1972. Acceleratedaging:
residualweightand flexuralpropertiesofwood heatedin air Wilson, T.R.C. 1932. Strength-moisture relationsfor wood.
Tech. Bull. 282. Washington,DC: U.S. Department of
at 115°C to 175°C. Wood Science. 4(4): 193—201.
Agriculture.
Nicholas,D.D. 1973. Wood deterioration and its prevention
by preservativetreatments. Vol. I. Degradation and protec- Winandy, J.E. 1995a. Effects ofwaterborne preservative
tionofWood. Syracuse,NY: SyracuseUniversityPress. treatment on mechanical properties: A review.In: Proceed-
ings,91st annualmeetingofAmerican WoodPreservers'
Pillow, M.Y. 1949. Studiesofcompressionfailures and their Association; 1995, May 21—24; New York, NY. Wood-
detection in ladder rails. Rep. D 1733. Madison, WI: U.S. stock,MD: American WoodPreservers'Association.
Department ofAgriculture,Forest Service,Forest Products 91: 17—33.
Laboratory.
Winandy, J.E. I995b. The Influenceoftime-to-failure on
Sliker, A.; Yu, Y. 1993. Elastic constants for hardwoods thestrength ofCCA-treated lumber. Forest Products Journal.
measuredfrom plate and tensiontests. Woodand Fiber 45(2): 82—85.
Science.25(1): 8—22.
Winandy, J.E. 1995c. Effectsofmoisturecontent on
Sliker, A.; Yu, Y.; Weigel, T.; Zhang,W. 1994. Ortho- strengthofCCA-treated lumber. Woodand Fiber Science.
tropic elasticconstantsfor easternhardwood species. Wood 27(2): 168—177.
and Fiber Science.26(1): 107—121.
Winandy, J.E. 1994. Effectsoflong-term elevatedtempera-
Soltis, L.A.; WinandyJ.E. 1989. Long-termstrength of ture on CCA-treated SouthernPine lumber. Forest Products
CCA-treatedlumber. Forest Products Journal. 39(5): 64—68. Journal. 44(6): 49—55.
Timell, T.E. 1986. Compressionwood in gymncsperms. Winandy, J.E.; Morrell, J.J. 1993. Relationshipbetween
Vol. I—Ill. Berlin: Springer—Verlag.
incipientdecay,strength, and chemical composition of
U. S. DepartmentofDefense. 1951. Design ofwood air- Douglas-firheartwood. WoodandFiber Science.
craft structures. ANC—l8 Bull. Subcommittee on Air Force— 25(3):278—288.
Navy CivilAircraft,Design CriteriaAircraftCommission. Woodfin, R.O.; Estep, E.M. (eds). 1978. In: The dead
2d ed. MunitionsBoard AircraftCommittee. timberresource. Proceedings, 1978May 22—24, Spokane,
Wangaard,F.F. 1966. Resistanceofwood to chemical WA. Pullman, WA: EngineeringExtensionService,
degradation.Forest Products Journal. 16(2): 53—64. Washington State University.

4—45
I Chapter 5
Commercial Lumber
Kent A. McDonald and David W. Green

n a broadsense, commercial lumberis any lumber


Contents that is bought or sold in the normalchannelsof
HardwoodLumber 5—1 commerce. Commercial lumbermay be found in a
variety offorms,species,and types,and in various commer-
Factory Lumber 5—2 cial establishments, both wholesaleand retail. Most com-
Dimensionand ComponentParts 5—2 merciallumberis gradedby standardized rules that make
purchasingmore or less uniformthroughout the country.
FinishedMarketProducts 5—6
When sawn, a logyields lumberofvarying quaLity.To
Lumber Species 5—7 enableusers to buy the quality that best suits their purposes,
SoftwoodLumber 5—7 lumberis gradedintouse categories, each havingan appro-
LumberGrades 5—7 priate range in quality.
LumberManufacture 5—10 Generally, the grade ofa pieceoflumberis basedonthe
number, character, and location offeaturesthat may lowerthe
SoftwoodLumberSpecies 5—12 strength, durability, orutility valueofthe lumber. Among
SoftwoodLumberGrading 5—12 themore common visual featuresare knots, checks,pitch
pockets, shake, and stain, some ofwhichare a naturalpart of
Purchase ofLumber 5—12 thetree. Somegrades arefree orpractically free fromthese
features. Other grades, whichconstitute the greatbulk of
Retail Yard Inventory 5—16
lumber, containfairlynumerous knotsand other features.
ImportantPurchaseConsiderations 5—17 With proper grading,lumbercontaining these featuresis
entirelysatisfactory formanyuses.
CommonlyUsed LumberAbbreviations 5—18
Reference 5—20 The gradingoperationformost lumbertakes place at the
sawmill. Establishment ofgradingprocedures is largelythe
responsibility ofmanufacturers' associations. Beause ofthe
wide varietyofwoodspecies,industrial practices,and cus-
tomer needs, differentlumbergradingpracticescoexist. The
gradingpractices ofmost interestare considered in the sec-
tions that follow,underthe major categories ofhardwood
lumberand softwood lumber.

Hardwood Lumber
The principaluse ofhardwoodlumberis forremanufacture
into furniture,cabinetwork, andpallets, or directuse as
flooring, paneling, moulding,and miliwork.Hardwood
lumberis gradedandmarketedin three main categories:
Factorylumber, dimension parts, and fmishedniarketprod-
ucts. Several hardwood species are gradedunderthe Ameri-
canSoftwood LumberStandardand sold as structural lumber
(Ch. 6). Also, speciallygradedhardwoodlumbercan be used
forstructural glued-laminated lumber.

5—1
Prior to 1898, hardwoodswere gradedby individual mills is subject to contractagreement. Abbreviations commonly
for local markets. In 1898, manufacturers and users formed used in contracts and other documents forthe purchaseand
theNationalHardwoodLumberAssociation to standardize sale oflumberare listedatthe end ofthis chapter.
grading for hardwoodlumber. Between 1898and 1932, Hardwoodlumberis usually manufacturedto randomwidth.
gradingwasbased onthe number and size ofvisualfeatures. The hardwoodlumbergradesdo not specify standardwidths;
In 1932, the basis for gradingwas changed to standard clear-
cutting sizes. however, the grades do specify minimumwidthforeach
grade as follows:
Both Factory lumberand dimensionparts are intended to
servethe industrialcustomer. The important difference is that Minimum width
forFactorylumber, the gradesreflectthe proportion ofapiece Grade (mm(in.))
that can be cut into useful smallerpieces,whereas the grades
FAS 150 (6)
fordimensionparts are based on use ofthe entirepiece.
Finishedmarket productsare graded fortheir unique end-use F1F 150 (6)
with little orno remanufacture. Examples offmished prod- Selects 100 (4)
ucts include moulding, stair treads, and hardwoodflooring. No. 1, 2A, 2B, 3A, 3B Common 80 (3)

Factory Lumber Ifthewidthis specifiedby purchaseagreement, SiE or S2E


Grades lumber is 10 mm (3/8 in.) scant ofnominal size in lumber
Therulesadopted by theNationalHardwoodLumberAsso- less than 200 mm (8 in.) wide and 13 mm (1/2 in.) scant in
ciation are considered standardin gradinghardwoodlumber lumber 200 mm in.) wide.
intendedfor cutting into smallerpiecesto make furniture or
other fabricatedproducts.In these rules,the grade ofapiece Dimension and Component Parts
ofhardwoodlumber is determined by theproportionofa The term "dimensionparts" for hardwoodssignifies stock
piece that can be cut into a certainnumberofsmallerpieces that is processedin specificthickness,width, and length,or
ofmaterial,commonlycalled cuttings, which are generally
clearon one side, havethe reverseface sound, and arenot multiples thereofand ranges from semi-machined to com-
smallerthan a specifiedsize. pletelymachinedcomponentproducts. This stock is some-
timesreferredto as "hardwooddimension stock"or
The best grade in the Factory lumbercategoryis termed "hardwoodlumberfor dimension parts." This stock should
FAS. The second grade is F1F. The third grade is Selects, not be confusedwith "dimensionlumber," a term used in
which is followedby No. 1 Common, No. 2A Common, thestructural lumbermarketto meanlumber standard
No. 2B Common,Sound Wormy, No. 3A Common,and 38 mm to less than 114 mm thick (nominal2 in. to less
No. 3B Common. Except for FiF and Selects, the poorer than 5 in. thick).
sideofa piece is inspectedforgrade assignment. Standard
hardwoodlumbergradesare describedin Table 5—1. This Dimensioncomponent parts are normallykilndried and
table illustrates, for example,that FAS includespiecesthat generallygradedundertherules ofthe WoodComponents
will allow at least 83-1/3% oftheirsurface measure to be cut Manufacturers Association (WCMA). These rules encompass
into clear face material.Except for SoundWormy, the mini- three classes ofmaterial, each ofwhichis classifiedinto
mum acceptable length,width,surface measure, and percent- variousgrades:
age ofpiece that must work into acutting decreasewith
decreasing grade.Figure5—1 is anexampleofgrading for Hardwood Solid kiln- Solid kiln-dried
cuttings. dimension parts dried squares squares
This briefsummaryofgrades for Factorylumbershouldnot (flat stock) (rough) (surfaced)
beregardedas a complete set ofgradingrules becausemany Clear two faces Clear Clear
details, exceptions, and specialrules for certainspecies are Clearone face Select Select
not included. The complete official rules ofthe National Paint Sound Paint
HardwoodLumberAssociation (NHLA)shouldbe followed Core Second
as theonly fulldescriptionofexistinggrades(see Table5—2 Sound
foraddressesofNHLA and other U.S. hardwoodgrading
associations). Table 5—3 lists names ofcommercial domestic
hardwoodspecies that are gradedby NHLArules. Eachclassmaybe further definedas semifabricated (roughor
surfaced) orcompletely fabricated, including edge-glued
Standard Dimensions panels. The rough wood component parts are blank-sawn
Standard lengthsofhardwoodlumberare in 300-mm (1-ft) and rippedto size. Surfaced semifabricated parts havebeen
increments from 1.2 to 4.8 m (4 to 16 ft). Standardthickness throughone ormore manufacturingstages. Completely
valuesforhardwoodlumber, rough and surfaced on two sides fabricated parts havebeencompletely processed fortheir
(S2S), are given in Table 5—4. The thicknessof SiS lumber end use.

5—2
Table 5—i. Standardhardwood lumbergrades
Minimum
Allowable amount of
surface piece in
Allowable measure clearface Allowable cuttings
width of pieces cuttings Maximum
Grade and allowable lengths (in.) (ft2) (%) no. Minimum size
4to9 I 41n.by5ft,or
FASC 6+ 10 to 14 83-1/3 2 3 in. by 7 ft
15+ 3

4to7 83-1/3 1
6and7 91-2/3 2
8toll 83-1/3 2
4 in. by 5 ft, or
F1FC 6+ 8 to 11 91-2/3
12to15 83-1/2 3 3tn.by7ft
12to15 91-2/3 4
16+ 83-1/3 4

Selects 2 and 3 91-2/3 .


6tol6ft(willadniit30%of6tollIt) 4+ 4+ 1 by5ft,or
3 in. by 7 ft

1 100 0
2 75 1
3 and4 66-2/3 1
No. I Common 3 and 4 75 2
in. by2ft, or
4to l6ft(willadmit 10%of4to7ft, 3+ 5to7 66-2/3 2
1/2ofwhichmaybe4and5ft) 5to7 75 3 3in.by3ft
8tolO 66-2/3 3
lltol3 66-2/3 4
14+ 66-2/3 5

1 66-2/3 1
2and3 50 1
2 and 3 66-2/3 2
4and5 50 2
No. 2 Common 4 and 5 66-2/3 3
4to l6ft(willadmit30%of4to7ft, 3+ 6and7 50 3 3m. by2ft
1/3 of which may be 4 and 5 It) 6 and 7 66-2/3 4
8and9 50 4
lOandlI 50 5
l2andl3 50 6
14+ 50 7

Sound Wormye
No. 3A Common
4to 16 ft(will admit 50% of4 to 7ft, 3+ 1+ 33l/3 3 in. by2 ft
1/2 of which may be 4 and Sit)

Sound Wormye
No. 3B Common
4 to 16 ft (will admit 50% of4 to 7 It, 3÷ 1+ 25h — 1-1/2 in. by 2 ft
1/2 ofwhich may be 4 and 5 It)

acurrent grading rules are written only in the inch—pound system of measurement.
binspection made on poorer side of piece, except in Selectsgrade.
CFAS is a grade that designatesFirsts and Seconds. F1F is a grade that designates FAS one face.
I
dSame as Fl F, with reverse side of board not below No. Common or reverse side of sound cuttings.
eSame requirementsas those for No. I Common and better except that wormholesand limited sound knots
and other imperfectionsare allowed in cuttings.
Also admits pieces that grade not below No. 2 Common on the good face and reverse side of sound cuttings.
9Unlimited.
hcuttings must be Sound; clear face not required.

5—3
I—
CuttingNo. 1 —3-1/2 in. by 4-1/2ft = 15-3/4 units

Cuthng No. 2—8-1/2 in. by 4-1/2 It 38-1/4 units

12ft.
t'
Cutting No. 3—4-1/2 in. by 4-1/2ft = 20-1/4 units ---—----._—f
CuttingNo. 4—6in. by 5-2/3 ft = 34 units

1. DetermineSurfaceMeasure(S.M.)using lumber 5. Determine clear-facecuttingunits needed.


scale stick or from formula: For No. 1 Common grade S.M. x8 = 12x8
Width in inchesx length in feet 12 in. 2ft xl 96 units
12 12 6. Determine total area of permitted clear-face
12ft2S.M. cutting in units.
2. No. 1 Common is assumed grade of board. Width in inches and fractionsof inches
Percentof clear-cutting area required for x length in feetand fractionsof feet
No.1 Common—66213%or 8/12. Cutting #1—3½in. x 41/21t= l5¾units
3. Determine maximumnumberof cuttings Cutting#2—81/2 Ifl.X 41,2 ft =38 UflitS
Cutting#3_41/2in. x 41,2 ft = 20',d units
Cutting#4—61n. x 53ft=34__units
permitted.
For No. 1 Common grade (S.M. + 1) .3 Total Units 108
(12 + 1) = 13
3
— .
4 cuttings. Unitsrequiredfor No. 1 Common—96.
3
4. DetermIne minimumsizeof cuttings. 7. Conclusion: Board meets requirementsfor
For No. 1 Commongrade 4 in. x2 ft or 3 in.x3 ft. No. 1 Common grade.

I
Figure 5—1. Example of hardwood gradingforcuttingsusingNo. Common lumbergrade. Current grading
rules are written only in the inch—pound systemofmeasurement.

Table 5—2. Hardwood gradingassociations in UnitedState?

Name and address Species covered by grading rules (products)

National HardwoodLumberAssociation All hardwood species (furniturecuttings, constructionlumber,


P.O. Box 34518 siding, panels)
Memphis,TN 38184—0518
Wood Components ManufacturersAssociation All hardwood species(hardwood furnituredimension, squares,
1000 Johnson Ferry Rd., SuiteA-130 laminated stock, interior trim, stair treads and risers)
Marietta, GA 30068

Maple Flooring ManufacturersAssociation Maple, beech, birch (flooring)


60 Revere Dr., Suite 500
Northbrook, IL 60062
National Oak Flooring Manufacturers Association Oak, ash, pecan, hickory, pecan, beech, birch, hard maple
P.O. Box 3009 (flooring,including prefinished)
Memphis,TN 38173—0009
www.nofma.org

aorading associationsthat include hardwood species in structuralgrades are listed in Table 5—5.

5-4
Table 5—3. Nomenclature of commercial hardwood lumber
Commercial Commercial
namefor namefor
lumber Common tree name Botanicalname lumber Common tree name Botanicalname

Alder, Red Redalder Alnusrubra Maple,Oregon Bigleafmaple Acer macrophyllum


Ash, Black Black ash Fraxinus nigra Maple,Soft Red maple Acer nibrum
Ash,Oregon Oregon ash Fraxinus Jatifolia Silver maple Acer sacchannurn
Fraxinus quadrangulafa Oak, Red Black oak Quercus ye/ut/na
Ash, White Blue ash
Green ash Fraxinus pennsyivanica Blackjackoak Quercus marl/andica
Whiteash Fraxinus americana Califomia blackoak Quercus kelloggi
Aspen (popple) Bigtoothaspen Populusgrandklèntata Cherrybark oak Querousfalcaf&var.
pagodaefolia
Popu/us tremuloides Laurel oak Quercus laurifo'ia
Quakingaspen
Basswood American basswood Ti/ia americana Northern pin oak Quemus el/ipsoida/is
Whitebasswood Ti/iaheterophylla Northern red oak Quercusrubra
Beech American beech Fagusgrandifolia Nuttall oak Quercus nuttalli
Birch Graybirch Betula popu/ifolia Pinoak Quercuspalustris
Scarlet oak Quercuscoccinea
Paper birch Betula papyrifera
Riverbirch Betula n/gm Shumard oak Queivus shumadii
Sweet birch Betulalenta Southern red oak Queicus falcata
Yellow birch Beta/aalleghanier?sis Turkeyoak Quemus laevis
Box Elder Boxelder Acernegur,do Willowoak Quercusphellos
Ohiobuckeye Aesculus glabra Oak, White Arizona whiteoak Quercus arizonka
Buckeye
Yellow buckeye Aesculus octandra Blueoak QUe1tJSdoug!aü
Butternut Butternut ,Juglanscinema Bur oak Quercus macmcaipa
Black cherry Prunus semtina Valley oak Querous !obata
Cherry
Chestnut American chestnut Castaneadentafa Chestnutoak Quercusprinus
Cottonwood Balsam poplar Populus balsamifera Chinkapinoak Quercusmuehlenbergii
Easterncottonwood Populusdeltoides Emory oak Queivus emotyi
Black cottonwood Populus trichocaipa Gambel oak Quercus gambeil
Cucumber Cucumbertree Magnolia acum/nata Mexicanblue oak Quercusoblongifo/ia
Flowering dogwood Comus florida Liveoak Quercus virginians
Dogwood
Pacific dogwood Comus nut/al/il Oregon whiteoak Quercusgariyana
Elm, Rock Cedar elm U!mus crassifolia Overcup oak Quemus lyrata
Rockelm U/mus thomas/i Postoak Querous ste/late
September elm Ulmus serotina Swamp chestnutoak Quercus michauxä
Winged elm Ulmus alata Swamp whiteoak Quercus bicoior
Ulmus americana Whiteoak Quercusa/ba
Elm, Soft American elm
Ulrnus rubra California-laurel Urnbellularia califcmica
Slippery elm Oregon Myrtle
Gum Sweetgum Liquidambar syracfflua Osage Orange Osage-orange Maclura pomifera
Hackberry Hackberry Ce/f/soccidentalis Pecan Bitternut hickory Cwya cordiformis
Sugarberry Ce/f/slaevigata Nutmeg hickory Can/amyristiciformis
Hickory Mockernut hickory Carya tomentosa Waterhickory Can/a aquatica
Pignut hickory Car'a glabra Pecan Can/a illlnoensis
Shagbark hickory Car/aovata Persimmon Common persimmon Diospyros virgin/era
Sheilbark hickory Can/a Iacinosa Poplar Yellow-poplar Liriodendron tu/ipifera
American holly hexopaca Sassafras Sassafras Sassafras albidum
Holly
lronwood Eastern hophombeam Ostrya virginiana Sycamore Sycamore Platanus occidentaifS
Locust Blacklocust Robiniapseudoacacia Tanoak Tanoak Lithocarpusdensiflorus
Honeylocust Gleditsia triacanthos Tupelo Black tupelo, blackgum Nyssasylvatica
Madrone Pacific madrone Arbutus menziesii Ogeectieetupelo Nyssa ogethe
Magnolia Southern magnolia Magnolia grand/flora Water tupelo Nyssa aquafica
Sweetbay Magnolia virginiana Walnut Black walnut Juglans nigra
Maple, Hard Blackmaple Acer nigrum Willow Blackwillow Salixn/gre
Acer saccharum Peachleaf willow Sa/ixamygdaloides
Sugar maple

5—5
Table 5—4. Standard thickness values • Secondgrade—tight, soundknots (except on edges or
for roughand surfaced (S2S) hard- ends)and other slight imperfections allowed;must be
woodlumber possibleto lay flooringwithoutwaste
Rough Surfaced • Third grade—may contain all visual featurescommonto
(mm (in.)) (mm (in.))
hard maple, beech, and birch; willnot admit voids on
9.5 (3/8) 4.8 (3/16) edgesor ends, or holes over 9.5-mm (3/8-in.)in
12.7 (1/2) 7.9 (5/16) diameter;must permitproperlaying offloor andprovide a
serviceable floor; few restrictions on imperfections; must
15.9 (5/8) 9.4 (7/16) be possibleto lay flooringproperly
19.0 (3/4) 14.3 (9/16)
25.4 (1) 20.6 (13/16) • Fourth grade—may containall visual features,butmust
31.8 (1-1/4) 27.0 (1-1/16) be possibleto laya serviceablefloor, with some cutting
38.1 (1-1/2) 33.3 (1-5/16) Combination grades of"Secondand Better" and "Third and
44.4 (1-3/4) 38.1 (1-1/2) Better" are sometimes specified. There are also specialgrades
50.8 (2) 44.4 (1-3/4) based on color and species.
63.5 (2-1/2) 57.2 (2-1/4)
The standardthicknessofMFMA hard maple, beech, and
76.2 (3) 69.8 (2-3/4) birch flooringis 19.8 mm (25/32 in.). Face widths are 3S,
88.9 (3-1/2) 82.8 (3-1/4) 51, 57, and 83 mm (1-1/2, 2, 2-1/4, and 3-1/4 in.). Standard
101.6 (4) 95.2 (3-3/4) lengths are 610 mm (2 ft) and longer in First- and Second-
114.3 (4-1/2) grade flooringand 381 mm(1-1/4ft) and longer in Third-
a
127.0 (5) grade flooring.
139.7 (5-1/2) The Official FlooringGradingRules ofNOFMAcoveroak
152.4 (6) (unfinished and prefmished), beech,birch, hard maple, ash,
8Finished size not specified in rules.
and hickory/pecan. Flooringgrades are determinedby the
Thickness subject to special contract. appearanceofthe face surface.
Oakis separated as red oak and white oak andby grain
direction:plainsawn (all cuts),quartersawn(50%quartered
Finished Market Products character), rift sawn(75%riftcharacter), and quarter/rift sawn
(acombination). Oak flooring has four maingrade separa-
Some hardwoodlumberproductsare gradedinrelatively tions—Clear,Select, No. 1 Common,and No. 2 Common.
fmishedform, with little orno furtherprocessing anticipated. Clearis mostlyheartwoodand acceptsa 10-mm (3/8-in.)
Flooringis probablythe finishedmarket productwith the strip ofbright sapwoodor an equivalent amountnot more
highest volume.Other examplesare lath, siding, ties, than 25 mm (1 in.) wide along the edge and a minimum
planks, carstock, constructionboards,timbers,trim, mould- numberofcharacter marksand discoloration, allowingfor all
ing,stair treads, and risers. Gradingrules promulgated for naturalheartwoodcolor variations.Selectallows all color
flooringanticipate final consumeruse andare summarized in variations ofnaturalheartwoodand sapwoodalongwith
this section. Detailson gradesofother finishedproductsare characters such as smallknots, pinwormholes, and brown
found in appropriate association gradingrules. streaks. No. 1 Commoncontainsprominentvariationsin
Hardwoodflooring generallyis gradedunderthe rules ofthe coloration,which include heavy streaks,sticker stains, open
checks,knots, and small knot holes that fill. No. 2 Common
MapleFlooringManufacturers Association (MFMA)orthe contains soundnaturalvariationofthe forestproduct and
NationalOak FlooringManufacturers Association manufacturing imperfections to provideaserviceablefloor.
(NOFMA). Tongued-and-grooved, end-matched hardwood
flooring is commonlyfurnished. Square-edge, square-end- Average lengths for unfinished oakgradesare as follows:
strip flooringis also availableas well as parquetflooring
suitable for laying with mastic.
Grade Standard packaging Shorter packaging
The gradingrules oftheMaple FlooringManufacturers
Clear 1.14m (3-3/4ft) 1.07m (3-1/2ft)
Association cover flooring that is manufactured from hard
maple, beech, and birch. Each species is gradedinto four Select 0.99 m (3-114ft) 0.91m (3 ft)
categories: No. 1 Common 0.84m (2-3/4 ft) 0.76m (2-11/2 ft)
• First grade—one face practically free ofall imperfections; No.2Common 0.69m (2-1/4 It) 0.61 m (2 ft)
variations innatural color ofwood allowed

5—6
Standardpackagingreferstonominal2.4-rn (8-fl)pallets or To minimize unnecessary differences inthe gradingrules of
nestedbundles.Shorterpackagingrefersto nominal 2.13-rn softwood lumberand to improveand simplifythese rules, a
(7-fl)and shorterpalletsornestedbundles. number ofconferences were organized bythe U.S. Depart-
ment ofCommerce from 1919to 1925. These meetingswere
Standardand specialNOFMAgradesfor species otherthan attended by representatives oflumber manufacturers, distribu-
oak are as follows: tors, wholesalers, retailers, engineers, architects, and contrac-
tors. The result was arelativestandardization ofsize3,
definitions, andprocedures for deriving allowable design
Grade
properties, formulated as avoluntaryAmerican Lumber
Species
Standard grades Standard. This standard has been modifiedseveraltimes,
Beech, birch, First,Second, Third, Second &Better,Third including addition ofhardwoodspecies tothe standard
and hard maple & Better beginning in 1970. The currentedition is the American
Softwood LumberStandardPS—20. LumbercannotiDe
Hickory and pecan First,Second, Third, Second &Better,Third
& Better graded as American Standardlumberunless the grade rules
havebeen approved by the American LumberStandard
Ash Clear,Select,No. I Common, Committee (ALSC), Inc., Board ofReview.
No. 2 Common
Softwood lumber is classified formarketuse by form of
Special grades manufacture, species,and grade.For many products, the
Beech and birch First GradeRed American Softwood LumberStandardandthe gradingrules
certified throughitserveas a basic reference. For specific
Hard maple First GradeWhite
information on other products, referencemust be madeto
Hickoryand pecan First GradeWhite,First GradeRed,Second grade rules, industry marketingaids, and tradejournals.
Grade Red
Lumber Grades
Standardthicknessvaluesfor NOFMAtongueandgroove Softwoodlumbergradescanbe classified into threemajor
flooring are 19, 12, 9.5 (3/4, 1/2, 3/8 in.), with 19.8, and categories ofuse: (a) yard lumber, (b) structural lumber, and
26.2 mm (25/32 and 33/32 in.) formaple flooring. Standard (c)Factory and Shop lumber. Yard lumberand structural
face widths are 38, 51, 57, and 83 mm (1-1/2,2, 2-1/4, and lumberrelate principally to lumberexpectedto function as
3-1/4 in.). Strips are random length from minimum 0.23 m gradedand sized afterprimaryprocessing (sawingandplan-
to maximum2.59m (9 to 102 in.). ing). Factoryand Shop referto lumberthat willundergo a
numberoffurther manufacturing stepsandreachthe consumer
Lumber Species in a significantly different form.
The names usedby the trade to describecommercial lumber Yard Lumber
in theUnitedStates arenot alwaysthesame as thenamesof The gradingrequirements ofyard lumberare specifically
treesadoptedas officialby the USDAForest Service. relatedto the constructionuses intended,and little orno
Table 5—3 shows the commontrade name, the USDAForest furthergrading occurs once the piece leavesthe sawmill.
Servicetree name, andthe botanicalname. UnitedStates Yard lumber can be placedinto two basic classifications,
agenciesand associations that preparerulesfor andsupervise Select and Common. Select and Commonlumber. as
grading ofhardwoodsare given in Table5—2. categorizedhere, encompass those lumberproductsin which
appearance is ofprimaryimportance; structural intogrity,
Softwood Lumber while sometimes important, is a secondary feature,
Formanyyears,softwoodlumberhasdemonstrated the Select Lumber—Selectlumberis generallynon-sress-
versatility ofwood by servingas aprimaryrawmaterial for graded,but it forms aseparate categorybecauseofthe dis-
construction andmanufacture. In this role, softwoodlumber tinct importance ofappearance in the gradingprocss. Select
has beenproducedina wide varietyofproductsfrom many lumberis intended fornatural and paintfinishes.This cate-
different species. The firstindustry-sponsored gradingrules gory oflumberincludeslumberthat has been machinedto a
(product descriptions) for sofiwoods, whichwere established patternand S4S lumber. Secondary manufacture ofthese
before 1900, were comparatively simplebecausesawmills itemsis usually restrictedto on-site fittingsuch as cutting to
marketedtheirlumberlocallyand gradeshad only local length and mitering.The Selectcategoryinclude trim,
significance. As new timbersources were developed and siding, flooring, ceiling,paneling, casing, base, stepping,
lumberwas transportedto distantpoints, each producing andfinishboards.
region continuedto establishits own gradingrules; thus,
lumberfrom variousregionsdifferedin size,grade name, and Most Selectlumbergrades are generallydescribedby letters
allowable grade characteristics. Whendifferentspecies were and combinations ofletters (B&BTR, C&BTR,ID) or
graded underdifferentrules and competed in the same con- names (Superior, Prime) depending uponthe species and the
suming areas, confusion and dissatisfaction were inevitable. gradingrules under whichthe lumberis graded.(See list of

5—7
commonly usedlumberabbreviations at the end ofthis
chapter.) The specifications FG (flat grain),VG (vertical
grain), and MG (mixedgrain) are offeredas a purchase option
for some Selectlumberproducts.
In cedarand redwood, there is a pronounced difference in
colorbetweenheartwoodand sapwood. Heartwood alsohas No.1
high natural resistanceto decay, so some grades are denoted
as "heart."Because Selectlumbergrades emphasize the
qualityofone face, the reverse sidemay be lowerinquality.
Selectlumbergradesare not uniformacrossspecies and
products,so certifiedgrade rules for the species must be used
fordetailed reference.
Common Lumber—Commonlumber isnormallya non- No.2
stress-graded product.The gradesofCommon lumberare
suitable for constructionand utility purposes.Common
lumber is generallyseparated intothreeto five different
grades dependinguponthe species and gradingrules
involved. Gradesmay be describedby number(No. I,
No. 2, No. I Common,No. 2 Common)or descriptive
term (Select Merchantable, Construction, Standard).
Because there are differences in the inherent properties of No.3
various species andtheircorresponding names, the grades
fordifferentspecies arenot alwaysinterchangeable. The top-
grade boards (No. I, No. 1 Common, SelectMerchantable)
are usually gradedfor serviceability, but appearance is also
considered. Thesegradesareusedfor such purposesas
siding, cornice, shelving,and paneling. Features such as
knots and knotholesare permittedto be larger and more
frequentas the gradelevel becomes lower. Intermediate-grade No.4 0
boardsare often used for suchpurposesas subfloors, roofand
wall sheathing,and rough concretework. The lowergrade Figure 5—2. Typical examplesofsoftwoodboards
in the lowergrades.
boardsare selectedforadequatestrength, not appearance.
They are usedforroofandwall sheathing, subfloor, and
rough concretefonnwork (Fig.5—2). the thickness.Beamsand stringersare primarilyused to
resist bendingstresses, and the grade descriptionfor the
Grading provisionsfor other non-stress-graded products
vary by species,product,and applicablegradingrules.For middlethird ofthe length ofthe beam is more stringentthan
detaileddescriptions, consult the appropriate grade rule that for the outer two-thirds. Posts and timbers are members
forthese products(see Table 5—5 for softwoodgrading standard 114 by 114 mm (nominal5 by 5 in.) and larger.
wherethe width is not more than 51 mm(2 in.) greater than
organizations). thethickness. Post andtimbers areprimarilyused to resist
StructuralLumber—Almostall softwoodlumberstandard axial stresses. Structural timbersofSouthern Pine are graded
38 to 89 mmthick(nominal2 to 4 in. thick, actual 1-1/2 to without regardto anticipateduse, as with dimensionlumber.
3-1/2 in. thick) is producedas dimensionlumber. Dimen- Other stress-graded products include deckingand some
sion lumberis stress gradedand assignedallowable proper- boards.Stress-graded lumbermay be gradedvisuallyor
ties under theNationalGradingRule, apart ofthe American mechanically. Stressgradesandthe NationalGrading Rule
Softwood LumberStandard. For dimensionlumber, a single are discussedin Chapter6.
setofgrade names and descriptionsis used throughoutthe
UnitedStates, althoughthe allowable properties vary with StructuralLaminations—Structurallaminatinggrades
describe the characteristics used to segregatelumberto be
species. Timbers (lumberstandard 114 mm (nominal5 in.)
ormore in least dimension)are alsostructurally gradedunder usedin structuralglued-laminated (glulam)timbers.
ALSCprocedures. Unlikegrade descriptions fordimension Generally, allowable properties are not assignedseparately to
lumber, grade descriptions for structural timbers are not laminating grades; rather,the rules for laminating grades are
standardized across species.For most species,timbergrades based on the expectedeffectofthat grade oflamination on the
are classifiedaccording to intendeduse. Beams and stringers combined glularntimber.
aremembers standard 114 mm (nominal5 in.) ormore in
thicknesswith a width more than 51 mm (2 in.) greaterthan

5—8
Table 5—5. Organizations promulgating softwoodgrades

Name and address Species covered by grading rules

Cedar Shingle& Shake Bureau Western redcedar (shinglesand shakes)


515 116thAvenue NE, Suite 275
Bellevue,WA 98004—5294
National HardwoodLumberAssociation Baldcypress, eastern redcedar
P.O. Box 34518
Memphis, TN 38184—0518
National Lumber GradesAuthority8 Northern white cedar, westernred cedar, yellow cedar, alpine fir,
406 First Capital Place amabilis fir, balsam fir, Douglas-fir, grand fir, eastern hemlock,
960 QuamsideDrive westernhemlock, westernlarch, easternwhite pine, jack pine,
New Westminister,BC, CanadaV3M6G2 lodgepolepine, ponderosa pine, red pine, westernwhite pine,
black spruce, sitka spruce,red spruce, Engelmann spruce,
white spruce, tamarack, aspen, black cottonwood,balsam
poplar, red alder, white birch
NortheasternLumber Manufacturers Association,Inc. Balsam fir, eastern white pine, red pine, eastern hemlock, black
272 Tuttle Road, P.O. Box 87A spruce,white spruce, red spruce, pitch pine, tamarack, jack
Cumberland Center, ME 04021 pine, northern white cedar, aspen, red maple, mixed maple,
beech, birch, hickory, mixed oaks, red oak, northern red oak,
white oak,yellow poplar
NorthernSoftwood LumberBureaua Eastern white pine, jack pine, red pine, pitch pine, eastern
272 Tuttle Road, P.O. Box 87A spruce (red, white, and black), balsam fir, eastern hemlock,
Cumberland Center, ME 04021 tamarack, eastern cottonwood, aspen (bigtoothand quaking),
yellow poplar
Redwood InspectionService Redwood
405 EnfrenteDrive, Suite 200
Novato, CA 94949
Southern Cypress ManufacturersAssociation Batdcypress
400 Penn Center Boulevard Suite 530
Pittsburgh,PA 15235
Southern Pine Inspection Bureaua Longleafpine, slash pine, shortleafpine, loblolly pine,
4709 Scenic Highway Virginia pine, pond pine, pitch pine
Pensacola, FL 32504
West Coast Lumber Inspection Bureaua Douglas-fir, western hemlock, western redcedar, incense-cedar,
Box 23145 Port-Orford-cedar, yellow-cedar, westerntrue firs, mountain
6980 SW. Varns Road hemlock, Sitka spruce,western larch
Portland, OR 97223
Western Wood Products Association8 Ponderosa pine, westernwhite pine, Douglas-fir, sugar pine,
Yeon Building, 522 SW Fifth Avenue western true firs, western larch, Engelmann spruce, incense-
Portland, OR 97204—2122 cedar, westernhemlock, lodgepolepine, western redcedar,
mountain hemlock,red alder, aspen, alpine fir, Idahowhite pine

apublishesgrading rules certified by the Board of Reviewof the AmericanLumberStandard Committee


as conformingto the American Softwood LumberStandard PS—20.

There are two kinds ofgradedmaterial: visuallygradedand membersand outer tensionlaminationson bendingmem-
E-rated. Visuallygradedmaterialis gradedaccording to one bers. The visualgrades have provisions for dense, close-
ofthree sets ofgrading rules: (1) thefirst set is basedon the grain, medium-grain, or coarsegrain lumber.
grading rules certifiedas meeting the requirements ofthe
American Softwood LumberStandardwith additionalre- TheE-ratedgrades are categorized by a combination ofvisual
quirements forlaminating;(2) the secondset involves lami- grading criteriaand lumberstiffness. Thesegraths are ex-
nating grades typicallyused forvisuallygradedwestern pressedin terms ofthe size ofmaximum edge characteristic
species and includesthree basic categories (LI, L2, L3); and permitted(as a fraction ofthewidth)along with a specified
(3) the thirdset includesspecialrequirements for tension long-span modulusofelasticity(for example,l'6—2.2E).

5—9
Factory and Shop Lumber woodsupplyhave led to different grade descriptions and
A wide variety ofspecies, grades, andsizes ofsoftwood terminology. For example,in West Coast species, the ladder
lumberis suppliedto industrial accountsfor cutting to industtycanchoose from one "ladderand pole stock"grade
specific smallersizes, whichbecome integralparts ofother plus two ladderrail grades and one ladder rail stock grade.In
SouthernPine, ladder stock is availableas Selectand Indus-
products. In the secondatymanufacturing process,grade trial. Moulding stock, tank stock, pole stock, stave stock,
descriptions, sizes, andoften the entireappearance ofthe
wood piece are changed. Thus, forFactory and Shop lumber, stadiumseat stock,box lumber, and pencil stock are other
therole ofthegradingprocessis to reflectas accurately as typicalclassesorientedto the final product.Some product
classeshaveonlyone grade level; a few offertwo or three
possiblethe yield to be obtainedin the subsequent cutting levels.Special features ofthese grades may includearestric-
operation. Typicaloflumberforsecondary manufacture are
thefactorygrades, industrialclears,box lumber, moulding tion on sapwoodrelatedto desired decay resistance, specific
stock,and ladderstock. The varietyofspecies availablefor requirements for slopeofgrain and growthring orientation
these purposeshas ledto a varietyofgrade namesand grade forhigh-stress use such as ladders, andparticularcutting
definitions. The followingsectionsbrieflyoutline someof requirements as inpencil stock. All referencesto these grades
themore common classifications. Fordetails,referencemust shouldbe madedirectlyto currentcertifiedgrading rules.
be made to industrysources,such as certified gradingrules.
Availability and grade designationoften vary by regionand Lumber Manufacture
species. Size
Factory(Shop) Grades—Traditionally,softwoodlumber Lumberlength is recordedin actual dimensions,whereas
usedfor cuttingshas been calledFactory or Shop. This width and thicknessare traditionallyrecorded in "nominal"
lumberforms the basicraw material formany secondary dimensions—actual dimensions are somewhatless.
manufacturing operations. Somegradingrules referto these
grades as Factory, while othersrefer to them as Shop. All Softwood lumberis manufactured in lengthmultiplesof
impose asomewhatsimilar nomenclature inthe grade struc- 300 mm (1 ft) as specifiedin variousgradingrules. In prac-
ture. Shop lumberis gradedon the basis ofcharacteristics tice, 600-mm(2-ft)multiples(in evennumbers)are common
that affect its use forgeneral cut-uppurposesoronthe basis for most construction lumber. Width ofsoftwoodlumber
ofsize ofcutting,such as for sashand doors.Factory Select varies,commonlyfrom standard38 to 387 mm(nominal
and Select Shop are typicalhigh grades, followedby No. I 2 to 16 in.). The thicknessoflumber can be generally
Shop, No. 2 Shop, and No. 3 Shop. categorized as follows:
Gradecharacteristics ofboardsare influenced by the width, • Boards—lumber lessthan standard 38 mm(nominal
length, andthicknessofthe basic piece and are based on the 2 in.) in thickness
amountofhigh-qualitymaterialthat can be removed by
cutting. Typically,Factory Selectand Select Shop lumber
• Dimension—lumber from standard38 mm (nominal2 in.)
would be requiredto contain70% ofcuttingsofspecified to, but not including, 114 mm (5 in.) in thickness
size,clear on both sides.No. I Shop would be required to • Timbers—lumber standard 114 mm (nominal5 in.) or
have 50% cuttings and No. 2 Shop,33-1/3%.Becauseof
morein thicknessin least dimension
differentcharacteristics assignedto grades with similarno-
menclature,the gradesofFactory and Shop lumbermust be To standardizeand clarifj nominalto actual sizes, the
referencedto the appropriate certified gradingrules. American Softwood LumberStandardPS—20 specifies the
IndustrialClears—Thesegrades are used fortrim, cabinet actualthicknessand widthfor lumberthat falls underthe
standard. The standard sizes for yard and structural lumber
stock,garage door stock, and other product components aregiven in Table 5—6. Timbersare usually surfacedwhile
whereexcellent appearance, mechanical andphysical proper-
ties, and fmishingcharacteristics are important. Theprincipal "green"(unseasoned); therefore, only green sizes are given.
grades are B&BTR,C, and D industrial.Grading is primar- Becausedimension lumber and boardsmay be surfaced green
ily based on the best face,althoughthe influence ofedge or dry at theprerogative ofthe manufacturer, both green and
characteristics is importantandvaries depending uponpiece
width andthickness.In redwood,the IndustrialClear All dry standard sizes are given. The sizes are such that a piece
ofgreen lumber, surfaced to thestandardgreen size, will
Heart grade includesan"allheart" requirement fordecay shrink to approximately the standarddry size as it dries to
resistancein the manufactureofcoolingtowers,tanks,pipe, about 15% moisture content.The defmitionofdry is lumber
and similar products. that has been seasonedor dried to a maximummoisture
contentof 19%. Lumbermay alsobe designatedas kiln dried
Moulding, Ladder, Pole, Tank, and Pencil Stock—
Withinproducingregions,grading rules delineatethe re- (KD),meaningthe lumberhas been seasonedin a chamberto
a predetermined moisturecontentby applyingheat.
quirements for avariety oflumberclassesorientedto specific
consumerproducts.Customandthe characteristics ofthe

5—10
Table 5—6. American Standard Lumber sizes for yard and structurallumberforconstruction
Thickness Face width
Minimum dressed Minimum dressed —
Nominal Dry Green Nominal Dry Green
Item (in.) (mm (in.)) (mm (in.)) (in.) (mm (in.)) (mm (in.)) —
Boards 1 19 (3/4) 20 (25/32) 2 38 (1-1/2) 40 (1-91W)
1-1/4 25 (1) 26 (1-1/32) 3 64 2-l/2) 65 (2-9/16)
1-1/2 32 (1-1/4) 33 (1-9/32) 4 89 (3-1/2) 90 (3-9116)
5 114 (4—1/2) 117 (4—5/8)
6 140 (5-1/2) 143 (5-5/8)
7 165 (6-1/2) 168 (6-5/8)
8 184 (7-1/4) 190 (7-1/2)
9 210 (8-1/4) 216 (8-1/2)
10 235 (9-1/4) 241 (9-1/2)
. 11 260 (10-1/4) 267 (10-1/2)
12 286 (11—1/4) 292 (11-1/2)
14 337 (13-1/4) 343 (13-1/2)
16 387 (15-1/4) 394 (15-1/2)
Dimension 2 38 (1-1/2) 40 (1-9/16) 2 38 (1-1/2) 40 (1-9/16)
2-1/2 51 (2) 52 (2-1/16) 3 64 (2-1/2) 65 (2-9/16)
3 64 (2-1/2) 65 (2-9/16) 4 89 (3-1/2) 90 (3-9/16)
3-1/2 76 (3) 78 (3-1/16) 5 114 (4—1/2) 117 (4—5/8)
4 89 (3-1/2) 90 (3-9/16) 6 140 (5-1/2) 143 (5-5/8)
4-1/2 102 (4 103 (4-1/16 8 184 (7-1/4) 190 (7-112)
10 235 (9-1/4) 241 (9-1/2)
12 286 (11-1/4) 292 (11-1/2)
14 337 (13-1/4) 343 (13-1/2)
16 387 (15-1/4) 394 (15-1/2)
Timbers 5 13 mm (1/2 in. 13 mm (1/2 in. 5 13 mm (1/2 in. 13 mm (1/2 in.
oif off) off off) off off) off off)

Factory and Shoplumberfor remanufacture is offered in uponthe type ofsawmillequipment. Rough lumberserves
specifiedsizes to fit end-product requirements. Factory as a raw material for further manufacture and alsofor some
(Shop) grades forgeneralcuttings are offered inthickness decorative purposes. A roughsawnsurface is common in post
from standard 19 to 89 mm(nominal ito 4 in.). Thick- andtimberproducts. Because ofsurface roughness, gradingof
nesses ofdoor cuttingsstart at 35mm (nominal1-3/8 in.). rough lumber is generally more difficult.
Cuttings are ofvarious lengths and widths. Laminatingstock
is sometimes offered oversize, compared with standard di- Surfacedlumberhas beensurfaced by a machine on one side
mensionsizes,to permitresurfacingprior to laminating. (SIS), two sides (S2S), one edge(S1E), two edges S2E), or
Industrial Clearscan be offered rough or surfaced ina variety combinations of sides and edges (S1S1E, S2S1E, S1S2,
ofsizes, startingfrom standard38 mm (nominal2 in.) and S4S).Lumberis surfaced to attain smoothness and uniform-
thinner and as narrow as standard 64 mm (nominal 3 in.). ity ofsize.
Sizesfor special productgrades such as mouldingstock and Imperfections or blemishes definedinthe gradingrules and
ladderstockare specified in appropriate gradingrules or causedby machining are classified as "manufacturing imper-
handledbypurchaseagreements. fections." For example, chippedand torn grain are surface
irregularities inwhichsurface fibershavebeentorn cut bythe
Surfacing surfacingoperation. Chippedgrain is a "barelyperceptible"
Lumbercan be producedeitherrough orsurfaced (dressed). characteristic, while torn grain is classified by depth. Raised
Roughlumberhas surface imperfections causedby the pri- grain, skip, machine burn and gouge, chipmarks, and wavy
mary sawing operations. Itmay be greaterthan target size by surfacingare other manufacturing imperfections. Manrfactur-
variableamountsin both thicknessand width, depending ing imperfections are defmed in the American Softwood

5—Il
LumberStandardand furtherdetailedin the gradingrules.
Classifications ofmanufacturing imperfections (combinations
ofimperfections allowed)are established in therules as
StandardA, StandardB, and so on. For example, Standard
A admits very light torn grain, occasionalslight chip marks, Flooring (standard match)
and very slightknife marks. These classifications areusedas
part ofthe grade rule description ofsome lumberproductsto C
specify the allowable surface quality.
Ceiling (edge beading)
Patterns
Lumberthat has been matched,shiplapped, or otherwise
patterned, in addition to being surfaced, is often classified
as "worked lumber." Figure 5—3 showstypicalpatterns.

Softwood Lumber Species


The names oflumberspecies adoptedby the trade as stan-
dard may vary from the namesoftreesadoptedas official by Decking
theUSDAForest Service. Table 5—7 shows theAmerican
SoftwoodLumberStandardcommercial namesfor lumber,
the USDAForest Servicetree names,and the botanical
names. Somesoftwoodspeciesare marketed primarilyin
combinations. Designationssuch as Southern Pine and
Hem—Fir representtypicalcombinations. Gradingrule agen-
cies (Table5—5)shouldbe contactedforquestionsregarding
combination names and speciesnot listed in Table5—7.
Species groupsare discussedfurtherin Chapter6.

Softwood Lumber Grading


Most lumber is gradedunder the supervisionofinspection
Heavy decking
bureaus and gradingagencies. Theseorganizations supervise
lumbermill grading and providere-inspection services to
resolvedisputes concerning lumber shipments. Some of
these agenciesalso write gradingrulesthat reflectthe species
and productsin the geographic regionsthey represent. These
gradingrules followthe American Softwood LumberStan-
dard (PS—20). This is importantbecauseit providesfor Drop siding (shiplapped)
recognized uniform gradingprocedures. Names andaddresses
ofrules-writingorganizations in theUnited Statesandthe
species with whichthey are concernedare listed in
Table 5—5. Canadian softwoodlumber imported into the
UnitedStates and gradedby inspectionagenciesin Canada Bevel siding
also follows the PS—20 standard. Names and addressesof
accreditedCanadiangradingagencies may be obtained from
theAmerican LumberStandardCommittee, P.O. Box 210,
Germantown,Maryland20874.

Purchase of Lumber
\\
Dressed and matched (center matched)

Afterprimarymanufacture, most lumber products aremar-


ketedthroughwholesalers to remanufacturing plantsor retail
outlets.Becauseofthe extremely wide variety oflumber
products,wholesaling is very specialized—some organiza-
tions deal with only a limitednumberofspecies or products.
H II
Shiplap
Where the primarymanufacturer canreadily identify the
customers, direct salesmay be made. Primarymanufacturers Figure 5—3. Typical patterns of worked lumber.
oftensell directlyto largeretail-chain contractors, manufac-
turers ofmobile and modularhousing,and truss fabricators.

5—12
Table 5—7. Nomenclatureof commercial softwood lumber
Commercial species orspecies
group names under American Tree name used
SoftwoodLumber Standard in this handbook Botanicalname
Cedar
Alaska yellow-cedar Chamaecypansnootkatensis
Eastern Red eastern redcedar Juniperus virginiana
Incense incense-cedar Libocednjs decurrens
Northem White northernwhite-cedar Thuja occidentalis
Port Orford Port-Orford-cedar ChamaecyparisIawsoniana
SouthernWhite Atlantic white-cedar Chamaecyparisthyoides
Western Red western redcedar Thujaplicata
Cypress
Baldcypress baldcypress Taxodium distichum
Pond cypress pond cypress Taxodiumdistichum var. nutans
Fir
Alpine subalpine fir (alpinefir) Abies Iasiocaipa
Balsam balsam fir Abies balsamea
California Red California red fir Abies magnifica
Douglas Fir Douglas-fir Pseudotsugamenziesii
Fraser Fraserfir Abiesfraseri
Grand grand fir Abies grand/s
Noble Fir noble fir Abies procera
Pacific Grand Pacific silverfir Abiesamabills
White whitefir Abies concolor
Hemlock
Carolina Carolina hemlock Tsuga caroliniana
Eastern eastern hemlock Tsugacanadensis
Mountain mountainhemlock Tsugamertensiana
Western western hemlock Tsugaheterophylla
Juniper
Western alligator juniper Juniperusdeppeana
Rocky Mountainjuniper Juniperus scopulorum
Utahjuniper Juniperus osteosperrna
western juniper Juniperus occidentalls
Larch
Western western larch Larixoccidentalis
Pine
Bishop bishoppine Pinusmuricata
Coulter Coulter pine Pinus coulteri
Digger Digger pine Pinus sabibiana
Knobcone knobconepine Pinusaltenuata
IdahoWhite western white pine Pinus montico!a
Jack jack pine Pinus banksiana
Jeffrey Jeffrey pine Pinusjeffreyi
Limber limber pine Pinus flexilis
Lodgepole lodgepolepine Pinus conto,ta
Longleaf longleafpine Pinuspalustris
slash pine Pinuselliott/i
Northern White eastern white pine Pinus strobus
Norway red pine Pinus resinosa
Pitch pitch pine Pinus rigida
Ponderosa pcnderosapine Pinuspondesosa
Southern Pine Major loblolly pine Pinustaeda
longleafpine Pinus palustris
shortleafpine Pinusechinata
slash pine Pinus elliottli
Southern Pine Minor pondpine Pinus serotina
sand pine Pinusciausa
spruce pine Pinus glabra
Virginia pine Pinus virginiana
Southern PineMixed lobIollypine Pinustaeda
longleafpine Pinus palustris
pondpine Pinus serotina
shortleaf pine Pinusechinata
slash pine Pinus elliottii
Virginia pine Pinus virginiana
RadiataiMontereyPine Monterey pine Pinusradiata

5—13
Table 5—7. Nomenclatureofcommercial softwoodlumber—con.
Commercial species orspecies
group names under American Treename used in this
Softwood LumberStandard handbook Botanicalname
Pine—con.
Sugar sugar pine Pinus lambertiana
Whitebark whitebark pine Pinus albicaulis
Redwood
Redwood redwood Sequoia sempe,virens
Spruce
Blue blue spruce Piceapungens
Eastern blackspruce Picea mariana
redspruce Picea rubens
whitespruce Picea glauca
Engelmann Engelmannspruce Picea engelmannhi
Sitka Sitka spruce Picea sitchensis
Tamarack
Tamarack tamarack Lanx larcinia
Yew
Pacific Pacific yew Taxus bravifolia
CoastSpecies Douglas-fir Pseudotsugamenziesii
western larch Larix occidentalls
EasternSoftwoods black spruce Picea mariana
red spruce Piceaivbens
white spruce Piceaglausa
balsam fir Abies balsamea
easternwhitepine Pinus strobus
jackpine Pinusbanksiana
pitch pine Pinus rigida
red pine Pinus resinosa
eastern hemlock Tsugacanadensis
tamarack Larixoccidentalis
Hem—Fir western hemlock Tsugaheterophylla
California red fir Abies magnifica
grand fir Abies grandis
noble fir Abies procera
Pacific silverfir Abies amabilis
whitefir Abies concolor
Hem—Fir (North) western hemlock Tsugaheterophylla
Pacific silverfir Abies amabilis
Northern Pine jack pine Pinusbanksiana
pitchpine Pinus rigicla
red pine Pinus resinosa
North Species northemwhitecedar Thujaoccidentalls
western redcedar Thujaplicanta
yellow-cedar Charnaecyparisnootkatensis
eastern hemlock Tsugacanadensis
western hemlock Tsugaheterophylla
Douglas-fir Pseudofsuga menziesii
balsam fir Abies balsamea
grand fir Abies grandis
Pacific silverfir Abies amabilis
subalpine (alpine) fir Abies Iasiocarpa
western larch Larix occidentalls
tamarack Larix laricina
eastern white pine Pinus strobus
jack pine Pinus banksiana
lodgepolepine Pinus contorta
ponderosapine Pinusporidemsa
red pine Pinus resinosa
westernwhitepine Pinus monticola
whitebark pine Pinus albicau/is
black spruce Picea mariana
Engelmannspruce Picea engelmannii
red spruce Picea rubens
Sitka spruce Picea sitchensis

5—14
Table 5—7. Nomenclatureof commercial softwoodlumber—con.
.
Commercial species orspecies
group names under American Treename used
Softwood LumberStandard inthis handbook Botanicalname
North Species—con. white spruce Pkaglauca
btoothaspen Populusgrandidentata
quakingaspen Populus tremuloides
black cottonwood Populus trichocarpa
balsampoplar Populus balsamifera
Southern Pine lobloitly pine Pinustaeda
longloafpine Pinus palustris
shortleaf pine Pinus echinata
slash pine Pinuseliottii
Spruce—Pine—Fir black spruce Picearnariana
Engelmannspruce Piceaengelmannii
red spruce Picea rubens
balsam fir Abies balsamea
subalpine (alpine) fir Abies lasiocarpa
jack Dine Pinus banksiana
lodgepolepine Pinus contorta
Spruce—Pine—Fir(South) black spruce Picea mariaria
Engelmannspruce Picea engelmannii
red spruce Picearubens
Sitka spruce Picea sitchensis
whitespruce Piceaglauca
balsam fir Abies balsamea
jackpine Pinusbanksiana
lodgepolepine Pinuscontorta
red pine Pinusresinosa
WesternCedars incense cedar Ubocedrusdecuirens
western redcedar Thujaplicata
Port-Orford-cedar Chamaecypanslawsoniana
yellow-cedar Chamaecypadsnootkatensis
Western Cedar (North) western redcedar Thujapilcata
yellow-cedar Chamaecypansnootkatensis
Western Woods Douglas-fir Pseudotsugamenziesii
California red fir Abiesmagnifica
grand fir Abiesgrandis
noble fir Abiesprocera
Pacific silverfir Abiesamabilis
subalpinefir Abieslasiocarpa
whitefir Abiesconcolor
Hemlock mountain Tsugamertensiana
western hemlock Tsuga hetemphylla
wesl:emlarch La,ixoccidentalis
Engelmannspruce Piceaengelmannii
Sitka spruce Picea sitchensis
lodgepolepine Pinuscontorta
ponderosapine Pinusponderosa
sugar pine Pinus lambertiana
westernwhitepine Pinus monticola
White Woods California redfir Abies magnifica
grand fir Abies graridis
noble fir Abies procera
Pacific silverfir Abies emabilis
subalpinefir Abies lasiocarpa
whitefir Abies concolor
mouintainhemlock Tsugamertensiana
western hemlock Tsugaheferophyifa
Engelmannspruce Picea engelmannhi
Sitka spruce Picea sitchensis
lodgepolepine Pinus contorta
ponderosapine Pinusponderosa
sugar pine Pinus Iambertiana
western white pine Pinusmonficola

5—15
Someprimarymanufacturersandwholesalers set up distribu- area, these yardsmay stock,orhave availableto them,a
tion yards in lumber-consuming areas to distributeboth different and widervariety ofhardwoods.
hardwood and softwoodproducts more effectively. Retail
yards thaw inventoryfrom distributionyardsand, in wood- Geography has less influence where consumer demands are
producingareas, from local lumberproducers. The wide more specific. Forexathple,wherelong construction lurriber
range ofgrades and species coveredin the grade rules may (6 to 8 m (20 to 26 ft)) is required, West Coast species are
not be readily availablein most retail outlets. often marketedbecausetheheight ofthe trees in several
species makeslong lengths apracticalmarket item. Ease of
Transportation is a vital factor in lumberdistribution. Often, preservative treatability makestreatedSouthernPine con-
the lumbershippedby water is green becauseweight is not a a
struction lumberavailablein wide geographic area.
major factor in this type ofshipping. On the other hand,
lumberreachingthe East Coastfrom the PacificCoastby rail StructuralLumber for Construction
is usually kiln-driedbecauserail shippingratesare basedon
Dimensionlumberis the principalstress-gradedlumber
weight.A shorterrail haul places southemand northeastern available in a retail yard. It is primarilyframinglumberfor
speciesin a favorableeconomicposition in regardto ship- joists, rafters,and studs. Strength,stiffness,and uniformity
ping costs in this market. ofsize are essential requirements. Dimensionlumberis
stockedin almostall yards, frequently in only one or two of
Changingtransportationcosts have influenced shiftsin mar- thegeneral purposeconstruction woods such as pine,fir,
ketdistributionof species and products. Truckshave become
a majorfactorin lumbertransportfor regional remanufacture hemlock, or spruce.Standard38- by 89-mm (nominal2- by
plants,forretail supply from distributionyards, and for much 4-in.) andwider dimension lumberis found in SelectSruc-
constructionlumber distribution. tural,No. 1, No. 2, and No. 3 grades. Standard38- by
89-mm (nominal 2- by 4-in.) dimension lumbermay also be
The increased production capacity offoreign hardwoodand available as Construction, Standard,Utility, and STUD
softwood manufacturing and the availability ofwatertrans- grades. STUDgrade is also available in widerwidths.
porthas broughtforeign lumberproductsto the U.S. market, Dimension lumberis often found in standard38-, 89-, 140-,
particularlyin coastal areas.
184-, 235-, and 286-mm (nominal2-, 4-, 6-, 8-, 10-, and
12-in.) widths and 2.4- to 5.4-m (8- to 18-ft) lengths in
Retail Yard Inventory multiplesof0.6 m (2 ft). Dimensionlumberformedby
The smallretail yards throughoutthe United Statescarry structural end-jointingproceduresmay be available. Diinen-
softwoodsfor construction purposesand often carry small sion lumberthicker than standard38 mm (nominal2 in)
stocks ofone ortwo hardwoodsin gradessuitable forfinish- and longerthan 5.4 m (18 ft) is not commonlyavailable in
ing or cabinetwork. Specialordersmust be made for other many retail yards.
hardwoods. Trim items such as mouldingin either softwood Otherstress-graded products generally available are posts and
or hardwoodare available cutto standard size and pattern.
Millworkplants usuallymakeready-for-installation cabinets, timbers; some beamsand stringersmay also be in stock.
and retail yards carry or catalogmany common styles and Typicalgrades in these productsare Select Structural, No. I,
and No. 2.
sizes. Hardwoodflooring is availableto the buyer only in
standardpatterns.Most retail yards carry stress gradesof
lumber. Yard Lumber for Construction
Boards are the mostcommonnon-stress-graded general
The assortment ofspecies in generalconstruction items purposeconstruction lumberin the retail yard. Boardsare
carriedby retail yardsdependsto agreat extentupongeo- stockedin one or more species, usuallyin standard 19 mm
graphiclocation, and both transportationcosts and tradition (nominal1 in.) thickness.Commonwidths are standard 38,
are importantfactors.Retail yardswithin,or close to, a 64, 89, 140, 184, 235, and 286 mm (nominal2, 3, 4, 6, 8,
major lumber-producing region commonly emphasize local 10, and 12 in.). Gradesgenerallyavailablein retail yardsare
timber. For example,a local retail yard on the Pacific No. 1 Common, No. 2 Common, and No. 3 Common
NorthwestCoast may stock only green DouglasFir and (Construction, Standard, No. 1, No. 2, etc.). Boards are sold
cedar in dimensiongrades, thy pine and hemlockin boards square edged, dressed (surfaced) and matched (tonguedand
andmoulding,and assortedspecial items such as redwood grooved), or with a shiplapped joint.Boards formedby end-
posts, cedarshinglesand shakes, and rough cedar siding. jointing ofshorter sections may constitute an appreciable
The only hardwoodsmay be walnutand "Philippinema- portionofthe inventory.
hogany"(the commonmarket nameencompassing many
species, includingtanguile, red meranti, and white lauan). Select Lumber
Retailyards locatedfarther from amajor softwoodsupply, a
such as inthe Midwest, may draw from severalgrowing Completionof construction projectusually depends on the
availability oflumberitemsin fmishedorsemi-fmished
areas andmay stock spruce and Southern Pine, forexample. form.The followingitemsoften may be stocked in only a
Becausethey are locatedin a major hardwoodproduction few species, finishes, or sizes depending on the lumberyard.

5—16
Finish—Finishboards usuallyare availablein a local yard No. 3; for northern white-cedar, Extra, Clear, 2nd Clear,
in one or two species,principallyin grade C&BTR.Cedar Clearwall, and Utility.
and redwoodhave different grade designations: grades such
as Clear Heart,A, or B are used in cedar;ClearAll Heart, Shingles that containonly heartwoodare more resistantto
Clear, and B grade are typicalin redwood.Finish boardsare decay thanare shingles that containsapwoOd. Edge-grained
usually standard 19 mm (nominal 1 in.) thick, surfaced on shingles are less likelyto warp and split than flat-grained
two sides to 19mm (3/4 in.); 38- to 286-mm (2- to 12-in.) shingles, thick-butted shingles less likelythan thin-butted
widths are usually stocked, in even increments. shingles,and narrow shingles less likelythan wide shingles.
The standardthicknessvalues ofthin-buttedshinglesare
Siding—Sidingis specifically intendedto cover exterior describedas 4/2, 5/2-1/4, and 5/2 (four shingles to 51 mm
walls. Beveledsiding is ordinarilystocked only in white (2 in.) ofbutt thickness,five shingles to 57 mm (2-1/4in.)
pine,ponderosapine,westernredcedar, cypress, or redwood. ofbuttthickness,and five shingles to 51 mm (2 in.) ofbutt
Drop siding, also known as rustic or barn siding, is usually thickness). Lengths may be 406, 457, or 610mm (16, 18, or
stocked in the same speciesas is beveledsiding. Sidingmay 24 in.). Random widths and specified("dimension"thingle)
be stockedas B&BTR or C&BTRexceptin cedar, where widthsare available in western redcedar, redwood,and
Clear, A, and B gradesmay be available, and redwood, cypress.
whereClear All Heart, Clear, and B gradesmay be found.
Verticalgrain (VG) is sometimes part ofthe grade designa- Shingles are usually packedfour bundlesto a square.A
tion. Drop siding is also sometimesstockedin sound knot- square ofshingles will coverroughly9 m2 (100 ft2) o:roof
tedC and D gradesof Southern Pine, DouglasFir, and area whenthe shingles are appliedat standard weather
hemlock. Drop sidingmay be surfaced andmatched,or exposures.
shiplapped. Knottygrades ofcedar (SelectTightKnot Shakes are hand splitor hand split and resawnfromwestern
(STK) andredwood (Rustic)are commonly available. redcedar. Shakes are ofa singlegrade and mustbe 100%
Flooring—Flooringis made chieflyfrom hardwoods, such clear.In the caseofhand split andresawnmaterial,shakes
as oak and maple, andtheharder softwoodspecies, such as aregraded from thesplitface.Hand-splitshakes aregraded
Douglas-fir, western larch, and Southern Pine. Often, at least from thebest face. Shakesmust be 100% heartwood.The
one softwoodand one hardwoodare stocked. Flooringis standardthicknessof shakes rangesfrom 9.5 to 32 mm (3/8
usually 19 mm (3/4 in.) thick. Thicker flooring is available to 1-1/4 in.). Lengthsare 457 and 610 mm (18 and24 in.),
for heavy-dutyfloors. Thinnerflooringis available, espe- with a special"Starter—FinishCourse" length of381 mm
cially for re-covering old floors. Vertical- and flat-grained (15 in.).
(also calledquartersawn andplainsawn) flooring is manufac-
tured from both softwoods andhardwoods. Vertical-grained Important Purchase Considerations
flooringshrinks and swells less than flat-grained flooring, is
more uniformin texture,andwears more uniformly, and the Some pointsto considerwhenorderinglumberortimbers
edgejoints have less tendencyto open. arethefollowing:
Softwoodflooring is usuallyavailablein B&BTR,C Select, 1. Quantity—Lineal measure, boardmeasure, surface meas-
or D Selectgrades. Inmaple, thechiefgradesare Clear, ure, numberofpieces ofdefmitesize and length.Consider
No. 1, and No. 2. The gradesin quartersawn oak are Clear that the boardmeasuredependson the thicknessand
and Select, and in plainsawn,Clear, Select, and No. I widthnomenclature usedand that the interpretation of
Common. Quartersawn hardwoodflooring has the same these must be clearlydelineated. In other words, such
advantages as does vertical-grained softwoodflooring. In featuresasnominalor actualdimensions and pattrnsize
addition, the silveror flaked grainofquartersawn flooringis must be considered.
frequently preferred to the figure ofplainsawn flooring. 2. Size—Thickness in millimetersor inches—nominal or
actualifsurfaced on faces; widthin millimeters or
Casing and Base—Casingand base are standard items in inches—nominal or actualifsurfaced on edges; length in
themore importantsoftwoodsand arestocked in mostyards
in at least one species. The chiefgrade, B&BTR,is de- metersor feet—maybenominalaveragelength,limiting
signed to meetthe requirements ofinteriortrim for dwell- length, or a singleuniformlength.Oftenatrade cLesigna-
ings. Many casingand base patternsare surfaced to 17.5 by tion, "random"Jength, is used to denote a nonspccified
57 mm (11/16by 2-1/4 in.); other sizes include 14.3 mm assortment oflengths. Suchan assortmentshould contain
(9/16 in.) by 76 mm (3 in.), by 83 mm (3-1/4 in.), and by critical lengths as well as a range. The limits allowedin
89mm(3-1/2 in.).Hardwoodsfor thesame purposes,such makingthe assortmentrandom can be establishedatthe
as oak and birch, may be carriedin stock in theretail yard or time ofpurchase.
obtainedon specialorder. 3. Grade—As indicated in gradingrules oflumbermanufac-
turing associations. In softwoods that are in compliance
Shingles and Shakes—Commonlyavailableshingles are with the American Softwood LumberStandard, each
sawn from westernredcedarand northern white-cedar. For
westernredcedar,the shingle gradesare No. 1, No. 2, and piece oflumbermay be grade stamped with its official
grade species identification, aname or numberidentif'ing

5—17
theproducingmill, thedrynessat thetime ofsurfacing, 10. Reinspection—Procedures forresolution ofpurchase
and a symbol identifjingthe inspectionagencysupervis- disputes. The AmericanSoftwoodLumberStandardpro-
ing the grading inspection. The grade designation videsfor procedures to be followedin resolutionof
stampedon a piece indicatesthe quality at the time the manufacturer—wholesaler—consumer conflicts over quality
piecewas graded.Subsequent exposure to unfavorable or quantity ofALS lumbergrades. The dispute maybe
storage conditions,improperdrying,or carelesshandling resolved by reinspectingthe shipment.Time limits, li-
may cause the materialto fall belowits originalgrade. ability, costs, and complaintproceduresare outlinedin
the grade rules ofboth softwoodandhardwoodagencies
Workingorrecuttinga gradedproduct to a patternmay underwhichthe disputed shipment was graded and
changeor invalidate the originalgrade.The purchase purchased.
specification shouldbe clear inregardto regrading or ac-
ceptance ofworkedlumber. In softwood lumber, grades
for dry lumbergenerallyare determined after kiln drying
Commonly Used Lumber
and surfacing. However, this practiceis notgeneralfor Abbreviations
hardwoodFactorylumber, wherethe grade is generally The following standardlumberabbreviations are commonly
based on quality and size prior to kiln drying. To be cer-
tain the product grade is correct, refertothe gradingrule used incontractsand other documents forpurchaseand sale
oflumber.
by number and paragraph.
4. Speciesor speciesgroup ofwood—Suchas DouglasFir, AAR Association ofAmericanRailroads
SouthernPine, Hem—Fir. Somespecieshave been AD air dried
grouped for marketing convenience; othersare sold under ADF after deducting freight
a varietyofnames.Be sure thespecies or species group
is correctlyand clearlydescribedon the purchase AF alpinefir
ALS American LumberStandard
specification.
AST antistaintreated;at shiptackle (westernsoftwoods)
5. Product—Suchas flooring, siding, timbers,boards.
Nomenclaturevariesby species,region, andgrading AV or avg average
association. To be certain the nomenclature is correctfor AW&L all widths and lengths
theproduct,referto thegradingruleby numberand B1S see EB1S, CB1S, andE&CB1S
paragraph. B2S see EB2S, CB2S, andE&CB2S
6. Conditionof seasoning—Such as air dry, kiln dry. Soft- B&B, B&BTR B and Better
wood lumber less than 114 mm (nominal5 in.) in thick- B&S beamsand stringers
ness dried to 19% moisturecontentor less is defmedas BD board
dry by the AmericanSoftwoodLumberStandard. Kiln- BDFT board feet
dried lumber is lumberthat has been seasonedin a cham-
berto a predetermined moisturecontentby applyingheat. BDL bundle
Green lumberis lumberless than 114 mm (nominal BEV bevel or beveled
5 in.) in thickness,which has a moisturecontent in ex- BH boxed heart
cess of 19%.Ifthe moisturerequirement is critical, the B/L, BL billoflading
level ofmoisturecontent and the methodby whichit will BM board measure
be achievedmust be specified. BSND bright sapwood, no defect
7. Surfacing and working—Rough (unpianed), surfaced BTR better
(dressed, planed),or patternedstock. Specif,'condition. CB center beaded
Ifsurfaced, indicatecode (S4S, SiS1E). Ifpatterned, list CBIS center bead on one side
patternnumberwith referenceto appropriate grade rules. CB2S centerbead ontwo sides
8. Grading rules—Official gradingagency nameand nameof cc cubicalcontent
officialrules under whichproductis graded,productiden- cftorCu. ft. cubic foot or feet
tification, paragraphandpage numberofrules, and date of
rules or official rule edition may be specified by the cost and freight
buyer. CIF cost, insurance, and freight
CIFE cost, insurance,freight, and exchange
9. Manufacturer—Name ofmanufacturer ortradenameof
CG2E center grooveon two edges
specific product or both. Most lumberproducts are sold
withoutreference to a specific manufacturer. Ifproprietaiy C/L carload
namesor qualityfeatures ofa manufacturer are required, CLG ceiling
this must be stipulatedclearlyon the purchaseagreement. CLR clear

5—18
CM center matched FLU, Fig flooring
Corn Common FOB free on board (named point)
CONST construction FOHC free ofheart center
caulking seam FOK free ofknots
CSG casing FRT, Frt freight
CV center V FT, ft foot,feet
CV1S center V on one side FT. SM feet surface measure
CV2S center V ontwo sides G girth
DB Cig double-beaded ceiling (E&CB1S) GM grade marked
DBPart double-beaded partition(E&CB2S) G/R groovedroofing
DET double end-trimmed HB,H.B. hollowback
DF Douglas-fir HEM hemlock
DF-L Douglas-fir plus larch H-F mixedhemlockand fir (Hem—Fir)
DIM dimension Hrt heart
DKG decking H&M hitand miss
D/S,DS,D/Sdg drop siding H orM hitor miss
D1S,D2S see S1S and S2S IC incense cedar
D&M dressedand matched IN, in. inch, inches
D&CM dressedand center matched md industrial
D&SM dressedand standardmatched Iwp Idaho whitepine
D2S&CM dressedtwo sides and centermatched J&p joists andplanks
D2S&SM dressedtwo sides and standard matched JTD jointed
E edge KD kiln dried
EB1S edge bead one side KDAT kiln-driedafter treatment
EB2S, SB2S edge beadon two sides L western larch
EE eased edges LBR, Lbr lumber
EG edge (verticalor rift) grain LCL less than carload
EM end matched LGR longer
EV1S, SV1S edge V one side LGTH length
EV2S, SV2S edge V two sides Lft, Lf linealfoot, feet
E&CB1S edge and centerbead one side LIN, Lin lineal

E&CB2S, edge and centerbead two sides LL longleaf


DB2S, BC&2S LNG,Lng lining
E&CViS, edge and centerV one side LP lodgepole pine
DV1S,V&CV1S
M thousand
E&CV2S, edge and centerV two sides
DV2S, MBM, MBF, thousand(feet) board measure
V&CV2S M.BM
ES Engelmannspruce MC,M.C. moisture content

Fb,F, F, F,F allowable stress(MPa (lb/in2)) in bending; tension, MERCH, Merch merchantable
compressionand shearparallelto grain; MapleFlooring Manufacturers Association
and incompressionperpendicular to grain,
MG medium grain ormixedgrain
respectively
FA facial area MR mountain hemlock
Fac factory MLDG, Mldg moulding
FAS free alongside (vessel) Mft thousandfeet
FAS Firstsand Seconds M-S mixed species
FASIF Firsts and Seconds one face MSR machinestress rated
FBM, FtBM feet board measure N nosed
PG flat orslash grain NBM net board measure
NOFMA National Oak Flooring Manufacturers Assoiiation
FJ fingerjoint; end-jointed lumber usingfinger-joint
configuration No. number

5—19
N1E or N2E nosed one or two edges S&E side and edge (surfacedon)
Ord order S1E surfacedone edge
PAD partially air-dried S2E surfacedtwo edges
PAR,Par paragraph SIS surfacedone side
PART, Part partition S2S surfaced two sides
PAT, Pat pattern 545 surfacedfour sides
Pcs. pieces S1S&CM surfacedone side and center matched
PE plainend S2S&CM surfaced two sides and center matched
PET precision end-trimmed S4S&CS surfaced four sidesand caulkingseam
W ponderosapine SIS1E surfaced one side, one edge
P&T posts andtimbers SIS2E surfaced one side, two edges
PIS,P2S see S1S and S2S S2S1E surfaced two sides, one edge
RDM random S2S&SL surfaced two sides and shiplapped
REG,Reg regular S2S&SM surfaced two sides and standard matched
Rig. roofing TBR timber
RGH, Rgh rough T&G tonguedand grooved
R/L, RL randomlengths TSO treating service only (nonconforming to standard)
RJW, RW randomwidths UTIL utility
RES resawn VU vertical (edge) grain
SB1S singlebeadoneside VIS see EVIS, CV1S,andE&CV1S
SDG, Sdg siding V2S see EV2S, CV2S,andE&CV2S
S-DRY surfaceddry; lumber 19% moisture contentper WC western cedar
ALS for softwood
WCH WestCoast hemlock
SE square edge WCW WestCoastwoods
SEL, Se! Selector Select grade wider
WDR, wdr
SE&S square edge and sound WF whitefir
SG slashorflat grain WHAD wormholes (defect)
S-GRN surfaced green; lumber unseasoned, >19% WHND wormholes (no defect)
moisturecontent per ALS for softwood
WT weight
SGSSND sapwood, gum spots and streaks,no defect
WTH width
SIT. SPR Sitka spruce
WRC western redcedar
S/L, SL, S/Lap shiplap
surface measure WW whitewoods (Engelmann spruce, any true firs,
SM
any hemlocks, any pines)
Specs specifications
SP sugar pine
SQ square
ss
SRB
squares
stress-ratedboard
Reference
USDC. [Current edition].American softwoodlumber
STD, Std standard standard.Prod. Stand. PS—20—94.Washington,DC: U.S.
Std.lgths. standardlengths Department ofCommerce.
STD. M standard matched
SS Sitka spruce
SSE sound square edge
SSND sap stain, no defect (stained)
STK Selecttight knot
STK stock
STPG stepping
STR,STRUCT structural
SYP SouthernPine

5—20
I Chapter
Lumber Stress Grades and
Design Properties
David E. Kretschmann and David W. Green

umbersawn from a log,regardless ofspecies and


Contents size, is quitevariablein mechanical properties.
Responsibilitiesand Standards for StressGrading 6—2 Piecesmaydiffer in strength by several hundred
percent. For simplicity and economyin use, pieces oflumber
AmericanLumberStandardCommittee 6—2 ofsimilarmechanical properties are placedin categories
calledstress grades,whichare characterized by (a) one or
NationalGradingRule 6—3 more sortingcriteria, (b) a set ofproperties for engineering
Standards 6—3 design,and(c) a unique grade name.
VisuallyGraded Structural Lumber 6—3 This chapterbriefly discusses the U.S. Department oC Com-
merceAmerican Softwood LumberStandardPS2O(1994)
Visual Sorting Criteria 6—3
sorting criteria fortwo stress-grading methods, and the phi-
Procedures forDerivingDesignProperties 6—5 losophyofhowproperties forengineering design are derived.
The derivedproperties are then used in one oftwo design
Machine-Graded Structural Lumber 6—7 formats: (a) the loadand resistance factor design (LRFD),
whichis basedon areferencestrength at the 5th percentile
Machine SortingCriteria 6—7 5-mm bendingstress (AF&PA 1996), or (b) the allowable
Procedures for DerivingDesignProperties 6—8 stress design(ASD), which is based on a design stress at the
lower5th percentile 10-year bendingstress. The properties
QualityControl 6-10 depend on the particularsortingcriteriaand on additional
factors that are independent ofthe sortingcriteria. De sign
AdjustmentofProperties forDesignUse 6—il
properties are lowerthanthe average properties ofclear,
Shrinkage 6-11 straight-grained wood tabulated in Chapter4.
SizeFactor 6-11 From oneto six designproperties are associatedwith a stress
MoistureAdjustments 6—12 grade: bending modulus ofelasticity foran edgewiseloading
orientation and stress in tension and compression parallelto
DurationofLoad 6—12 thegrain, stress in compression perpendicular tothe grain,
stress in shearparallelto the grain, and extreme fiber stress
Treatment Effects 6-13 in bending. As istrueofthepropertiesofany structurai
Temperature Effects 6-14 material,the allowable engineering designpropertiesmust be
eitherinferredor measurednondestructively. Inwood, the
References 6—14 propertiesare inferredthroughvisualgrading criteria, nonde-
structive measurement suchas flatwisebendingstiffnass or
density, or a combination ofthese properties. These nonde-
structive tests provideboth a sortingcriterionand a means
ofcalculating appropriate mechanical properties.
The philosophies containedin this chapterare used by a
numberoforganizations to developvisual andmachinestress
grades. References are madeto exactprocedures and the
resultingdesignstresses,but these are not presentedin
detail.

6—1
American LumberStandard. Under the auspices ofthe ALSC
Responsibilities and is theNationalGrading Rule, whichspecifiesgradingcharac-
Standards for Stress Grading teristics for different gradespecifications.

Anorderly, voluntary, but circuitous system ofresponsibili- Organizations that write and publishgrading rule books
tieshas evolvedin theUnited States for the development, containing stress-grade descriptions are calledrules-writing
manufacture, and merchandising ofmost stress-graded lum- agencies. Grading rules that specify American Softwood
ber. The system is shown schematically in Figure 6—I. LumberStandard PS 20—94 must be certifiedby the ALSC
Stress-grading principles are developed from research fmdings BoardofReviewfor conformance with this standard.
and engineering concepts,often withincommittees and Organizations that write gradingrules, as well as independ-
subcommittees ofthe American Society forTestingand entagencies, can be accreditedbytheALSC Boardof
Materials. Reviewto providegradingand grade-marking supervision
and reinspection services to individual lumbermanufacturers.
American Lumber Accredited rules-writing and independentagenciesare listed
in Table 6—1. The continued accreditation ofthese organiza-
Standard Committee tions is under the scrutinyofthe ALSCBoard ofReview.
Voluntaryproduct standards are developed underprocedures Most commercial softwood species manufactured in the
publishedby the U.S. DepartmentofCommerce. The De- UnitedStates are stress graded underAmericanLumber
partmentofCommerce NationalInstitute ofStandards and Standardpractice. Distinctive grade marksforeach species or
Technology (NIST),working with rules-writingagencies,
lumberinspectionagencies,lumberproducers, distributors species groupingare providedby accredited agencies. The
andwholesalers,retailers, end users,and members ofFederal principles ofstress gradingare alsoappliedto several hard-
wood species underprovisions ofthe American Softwood
agencies, work throughthe American LumberStandard
Committee (ALSC) to maintaina voluntaryconsensus LumberStandard. Lumberfound in the marketplacema be
softwood standard, calledthe American Softwood Lumber stress graded undergrading rules developedin accordance
Standard(PS 20—94). The PS 20—94 Standardprescribes the
ways in which stress-grading principles canbe used to Table 6—1.Sawn lumber grading agenciesa
formulate gradingrules designatedas conforming to the
Rules-writing agencies
Northeastern LumberManufacturersAssociation
(NELMA)
Northern Softwood LumberBureau (NSLB)
(1) Formulation of stress grading principles Redwood Inspection Service (RIS)
University staffmembers
Government researchers Southern Pine Inspection Bureau (SPIB)
Industry R&Dstaff West Coast Lumber Inspection Bureau (WCLIB)
Consumer representatives Western Wood Products Association (WWPA)
'1r
National LumberGradesAuthority (NLGA)
1(2) Product standards
I American LumberStandard Committee Independentagencies
__1 and its Board of Review California LumberInspection Service
I National Grading Rule Committee Pacific Lumber Inspection Bureau, Inc.
National Institute of Standards and Technology
Renewable Resource Associates, Inc.
Review and adoption Timber Products Inspection
Alberta Forest Products Association
(3) Formulation and publication of Canadian Lumbermen'sAssociation
stress-grading rules Canadian Mill Services Association
Rules-writing agencies - _______
Canadian Softwood Inspection Agency, Inc.
Cariboo Lumber Manufacturers Association
Central Forest Products Association
(4) Grading agency accreditation
American LumberStandard Committee ConiferousLumber Inspection Bureau
Council of Forest Industriesof British Columbia
Interior LumberManufacturers Association
(5)Grademarksupervision and reinspection MacDonald Inspection
Rules-writing agencies Maritime LumberBureau
Independent inspection agencies Newfoundland LumberProducersAssociation
Northern Forest Products Association
Ontario LumberManufacturers Association
(6) Manufactureand marketing of American
standard stress-graded lumber Pacific LumberInspection Bureau
Sawmills QuebecLumber Manufacturers Association

Figure 6—1. Voluntarysystem of responsibilities for aFor updatedinformation, contact American Lumber
stressgrading under the American Softwood Lumber Standard Committee, P.O. Box 210, Germantown,
Standard. MD 20874.

6—2
with methods approvedby the ALSC orby someother Standards
stress-grading rule, or itmay not be stress graded. Only
those stress gradesthat meet the requirements ofthe volun- Table6—2 also shows associatedminimumbending strength
tary American SoftwoodLumberStandardsystem are dis- ratios to providea comparative index ofquality.The
cussed in this chapter. strength ratio is the hypothetical ratio ofthe strengthofa
piece oflumber with visiblestrength-reducing growthcharac-
National Grading Rule teristicsto its strengthifthose characteristics were absent.
Formulas for calculating strengthratios are given in Ameri-
Stress grading underthe auspices ofthe ALSC is appliedto can Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM)standard
many sizes and several patternsoflumberthat meet the D245. The corresponding visual description ofthe c.imen-
American Softwood LumberStandard provision. However, sion lumbergradescan be found in the gradingrule booksof
most stress-gradedlumberis dimensionlumber(standard38 therules-writingagencieslisted in Table 6—1. Designprop-
to 89 mm (nominal2 to 4 in.) thick)and is governedby erties will vary by species.The designproperties for each
uniformspecifications underthe NationalGrading Rule. The species and grade are publishedin the appropriate rule books
NationalGrading Ruleprovidesguidelinesforwritinggrad- and in the NationalDesignSpecfIcationfor Wood
ingrules for lumberin this thicknessrange and specifies Construction(AF&PA 1997).
gradingcharacteristics fordifferent grade specifications.
American Softwood LumberStandarddimension lumberin
this thicknessrange is requiredto conform to the National Grouping of Species
Most speciesare grouped togetherand the lumberfromthem
Grading Rule, except forspecialproductssuch as scaffold treatedas equivalent. Speciesare usually groupedwhenthey
planks. Graderules for other sizes, such as nominal5-in. have about the same mechanical properties, when th wood
(standard1 14-mm) or larger structural timbers may vary oftwo or more species is very similarin appearance, or for
betweenrules-writing agencies orspecies.
marketing convenience. Forvisual stress grades, ASTM
The NationalGrading Rule establishes the lumberclassifica- D2555 contains procedures forcalculating clear wood prop-
tions and grade namesforvisuallystress-graded dimension erties for groups ofspecies to be usedwith ASTM 1)245.
lumber(Table6—2)and alsoprovidesforthe gradingof ASTMD1990contains proceduresfor calculating design
dimensionlumberby a combination ofmachine and visual properties for groups ofspecies tested as full-sized members.
methods.Visualrequirements for this type oflumber are The propertiesassignedto a group by such procedureswill
developedby therespective rules-writing agencies for often be different from those ofany species that makeupthe
particularspecies grades. group. The group willhave a unique identity, with nomen-
clatureapprovedbythe Board ofReview ofthe ALSC. The
identities, properties, and characteristics ofindividual species
ofthe group arefound in thegrade rules for anyparticular
Table 6—2. Visual grades described in National species or species grouping. In the case ofmachine tress
Grading Rule grading, the inspectionagencythat supervises the grading
certifies by testingthat the design propertiesin that grade
Bending areappropriate forthe species or species groupingarLdthe
strength
Lumber classificationa Grade name ratio (%) gradingprocess.

Light framingb Construction 34 Foreign species


Standard 19
9 Currently,the importation ofstructurallumberis governed
Utility
by two ALSCguidelinesthat describe the application ofthe
Structurallight framingb Select Structural 67 American LumberStandardand ASTM Dl990 procedures
1 55 to foreign species. The approval process is outlinedin
2 45 Table 6—3.
3 26
Studc Stud 26
Structural joists and planksd Select Structural 65
Visually Graded
1 55 Structural Lumber
2 45
3 26 Visual Sorting Criteria
2Contact rules-writing agenciesfor additional information. Visual gradingis the originalmethodfor stress grading. It is
bStandard 38 to 89 mm (nominal 2 to 4 in.) thick and wide. basedon the premisethat mechanical properties oflumber
Widths narrower than 89 mm (4 in.) may have different differ from mechanical properties ofclearwoodbecausemany
strength ratio than shown. growth characteristicsaffectproperties andthese characteris-
CStandard 38 to 89 mm (nominal 2 to 4 in.) thick, tics canbe seen andjudgedby eye. Growthcharacteristics are
38 mm in.) wide. used to sort lumberinto stress grades. The typicalvisual
dStandard 38 to 89 mm (nominal 2 to 4 in.) thick,
140 mm in.) wide. sortingcriteriadiscussedhere are knots, slope ofgrain,

6-3
Table 6—3. Approval process for acceptance of design values forforeign species

I Rules-writing agency seeks approval to include speciesin grade-rulebook.


2 Agency developssamplingand testing plan, followingAmerican LumberStandard Committee (ALSC) foreign
importation guidelines,which must then be approved by ALSC Board of Review.
3 Lumberis sampledand tested in accordancewith approved sampling and testing plan.
4 Agency analyzes data by ALSC Board of Reviewand ASTM D1990 procedures and other appropriatecriteria
(if needed).
5 Agency submits proposed design valuesto ALSC Board of Review.
6 Submission is reviewedby ALSC Board of Reviewand USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory.
7 Submission is available for comment by other agenciesand interested parties.
8 ALSC Board of Reviewapproves(or disapproves) design values,with modification (if needed) based on all
available information.
9 Agency publishesnew design values for species.

checksand splits, shake,density, decay,heartwoodand restrictedthan knotsaway from the edge. In simplysup-
sapwood, pitch pockets,and wane. ported structural members subjectedto bending, stresses are
greaterin the middle ofthe length and at the top and bottom
Knots edgesthan at rriidheight. Thesefacts are recognizedin