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DIFFERENTIAL FORMULATION

OF THE BASIC LAWS

2.1 Introduction

x Conservation of mass

x Conservation of momentum

x Conservation of energy

(i) Forced convection. Motion is driven by mechanical means.

(ii) Free (natural) convection. Motion is driven by natural forces.

u u

laminar turbulent

t t

Fig. 2.1

2

Rate of mass change within element

w (Gm y )

Gm y dy

y wy

dy

dx w (Gm x )

Gm x Gm x dy

wy

x Gm y

(a ) (b )

Fig. 2.2

(2.1)

wU w w w

Uu Uv Uw 0 (2.2a)

wt wx wy wz

wU wU wU wU ª wu wv ww º

u v w U« » 0 (2.2b)

wt wx wy wz ¬ wx wy wz ¼

or

DU &

U V 0 (2.2c)

Dt

or

wU &

UV 0 (2.2d)

wt

&

V 0 (2.3)

2.4.2 Cylindrical Coordinates

3

wU 1 w

U r v r 1 w U vT w U v z 0 (2.4)

wt r wr r wT wz

wU 1 w

2

wt r wr

U r 2 vr

1

w

r sin T wT

U vT sin T 1 w U vI

r sin T wI

0 (2 .5)

element shown in Fig. 2.5, gives y dz

& &

¦G F (G m) a (a) dy

dx

x Application of (a) in the x-direction, gives

x

¦G F x (G m) a x (b) z

Fig. 2.5

x Each term in (b) is expressed in terms of flow

field variables: density, pressure, and velocity components:

Gm U dxdydz (c)

Acceleration of the element a x :

du Du wu wu wu wu

ax u v w (d)

dt Dt wx wy wz wt

Substituting (c) and (d) into (b)

¦GF x U

Du

Dt

dxdydz (e)

Forces:

(i) Body force

4

§ wV xx wW yx wW zx ·

¦ įFx surface ¨

¨ wx wy wz

¸dxdydz

¸ (h)

© ¹

Combining the above equations

Du wV xx wW yx wW zx

x-direction: U U gx (2.6a)

Dt wx wy wz

By analogy:

Dv wW xy wV yy wW zy

y-direction: U Ugy (2.6b)

Dt wx wy wz

Dw wW xz wW yz wV zz

z-direction: U U gz (2.6c)

Dt wx wy wz

IMPORTANT

OF VELOSICTY AND PRESSURE. THIS IS VALID FOR NEWTOINAN

FLUIDS. (See equations 2.7a-2.7f).

EQUAITONS OF MOTION

DV & & 1 & &

U

Dt 3

Ug p P V P 2V (2.9)

x (2.9) is valid for: (1) continuum, (2) Newtonian fluid, and (3) constant viscosity

&

DV & & &

U Ug p P 2V (2.10)

Dt

x (2.10) is valid for: (1) continuum, (2) Newtonian fluid, (3) constant viscosity and

(4) constant density.

x The three component of (2.10) are

§ wu wu wu wu · wp § w 2u w 2u w 2u ·

x: U ¨¨ u v w ¸¸ Ug x P¨ 2 2 2 ¸ (2.10x)

© wt wx wy wz ¹ wx ¨ wx

© wy wz ¸¹

5

§ wv wv wv wv · wp § w 2v w 2v w 2v ·

y- U ¨¨ u v w ¸¸ Ug y P¨ 2 2 2 ¸ (2.10y)

© wt wx wy wz ¹ wy ¨ wx

© wy wz ¸¹

z- U ¨¨ u v w ¸¸ Ug z P¨ 2 2 2 ¸ (2.10z)

© wt wx wy wz ¹ wz ¨ wx

© wy wz ¸¹

The three equations corresponding to (2.10) in cylindrical coordinates are (2.11r), (2.11 T ),

and (2.11z).

The three equations corresponding to (2.10) in spherical coordinates are (2.11r), (2.11 T ),

and (2.11 I ).

y dz

2.6.1 Formulation

dy

dx

x The principle of conservation of energy is

applied to an element dxdydz

x

A B z

Rate of change of Fig. 2.7

internal and kinetic

Net rate of internal and kinetic

energy transport by convection

energy of element (2.14)

C D

Net rate of heat _ Net rate of work done by

addition by conduction element on surroundin gs

x Assumptions: (1) continuum, (2) Newtonian fluid, and (3) negligible nuclear,

electromagnetic and radiation energy transfer.

x The following is the resulting equation

DT Dp

U cp kT E T P) (2.15)

Dt Dt

x (2.15) is referred to as the energy equation

x E is the coefficient of thermal expansion, defined as

6

1 ª wU º

E (2.16)

U «¬ wT »¼ p

x The dissipation function ) is associated with energy dissipation due to friction. It is

important in high speed flow and for very viscous fluids. In Cartesian coordinates )

is given by

ª 2 § ·2 2º ª 2

§ wv ww ·

2 2º

« § wu · wv § ww · » «§ wu wv · § ww wu · »

) 2 ¨ ¸ ¨¨ ¸¸ ¨ ¸ ¨¨ ¸¸ ¨¨ ¸¸ ¨ ¸

«© wx ¹ © wy ¹ © wz ¹ » «© wy wx ¹ © wz wy ¹ © wx wz ¹ »

¬ ¼ ¬ ¼ (2.17)

2

2 § wu wv ww ·

¨¨ ¸

3 © wx wy wz ¸¹

x Cartesian Coordinates

DT

Uc p kT P) (2.18)

Dt

(ii) Incompressible constant conductivity fluid. Equation (2.18) is simplified further if

the conductivity k is assumed constant

DT

Uc p k 2T P) (2.19a)

Dt

or

§ wT wT wT wT · §¨ w 2T w 2T w 2T ·¸

U c p ¨¨ u v w ¸ k P) (2.19b)

© wt wx wy wz ¸¹ ¨© wx 2 wy 2 wz 2 ¸¹

DT Dp

U cp kT P) (2.22)

Dt Dt

or

DT &

U cv kT p V P) (2.23)

Dt

x Cylindrical Coordinates. The corresponding energy equation in cylindrical

coordinate is given in (2.24)

coordinate is given in (2.26)

7

x The flow field (velocity distribution) is needed for the determination of the

temperature distribution.

IMPORTANT:

x Table 2.1 shows that for constant density and viscosity, continuity and

momentum (four equations) give the solution to u, v, w, and p. Thus for this

condition the flow field and temperature fields are uncoupled (smallest

rectangle).

x For compressible fluid the density is an added variable. Energy equation and

the equation of state provide the fifth and sixth required equations. For this

case the velocity and temperature fields are coupled and thus must be solved

simultaneously (largest rectangle in Table 2.1).

TABLE 2.1

No. of

Basic law Equations Unknowns

Energy 1 TT u v w p U P k

Continuity 1 u v w U

Momentum 3 u v w p U P

Equation of State 1 T p U

Viscosity relation 1 T p P

P P ( p, T )

Conductivity relation T p k

1

k k ( p, T )

x Gravity and density change due to temperature change give rise to buoyancy.

x According to Table 2.1, continuity, momentum, energy and equation of state must be

solved simultaneously for the 6 unknowns: u. v, w, p, T and U

1 ª wU º

E (2.16)

U «¬ wT »¼ p

8

or

1 U Uf

E | (f)

U f T Tf

This result gives

U Uf E U f (T Tf ) (2.28)

x Based on the above approximation, the momentum equation becomes

&

DV & 1 &

E g T Tf p p f v 2V (2.29)

Dt Uf

&

V ( x,0, z , t ) 0 (2.30a)

or

u ( x,0, z , t ) v( x,0, z , t ) w( x,0, z , t ) 0 (2.30b)

(2) Free stream condition. Far away from an object ( y f)

u ( x, f, z , t ) Vf (2.31)

Similarly, uniform temperature far away from an object is expressed as

T ( x, f, z , t ) Tf (2.32)

(3) Surface thermal conditions. Two common surface thermal conditions are used in the

analysis of convection problems. They are:

(i) Specified temperature. At the wall:

T ( x,0, z , t ) Ts (2.33)

(ii) Specified heat flux. Heated or cooled surface:

wT ( x,0, z , t )

k r qocc (2.34)

wy

Similarity Parameters

x Express the governing equations in dimensionless form to:

x (1) identify the governing parameters

x (2) plan experiments

x (3) guide in the presentation of experimental results and theoretical solutions

x Dimensional form:

x Independent variables: x, y, z and t

9

independent variables. In addition various quantities affect the solutions. They

are

x p f , Tf , Vf , Ts , L, g , p f , and

x Geometry

& &

& V ( p pf ) (T Tf ) & g

V* , p *

, T *

, g* ,

Vf U fVf 2 (Ts Tf ) g

(2.35)

x y z Vf

x* , y* , z* , t* t

L L L L

x Using (2.35) the governing equations are rewritten in dimensionless form.

DU &

*

U V * 0 (2.37)

Dt

x No parameters appear in (2.37)

&

DV * Gr * & * * * 1 *2 &

T g P V* (2.38)

Dt * Re 2 Re

x Constant (characteristic) quantities combine into two governing parameters:

UVf L Vf L

Re { , Reynolds number (viscous effect) (2.39)

P v

Eg Ts Tf L3

Gr { , Grashof number (free convection effect) (2.40)

v2

2.10.4 Dimensionless Form of the Energy Equation

x Consider two cases:

(i) Incompressible, constant conductivity

10

DT * 1 Ǽc *

*

*2T * ) (2.41a)

Dt RePr Re

x Constant (characteristic) quantities combine into two additional governing

parameters:

Pr

cpP P/U v, Prandtl number (heat transfer effect) (2.42)

k k / Uc p D

2

Vf

Ǽc , Eckert number (dissipation effect – high speed, large viscosity) (2.43)

c p (Ts Tf )

DT * 1 Dp * Ǽc *

*2T * Ǽc * ) (2.41b)

Dt RePr Dt Re

x No new parameters appear.

x Dimensionless temperature solution:

T * f ( x * , y * , z * , t * ; Re, Pr , Gr , Ec) (2.45)

x NOTE:

x Six quantities: p f , Tf , Ts , Vf , L, g and five properties c p , k, E, P, and U , are

replaced by four dimensionless parameters: Re, Pr, Gr and Ec.

x Special case: negligible free convection and dissipation: Two governing

parameters:

T* f ( x * , y * , z * , t * ; Re, Pr ) (2.46)

x Geometrically similar bodies have the same solution when the parameters are the

same.

x Experiments and correlation of data are expressed in terms of parameters rather

than dimensional quantities.

x Numerical solutions are expressed in terms of parameters rather than dimensional

quantities.

Nu x = f ( x * ; Re, Pr , Gr , Ec ) (2.51)

x Special case: negligible buoyancy and dissipation:

11

Nu x = f ( x * ; Re, Pr ) (2.52)

x Free convection, negligible dissipation

Nu x = f ( x * ; Gr , Pr ) (2. 53)

x A procedure used to obtain order of magnitude estimates without solving governing

equations.

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