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CONVECTION IN MICROCHANNELS

11.1 Introduction

11.1.1 Continuum and Thermodynamic Hypothesis.

• Previous chapters are based on two fundamental assumptions:

(1) Continuum: Navier-Stokes equations, and the energy equation are applicable

(2) Thermodynamic equilibrium: No-velocity slip and no-temperature jump at

boundaries.

• Validity criterion: The Knudsen number:

λ

Kn = (1.2)

De

λ is the mean free path.

Kn < 0.1 (1.3a)

• No-slip, no-temperature jump:

Kn < 0.001 (1.3b)

11.1.2 Surface Forces

• Surface area to volume ratio increases as channel size is decreases.

• Surface forces become more important as channel size is reduced.

11.1.2 Chapter Scope

• Classification

• Gases vs. liquids

• Rarefaction

• Compressibility

• Velocity slip and temperature jump Table 11.1

• Analytic solutions: Couette and Poiseuille

flows R ρ μ ×107 λ

gas J/kg− K kg/m3

11.2 Basic Considerations kg/s− m μ m

Air 287.0 1.1614 184.6 0.067

11.2.1 Mean Free Path

Helium 2077.1 0.1625 199.0 0.1943

• Ideal gas:

Hydrogen 4124.3 0.08078 89.6 0.1233

μ π Nitrogen 296.8 1.1233 178.2 0.06577

λ= RT (11.2)

p 2 Oxygen 259.8 1.2840 207.2 0.07155

• Properties if various gases; Table 11.1

2

• The heat transfer coefficient increases as channel size is decreased.

• Examine fully developed flow through tubes and note the effect of diameter

k

h = 3.657 (11.3)

D

11.2.3 Classification. Based on Knudsen number

0.001< Kn < 0.1 continuum, slip flow (11.4)

0.1 < Kn < 10 transition flow

10 < Kn free molecular flow

• Macrochannels

• Continuum and thermodynamic equilibrium model applies.

• No-velocity slip and no-temperature jump.

• Microchannels

• Failure of macrochannel theory and correlation.

• Distinguishing factors: two and three dimensional effects, axial conduction,

dissipation, temperature dependent properties, velocity slip and temperature

jump at the boundaries and the increasing dominant role of surface forces.

11.2.5 Gases vs. Liquids

• Mean free paths of liquids are much smaller than those of gases.

• Onset of failure of thermodynamic equilibrium and continuum is not well defined for

liquids.

• Surface forces for liquids become more important.

• Liquids are almost incompressible while gases are compressible.

11.3 General Features

• Rarefaction: Knudsen number effect.

• Compressibility: large channel pressure drop, changes in density (compressibility).

• Dissipation: Increased viscous effects.

11.3.1 Flow Rate

• No-velocity slip: Fig. 11.3a

• Velocity slip: Fig. 11.3b

• Flow rate Q : Macrochannel theory

underestimates flow rate: (a) (b)

Fig. 11.3

3

Qe

>1 (11.5)

Qt

11.3.2 Friction Factor

• Friction coefficient C f

τw

Cf = (4.37a)

(1 / 2) ρ u m2

• Friction factor f

1 D Δp

f = (11.6)

2 L ρ u m2

f Re = Po (11.7)

• Po is known as the Poiseuille number

• Macrochannel theory does not predict Po. The following ratio is a measure of

prediction error

(Po )e

=C* (11.8)

(Po )t

Po appears to depend on the Reynolds number.

• Both increase and a decrease in C ∗ are reported.

11.3.3 Transition to Turbulent flow

• Macrochannels

uD

Ret = ≈ 2300 (6.1)

ν

• Microchannels: reported transition Reynolds numbers ranged from 300 to 16,000

11.3.4 Nusselt number

• Macrochannels:

• Fully developed laminar flow: constant Nusselt number, independent of

Reynolds number.

• Microchannels: Macrochannel theory does not predict Nu. The following ratio is a

measure of reported departure from macrochannel prediction

( Nu ) e

0.21 < < 100 (11.9)

( Nu ) t

11.4 Governing Equations

• In the slip-flow domain, 0.001 < Kn < 0.1 , the continuity, Navier Stokes equations,

and energy equation are valid.

• Important effects: Compressibility, axial conduction, and dissipation.

4

11.4.1 Compressibility

• Compressibility affects pressure drop, Poiseuille number and Nusselt number.

11.4.2 Axial Conduction

• Axial conduction is neglected in macrochannels for Peclet numbers greater than 100.

• Microchannels typically operate at low Peclet numbers. Axial conduction may be

important.

• Axial conduction increases the Nusselt number in the velocity-slip domain.

11.4.3. Dissipation

• Dissipation becomes important when the Mach number is close to unity or larger.

11.5 Velocity Slip and Temperature Jump Boundary Conditions

• In microchannels fluid velocity is not the same as surface velocity. The velocity slip

condition is

2 − σ u ∂u ( x,0)

u ( x ,0 ) − u s = λ (11.10)

σu ∂n

u ( x,0) = fluid axial velocity at surface

u s = surface axial velocity

x = axial coordinate

n = normal coordinate measured from the surface

σ u = tangential momentum accommodating coefficient

• Gas temperature at a surface differs from surface temperature:

2 − σ T 2γ λ ∂T ( x,0)

T ( x,0) − Ts = (11.11)

σ T 1 + γ Pr ∂n

T(x,0) = fluid temperature at the boundary

Ts = surface temperature

γ = c p / cv , specific heat ratio

σ T = energy accommodating coefficient

• σ u and σ T are assume equal to unity.

• (11.10) and (11.11) are valid for gases.

11.6 Analytic Solutions: Slip Flows

• Consider Couette and Poiseuille flows.

• Applications: MEMS.

• Thermal boundary conditions: Uniform surface temperature and uniform surface heat flux.

• Examine the effects of rarefaction and compressibility.

5

11.6.1 Assumptions

(1) Steady state

(2) Laminar flow

(3) Two-dimensional

(4) Slip flow regime (0.001 < Kn < 0.1)

(5) Ideal gas

(6) Constant viscosity, conductivity, and specific heats

(7) Negligible lateral variation of density and pressure

(8) Negligible dissipation (unless otherwise stated)

(9) Negligible gravity

(10) The accommodation coefficients are assumed equal to unity, σ u = σ T = 1.0.

11.6.2 Couette Flow with Viscous Dissipation: Parallel Plates with Surface Convection

• Stationary lower plate, moving upper plate.

• Insulated lower plate, convection at the

upper plate. y ho T∞ us

• Determine:

(1) Velocity distribution u H

x

(2) Mass flow rate

(3) Nusselt number

Fig. 11.6

Flow Field

• x-component of the Navier-Stokes equations for compressible, constant viscosity

flow (2.9), simplifies to

d 2u

=0 (11.12)

dy 2

• Boundary conditions: apply (11.10)

du ( x,0)

u ( x ,0 ) = λ (g)

dy

du ( x, H )

u ( x, H ) = u s − λ (h)

dy

• Solution

u 1

= ( y + Kn) (11.14)

u s 1 + 2 Kn H

Mass Flow Rate. The flow rate, m, for a channel of width W is

H

m =W

∫ 0

ρ u dy (11.15)

6

us

m = ρ WH (11.16)

2

Macrochannels flow m o

us

mo = ρ WH (11.17)

2

Thus

m

=1 (11.18)

mo

Nusselt Number. Defined as

2 Hh

Nu = (l)

k

Heat transfer coefficient h:

∂T ( H )

−k

∂y

h=

Tm − Ts

Substitute into (l)

∂T ( H )

∂y

Nu = −2 H (11.19)

Tm − Ts

k = thermal conductivity of fluid

T = fluid temperature function (variable)

Tm = fluid mean temperature

Ts = plate temperature

NOTE:

• Fluid temperature at the surface, T ( x, H ), is not equal to surface temperature Ts .

• Surface temperature is unknown in this example

• Relation between T ( x, H ) and Ts is given by the temperature jump condition:

2γ λ ∂T ( x, H )

Ts = T ( x , H ) + (11.20)

1 + γ Pr ∂y

• Mean temperature Tm

H

∫

2

Tm = uT dy (11.22)

us H

0

∂ 2T

k + μΦ = 0 (11.23)

∂y 2

7

Dissipation function Φ :

2

⎛ ∂u ⎞

Φ = ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ (11.24)

⎝ ∂y ⎠

(11.24) into (11.23)

2

d 2T μ ⎛ du ⎞

=− ⎜ ⎟ (11.25)

dy 2 k ⎜⎝ dy ⎟⎠

• Boundary conditions

dT (0)

=0 (m)

dy

dT ( H )

−k = ho (Ts − T∞ )

dy

Use (11.20)

dT ( H ) ⎡ 2γ λ ∂T ( x, H ) ⎤

−k = ho ⎢T ( x, H ) + 1 + γ Pr − T∞ ⎥ (n)

dy ⎣ ∂n ⎦

• Solution: Use (11.14) for u, substitute into (11.25), solve and use boundary

conditions (m) and (n)

ϕ kHϕ H 2ϕ 2γ Kn 2

T = − y2 + + + H ϕ + T∞ (11.26)

2 ho 2 γ + 1 Pr

2

μ⎡ us ⎤

ϕ= ⎢ (p)

k ⎣ H (1 + 2 Kn) ⎥⎦

dT ( H )

• Nusselt number: Use (11.26) to formulate Ts , and Tm , substitute into

dy

8(1 + 2 Kn)

(11.19) Nu = (11.27)

8 8γ (1 + 2 Kn) Kn

1 + Kn +

3 γ +1 Pr

NOTE:

• The Nusselt number is independent of Biot number.

• The Nusselt number is independent of the Reynolds number. This is also the case

with macrochannel flows.

• The Nusselt number depends on the fluid (Pr and γ ).

• Nusselt number for macrochannel flow, Nu o : set Kn = 0 in (11.27)

Nu o = 8 (11.28)

Thus

8

Nu 1 + 2 Kn

= (11.29)

Nu o 8 8γ (1 + 2 Kn) Kn

1 + Kn +

3 γ +1 Pr

• Inlet and outlet pressures are pi and p o

• Surface heat flux: q ′s′ q′s′

y

• Determine:

(1) Velocity distribution H/2

(2) Pressure distribution H/2 x

(3) Mass flow rate

(4) Nusselt number q′s′

• Poiseuille flow in microchannels differs Fig. 11.7

from macrochannels as follows:

• Streamlines are not parallel.

• Lateral velocity component v does not vanish.

• Axial velocity changes with axial distance.

• Axial pressure gradient is not linear.

• Compressibility and rarefaction are important.

Assumptions. See Section 11.6.1. Additional assumptions:

(11) Isothermal flow.

(12) Negligible inertia forces.

∂ 2u

(13) The dominant viscous force is μ .

∂y 2

Flow Field. Determine the axial velocity distribution.

• Axial component of the Navier-Stokes equations

∂p ∂ 2u

− +μ 2 =0 (c)

∂x ∂y

• Boundary conditions

∂u ( x,0)

=0 (e)

∂y

∂u ( x, H / 2)

u ( x , H / 2) = − λ (f)

∂y

• Solution

H 2 dp ⎡ y2 ⎤

u=− ⎢1 + 4 Kn( p ) − 4 2 ⎥ (11.30)

8μ dx ⎣ H ⎦

Must determine pressure distribution and lateral velocity v. Continuity for compressible

flow:

9

∂

(ρ u ) + ∂ (ρ v ) = 0 (h)

∂x ∂y

Use ideal gas law in (h)

∂

( p v ) = − ∂ ( pu ) (i)

∂y ∂x

(11.30) into (i)

∂ 2 ⎡ 2 ⎤

( pv) = H ∂ ⎢ p dp (1 + 4 Kn( p) − 4 y 2 )⎥ (j)

∂y 8μ ∂x ⎣⎢ dx H ⎦⎥

Boundary conditions on v

v ( x ,0 ) = 0 (k)

v( x, H / 2) = 0 (l)

Multiply (j) by dy, integrate

y y

H 2 ∂ ⎡ dp y2 ⎤

∫ 0

d ( p v) = ⎢p

8μ ∂x ⎢ dx

⎣

∫

0

(1 + 4 Kn( p) − 4 )⎥ dy

H 2 ⎥⎦

(m)

∂ ⎧⎪ dp ⎡ y 4 y3 ⎤ ⎫⎪

⎨p ⎢[1 + 4 Kn( p )] − ⎥ ⎬ =0 (n)

∂x ⎪⎩ dx ⎣⎢ H 3 H 3 ⎦⎥ ⎪⎭ y =H / 2

λ μ π 1

Kn = = RT (11.33)

H H 2 p

Evaluate (n) at y = H / 2, substitute (11.33) into (n) and integrate

1 2 μ

p + 2π RT p = Cx + D (o)

6 H

where C and D are constants of integration. The solution to this quadratic equation is

μ μ2

p ( x) = −3 2π RT + 18π RT + 6Cx + 6 D (p)

H H2

Boundary conditions on p

p ( 0) = p i , p ( L ) = p o (q)

Use (q) to find C and D, substitute into (p) and use the definition of Knudsen number

2

p( x) ⎡ pi ⎤ ⎡ pi2 pi ⎤ x

= −6 Kno + ⎢6 Kno + ⎥ + ⎢(1 − 2 ) + 12 Kno (1 − )⎥ (11.35)

po ⎣ po ⎦ ⎢⎣ po p o ⎦⎥ L

10

H/ 2

m = 2W

∫ 0

ρ u dy (s)

WH 3 ⎡ μ π ⎤ dp

m=− ⎢p + 6 RT ⎥ (11.38)

12 μ RT ⎣ H 2 ⎦ dx

Using (11.35) to formulate the pressure gradient, substituting into (11.38), assuming

constant temperature ( T ≅ To ), and rearranging, gives

1 W H 3 po2 ⎡ pi2 pi ⎤

m= ⎢ 2 − 1 + 12 Kno ( − 1)⎥ (11.39)

24 μ LRTo ⎣⎢ p o po ⎥⎦

For macrochannel

1 W H 3 po2 ⎡ pi ⎤

mo = ⎢ − 1⎥ (11.40)

12 μ LRTo ⎣ p o ⎦

Taking ratio

m 1 ⎡ pi ⎤

= ⎢ + 1 + 12 Kno ⎥ (11.41)

mo 2 ⎣ p o ⎦

NOTE:

• m in microchannels is very sensitive to channel height H.

• (11.39) shows the effect of rarefaction and compressibility.

2 H q ′s′

Nu = (v)

k (Ts − Tm )

Ts is given by (11.11)

2γ λ ∂T ( x, H / 2)

Ts = T ( x , H / 2 ) + (11.42)

1 + γ Pr ∂y

Tm is given by

H /2

Tm =

∫ 0

uT dy

(11.43)

H /2

∫ 0

udy

Additional assumptions:

11

(14) Axial velocity distribution is approximated by the solution to the isothermal case.

(15) Negligible dissipation, Φ = 0

(17) Negligible effect of compressibility on the energy equation, ∂u / ∂x + ∂v / ∂y = 0

(18) Nearly parallel flow, v = 0

• Energy equation: (2.15) simplifies to

∂T ∂ 2T

ρ c pu =k 2 (11.44)

∂x ∂y

• Boundary conditions

∂T ( x,0)

=0 (w)

∂y

and

∂T ( x, H / 2)

k = q ′s′ (x)

∂y

Assume:

(19) Fully developed temperature. Define φ

T ( x, H / 2) − T ( x, y )

φ= (11.45)

T ( x, H / 2) − Tm ( x)

Fully developed temperature:

φ = φ ( y) (11.46)

Thus

∂φ

=0 (11.47)

∂x

Equations (11.45) and (11.46) give

dT ( x, H / 2) ∂T ⎡ dT ( x, H / 2) dTm ( x) ⎤

− − φ ( y) ⎢ − =0 (11.48)

dx ∂x ⎣ dx dx ⎥⎦

The heat transfer coefficient h, is given by

∂T ( x, H / 2)

−k

∂y

h= (y)

Tm ( x) − Ts ( x)

Use (11.42) and (11.45) into (y)

k[T ( x, H / 2) − Tm ( x)] dφ ( H / 2)

h=− (11.49)

Ts ( x) − Tm ( x) dy

Newton’s law of cooling:

q ′s′

h=

Ts ( x) − Tm ( x)

Equating the above with (11.49)

12

q ′s′

T ( x, H / 2) − Tm ( x) = − = constant (11.50)

dφ ( H / 2)

dy

Combining this with (11.48), gives

dT ( x, H / 2) dTm ( x) ∂T

= = (11.51)

dx dx ∂x

Conservation of energy for the element in Fig. 11.8 gives

⎡ dT ⎤

2q ′s′Wdx + mc p Tm = mc p ⎢Tm + m dx ⎥

q′s′

⎣ dx ⎦

Simplify and eliminate m m dTm

Tm Tm + dx

dTm 2q ′s′ dx

= = constant (11.52) dx

dx ρ c pum H

(11.52) into (11.51) q′s′

dT ( x, H / 2) dTm ( x) ∂T 2q ′s′ Fig. 11.8

= = =

dx dx ∂x ρ c p u m H

∂ 2T 2q ′s′ u

= (11.54)

∂y 2 kH u m

where u m is given by

H /2

∫ udy

2

um = (cc)

H 0

(11.30) into (cc)

H 2 dp

um = − [1 + 6 Kn] (11.55)

12 μ dx

(11.30) and (11.55)

u 6 ⎡1 y2 ⎤

= ⎢ + Kn − ⎥ (11.56)

u m 1 + 6 Kn ⎢⎣ 4 H 2 ⎥⎦

(11.56) into (11.54)

∂ 2T 12 q ′s′ ⎡ 1 y2 ⎤

= ⎢ + Kn − 2 ⎥ (11.57)

∂y 2 1 + 6 Kn kH ⎣⎢ 4 H ⎥⎦

Integrating twice and use (w)

12q ′s′ ⎡1 1 y4 ⎤

⎢ ( + Kn) y −

2

T ( x, y ) = ⎥ + g ( x) (11.58)

(1 + 6 Kn)kH ⎣⎢ 2 4 12 H 2 ⎦⎥

13

First method: Integrate (11.52)

Tm x

∫ ∫

2q ′s′

dTm = dx

ρc p u m H

Tmi 0

Evaluating the integrals

2q ′s′

Tm ( x) = x + Tmi (11.60)

ρ c pum H

Second method: use definition in (11.43). (11.30) and (11.58) into (11.43)

3q ′s′ H ⎡ 2 13 13 ⎤

Tm ( x) = ⎢( Kn) + 40 Kn + 560 ⎥ + g ( x)

2

(11.61)

k (1 + 6 Kn) ⎣ ⎦

(11.60) and (11.61) give g(x)

2q ′s′ 3q ′s′ H ⎡ 2 13 13 ⎤

g ( x) = Tmi + x− ⎢( Kn) + 40 Kn + 560 ⎥ (11.62)

ρ c pum H k (1 + 6 Kn) 2 ⎣ ⎦

Surface temperature Ts ( x, H / 2) :

3q ′s′ H ⎡ 1 5 ⎤ 2γ q ′s′ H

Ts ( x ) = ⎢ Kn + ⎥ + Kn + g ( x) (11.63)

k (1 + 6 Kn) ⎣ 2 48 ⎦ γ + 1 kPr

Nusselt number: (11.61) and (11.63) into (v)

2

Nu = (11.64)

3 ⎧1 5 1 ⎡ 13 13 ⎤ ⎫ 2γ 1

⎨ Kn + − ⎢ ( Kn) 2 + Kn + ⎬+ Kn

(1 + 6 Kn) ⎩2 48 (1 + 6 Kn) ⎣ 40 560 ⎥⎦ ⎭ γ + 1 Pr

9

NOTE:

(i) The Nusselt number is an implicit function of 8

x since Kn is a function p which is a function of

x. 7

(ii) Unlike macrochannels, the Nusselt number Nu

depends on the fluid, as indicated by Pr and γ 6

in (11.64).

5

(iii) The effect of temperature jump on the

Nusselt number is represented by the last term 4

0 0.04 0.08 0.12

in the denominator of (11.64).

Kn

(iv) The Nusselt for no-slip, Nu o , is determined Fig. 11.9 Nusselt number for air flow between

by setting Kn = 0 in (11.64) parallel plates at unifrorm surface

γ = 1.4, Pr = 0.7,

heat flux for air,

σu =σT =1

14

140

Nu o = = 8.235 (11.65)

17

(v) Rarefaction and compressibility have the effect of decreasing the Nusselt number.

case. y Ts

• The velocity, pressure, and mass flow H/2

rate, are the same as for uniform flux.

• Surface boundary condition is different. H/2 x

• Must determine temperature distribution

Ts

• Temperature Distribution and Nusselt Fig. 11.10

Number. Newton’s law of cooling the

Nusselt number for this case is given by

2 Hh − 2 H ∂T ( x, H / 2)

Nu = = (11.66a)

k Tm ( x) − Ts ∂y

• Energy equation: Include axial conduction

∂T ∂ 2T ∂ 2T

ρ c pu =k( 2 + 2 ) (11.67a)

∂x ∂x ∂y

• Boundary conditions:

∂T ( x,0)

=0 (11.68a)

∂y

2γ H ∂T ( x, H / 2)

T ( x , H / 2 ) = Ts − Kn (11.69a)

γ + 1 Pr ∂y

T (0, y ) = Ti (11.70a)

T (∞, y ) = Ts (11.71a)

Axial velocity is given by (11.56)

u 6 ⎡1 y2 ⎤

= ⎢ + Kn − 2 ⎥ (11.56)

u m 1 + 6 Kn ⎢⎣ 4 H ⎥⎦

Dimensionless variables

T − Ts x y 2ρum H

θ= , ξ= , η = , Re = , Pe = RePr (11.72)

Ti − Ts H RePr H μ

Use (11.56) and (11.72), into (11.66a)-(11.71a)

2 ∂θ (ξ ,η / 2)

Nu = − (11.66)

θm ∂η

15

2 2

6

( 1 + Kn − η 2 ) ∂θ = 1 2 ∂ θ2 + ∂ θ2 (11.67)

1 + 6 Kn 4 ∂ξ ( Pe) ∂ξ ∂η

∂θ (ξ ,0)

=0 (11.68)

∂η

2γ 1 ∂θ (ξ ,1 / 2)

θ (ξ ,1 / 2) = − Kn (11.69)

γ + 1 Pr ∂η

θ (0,η ) = 1 (11.70)

θ (∞, η ) = 0 (11.71)

Pe = 0

• Result: Fig. 11.11. 1

5 ∞8

NOTE: 7

Nu

• The Nusselt number decreases as the Knudsen

number is increased. 6

number. 5

conduction ( Pe = ∞) : Kn

Fig. 11.11 Nusselt number for flow between

Nu o = 7.5407 (11.73) parallel plates at uniform surface

temperature for air, Pr = 0.7,

γ = 1.4 , σu = σT =1, [14]

Poiseuille flow between

r

ro

parallel plates at uniform flux

presented in Section 11.6.3.

z

• Determine the following:

(1) Velocity distribution q′s′

(2) Nusselt number Fig. 11.12

Assumptions. See Section 11.6.3.

Flow Field. Following the analysis of Section 11.6.3. Use cylindrical coordinates.

• Results:

16

ro2 dp ⎡ r2 ⎤

vz = − ⎢1 + 4 Kn − 2 ⎥ (11.74)

4 μ dz ⎣⎢ ro ⎦⎥

vz 1 + 4 Kn − (r / ro ) 2

=2 (11.77)

v zm 1 + 8 Kn

2

p( z ) ⎡ p ⎤ ⎡ p2 p ⎤z

= −8 Kno + ⎢8 Kno + i ⎥ + ⎢(1 − i2 ) + 16 Kno (1 − i )⎥ (11.78)

po ⎣ po ⎦ ⎢⎣ po p o ⎥⎦ L

m= ⎢ 2 − 1 + 16 Kno ( − 1)⎥ (11.79a)

16 μ LRTo ⎣ po po ⎦

π ro4 po2

mo = ( pi − 1) (11.79b)

8 μ LRT po

Nusselt Number. Define

2ro h

Nu = (d)

k

2 ro q ′s′

Nu = (e)

k (Ts − Tm )

• Results

q ′s′ ⎡ 2 1 r4 ⎤

T (r , z ) = ⎢ (1 + 4 Kn ) r − ⎥ + g ( z) (11.92)

(1 + 8 Kn) k ro ⎢⎣ 4 ro2 ⎥⎦

q ′s′ ro ⎡ 14 7⎤

Tm = 2⎢16 Kn 2 + Kn + ⎥ + g ( z ) (11.95)

k (1 + 8 Kn) ⎣ 3 24 ⎦

2q ′s′ q ′s′ro ⎡ 14 7⎤

g ( z ) = Tmi + z− ⎢16 Kn 2 + Kn + ⎥ (11.96)

ρ c p ro v z m k (1 + 8 Kn) ⎣ 2 3 24 ⎦

4q ′s′ro ⎡ 3 ⎤ 4γ q ′s′ro

Ts (ro , z ) = ⎢⎣ Kn + 16 ⎥⎦ + γ + 1 kPr Kn + g ( z ) (11.97)

k (1 + 8 Kn)

2

Nu = (11.98)

4 ⎡ 7 ⎤ 4γ 1

( Kn + 3 ) − 1

⎢

14

16 Kn 2 + Kn + ⎥ + Kn

(1 + 8 Kn) 16 2

(1 + 8 Kn) ⎣ 3 24 ⎦ γ + 1 Pr

• Nusselt number variation with Knudsen number for air, with γ = 1.4 and Pr = 0.7,

is plotted in Fig. 11.14.

• No-slip Nusselt number, Nu o , is obtained by setting Kn = 0 in (11.98)

48

Nu o = = 4.364 (11.99)

11

18

is repeated with the tube maintained at ro

uniform surface temperature Ts .

z

Fig. 11.15

• Same flow field as the uniform surface

flux case of Section 11.6.5

• Follow the analysis of Section 11.6.4. and use the flow field of Section 11.6.5.

• Dimensionless variables

T − Ts z r 2 ρ u m ro

θ= , ξ= , R = , Re = , Pe = RePr (11.106)

Ti − Ts 2ro RePr ro μ

• Nusselt number, energy equation, and boundary conditions in dimensionless form

2 ∂θ (1, ξ )

Nu = − (11.100)

θ m ∂R

1 + 4 Kn − R 2 ∂θ 1 ∂ 2

= ( R ∂θ ) + 1 2 ∂ θ2 (11.101)

2(2 + 16 Kn) ∂ξ R ∂R ∂R (2 Pe) ∂ξ

∂θ (0.ξ ) 4.5

= 0 (11.102)

∂R Pe = 0

1

2γ Kn ∂θ (1, ξ ) 4.0 5 ∞

θ (1, ξ ) = − (11.103)

γ + 1 Pr ∂R

3.5

θ ( R,0) = 1 (11.104) Nu

θ ( R, ∞ ) = 0 (11.105) 3.0

2.5

0 0.04 0.08 0.12

Kn

Fig. 11.16 Nusselt number for flow through tubes

at uniform surface temperature for air,

Pr = 0.7, γ =1.4, σu = σT = 1 , [14]

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