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6.1 Introduction

uD

Re Dt | 2300 (6.1)

Q

(2) Entrance vs. fully developed region

x Classification based on velocity and temperature profiles:

(i) Entrance region

(ii) Fully developed region

(3) Surface boundary conditions

x Two common boundary conditions::

(i) Uniform surface temperature

(ii) Uniform surface heat flux

(4) Objective.

x Objective depends on surface thermal boundary condition:

(i) Uniform surface temperature. Determine axial variation of:

(1) Mean fluid temperature

(2) Heat transfer coefficient

(3) Surface heat flux

(ii) Uniform surface flux. Determine axial variation of:

(1) Mean fluid temperature

(2) Heat transfer coefficient

(3) Surface temperature

(1) Entrance region. Extends from the inlet to the section where the boundary layer

thickness reaches the center of channel.

(2) Fully developed region. This zone follows the entrance region.

2

(1) Entrance Region (Developing Flow, 0 d x d Lh ).

x Length: Lh (hydrodynamic entrance length).

r

x Streamlines are not parallel.

x Core velocity u c increases with distance

x Pressure decreases with distance ( dp / dx 0 ). Vi

uc

x G D/2. x u

u G

Lh fully developed

(2) Fully Developed Flow Region. x t Lh Fig. 6.1

x Streamlines are parallel ( v r 0).

x wu / wx 0 for two-dimensional incompressible fluid.

x Name: Thermal entrance region.

r Ts Ts

x Length: Lt (thermal entrance length). Tc

x Core temperature Tc is uniform, Tc Ti .

Vi T

x Gt D / 2

Ti x

(2) Fully Developed Temperature Region. x t Lt Ts

Gt

x Temperature varies radially and axially, fully developed

Lt

wT / wx z 0.

Fig. 6.2

6.3 Hydrodynamic and Thermal Entrance Lengths

x Starting with external flow result (4.16)

G 1

a (4.16)

x Re x

Lh

G a D and Re Lh Re D (b)

D

x Substituting (b) into (4.16) and rearranging

3

1/ 2

§ Lh / D ·

¨¨ ¸¸ ~1 (6.2)

© Re D ¹

x Starting with external flow result (4.24)

G t ~ L Re L1 / 2 Pr 1 / 2 (4.24)

x Applying (4.24) at x Lt :

Lt

G t a D and Re Lt Re D (b)

D

Substituting (b) into (4.24) and rearranging

1/ 2

§ Lt / D ·

¨¨ ¸¸ ~1 (6.3)

© Re D Pr ¹

x (6.2) and (6.3) give

Lt

~ Pr (6.4)

Lh

(1) Hydrodynamic Entrance Length Lh .

Lh Entrance length coefficients C h and Ct [1]

C h Re D e (6.5)

De Ct

x Table 6.1 gives C h uniform uniform

geometry Ch

x Compare with scaling: surface flux surface

1/ 2

temperature

§ Lh / D ·

¨¨ ¸¸ ~1 (6.2) 0.056 0.043 0.033

© Re D ¹

a

b a 0.09 0.066 0.041

Rewrite (6.5) a/b =1

1/ 2 a

§ L h / De · b a/b = 2 0.085 0.057 0.049

¨ ¸ C h 1 / 2 (a)

¨ Re D ¸ a

© e ¹

b a/b = 4 0.075 0.042 0.054

Example: Rectangular channel,

aspect ratio 2, Table 6.1 gives

C h 0.085. Substituting this value 0.011 0.012 0.008

into (a), gives

4

1/ 2

§ L h / De ·

¨

¨ Re

¸

¸

0.0851 / 2 0.29 (b)

© De ¹

Scaling replaces 0.29 by unity.

(2) Thermal Entrance Length Lt .

temperature. (ii) Uniform surface flux.

x Solution

Lt

C t PrRe D (6.6)

De

x Compare with scaling. Rewrite (6.6)

1/ 2

§ Lt / De ·

¨¨ ¸¸ Ct 1 / 2 (c)

© PrRe D ¹

Scaling gives

1/ 2

§ Lt / D ·

¨¨ ¸¸ ~1 (6.3)

© Re D Pr ¹

Example: Rectangular channel, aspect ratio 2, Table 6.1 gives Ct 0.049. Substituting

this value into (c), gives

1/ 2

§ Lt / De ·

¨ ¸ 0.0491 / 2 0.22 (d)

¨ PrRe D ¸

© e ¹

Scaling replaces 0.22 be unity.

x Turbulent flow: L Lh Lt

L

| 10 (6.7)

D

L

x Determine:

(1) Total heat transfer rate q s . Tmi

0 x Tm (x)

(2) Mean temperature variation Tm (x).

(3) Surface temperature variation Ts (x). qcsc

x Total heat transfer rate Fig. 6.3

5

As = surface area

P = perimeter

qs q csc P x mcp [Tm ( x) Tmi ]

or

q csc P

Tm ( x) Tmi x (6.9)

mc p

x Surface temperature Ts (x) . Newton’s law of cooling gives

or

q csc

Ts ( x) Tm ( x)

h( x )

Using (6.9)

ª Px 1 º

Ts ( x) Tm i q csc « » (6.10)

c h( x ) »

¬« m p ¼

NOTE:

x To determine h(x): Must know if:

x Flow is Laminar or turbulent.

x Entrance or fully developed region

x Inlet mean temperature: Tmi Tm (0) .

Ts

x Determine:

Tmi Tm (x)

(1) Mean temperature variation Tm (x). 0 x

m

(2) Total heat transfer rate q s between x 0 and

location x. dx

dq s

(3) Surface heat flux variation q csc (x).

dTm

x Mean temperature variation Tm (x). Tm Tm dx

dx

Conservation of energy to element

dx

dq s m c p dTm (a) Fig. 6.4

6

Newton's law:

dq s h( x)>Ts Tm ( x)@Pdx (b)

dTm P

h( x)dx (c)

Ts Tm ( x) m cp

Integrating (c)

x

ª T ( x) Ts º

ln « m

¬ Tmi Ts ¼

» P

m cp ³ h( x)dx

0

(6.11)

Definite h

x

1

h

x ³

0

h( x)dx (6.12)

Ph

Tm ( x) Ts (Tmi Ts ) exp[ x] (6.13)

mcp

NOTE:

x To determine h(x): Must know if:

x Flow is laminar or turbulent.

x Entrance or fully developed region

x Heat transfer rate. Conservation of energy:

q csc ( x) h( x)[Ts Tm ( x)] (6.15)

6.6.1 Scale Analysis

r

x Estimate h(x) and Nu D . qcsc

x Tube: radius ro , surface temperature Ts , mean temperature Tm . ro

x Fourier’s law and Newton’s law:

0

wT (ro , x)

k Tm Ts

wr

h (6.16)

Tm Ts

Fig. 6.5

Scaling (6.16)

7

Tm Ts

k

Gt

h~

Tm Ts

or

k

h~ (6.17)

Gt

The Nusselt number

hD

Nu D

k

Use (6.17)

D

Nu D ~ (6.18)

Gt

x Fully developed region: G t (x) ~ D, equation (6.18) gives

x For external flow

G t ~ x Pr 1 / 2 Re x1 / 2 (4.24)

x (4.24) into (6.18)

D 1 / 2 1/2

Nu D ~ Pr Re x (c)

x

x Expressing Re x in terms of Re D

ux uD x x

Re x Re D (d)

ǎ ǎ D D

Substitute (d) into (c)

1/2

§D·

Nu D ~¨ ¸ Pr 1 / 2Re1/2

D (6.20a)

©x¹

Rewrite

Nu D

~1 (6.20b)

1/ 2

§ PrRe D ·

¨ ¸

© x/D ¹

x Scaling estimates (6.19) and (6.20) will be compared with exact solutions.

8

6.6.2 Basic Considerations for the Analytical Determination of Heat Flux, Heat

Transfer Coefficient and Nusselt Number r

qcsc

x Need to determine velocity and temperature distribution.

x Assume: fully developed velocity ro

x Neglect axial conduction 0

x Section outline:

Tm Ts

x Definitions

x Governing equations for determining:

Fig. 6.5

(i) Surface heat flux

(ii) Heat transfer coefficient

(iii) Nusselt number

x Surface heat flux. Fourier’s law gives surface heat flux q csc

wT x, ro

q csc k (a)

wr

Define dimensionless variables

T Ts x/D r vx vr uD

T , [ , R , v
x v , v r
, Re D (6.21)

Ti Ts Re D Pr ro u u ǎ

Substitute into (a)

q csc ([ )

k

Ts Ti w0([ ,1) (6.22)

ro wR

q"s

h[ (6.23)

Tm Ts

Combine (6.22) and (6.23)

k (Ts Ti ) wT ([ ,1) k 1 wT ([ ,1)

h([ ) (6.24)

ro (Tm Ts ) wR ro T m ([ ) wR

where T m is defined as

Tm Ts

m { (6.25)

Ti Ts

x Nusselt number. Define:

h([ ) D h([ )2ro

Nu ([ ) (6.26)

k k

(6.24) into (6.26)

2 w ([ ,1)

Nu ([ ) (6.27)

m ([ ) wR

9

§ wT wT · ª 1 w § wT · w 2T º

U c p ¨ vr vz ¸ k« ¨r ¸ » (2.24)

© wr wz ¹ «¬ r wr © wr ¹ wz 2 »¼

Replace z by x, use dimensionless variables:

w w 4 w § w · 1 w 2

v x
2 Re D Pr vr
¨ R ¸ (6.28)

w[ wR R wR © wR ¹ ( Re D Pr) 2 w[ 2

where

Pe Re D Pr , Peclet number (6.29)

x Neglect conduction for

Pe PrRe D t 100 (6.30)

Thus, under such conditions, (6.28) becomes

wT wT 4 w § wT ·

v x
2 Re D Pr vr
¨R ¸ (6.31)

w[ wR R wR © wR ¹

(3) Mean (Bulk) Temperature Tm . Define:

ro

mc p Tm

³ 0

U c p v x T 2Srdr (a)

ro

m

³

0

U v x 2Srdr (b)

ro

Tm

³ 0

v x Trdr

(6.32a)

ro

³ 0

v x rdr

Dimensionless form:

1

Tm

Tm Ts ³ 0

v
xT R dR

(6.32b)

Ti Ts 1

³ 0

v
x R dR

10

fully developed.

x To define fully developed temperature, introduce the dimensionless temperature I

Ts ( x) T (r , x)

I (6.33)

Ts ( x) Tm ( x)

x Fully developed temperature is defined as a profile in which I is independent of x:

I I (r ) (6.34)

(6.34) gives

wI

0 (6.35)

wx

(6.33) and (6.35) give

wI w ª Ts ( x ) T ( r , x ) º

« » 0 (6.36a)

wx wx ¬ Ts ( x) Tm ( x) ¼

Expand and use the definition of I in (6.33)

dTs wT ª dT dT º

I (r ) « s m » 0 (6.36b)

dx wx ¬ dx dx ¼

6.7.2 Heat Transfer Coefficient and Nusselt Number

x Examine h and Nu in the fully developed region.

x Fourier’s and Newton’s law:

wT (ro , x)

k

wr

h (6.16)

Tm Ts

Use (6.33) to eliminate wT (ro , x) / wr . (6.16) gives

dI (ro )

h k = constant (6.37)

dr

IMPORTANT CONCLUSOIN:

IS CONSTANT INDEPENDET OF LOCATION.

x Nusselt number

hD dI (ro )

Nu D D (6.38)

k dr

x Scaling estimate based on limiting case of entrance region:

Nu D ~ 1 (fully developed) (6.19)

x Scale estimate based on fully developed region:

11

Scale wT (ro , x) / wr as

wT (ro , x) Ts Tm

~

wr D

Substitute into (6.16)

k

h~ (6.39)

D

Substitute (6.39) into (6.38)

Nu D ~ 1 (fully developed) (6.40)

r

x Determine: qcsc

T

(i) Surface temperature Ts (x). D

u 0 x

(ii) Heat transfer coefficient.

qcsc

Fig. 6.6

x Newton’s law

q csc h>Ts ( x) Tm ( x)@ (a)

Since q csc and h are constant it follows that

Ts ( x) Tm ( x) constant (b)

Differentiate

dTs dTm

. (c)

dx dx

(c) into (6.36b)

wT dTs

(d)

wx dx

(c) and (d)

wT dTs dTm

(for constant q csc ) (6.41)

wx dx dx

x Conservation of energy: m dTm

Tm Tm dx

ª dT º dx

q csc Pdx mc p Tm mc p «Tm m dx » dx

¬ dx ¼

or qcsc

Fig. 6.7

12

dTm q csc P

= constant (6.42)

dx mc p

wT dTs dTm q csc P

= = constant (6.43)

wx dx dx mc p

Integrate(6.43)

q csc P

Tm ( x) x C1 (e)

mc p

Use inlet condition

Tm (0) Tmi (f)

Solution (e) becomes

q csc P

Tm ( x) Tmi x (6.44)

mc p

x Need to determine T (r , x) and Ts (x). This requires solving the differential form of

the energy equation.

x Set v r 0 in energy equation (2.24)

wT k w § wT ·

U c p vx ¨r ¸ (6.45)

wx r wr © wr ¹

Fully developed flow axial velocity

ª r2 º

vx 2u «1 2 » (6.46)

¬« ro ¼»

(6.43) and (6.46) into (6.45)

ª r 2 º q csc P k w § wT ·

U c p 2u «1 » ¨r ¸ (g)

«¬ ro2 »¼ m c p r wr © wr ¹

4q csc ª r 2 º k w § wT ·

«1 » ¨r ¸ (6.47)

ro ¬« ro2 ¼» r wr © wr ¹

Boundary conditions are:

wT (0, x)

0 (6.48a)

wr

wT (ro , x)

k q csc (6.48b)

wr

Integrate (6.47)

13

4 ªr 2 r4 º wT

q csc « 2 » kr f x (h)

ro «¬ 2 4ro »¼ wr

wT 4q csc ªr r3 º

« 2»

wr kro ¬« 2 4ro ¼»

Integrate again

4q csc ªr2 r4 º

T (r , x) « » g ( x) (6.49)

kro 2

«¬ 4 16ro »¼

The integration “constant” is g (x) . Use Tm (x) to determine g (x). Substitute (6.46) and

(6.49) into (6.32a)

7 ro q csc

Tm ( x) g ( x) (6.50)

24 k

Equate (6.44) and (6.50) gives g (x)

7 ro q csc Pq csc

g ( x) Tmi x (6.51)

24 k mc p

(6.51) into (6.49)

4q csc ª r 2 r 4 º 7 ro q csc Pq csc

T (r , x) Tmi « » x (6.52)

kro ¬« 4 16ro2 ¼» 24 k mc p

Set r ro in (6.52) to obtain Ts (x)

11 ro q csc Pq csc

Ts ( x) Tmi x (6.53)

24 k mc p

24 1 ª 2 r 4 º 24 Pq csc 7

I (r ) 1 2

«r 2 » x x (6.54)

11 ro ¬« 4ro ¼» 11 mc p 11

48

Nu D 4.364 (6.55)

11

NOTE:

x (6.55) applies to laminar fully developed velocity and temperature in tubes with

uniform surface heat flux.

x The Nusselt number is independent of Reynolds and Prandtl numbers.

x Scaling gives Nusselt as

Nu D ~ 1 (6.40)

14

x Determine: Nusselt number

x Solve the energy equation for the fully developed region

x Neglect axial conduction and dissipation.

x Energy equation: set v r 0 in (2.24)

wT k w § wT ·

U c p vx ¨r ¸ (6.45)

wx r wr ¨© w r ¸¹

x Boundary conditions

wT (0, x)

0 (6.56a)

wr

T (ro , x) Ts (6.56b)

x Axial velocity for fully developed flow is

ª r2 º

vx 2u «1 2 » (6.46)

¬« ro ¼»

x Use (6.36a) to Eliminate wT / wx in (6.45)

wI w ª Ts ( x ) T ( r , x ) º

« » 0 (6.36a)

wx wx ¬ Ts ( x) Tm ( x) ¼

wT Ts T (r , x) dTm

(6.57)

wx Ts Tm ( x) dx

(6.46) and (6.57) into (6.45)

ª r 2 º T T (r , x) dTm k w § wT ·

2 U c p u «1 2 » s ¨r ¸ (6.58)

«¬ ro »¼ Ts Tm ( x) dx r wr ¨© w r ¸¹

Solution: (6.58) was solved using an infinite power series. Solution gives the Nusselt

number as

Nu D 3.657 (6.59)

6.7.5 Nusselt Number for Laminar Fully Developed Velocity and Temperature in

Channels of Various Cross-Sections

x Two cases: (1) uniform surface heat flux and (2) uniform surface temperature.

x Nusselt number of Non-circular channels is based on the equivalent diameter.

x Scaling estimate:

Table 6.2 15

Nusselt number for laminar fully developed

Nu D ~ 1 (fully developed) (6.40) conditions in channels of various cross-sections [3]

to 8.235. Channel geometry a Uniform Uniform

b surface surface

flux temperature

6.8 Thermal Entrance Region: Laminar Flow

through Tubes 4.364 3.657

1 3.608 2.976

Solution b

x Laminar flow. a

b 2 4.123 3.391

x Fully developed inlet velocity.

b 4 5.331 4.439

a

x Neglect axial conduction (Pe > 100).

a

8 6.49 5.597

x Uniform surface temperature Ts . b

Fully developed flow: f 8.235 7.541

vr 0 (3.1)

3.102 2.46

Axial velocity

1 dp 2

vz (r ro2 ) (3.12) r

4 P dz Ts

(3.12) expressed in dimensionless form

Ti T

vx

v
x 2

2(1 R ) (6.61) u 0

u x

Gt

(3.1) and (6.61) into energy equation (6.31)

wT 1 w § wT · Fig. 6.8

1

2

1 R2

w[

¨R ¸

R wR © wR ¹

(6.62)

x Boundary conditions

wT ([ ,0)

0 (6.63a)

wR

T ([ ,1) 0 (6.63b)

T (0, R) 1 (6.63c)

x Analytic and numerical solutions to this problem have been obtained.

x Review analytic solution leading to:

16

f

Gn

T m [ 8 ¦O

n 0

2

n

exp(2O2n[ ) (6.66)

f

¦G n exp(2O2n[ )

Nu [ n 0

f

(66.7)

Gn

2 ¦O

n 0

2

n

exp(2O2n[ )

h ([ ) D

Nu ([ ) (f)

k

RESULTS

x Table 6.3 lists values of O n and Gn for 0 d n d 10. Table 6.4 gives Nu ([ ) and

Nu ([ ) at selected values of the axial distance [ .

Table 6.4

Table 6.3

Local and average Nusselt

Uniform surface temperature [4] number for tube at uniform

n On Gn surface temperature [5]

0 2.70436 0.74877 x/D

1 6.67903 0.54383 [= Nu ([ ) Nu ([ )

2 10.67338 0.46286 Re D Pr

3 14.67108 0.41542 0 f f

4 18.66987 0.38292 0.0005 12.8 19.29

5 22.66914 0.35869 0.002 8.03 12.09

6 26.66866 0.33962 0.005 6.00 8.92

7 30.66832 0.32406 0.02 4.17 5.81

8 34.66807 0.31101 0.04 3.77 4.86

9 38.66788 0.29984 0.05 3.71 4.64

10 42.66773 0.29012 0.1 3.66 4.15

f 3.66 3.66

17

Average Nu

Local Nu

Nusselt number

x/D

[

ReD Pr

Fig. 6.9 Local and average Nusselt number for

tube at uniform surface temepratu re [ 4]

NOTE:

(1) The average Nusselt number is greater than the local Nusselt number.

(2) Asymptotic value of Nusselt number of 3.657 is reached at [ | 0.05 . Thus

Nu (f) 3.657 (6.69)

(3) Evaluate fluid properties at the mean temperatures Tm , defined as

Tmi Tmo

Tm (6.70)

2

Ti T

x Repeat Graetz entrance problem D

replacing the uniform surface u 0 x

temperature with uniform heat flux. Gt

Fig. 6.10

x Energy equation is

wT 1 w § wT ·

1

2

1 R2

w[

¨R ¸

R wR © wR ¹

(6.62)

18

Boundary conditions

wT ([ ,0)

) 0 (6.71a)

wR

wT ([ ,1) q cscro

(6.71b)

wR k (Ti Ts )

T (0, R) 1 (6.71c)

x Solution.

x Local Nusselt number:

f 1

hx ª 11 1 º Table 6.5

Nu ([ )

k

«

« 48 2

¬

¦ n 1

An exp(2 E n2 [ )»

»

¼

(6.72] Uniform surface flux [4]

n E n2 An

x The average Nusselt number is given by 1 25.6796 0.198722

f 1 2 83.8618 0.069257

hx ª 11 1 1 exp(2 E n2 [ ) º 3 174.1667 0.036521

Nu ([ )

k

«

« 48 2

¬

¦

n 1

An

2 E n2 [

»

»

¼

(6.73]

4 296.5363 0.023014

5 450.9472 0.016030

6 637.3874 0.011906

x The eigenvalues E n2 and the constant An are listed 7 855.8495 0.009249

in Table 6.5 8 1106.3290 0.007427

9 1388.8226 0.006117

x Limiting case: [ f (fully developed)

10 1703.3279 0.005141

48

Nu (f) 4.364 (6.74)

11

Average Nu

Local Nu

Nusselt number

x/D

[

ReD Pr

tube at uniform surface heat flux [4]

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