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CHAPTER 6

6.1 Introduction

x Flow through tubes, transition Reynolds number Re D t is

uD
Re Dt | 2300 (6.1)
Q
(2) Entrance vs. fully developed region
x Classification based on velocity and temperature profiles:
(i) Entrance region
(ii) Fully developed region
(3) Surface boundary conditions
x Two common boundary conditions::
(i) Uniform surface temperature
(ii) Uniform surface heat flux
(4) Objective.
x Objective depends on surface thermal boundary condition:
(i) Uniform surface temperature. Determine axial variation of:
(1) Mean fluid temperature
(2) Heat transfer coefficient
(3) Surface heat flux
(ii) Uniform surface flux. Determine axial variation of:
(1) Mean fluid temperature
(2) Heat transfer coefficient
(3) Surface temperature

x Fluid enters with uniform velocity and temperature.

(1) Entrance region. Extends from the inlet to the section where the boundary layer
thickness reaches the center of channel.
(2) Fully developed region. This zone follows the entrance region.
2

6.2.1 Flow Field

(1) Entrance Region (Developing Flow, 0 d x d Lh ).

x Name: hydrodynamic entrance region.

x Length: Lh (hydrodynamic entrance length).
r
x Streamlines are not parallel.
x Core velocity u c increases with distance
x Pressure decreases with distance ( dp / dx  0 ). Vi
uc
x G  D/2. x u
u G
Lh fully developed
(2) Fully Developed Flow Region. x t Lh Fig. 6.1
x Streamlines are parallel ( v r 0).
x wu / wx 0 for two-dimensional incompressible fluid.

(1) Entrance Region (Developing Temperature, 0 d x d Lt )

x Name: Thermal entrance region.
r Ts Ts
x Length: Lt (thermal entrance length). Tc
x Core temperature Tc is uniform, Tc Ti .
Vi T
x Gt  D / 2
Ti x
(2) Fully Developed Temperature Region. x t Lt Ts
Gt
x Temperature varies radially and axially, fully developed
Lt
wT / wx z 0.
Fig. 6.2
6.3 Hydrodynamic and Thermal Entrance Lengths

(1) Hydrodynamic Entrance Length Lh .

x Starting with external flow result (4.16)
G 1
a (4.16)
x Re x

x Applying (4.16) to a tube at x Lh :

Lh
G a D and Re Lh Re D (b)
D
x Substituting (b) into (4.16) and rearranging
3

1/ 2
§ Lh / D ·
¨¨ ¸¸ ~1 (6.2)

(2) Thermal Entrance Length Lt .

x Starting with external flow result (4.24)
G t ~ L Re L1 / 2 Pr 1 / 2 (4.24)
x Applying (4.24) at x Lt :
Lt
G t a D and Re Lt Re D (b)
D
Substituting (b) into (4.24) and rearranging
1/ 2
§ Lt / D ·
¨¨ ¸¸ ~1 (6.3)
x (6.2) and (6.3) give
Lt
~ Pr (6.4)
Lh

6.3.2 Analytic and Numerical Solutions: Laminar Flow

(1) Hydrodynamic Entrance Length Lh .

x Results for Lh : Table 6.1

Lh Entrance length coefficients C h and Ct 
C h Re D e (6.5)
De Ct
x Table 6.1 gives C h uniform uniform
geometry Ch
x Compare with scaling: surface flux surface
1/ 2
temperature
§ Lh / D ·
¨¨ ¸¸ ~1 (6.2) 0.056 0.043 0.033
a
b a 0.09 0.066 0.041
Rewrite (6.5) a/b =1

1/ 2 a
§ L h / De · b a/b = 2 0.085 0.057 0.049
¨ ¸ C h 1 / 2 (a)
¨ Re D ¸ a
b a/b = 4 0.075 0.042 0.054
Example: Rectangular channel,
aspect ratio 2, Table 6.1 gives
C h 0.085. Substituting this value 0.011 0.012 0.008
into (a), gives
4

1/ 2
§ L h / De ·
¨
¨ Re
¸
¸
0.085 1 / 2 0.29 (b)
Scaling replaces 0.29 by unity.
(2) Thermal Entrance Length Lt .

x Lt depends on surface boundary conditions: Two cases: (i) Uniform surface

temperature. (ii) Uniform surface flux.
x Solution
Lt
C t PrRe D (6.6)
De

x Table 6.1 gives Ct for both cases.

x Compare with scaling. Rewrite (6.6)
1/ 2
§ Lt / De ·
¨¨ ¸¸ Ct 1 / 2 (c)
Scaling gives
1/ 2
§ Lt / D ·
¨¨ ¸¸ ~1 (6.3)
Example: Rectangular channel, aspect ratio 2, Table 6.1 gives Ct 0.049. Substituting
this value into (c), gives
1/ 2
§ Lt / De ·
¨ ¸ 0.049 1 / 2 0.22 (d)
¨ PrRe D ¸
Scaling replaces 0.22 be unity.
x Turbulent flow: L Lh Lt
L
| 10 (6.7)
D

x Inlet mean temperature: Tmi Tm (0) .

L
x Determine:
(1) Total heat transfer rate q s . Tmi
0 x Tm (x)
(2) Mean temperature variation Tm (x).
(3) Surface temperature variation Ts (x). qcsc
x Total heat transfer rate Fig. 6.3
5

qs q csc As q csc P x (6.8)

As = surface area

P = perimeter

x Mean temperature Tm (x) . Conservation of energy between inlet and section x:

qs q csc P x mcp [Tm ( x)  Tmi ]
or
q csc P
Tm ( x) Tmi  x (6.9)
mc p
x Surface temperature Ts (x) . Newton’s law of cooling gives

q csc h( x)>Ts ( x)  Tm ( x)@

or
q csc
Ts ( x) Tm ( x) 
h( x )
Using (6.9)
ª Px 1 º
Ts ( x) Tm i  q csc «  » (6.10)
c h( x ) »
¬« m p ¼
NOTE:

x Determining Ts (x) requires knowing h(x).

x To determine h(x): Must know if:
x Flow is Laminar or turbulent.
x Entrance or fully developed region

6.5 Channels with Uniform Surface Temperature

x Inlet mean temperature: Tmi Tm (0) .
Ts
x Determine:
Tmi Tm (x)
(1) Mean temperature variation Tm (x). 0 x
m
(2) Total heat transfer rate q s between x 0 and
location x. dx
dq s
(3) Surface heat flux variation q csc (x).
dTm
x Mean temperature variation Tm (x). Tm Tm  dx
dx
Conservation of energy to element
dx
dq s m c p dTm (a) Fig. 6.4
6

Newton's law:
dq s h( x)>Ts  Tm ( x)@Pdx (b)

Combine (a) and (b)

dTm P
h( x)dx (c)
Ts  Tm ( x) m cp
Integrating (c)
x
ª T ( x)  Ts º
ln « m
¬ Tmi  Ts ¼
»  P
m cp ³ h( x)dx
0
(6.11)

Definite h
x
1
h
x ³
0
h( x)dx (6.12)

(6.12) into (6.11), solve Tm (x)

Ph
Tm ( x) Ts  (Tmi  Ts ) exp[ x] (6.13)
mcp
NOTE:

x Determining Tm (x) requires knowing h(x).

x To determine h(x): Must know if:
x Flow is laminar or turbulent.
x Entrance or fully developed region
x Heat transfer rate. Conservation of energy:

x Surface heat flux.: Newton’s law:

q csc ( x) h( x)[Ts  Tm ( x)] (6.15)

6.6 Determination of Heat Transfer Coefficient h(x) and Nusselt Number Nu D

6.6.1 Scale Analysis
r
x Estimate h(x) and Nu D . qcsc
x Tube: radius ro , surface temperature Ts , mean temperature Tm . ro
x Fourier’s law and Newton’s law:
0
wT (ro , x)
k Tm Ts
wr
h (6.16)
Tm  Ts
Fig. 6.5
Scaling (6.16)
7

Tm  Ts
k
Gt
h~
Tm  Ts
or
k
h~ (6.17)
Gt
The Nusselt number
hD
Nu D
k
Use (6.17)
D
Nu D ~ (6.18)
Gt
x Fully developed region: G t (x) ~ D, equation (6.18) gives

x Entrance region: Need to scale G t ( G t (x) < D).

x For external flow
G t ~ x Pr 1 / 2 Re x1 / 2 (4.24)
x (4.24) into (6.18)
D 1 / 2 1/2
Nu D ~ Pr Re x (c)
x
x Expressing Re x in terms of Re D
ux uD x x
Re x Re D (d)
ǎ ǎ D D
Substitute (d) into (c)
1/2
§D·
Nu D ~¨ ¸ Pr 1 / 2Re1/2
D (6.20a)
Rewrite
Nu D
~1 (6.20b)
1/ 2
§ PrRe D ·
¨ ¸

x Scaling estimates (6.19) and (6.20) will be compared with exact solutions.
8

6.6.2 Basic Considerations for the Analytical Determination of Heat Flux, Heat
Transfer Coefficient and Nusselt Number r
qcsc
x Need to determine velocity and temperature distribution.
x Assume: fully developed velocity ro
x Neglect axial conduction 0
x Section outline:
Tm Ts
x Definitions
x Governing equations for determining:
Fig. 6.5
(i) Surface heat flux
(ii) Heat transfer coefficient
(iii) Nusselt number

(1) Fourier’s law and Newton’s law.

x Surface heat flux. Fourier’s law gives surface heat flux q csc
wT x, ro
q csc k (a)
wr
Define dimensionless variables
T  Ts x/D r vx vr uD
T , [ , R , v x v , v r , Re D (6.21)
Ti  Ts Re D Pr ro u u ǎ
Substitute into (a)
q csc ([ )
k
Ts  Ti w0([ ,1) (6.22)
ro wR

x Heat transfer coefficient. Define h

q"s
h [ (6.23)
Tm  Ts
Combine (6.22) and (6.23)
k (Ts  Ti ) wT ([ ,1) k 1 wT ([ ,1)
h([ )  (6.24)
ro (Tm  Ts ) wR ro T m ([ ) wR

where T m is defined as
Tm  Ts
m { (6.25)
Ti  Ts
x Nusselt number. Define:
h([ ) D h([ )2ro
Nu ([ ) (6.26)
k k
(6.24) into (6.26)
 2 w ([ ,1)
Nu ([ ) (6.27)
 m ([ ) wR
9

(2) The Energy Equation. Review assumptions on energy equation (2.24).

§ wT wT · ª 1 w § wT · w 2T º
U c p ¨ vr  vz ¸ k« ¨r ¸ » (2.24)
© wr wz ¹ «¬ r wr © wr ¹ wz 2 »¼
Replace z by x, use dimensionless variables:
w w 4 w § w · 1 w 2
v x  2 Re D Pr vr ¨ R ¸  (6.28)
w[ wR R wR © wR ¹ ( Re D Pr) 2 w[ 2
where
Pe Re D Pr , Peclet number (6.29)
x Neglect conduction for
Pe PrRe D t 100 (6.30)
Thus, under such conditions, (6.28) becomes
wT wT 4 w § wT ·
v x  2 Re D Pr vr ¨R ¸ (6.31)
w[ wR R wR © wR ¹
(3) Mean (Bulk) Temperature Tm . Define:
ro
mc p Tm
³ 0
U c p v x T 2Srdr (a)

ro
m
³
0
U v x 2Srdr (b)

(b) into (a), assume constant properties

ro

Tm
³ 0
v x Trdr
(6.32a)
ro

³ 0
v x rdr

Dimensionless form:
1

Tm
Tm  Ts ³ 0
v xT R dR
(6.32b)
Ti  Ts 1

³ 0
v x R dR

10

x Far away from the entrance ( x / d ! 0.05 Re D Pr ), temperature profile becomes

fully developed.
x To define fully developed temperature, introduce the dimensionless temperature I
Ts ( x)  T (r , x)
I (6.33)
Ts ( x)  Tm ( x)
x Fully developed temperature is defined as a profile in which I is independent of x:
I I (r ) (6.34)
(6.34) gives
wI
0 (6.35)
wx
(6.33) and (6.35) give
wI w ª Ts ( x )  T ( r , x ) º
« » 0 (6.36a)
wx wx ¬ Ts ( x)  Tm ( x) ¼
Expand and use the definition of I in (6.33)

dTs wT ª dT dT º
  I (r ) « s  m » 0 (6.36b)
dx wx ¬ dx dx ¼
6.7.2 Heat Transfer Coefficient and Nusselt Number
x Examine h and Nu in the fully developed region.
x Fourier’s and Newton’s law:
wT (ro , x)
k
wr
h (6.16)
Tm  Ts
Use (6.33) to eliminate wT (ro , x) / wr . (6.16) gives
dI (ro )
h k = constant (6.37)
dr
IMPORTANT CONCLUSOIN:

THE HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT IN THE FULLY DEVELOPED REGION

IS CONSTANT INDEPENDET OF LOCATION.
x Nusselt number
hD dI (ro )
Nu D D (6.38)
k dr
x Scaling estimate based on limiting case of entrance region:
Nu D ~ 1 (fully developed) (6.19)
x Scale estimate based on fully developed region:
11

Scale wT (ro , x) / wr as
wT (ro , x) Ts  Tm
~
wr D
Substitute into (6.16)
k
h~ (6.39)
D
Substitute (6.39) into (6.38)
Nu D ~ 1 (fully developed) (6.40)

6.7.3 Fully Developed Region for Tubes at Uniform Surface flux

r
x Determine: qcsc
T
(i) Surface temperature Ts (x). D
u 0 x
(ii) Heat transfer coefficient.

qcsc
Fig. 6.6
x Newton’s law
q csc h>Ts ( x)  Tm ( x)@ (a)
Since q csc and h are constant it follows that
Ts ( x)  Tm ( x) constant (b)
Differentiate
dTs dTm
. (c)
dx dx
(c) into (6.36b)
wT dTs
(d)
wx dx
(c) and (d)
wT dTs dTm
(for constant q csc ) (6.41)
wx dx dx

x Unknowns: T (r , x), Tm (x) and Ts (x)

x Conservation of energy: m dTm
Tm Tm  dx
ª dT º dx
q csc Pdx  mc p Tm mc p «Tm  m dx » dx
¬ dx ¼
or qcsc
Fig. 6.7
12

dTm q csc P
= constant (6.42)
dx mc p

Substitute (6.42) into (6.41)

wT dTs dTm q csc P
= = constant (6.43)
wx dx dx mc p
Integrate(6.43)
q csc P
Tm ( x) x  C1 (e)
mc p
Use inlet condition
Tm (0) Tmi (f)
Solution (e) becomes
q csc P
Tm ( x) Tmi  x (6.44)
mc p

x Need to determine T (r , x) and Ts (x). This requires solving the differential form of
the energy equation.
x Set v r 0 in energy equation (2.24)
wT k w § wT ·
U c p vx ¨r ¸ (6.45)
wx r wr © wr ¹
Fully developed flow axial velocity
ª r2 º
vx 2u «1  2 » (6.46)
¬« ro ¼»
(6.43) and (6.46) into (6.45)
ª r 2 º q csc P k w § wT ·
U c p 2u «1  » ¨r ¸ (g)
«¬ ro2 »¼ m c p r wr © wr ¹

However, m S ro2 U u and P 2S ro , equation (g) becomes

4q csc ª r 2 º k w § wT ·
«1  » ¨r ¸ (6.47)
ro ¬« ro2 ¼» r wr © wr ¹
Boundary conditions are:
wT (0, x)
0 (6.48a)
wr
wT (ro , x)
k q csc (6.48b)
wr
Integrate (6.47)
13

4 ªr 2 r4 º wT
q csc «  2 » kr  f x (h)
ro «¬ 2 4ro »¼ wr

Boundary condition (6.48a) gives f ( x) 0. Equation (h) becomes

wT 4q csc ªr r3 º
«  2»
wr kro ¬« 2 4ro ¼»
Integrate again
4q csc ªr2 r4 º
T (r , x) «  »  g ( x) (6.49)
kro 2
«¬ 4 16ro »¼

The integration “constant” is g (x) . Use Tm (x) to determine g (x). Substitute (6.46) and
(6.49) into (6.32a)
7 ro q csc
Tm ( x)  g ( x) (6.50)
24 k
Equate (6.44) and (6.50) gives g (x)
7 ro q csc Pq csc
g ( x) Tmi   x (6.51)
24 k mc p
(6.51) into (6.49)
4q csc ª r 2 r 4 º 7 ro q csc Pq csc
T (r , x) Tmi  «  »  x (6.52)
kro ¬« 4 16ro2 ¼» 24 k mc p
Set r ro in (6.52) to obtain Ts (x)

11 ro q csc Pq csc
Ts ( x) Tmi   x (6.53)
24 k mc p

(6.44), (6.52) and (6.53) into (6.33) gives I (r )

24 1 ª 2 r 4 º 24 Pq csc 7
I (r ) 1  2
«r  2 »  x x (6.54)
11 ro ¬« 4ro ¼» 11 mc p 11

Differentiate (6.54) and substitute into (6.38) gives

48
Nu D 4.364 (6.55)
11
NOTE:
x (6.55) applies to laminar fully developed velocity and temperature in tubes with
uniform surface heat flux.
x The Nusselt number is independent of Reynolds and Prandtl numbers.
x Scaling gives Nusselt as
Nu D ~ 1 (6.40)
14

6.7.4 Fully Developed Region for Tubes at Uniform Surface Temperature

x Determine: Nusselt number
x Solve the energy equation for the fully developed region
x Neglect axial conduction and dissipation.
x Energy equation: set v r 0 in (2.24)
wT k w § wT ·
U c p vx ¨r ¸ (6.45)
wx r wr ¨© w r ¸¹
x Boundary conditions
wT (0, x)
0 (6.56a)
wr
T (ro , x) Ts (6.56b)
x Axial velocity for fully developed flow is
ª r2 º
vx 2u «1  2 » (6.46)
¬« ro ¼»
x Use (6.36a) to Eliminate wT / wx in (6.45)
wI w ª Ts ( x )  T ( r , x ) º
« » 0 (6.36a)
wx wx ¬ Ts ( x)  Tm ( x) ¼

For uniform Ts ( x) Ts , above gives

wT Ts  T (r , x) dTm
(6.57)
wx Ts  Tm ( x) dx
(6.46) and (6.57) into (6.45)
ª r 2 º T  T (r , x) dTm k w § wT ·
2 U c p u «1  2 » s ¨r ¸ (6.58)
«¬ ro »¼ Ts  Tm ( x) dx r wr ¨© w r ¸¹

Solution: (6.58) was solved using an infinite power series. Solution gives the Nusselt
number as
Nu D 3.657 (6.59)

6.7.5 Nusselt Number for Laminar Fully Developed Velocity and Temperature in
Channels of Various Cross-Sections

x Table 6.2 lists Nusselt numbers for channels of various cross-sections.

x Two cases: (1) uniform surface heat flux and (2) uniform surface temperature.
x Nusselt number of Non-circular channels is based on the equivalent diameter.
x Scaling estimate:
Table 6.2 15
Nusselt number for laminar fully developed
Nu D ~ 1 (fully developed) (6.40) conditions in channels of various cross-sections 

x Table 6.2: Nusselt number ranges from 2.46 Nusselt number Nu D

to 8.235. Channel geometry a Uniform Uniform
b surface surface
flux temperature
6.8 Thermal Entrance Region: Laminar Flow
through Tubes 4.364 3.657

6.8.1 Uniform Surface Temperature: Graetz a

1 3.608 2.976
Solution b
x Laminar flow. a
b 2 4.123 3.391
x Fully developed inlet velocity.
b 4 5.331 4.439
a
x Neglect axial conduction (Pe > 100).
a
8 6.49 5.597
x Uniform surface temperature Ts . b
Fully developed flow: f 8.235 7.541

vr 0 (3.1)
3.102 2.46
Axial velocity
1 dp 2
vz (r  ro2 ) (3.12) r
4 P dz Ts
(3.12) expressed in dimensionless form
Ti T
vx
v x 2
2(1  R ) (6.61) u 0
u x
Gt
(3.1) and (6.61) into energy equation (6.31)
wT 1 w § wT · Fig. 6.8
1
2

1 R2
w[
¨R ¸
(6.62)

x Boundary conditions

wT ([ ,0)
0 (6.63a)
wR

T ([ ,1) 0 (6.63b)

T (0, R) 1 (6.63c)
x Analytic and numerical solutions to this problem have been obtained.
x Review analytic solution leading to:
16

(i) Mean temperature, T m ([ )

f
Gn
T m [ 8 ¦O
n 0
2
n
exp(2O2n[ ) (6.66)

(ii) Local Nusselt number, Nu ([ )

f

¦G n exp(2O2n[ )
Nu [ n 0
f
(66.7)
Gn
2 ¦O
n 0
2
n
exp(2O2n[ )

(iii) Average Nusselt number, Nu ([ )

h ([ ) D
Nu ([ ) (f)
k
RESULTS
x Table 6.3 lists values of O n and Gn for 0 d n d 10. Table 6.4 gives Nu ([ ) and
Nu ([ ) at selected values of the axial distance [ .

x Fig. 6.9 gives the variation of Nu ([ ) and Nu ([ ) along a tube.

Table 6.4
Table 6.3
Local and average Nusselt
Uniform surface temperature  number for tube at uniform
n On Gn surface temperature 
0 2.70436 0.74877 x/D
1 6.67903 0.54383 [= Nu ([ ) Nu ([ )
2 10.67338 0.46286 Re D Pr
3 14.67108 0.41542 0 f f
4 18.66987 0.38292 0.0005 12.8 19.29
5 22.66914 0.35869 0.002 8.03 12.09
6 26.66866 0.33962 0.005 6.00 8.92
7 30.66832 0.32406 0.02 4.17 5.81
8 34.66807 0.31101 0.04 3.77 4.86
9 38.66788 0.29984 0.05 3.71 4.64
10 42.66773 0.29012 0.1 3.66 4.15
f 3.66 3.66
17

Average Nu
Local Nu
Nusselt number

x/D
[
ReD Pr
Fig. 6.9 Local and average Nusselt number for
tube at uniform surface temepratu re [ 4]

NOTE:

(1) The average Nusselt number is greater than the local Nusselt number.
(2) Asymptotic value of Nusselt number of 3.657 is reached at [ | 0.05 . Thus
Nu (f) 3.657 (6.69)
(3) Evaluate fluid properties at the mean temperatures Tm , defined as
Tmi  Tmo
Tm (6.70)
2

6.8.2 Uniform Surface Heat Flux r qcsc

Ti T
x Repeat Graetz entrance problem D
replacing the uniform surface u 0 x
temperature with uniform heat flux. Gt

x Inlet velocity is fully developed. qcsc

Fig. 6.10
x Energy equation is

wT 1 w § wT ·
1
2
1 R2
w[
¨R ¸
(6.62)
18

Boundary conditions
wT ([ ,0)
) 0 (6.71a)
wR
wT ([ ,1) q cscro
(6.71b)
wR k (Ti  Ts )

T (0, R) 1 (6.71c)
x Solution.
x Local Nusselt number:
f 1
hx ª 11 1 º Table 6.5
Nu ([ )
k
« 
« 48 2
¬
¦ n 1
An exp(2 E n2 [ )»
»
¼
(6.72] Uniform surface flux 
n E n2 An
x The average Nusselt number is given by 1 25.6796 0.198722
f 1 2 83.8618 0.069257
hx ª 11 1 1  exp(2 E n2 [ ) º 3 174.1667 0.036521
Nu ([ )
k
« 
« 48 2
¬
¦
n 1
An
2 E n2 [
»
»
¼
(6.73]
4 296.5363 0.023014
5 450.9472 0.016030
6 637.3874 0.011906
x The eigenvalues E n2 and the constant An are listed 7 855.8495 0.009249
in Table 6.5 8 1106.3290 0.007427
9 1388.8226 0.006117
x Limiting case: [ f (fully developed)
10 1703.3279 0.005141
48
Nu (f) 4.364 (6.74)
11

Average Nu
Local Nu
Nusselt number

x/D
[
ReD Pr

Fig. 6.11 Local and average Nusselt number for

tube at uniform surface heat flux