This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
The pictures below will show you what each part of the guitar is called.
String Winder: String winders can be handy tools for quickly loosening and tightening strings. Make sure you turn them smoothly to avoid string breakage. Before you begin playing, you must also know how the frets and strings are numbered (See Figure Below). The strings are numbered from the lightest (thinnest) to the heaviest (thickest). So the thinnest string is the first string, and the thickest is the 6th string. A guitar in standard tuning is tuned to E-A-D-G-B-E. This shows the 6th string to the 1st string. In other words. 6th string - Low E, 5th string -A , 4th -D, 3rd -G, 2nd -B, 1st -High E. Look at the diagram to find out how the frets are numbered. Note: The 0 fret is also the open note on each string. 2.
Peg Tool: Attached to many string winders is a peg tool that allows you to easily remove the pegs from an acoustic guitar.
Place the first string through the tremolo or bridge Put the new string through the tuning peg hole and wrap around (see picture to the right)
Peg Happiness: This shows one method of wrapping your string when you string it. 4.
Tighten slightly so that each string can hold itself.
< prevnext> Stringing a guitar (standard tremolo or bridge) 1. Loosen all 6 strings by unwinding at the tuning pegs.
Top Left: This is where you feed the strings into the guitar when you are replacing them. Top Right: On acoustics, you have to feed it from inside the body of the guitar.
String Ball: This keeps a guitar
string in place. 6. 7. 8. Repeat for all strings. Tune to pitch (see how to tune below) Stretch strings (see picture below)
5. 6. 7. 8.
Repeat for all strings. Tune to pitch Stretch strings Repeat steps 6 and 7 until the guitar does not go out of tune when you play it.
6 String Guitar Tuning Here's how you tune from a perfectly tuned Low E note. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Hold down the 5th fret of the Low E string and pluck it and the A string Listen for a beating or pulsating. The faster the beating the more out of tune it is. Adjust the A string until there is virtually no beating. Hold the 5th fret of the A string and pluck it and the D string. Repeat again holding the 5th fret of the D string to tune the G string. Repeat again holding the 4th fret of the G string to tune the B string. Repeat again holding the 5th fret of the B string to tune the E string.
String Stretching: Keep stretching and retuning your strings until the guitar stays in tune when you play it. The string was superimposed with a red line. 10. 11. Repeat steps 6 and 7 until the guitar does not go out of tune when you play it.
Click on the Low E
or the A D
to hear the note to tune to. G B High E
Stringing a guitar (Floyd Rose Tremolo) - Pictures Coming Soon 1. 2. 3. 4. Loosen the top nut Loosen the strings with the tuning machines. Loosen string lock bolts at the end of the bridge approximately 3 turns. Repeat steps 5 - 8 for each string. It is suggested that you only replace one string at a time due to the nature of the tremolo. Remove the old string. Place the new string through the tuning peg and locking nut. Cut the string and leave about 1 - 2 inches to work with. Insert the string into the bridge saddle and tighten until snug but do not overtighten. Repeat steps 5-8 for each string.
7 String Guitar Tuning Seven string guitars are tuned the same way as a six string except that they have an additional low B string. You can tune it by matching the low E string to the 5th fret of the low B string. Low B
5. 6. 7.
10. Adjust fine tuning knobs to the middle position. 11. Stretch strings and tune to pitch using the tuning machines on the headstock.
12 String Guitar Tuning Note: Strings are numbered 1 - 12 from the High E string to the Low E string. The chart below shows the notes that each string is tuned to. You might not know what an octave is. This term refers to an interval. It basically means that the note is 12 half-steps higher or lower than the original note. In this case, all the octaves are higher. This is explained in more detail in Lesson 11: Intervals Part 1. In the chart below, if the sounds are not given, that is because they were given in the chart above. String: Note: 12 Low E
12. Tighten the locking topnut.
13. Stretch strings again 14. Use fine tuning knobs to tune to pitch. Stringing a guitar (Classical Acoustic Guitar) - Pictures Coming Soon 1. 2. 3. Remove old strings Tie one end of the strings to the bridge Put the new string through the tuning peg hole and wrap around tighten slightly so that it can hold itself.
E (octave) A A (octave) D D (octave) G G (octave) B
this, pluck a note, then push the string towards your face or away from your face all while staying behind the same fret. To make a vibrato sound, all you have to do is wiggle your finger up and down to produce a vibrating type effect. <
Holding a pick Fretting a note
Videos (Real Video Format) Hammer-on and Pulloff (34k)
String Bending 3 B Sliding 2 e Vibrato 1 e < prevnext> 1. Starting with a perfectly tuned Low E note, tune every other string the same way that you did for a 6 string guitar (shown above). Hold down the 12th fret of the 12th string and match that note with the 11th string. Hold down the 12th fret of the 10th string and match that note with the 9th string. Hold down the 12th fret of the 8th string and match that note with the 7th string. Hold down the 12th fret of the 6th string and match that note with the 5th string. Match the 4th string with the 3rd string. Match the 2nd string with the 1st string. < prevnext> The proper way to hold a pick is shown in the picture below along with examples of other techniques described later in this lesson. The most basic way to produce a sound on the guitar is to pluck a string that is open, or not being touched. Playing an open string or note is when you pluck a string without fretting it. To play a note you need to know how to "fret" a note. To "fret a note," place your finger behind the fret that you wish to play, push down, and then pluck the string. The following examples have videos in avi format at the bottom of the page to help clarify how to use these techniques. To "hammeron" a string, pluck a note then, while holding it down, fret a note on a higher fret of the same string. It should give you a smooth transition to the new tone. Now try to "pull-off" the note you just hammered on by letting go of the fret that you just fretted. Next, try sliding up by plucking a note then holding it down, and sliding your finger up the fretboard. Next we will try the bend. To do
2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
The next thing that you need to know is the fretboard, or the notes that make up the guitar. The notes on a guitar go up chromatically. In other words, they go up a half a step at a time. So if you were to start on A, The notes would ascend like this... A, A#/Bb, B, C, C#/Db, D, D#/Eb, E, F, F#/Gb, G, G#/Ab, A. Notice that, there is no sharp or flat between B and C, or E and F. Sharps, flats, and half-steps will all be explained in later lessons. Now study the fretboard and learn the notes. You might not use them in the immediate future, but if you want to play well you will need to know this. The numbers on the bottom of the diagram represent the fret numbers..
Refer to Figure 1 for a visual representation of the explanation below. This first installment of reading standard notation will get you familiar with the different notes, rests, and what they stand for. I marked the names of the notes and rests underneath them. The place where it says, "sixteenth note & rest..." refers to the notes and rests for the two measures above the writing. The names go with the notes and rests in the order that they appear (left to right). Notice the really fancy looking G in front of each line. This represents the Treble Clef or the G clef, which is the clef that guitar music is written in. Now notice the 4's stacked upon each other. This is called the Time Signature These numbers are not always 4's. The top number tells you how many beats there are per measure. A measure is the space between bar lines (the vertical lines in the music). The bottom number tells you which note receives 1 beat. When it is 4 the quarter note gets 1 beat. When the number is 8, the eighth note gets 1 beat. When the number is 2, the half note gets 1 beat, and so on. Most of the time in guitar music you will find it to have the stacked 4's which is called Common Time. Sometimes it is signified by a "C" put in place of the numbers. Sometimes you will see a "C" with a vertical line through it. This is called Cut Time. It is the equivalent of stacked 2's. Now let's look at dotted notes
Dotted notes get a time value of 1½ times the original notes'
length. In other words, if you have a dotted half note, it gets 3 beats because 1½ X 2 = 3. If you have a dotted quarter note, it gets 1½ beats because 1½ X 1 = 1½.
Now for slurs and ties A tie is a curved line that connects 2 notes of the same pitch. The tone is held for the sum of the notes' values. For example, below we tied 2 quarter notes so it is held for 2 beats. A slur is a curved line that connects notes of different pitches. The first note is plucked, but the second note is not. It is either slid up to using a sliding technique, or it is hammered on or pulled off.
Accidentals Accidentals are sharps (#), flats (b), natural signs The Key Signature The key signature refers to the flats (b) and sharps (#) after the clef and before the time signature. It tells you what key the music is in and what is flattened or sharpened. For example, the Key of F (which is the key of the picture below) has one flat. The flat is on the B line (more on how to read pitches in Part 2). Therefore, every "B" that you come across must be played as a B flat, unless it is acted on by an accidental (more on accidentals below). For more information on the different keys refer to Lesson 18: The Circle of Fifths and Lesson 42: Determining the Key. (The third sign by the accidentals in the picture below) in front of a note to modify the key signature. If you get a sharp it will raise the pitch ½ step. If you get a flat it will lower the pitch of a note ½ step. If you get a natural sign, it means that you do not sharpen or flatten that note. Accidentals carry through for the whole measure unless they are acted upon by another accidental.
Notes and Rests
Whole Note Whole Rest Half Note Half Rest Quarter Note Quarter Rest Eighth Note Eighth Rest Sixteenth Note Sixteenth Rest 4 Beats 4 Beats 2 Beats 2 Beats 1 Beat 1 Beat ½ Beat ½ Beat ¼ Beat ¼ Beat
Thirty-second Note 1/8 Beat Thirty-second Rest 1/8 Beat Sixty-fourth Note Sixty-fourth Rest 1/16 Beat 1/16 Beat The Notes on the Staff The notes on the staff can be placed either on a line or on a space. The notes ascend starting on the bottom of the staff. The bottom line is E. Any note placed on this line is played E unless there is an accidental or the key signature states otherwise. The space right above it is F. above F is G (on
the 2nd line) and so on. The staff ascends alphabetically, not chromatically like the fretboard of the guitar does. The notes may also extend beyond the boundaries of the staff. When this happens, small lines called ledger lines are added. Here are the tricks to learning the staff. To Learn the lines (E-G-B-D-F) learn Every Good Boy Does Fine. To Learn the spaces (F-A-C-E) learn Face, obviously.
Pull-offs A pull-off is played by plucking a note then letting go of that note and letting one at a lower fret sound. The symbol for a pull-off is a "p." The note that you pluck is the one that is located before the "p." The note after is the one that will be sounded when you pull off of that note. Look at Figure 4 for an example.
Figure 4 E---------------------------------------------------------B---------------------------------------------------------G---------------------9p7---------------------------------D---------------------------------------------------------A---------------------------------------------------------E---------------------------------------------------------Bending, Releasing, and Vibrato A bend is executed when you push or pull the string to make the pitch higher. The higher pitch is what we call the target pitch. The symbol used for a bend is a "b" but I have also seen it as a "^." The note that comes before it signifies the fret that you are bending at, and the note that comes after it is the fret of the target pitch. In other words, you are trying to get the bend to sound like the note at the fret after the "b." A release is signified by an "r." As you know, a release is when a string is already bent and you let it go. Well, the note before the "r" represents the bent tone or the target pitch, and the note after represents the note after you have released the bend. Vibrato ("~") is simply when you wiggle your finger at a fret to produce a sustained, almost pulsating sound. You will find the "~" symbol after a note that you are to use vibrato on. Look at Figure 5 for an example of bending, releasing, and vibrato.
Tablature is a type of notation for stringed instruments. For guitar, it will show 6 lines representing the 6 strings. The first string (High E string) is on the top line, and the 6th string (Low E string) is on the bottom line. The tuning of each string is given to the left of its line. The numbers on the lines represent fret at which you are to play. You are to play these notes from left to right. Take a look at Figure 1
Figure 1 E---------------------------------------------------------B---------------------------------------------------------G---------------------------------------------------------D-----------2---------------------------------------------A-------2-------------------------------------------------E---0-----------------------------------------------------If you were to play Figure 1, you would play an open E on the 6th string, then a B on the 5th string by playing the 2nd fret, then play an E on the 4th string by playing the 2nd fret. If you notice, tablature does not tell you how long to hold each note. Because of this, you must either know the song or you must also have the standard notation with it. Standard notation is given along with tablature in a lot of guitar sheet music. Chords in tablature look like the E Major chord given in Figure 2. To play the tablature in Figure 2, you must place your fingers in the appropriate positions and strum all six strings.
Figure 5 E---------------------------------------------------------B---------------------------------------------------------G---------------------7b9r7---7~--------------------------D---------------------------------------------------------A---------------------------------------------------------E---------------------------------------------------------Sliding Slides are symbolized by slashes ("/" or "\"). A slide up ("/") is when you play a note and then hold your finger on the fretboard and slide your finger to the target pitch. A slide down ("\") is exactly the opposite. In Figure 6, you would play the 7th fret, slide up to the 9th fret, and then slide back down to the 7th fret.
Figure 2 E----0----------------------------------------------------B----0----------------------------------------------------G----1----------------------------------------------------D----2----------------------------------------------------A----2----------------------------------------------------E----0----------------------------------------------------Hammer-ons A hammer-on is played by plucking a note and then "hammering on" another fret. The symbol for a hammer-on is an "h." The note that you pluck comes before the "h" and the note that you hammer on is the one that follows the "h." Look at Figure 3 for an example.
Figure 6 E---------------------------------------------------------B---------------------------------------------------------G---------------------7/9\7-------------------------------D---------------------------------------------------------A---------------------------------------------------------E---------------------------------------------------------Tapping and Dampening Tapping is symbolized by a "t" and you would simply tap on the note that follows the "t." Dampening is symbolized by an "x." To execute a dampened note, simply lay your left hand on the strings and play that note. Be careful not to sound a harmonic though. Click on the Real Audio logo to hear all 6 strings dampened and strummed 3 times.
Figure 3 E---------------------------------------------------------B---------------------------------------------------------G---------------------7h9---------------------------------D---------------------------------------------------------A---------------------------------------------------------E----------------------------------------------------------
Don't be fooled by an "x" in chord charts such as the one in Figure 7. An "x" in a chord chart means to not play anything on that string, not to dampen it. However if the x lies on an interior string, like in Figure 8, then you must dampen it so you can strum the chord. You do not need to dampen it if you are fingerpicking because you only pluck the strings that you want to be heard. Figure 7 EAD GBE ----x32 010 C Maj or x32 010 < prevnext> I wrote this because a few people have emailed me, and they wanted to know how to read my charts. So here it is... (By the way if you don't know tab go to Lesson 6: Reading Tablature). Instead of going head first into full scale patterns, I will show you by showing how the separate patterns relate to the full pattern. The first thing that you must remember is that the full patterns are like looking straight down onto a guitar as if the guitar were laying on a table and you are directly above it. The next things to look for are the strings. I've numbered them on the diagram below, but they won't be numbered in the lessons. The 1st string is the High E String. The 6th string is the Low E String. I have also marked the notes of the strings on this pattern. Once again, they won't be marked in the lessons. I've also marked the frets underneath the pattern. These will be on the patterns in the lessons. I'll explain how to read the charts in the text that is below them. Figure 8 EAD GBE ----2x0 232 F#/ D 2x0 232 Notice how the 12 fret's notes are the same as the open notes (or 0 fret's notes) This is because the patterns repeat. I showed an example of Pattern 5 so that you can see what the pattern looks like. Here's how to read them. I will first show you on Pattern #2 then the Full Pattern. Playing a Pattern (Assuming you have already isolated the pattern as above). 1. Go to the 6th String. Decide whether you want to start on the root note (recommended) of the pattern or the first note of the pattern. If you wish to start on the root note go to the first on the 6th String. If there is no on the 6th string then go to the 5th String. If you decided to start at the beginning of the pattern, go to the first or 3. from the left on the 6th String.
Play the note that you decided on.
Go to the next or to the right on that that string. If there is no note to the right then go up a string, and play the first note (cloesest to the left). Repeat Step 4 until you either reach the end of the pattern or reach the next (Root note)
Full Pattern (E Major Scale)
Note: If you play from one
to the next
that is a one
octave scale. If you play from one through to the 2nd after that, you just played a two octave scale. Playing a Full Pattern There are numerous ways of playing this so here is my chart for you to follow.
Pattern 2 (E Major Scale) Pattern 5 (E Major Scale) 2. 3. 4.
Decide Where you want to start. (Root note or the first note of the pattern) Play the note you decided to play. Play to the end of the pattern on that string. Decide whether you want to continue to play on the current pattern by going up to the next string, or to continue on the string you are on. Play the note you decided on then repeat back to step #3 on this chart.
• So now you should know that you can play a scale on one string or you can play into the next pattern. The whole point of these patterns is to get you to better visualize the fretboard, and to learn the modes more easily but you have to go to Lesson 14 to learn about modes. • •
Make sure your grip is comfortable Make sure you have a firm grip Rest your forearm on the guitar for stability and comfort Here is a picture of the proper way to hold a pick:
Guide to Chord Charts I use 3 basic types of chord charts in my lessons (chart shown below). The first thing that I would like you to notice is that in Type #1 and #2 the frets are numbered on the left hand side. the strings go from 6th to 1st (left to right). To Play the chord you must place your fingers where the marking is. The marking may be either an X or a letter denoting a chord tone. Be careful with open notes. This is explained below. Type #1 • To mark the chord, I typed in the chord tones that you play as opposed to dots like in Type #2. This gives more info than Type #2 I also made the root notes blue and the other notes red. I denote open strings by placing the note, dot, or number on the thick top line or above it. Sweep Picking I'll just show you how it is done on a scale. It takes practice to develop speed with this, but this is the fastest way to pick once you get accustomed to it. This technique is similar to alternate picking which you alternate upstroke and downstroke on each note. The diagram below shows a C major scale. A downstroke is when you strum towards the floor. An upstoke is when you strum towards the ceiling. ^=downstroke v=upstroke
• • Type #2 •
This is the same as Type #1 except I use dots to mark the chord. Once again the blue designates the root notes, and all other chord tones are in red.
Type #3 • • • This shows the degrees of the scale which each note is as opposed to putting down the notes. I used an "R" instead of a 1 because the 1st degree is the root note. Once again the blue notes are the root notes, and the red notes are all other chord tones. Type #1 Type #2 Type #3 Chord Strumming Strumming with an upstroke and downstroke sound slightly different even though you're strumming the same chord. This is because you pluck the strings in a different order. The different sounds of the same chord are called voicings, but that really isn't too important right now. Try it and you'll hear a slight difference in the sound of the chord. < prevnext> Fingerpicking is pretty self-explanatory. You pick with your fingers. When you do this you use your thumb, index, middle, and ring fingers. Your fingers are labeled as "Pima". In other words, "P" represents your thumb, "I" represents your index finger, and so on. They got these letters from some other language like anything else we abbreviate in English, but I am not going to go into that. So just about everything with fingerpicking will name the fingers by the "Pima" method. The pinky finger is not used much and therefore does not have a letter to go by. The diagram below should clarify any questions you have about "Pima". People who really enjoy fingerpicking sometimes grow their nails longer to play with their nails. This is better than plucking the strings with your fingertips.
< prevnext> Holding the Pick • • Always point the pick directly down towards the guitar Do not allow it to spin while picking
This lesson will pretty much just give you a few examples of some fingerpicking patterns to play around with. I am definately not an expert on this but I thought it would be good to share with you these little patterns. Now with the real stuff. If you do not know what pima is, go to Lesson 9: Fingerpicking Pt. 1. This will introduce you to fingerpicking. All I am going to show you is a couple of ways to fingerpick chords. It is pretty self-explanatory, and it is not too difficult. As a general rule, the 4th, 5th, and 6th strings are plucked by your thumb (or "P" finger). The 3rd string is plucked by your index finger ("I"). The 2nd string is plucked by your middle finger ("M"), and the 1st string is plucked by your ring finger ("A"). The examples below both use a C major chord. These patterns are not limited to this chord though. These patterns are meant to be used in chord progressions. Try alternating through the patterns when you play different chord progressions. These patterns can be used as warmups, plus they can help you gain more control over your right hand. Play through these at your own pace. You can make some nice little 3 chord tunes with these. C Major
The "P" with the "A" over it means that you play the lower note with the "P" (your thumb) and the higher note with the "A" (your ring finger). < prevnext> An interval is the distance between 2 notes. There are 2 different types of intervals. If you play one note after another it is called a melodic interval. If you play 2 notes together it is called a harmonic interval. When you play the same note at the same time you are playing in unison. Now, using the diagram below I will try to explain intervals. Each fret is 1/2 step. The distance of 2 frets is a whole step. A 1/2 step is also called a minor 2nd (see the diagram below). A whole step is also called a major second. Now here is a chart for you to relate the interval diagram to the chart. Name Unison Minor 2nd Major 2nd Minor 3rd Major 3rd Perfect 4th Perfect 5th Minor 6th Major 6th Minor 7th Major 7th Octave Distance none 1/2 step 1 whole step 1 whole step and 1/2 step 2 whole steps 2 whole steps and 1/2 step 3 whole steps and 1/2 step 4 whole steps 4 whole steps and 1/2 step 5 whole steps 5 whole steps and 1/2 step 6 whole steps Note: Sometimes the Augmented 4th / Diminished 5th is called the Tritone.
Augmented 4th / Diminished 5th 3 whole steps
You have already learned intervals going straight down the fretboard, and you already know the amount of steps for each interval so let's apply this concept. Now let's look at the major scale pattern (For more info on the major scale, go to Lesson 13: The Major Scale).
Figure 1 Pattern 2: E Major Scale
Now let's extract a one octave scale from this pattern (shown below)
Figure 2 Pattern 2: E Major Scale (1 Octave)
Here's the tab for the 1 octave scale given above.
Now let us look at the intervals taken in the major scale. (shown below)
(W - Whole Step, H - Half Step) Intervals: Root -2-3-4-5-6-7-Octave W-W-H-W-W-W-H
Now with all of this information in front of us we can get started. Notice that in figure 3 that the major scale is comprised of whole and 1/2 steps. You know from Lesson 11 that a whole step is a major 2nd and a 1/2 step is a minor 2nd. So let's examine the major scale. The E Major Scale I II III IV V VI VII
E F# G# A
B C# D#
When you look at figure 3 you learn the steps of the scale so lets convert this into words to deal with intervals. The major scale would go like this. Major 2nd - Major 2nd - Minor 2nd - Major 2nd - Major 2nd - Major 2nd - Minor 2nd Another way to show intervals in the major scale is to show them in relation to the root note. For example: E to B or E to C# or E to F# ... Let's look at this. Notes Interval
E to F# Major 2nd E to G# Major 3rd E to A E to B Perfect 4th Perfect 5th
E to C# Major 6th E to D# Major 7th E to E Octave
Now let's see how this relates to the E major scale (1 Octave).
Now here's the tab for the diagram above
When you do this you are not just restricted to using the major scale. You can also use the modes (shown inLesson 14: Modes). All you have to do is take the interval chart (like in figure 3) that I gave with each mode inlesson 14, then you proceed from there. < prevnext> First of all, What is a scale? It is a group of 7 notes that sound good together (usually followed by the octave of the root note). To Find the notes you must look at the interval pattern (shown below), and you must understand whole and half steps.
To form a scale pick a scale you want to learn. I'll pick the C Major Scale for example purposes. Now all you do is start with C and follow the interval pattern. Example: C whole step to D another whole step to E half step to F (Note: there are no sharps or flats between E and F -- the same applies between B and C) then we take a whole step to G then another whole step to A then another whole step to B and finally a half step to C (the octave note). So we get these notes: C-D-E-F-G-A-B-C Description: Quality: This scale is used as base scale from which other modes and scales come from. Happy or Upbeat quality
Musical Styles: Rock, Country, Jazz, Fusion Chords: Major, Major Sevenths, Major Ninths, Elevenths (W - Whole Step, H - Half Step) Intervals: Root -2-3-4-5-6-7-Octave W-W-H-W-W-W-H The Major Scale is the most important scale of all. All modes are derived from this scale. Modes are altered scales. In other words, you make some notes sharp or flat. Each mode like the major scale has a quality. The major scale's quality is happy and upbeat. These qualities are more prevalent when you integrate the chords which are shown above into your playing. In the chart below you will see that I have marked off patterns. There are 5 patterns. Let me show you an example of the scale in tab (below the patterns). Full Pattern: E Major Scale
These patterns are moveable up and down the fretboard. Notice that you determine what scale it is by what note the Root note lies on. I'll show you a couple of examples in tab below.
Now for my last example I will show you how to combine patterns. The first example (below) shows the scale on one string (Notice that I go through all 5 patterns). The second example shows you the scale on several different patterns. The thing to remember is that instead of moving to the next string when you reach the end of the pattern. You can play the next note on the string. Then you have the option to continue the pattern or go on to the next pattern.
Now you're probably wondering why you're learning 5 patterns instead of one. One reason is so that you can change to a different scale when playing without making a big jump on the fretboard. This way if you know all the patterns and you know the notes of the fretboard, You will always have the scale you want within reach. With these patterns you can change to several different modes and keep the same patterns!! You'll see how in the next lesson!! < prevnext>Modes are basically scales that are derived from the major scale. The only difference is that they have some flatted or sharped notes. For example: the interval pattern for the major scale was R (root)-2-3-4-5-6-7-O (octave) and the steps went W-W-H-W-W-W-H... The Dorian Mode has an interval pattern of R-2-b3 (b=flat) -4-5-6-b7-O so its steps went W-H-W-W-W-H-W... So guess what... All of the modes listed below use the same patterns!! The only other difference is where the root note is... You just follow the same pattern but use a different root note... pretty neat huh. Notes (Degrees --> Roman Numerals) of the Major Scales. Scale A I A II / IX III IV / XI V B C# D D D# E F VI / XIII VII I (octave) F# G G# A A A#
A#/Bb A# C B C B C C# D
D# E E F F F#
F# G# G A
A# B B C C C#
C#/Db C# D# D D E
G# A# A B
F# G G G#
C# D D D#
D#/Eb D# F E F E F F# G
A# C B C C# D
G# A A A#
D# E E F F F#
F#/Gb F# G# G G A
A# B B C C C#
C# D# D E
F# G G G#
G#/Ab G# A#
So you can be using one pattern and it is really several different modes in the same key the key is determined by the major scale. For example: The E major scale follows the same pattern as the F# Dorian mode. The only difference --> Where the Root note lies. Below are examples of all seven of the modes. Notice the chords for the dorian mode are Minor, Minor Sevenths, and Minor Ninths. Also notice that the chords for the major scale are Major, Major Sevenths, Major Ninths, and Elevenths. In other words you can use E major, major 7th, etc. chord with the E major scale, and you can use F# minor, minor 7th, and minor 9th chords with the F# Dorian Mode. But remember the E major scale is also the F# Dorian Mode (Just a different root note)... So you can use all of those chords with the F# Dorian Mode and the E major scale that's 7 different chords that you can use. But don't forget that there are several other modes to get chords from for a grand total of... 20 different chords that can be played with one pattern!! Ionian (Major Scale) Description: Quality: This scale is used as base scale from which other modes and scales come from. Happy or Upbeat quality
Musical Styles: Rock, Country, Jazz, Fusion Chords: Major Chords
(W - Whole Step, H - Half Step) Intervals: Root -2-3-4-5-6-7-Octave W-W-H-W-W-W-H
Full Pattern: E Major Scale (Ionian Mode)
You may place a given pattern anywhere on the fretboard. You will know what scale it is by what note the root is at that position. For example... on the 4th string 2nd fret the note is an E that is why this is an E major scale if you moved the whole pattern over one fret so that the (Root Note) is on the 4th string 3rd fret the scale would then be the F major scale. Dorian Description: Quality: This is the major scale with a flat 3rd and 7th note Jazzy, Sophisticated, Soulful
Musical Styles: Jazz, Fusion, Blues, and Rock Chords: Minor, Minor 7th, Minor 9th (W - Whole Step, H - Half Step, R - Root, O - Octave, b - flat, # - sharp) Intervals: R-2-b3-4-5-6-b7-O W-H-W-W-W-H-W
Full Pattern: F# Dorian Mode
Phrygian Description: Quality: This is the major scale with a flat 2nd, 3rd, 6th, and 7th note Spanish Flavor
Musical Styles: Flamenco, Fusion, Speed Metal Chords: Minor, Minor 7th (W - Whole Step, H - Half Step, R - Root, O - Octave, b - flat, # - sharp) Intervals: R-b2-b3-4-5-b6-b7-O H-W-W-W-H-W-W
Full Pattern: G# Phrygian Mode
Lydian Description: Quality: This is the major scale with a sharp 4th note Airy
Musical Styles: Jazz, Fusion, Rock, Country Chords: Major, Major 7th, Major 9th, Sharp 11th (W - Whole Step, H - Half Step, R - Root, O - Octave, b - flat, # - sharp) Intervals: R-2-3-#4-5-6-7-O W-W-W-H-W-W-H
Full Pattern: A Lydian Mode
Mixolydian Description: Quality: This is the major scale with a flat 7th note Bluesy
Musical Styles: Blues, Country, Rockabilly, and Rock Chords: Dominant Chords (W - Whole Step, H - Half Step, R - Root, O - Octave, b - flat, # - sharp) Intervals: R-2-3-4-5-6-b7-O W-W-H-W-W-H-W
Full Pattern: B Mixolydian Mode
Aeolian (Minor Scale) Description: Quality: This is the major scale with a flat 3rd, 6th, and 7th note Sad, Sorrowful
Musical Styles: Pop, Blues, Rock, Heavy Metal, Country, Fusion Chords: Minor Chords (W - Whole Step, H - Half Step, R - Root, O - Octave, b - flat, # - sharp) Intervals: R-2-b3-4-5-b6-b7-O W-H-W-W-H-W-W
Full Pattern: C# Aeolian Mode
Locrian Description: Quality: This is the major scale with a flat 2nd, 3rd, 5th, 6th, and 7th note Sinister
Musical Styles: Jazz, Fusion Chords: Diminished, Minor 7th Flat Fives (W - Whole Step, H - Half Step, R - Root, O - Octave, b - flat, # - sharp) Intervals: R-b2-b3-4-b5-b6-b7-O H-W-W-H-W-W-W
Full Pattern: D# Locrian Mode
Now here's what you do to make your very own chords. It is very simple once you have the scale chart (below). You take the formula chart (below) find the chord you're looking for (major, minor, minor 7, diminished, etc.). Now look at the roman numerals that are next to each chord. those are the components of the chord (They tell you which notes to use). Then you go to the major scale chart (below) and find the scale of the chord you want. For example, if you want a G Major chord go to the G scale in the scale chart. Then go across and find the notes that correspond with the formula. In the case of G Major you use the formula I - III - V (formula for a major chord) then you find the notes on the chart above. The notes are... Degree Note I III V G B D
So you find combinations of G-B-D on the fretboard. It's that simple. Here are some common G Major Chords:
When constructing a chord like a dominant 13 notice that there are 7 notes. On guitar, you can only play six notes at one time so you must eliminate one of the notes. If you play with a band, you may want the bass player to play the note that you eliminated. Major Scale Note & Degree Chart Scale A B C D E F G I A B C D E F G II or IX III IV or XI V B C# D E F# G A C# D D E F G A B C D# F F# G# A# C C# D# E E F G A B C D VI or XII VII I (octave) F# G A B C# D E G# A A B C D E F G A# C C# D# F F# G# A# B
A#/Bb A# C
F# G# G# A# A# C
C#/Db C# D# D#/Eb D# F
F# G G# A A# B
C# D D# E
F#/Gb F# G# G#/Ab G# A#
C# D# D# F
Chord Formulas: (b = flat # = sharp) Major Major 6 Major 6 add 9 Major 7 Major 9 Dominant 7 Dominant 7b10 I - III - V I - III - V - VI I - III - V - VI - IX I - III - V - VII I - III - V - VII - IX I - III - V - bVII I - III - V - bVII - bX
Dominant 7 aug 5 I - III - #V - bVII Dominant 7 sus 4 I - IV - V - bVII Dominant 9 I - III - V - bVII - IX Dominant 9 sus 4 I - IV - V - bVII - IX Dominant 9 sus 4 I - IV - V - bVII - IX Dominant 11 Dominant 13 Augmented Minor Minor 6 Minor 7 Minor 7 Flat 5 Diminished Diminished 7 Suspended 4 Suspended 2 Add 9 I - III - V - bVII - IX - XI I - III - V - bVII - IX - XI - XIII I - III - #V I - bIII - V I - bIII - V - VI I - bIII - V - bVII I - bIII - bV - bVII I - bIII - bV I - bIII - bV - VI I - IV - V I - II - V I - III - V - IX
Chord progressions are the basis of playing guitar. They set a basic foundation of rhythm. The first thing you must do is find a key which you would like to work in. Let's take the key of C for example. The notes in the C Major Scale are C-D-E-F-G-A-B-C. Now take the degrees of these notes and write them out. I II III IV V VI VII
C D E Important: Certain Degrees are minor and certain degrees are major. How we get the chords for a certain key: • • • •
Take the major scale of a certain key (example: C major scale for the key of C -- shown above) Look at the Chords for the I degree, Now form those chords from the I note, which is C You get C Major and C Major 7 notice that the notes of these chords are in the C major scale You can use other chords but the ones I will show are the basic ones. I did this to simplify things Now notice that the II degree uses Minor and Minor 7 chords. But this time, instead of using C we use D to start the chord because it is the II degree of the major scale. So we can use D Minor, and D Minor 7 with the key of C. (Remember to go to the D Major Scale to find the D Minor and D Minor 7 chords). You can continue down the chart to find all of the chords. You might want to write them down too. I II IV V VI Major Ionian (Major Scale) Minor Dorian Major Lydian Major Mixolydian Major, Major 7 Minor, Minor 7 Minor, Minor 7 Major, Major 7 Major, Dominant 7, Dominant 9 Diminished, Minor 7b5
III Minor Phrygian
Minor Aeolian (Natural Minor Scale) Minor, Minor 7
VII Minor Locrian
Using these Chords: There are some standard Chord Progressions. Such as a Blues Progression --> I - IV - V Try playing C major, F major, then G major chord together. Now try playing a I - III - IV - V progression using C major, E minor, Fmajor, G major. Notice that the III was an E minor chord because the III degree is minor. Try making up your own progressions. Have fun with it. but Remember: I, IV, V are Major and II, III, VI, VII are Minor These all sound good because they're in the same key. They're in the same key (C) because all of the chords that you went down the list with earlier use the same 7 notes which are the notes of the C major scale. Here is a chart that shows the chords that can be used to represent each degree and still use only scale tones. I Regular Sixth Seventh Ninth Eleventh Thirteenth Major II Minor III Minor IV Major Major 6 Minor 7 Major 7 Major 9 V Major Major 6 Dominant 7 Dominant 9 Dominant 13 < prevnext> < prevnext> Basics: The first thing you must do to play over a chord progression is to know what key you are in. If some one is playing a chord progression of I-IV-V and the I chord is C Major, then you are in the key of C (the I chord determines the key if the I chord were D major then you would be in the key of D). Next, Find a pattern for the major scale of the key you are in (ex. C major scale for the key of C) Now to put it simply, all you have to do is use that scale and be creative. You will never strike a bad note while you use this method. Minor 7 Minor 7 b5 Minor 9 VI Minor VII Diminished
Major 6 Minor 6 Major 7 Minor 7 Major 9 Minor 9 Minor 13
Minor 11 Minor 11 Major 7 #11 Dominant 11 Minor 11 Minor 11 b5
Advanced Stuff (using modes): Look at chart 1 & 2. Notice that the II degree represents the Dorian mode and that the II degree represents the note D. In other words the first note of the Dorian Mode in the Key of C is the note D. So you can solo with the D Dorian Mode over a chord progression in the key of C. Why is this you ask. I'll tell you. It is because the notes in D Dorian are also the notes of C major, just in a different order. The same is true for the rest of the modes. The big question: Why use modes? Modes have a distinct quality when used with the chords that are designated to them Example: Mixolydian sounds bluesy with Dominant 7 chords. You can find the qualities of the other modes atlesson 14 TIPS: • Accent or hold the root note longer to emphasize the tonality Avoid using the lydian mode and accenting the IV degree note while playing over I chords. It tends to sound dissonant (clashes some).
Chart 1 C Major Scale I II III IV V VI VII C D E F G A B
Chart 2 I II IV V VI Major Ionian (Major Scale) Minor Dorian Major Lydian Major Mixolydian Major, Major 7 Minor, Minor 7 Minor, Minor 7 Major, Major 7 Major, Dominant 7, Dominant 9 Diminished, Minor 7b5 Chart 7 A Aeolian Mode I II III IV V VI VII A B C D E F G Chart 8 B Locrian Mode I II III IV V VI VII B C D E F G A
III Minor Phrygian
Chart 3 D Dorian Mode I II III IV V VI VII D E F G A B C
Minor Aeolian (Natural Minor Scale) Minor, Minor 7
VII Minor Locrian
Chart 4 E Phrygian Mode I II III IV V VI VII E F G A B C D
Chart 5 F Lydian Mode I II III IV V VI VII F G A B C D E
Chart 6 G Mixolydian I II III IV V VI VII G A B C D E F
The Circle of Fifths is an easy way to find out the key a song is in. The Circle of Fifths tells you how many sharps or flats are in a given key. C has no sharps or flats. It is called the Circle of Fifths because as you go clockwise you go up a fifth. For example, the fifth note of the C major scale is G. The fifth note of the G major scale is D, and so on.
C G D A E B
0# 1# F# 2# F# C# 3# F# C# G# 4# F# C# G# D# 5# F# C# G# D# A#
0b 1b Bb
Bb 2b Bb Eb Eb 3b Bb Eb Ab Ab 4b Bb Eb Ab Db Db 5b Bb Eb Ab Db Gb Gb 6b Bb Eb Ab Db Gb Cb Cb 7b Bb Eb Ab Db Gb Cb Fb
F# 6# F# C# G# D# A# E# C# 7# F# C# G# D# A# E# B#
The Circle of Fifths can also be used to help to learn chords. You already know that the Circle goes in Fifths clockwise. Now look at how close the chords that are a fifth apart are together on the fretboard. You might not use this too much, but it will give you a broader view of the chords and how they are related to other chords.
< prevnext> The neat thing about suspended 4 chords is that they are made up of this formula: I-IV-V. Now you're asking what this means. I'll tell you by showing you the degrees for the major scale (below) and the minor scale (below). Notice how the I, IV, and V degrees all have the same notes. Now, let's look at what we have learned in earlier lessons... The C major chord has the notes C, E, and G. The C minor chord has the notes C, D#, and G. Notice that the difference is in the third degree (2nd note shown). Also notice that D# is a half step below E that means that all you have to do to change a major chord to a minor chord is to lower the third degree a half step. This third degree tells whether a chord is major or minor. Now, you're wondering... How does this apply to suspended 4 chords? Here's how. suspended 4 chords are chords that have the fourth degree instead of the third degree. Therefore nothing determines whether the chord is major or minor. IT'S NEITHER. Now here is what you can do with an suspended 4 chord. You can use it as a common chord for use with major and minor scales. You can also use it to make a smooth transition from a major scale to a minor scale. But all in all, it's just an extremely versatile and nice sounding chord. Note: I did not say this in the chord construction lesson, but minor chords can be formed by taking the I-III-V degree notes from the minor scale (aeolian mode). The C Major Scale I II III IV V VI VII C D E F G A B
The C Minor Scale (D# Aeolian Mode) I II III IV V VI VII C D D# F G G# A#
First let's define Bar Chords. Bar Chords are chords that have your index finger holding down more than one string and not playing with any open strings. Confused? Well let me clarify things. I'll show you by using a few diagrams.
This is F major in bar chord form. To play this chord you need to bar the first fret. In other words, stretch your index finger across the fretboard so that it presses every string like in the picture on the right.
This is D# major in bar chord form. For this one, you can bar the 1st fret and you can bar the 3rd fret. You would bar the 3rd fret with your ring finger. Notice that the Low E string is not played, so there are no open strings played.
This is C# major in bar chord form. Notice that even though you do not "bar" the entire 1st fret, you still leave no open strings and you are still stretching across more than one string.
The great thing about these chords is that they are completely movable. So if you move the chord down a fret then you know that the chord is raised a half step. (example: C would be raised to C#). Let's look at this more in depth. Here is some tablature of bar chords:
Major Bar Chords (6th String Root)
Minor Bar Chords (6th String Root)
Notice that the only difference between the Major and Minor chords is the note on the G string. Now look at the note on the Low E string. This note names the chord. Look at the fretboard below to see.
Now look at this Tablature:
Major Bar Chords (5th String Root)
Minor Bar Chords (5th String Root)
Notice that the only difference between the Major and Minor chords in this form is the note that lies on the B string. You should also notice that the note on the A string tells you what chord it is. Now you should see that because the top note of every chord in these forms tells you the name of the chord you should see that all of the bar chords are movable. All you have to do is slide the pattern down, and name it with the top note. There are other forms like the C# and D# that I gave you up top, but there are too many for me to list and not all of the other ones have their top note as the root note (the note that names the chord). What is a Power Chord? It is a chord consisting of 2 notes. The two notes are the I and V degrees. People use power chords because they are neither major nor minor. This is because they don't have a third degree, and the third degree tells you whether a chord is major or minor. They are also used because they give the feel of raw power. So let's get started showing you power chords. Let's start by showing you the C Major Scale. The E Major Scale I II III IV V VI VII E F# G# A B C# D# Now all you have to do is comprise a chord of the I and V degrees. In this case those notes are E and B. Now all you have to do is find any combination of these two notes and it is a power chord. Let me show you a few examples. E Power Chords
These chords are called E5 chords. So any power chords is named by the root plus a 5 after it. Now here's an example of some G5 chords which consist of G and D G5 chords
Notice that the G5 chord in the middle above is comprised of the lowest 3 notes of the G major barre chord. So in other words the chords with this form have the same rules as the barre chords. 1. 2. They are moveable Their root (note that names the chord) is the lowest note.
The same holds true for the pattern given on the G5 chord that is on the far right in the chart above. To understand this method of figuring out seventh chords, you must have a basic knowledge of the degrees of the major scale.
I will show you how to find every 7th chord you'll ever need in three patterns and with four rules. Obviously, this will not show you every voicing there is on guitar but it is a start if you really want to try it. The Three Patterns Place your fingers where the numbers are. The numbers represent the degree of that note. (1=root
The Four Rules
All of the rules refer to the chord symbol which is the expression used to name chords
1. 2. 3. 4.
The 5th is natural unless you're told otherwise by the chord symbol "7" means b7 "maj7" means that the 7th is not flatted "min" (or "m") means to flat the 3rd Examples
A7 7th is flatted
A7b5 7th and 5th are flatted
Amin7 7th and 3rd are flatted
Amaj7 Am maj7 Am maj7b5 7th is natural (not flatted) 3rd is flatted, 7th is natural 3rd and 5th are flatted 7th is natural
Note: When you see "aug" or "+" raise the 5th a half step
What you must do is adjust the patterns according to chord symbol. Examples are shown below.
< prevnext> The first time anyone ever comes across a slash chord, he immediately says HUH? Well, they are really not that hard to figure out. Let's look at G/B. It is read G over B. What you do is play a G major chord with a B as the bass note (The B is the lowest note of the chord). The G major chord's notes are G, B, and D. If you look at the diagram of G/B, you will notice that it has all the notes of the G major chord. The only difference is that the B is the lowest note, instead of the G. That is why it is named G/B instead of G. You might ask why they name chords this way. It is just for clarifying the chord voicing. If you just said play a G major chord, I doubt that you would play G/B, but if I said play G/B, you would be forced to put that B as the lowest note in the chord. In the examples below I gave you three slash chords to look at. You will notice that the bass note is always a chord tone of the underlying chord as I explained above.
Now Let's look at an Dadd9/F#, or Dadd9 over F#.
Now, let's look at Eb/Bb, or Eb over Bb. Eb/Bb
< prevnext> Diminished Chords are not used often. They consist of these degrees: I, bIII, bV. Diminished 7th chords add a VI degree to the Diminished Chord. Diminished 7th are so easy to remember because all you have to do is use one of the diminished chord patterns (shown below) and find the root note in any position of it. In other words, if you want a C diminished 7 chord, all you have to do is find a C in any place in the pattern. Let me show you. Diminished 7th Patterns
Notice in this next example that the pattern moves up 3 frets and is the same chord, just a different voicing. If you didn't notice already, Cdim7 is the same as Adim7, F#dim7, and D#dim7. They are all just different voicings of the same chord. Once you find one of them you have found them all, and if you want a differnt voicing, you just have to move up 3 frets. It's that easy.
C, D#, F#, A diminished 7 Chords
If you want a plain diminished chord, all you have to do is remove the VI note, or learn a movable pattern (just like any other chord) as shown below. (R= Root note) Diminished Patterns
< prevnext> The 12 Bar Blues is simply a chord progression. It is a I - IV - V progression. This progression is often used in jam sessions. Most of the time, musicians use Dominant Seventh Chords for this progression. So for the key of G you would use G7, C7, and D7. The Reason it's 12 Bar Blues is because it is played over 12 bars. So let me show you the structure of the 12 Bar Blues. Figure 1
Figure 2 Bar Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Traditional 12 Bar Blues I7 I7
I7 I7 IV7 IV7 I7 I7 V7 IV7 I7 V7/I7
Modern 12 Bar Blues
I7 IV7 I7 I7 IV7 IV7 I7 I7 V7 IV7 I7 V7/I7
Now, Notice that the first 4 bars are G7. That is the Traditional way to play the first 4 bars. You might want to try the Modern method by substituting the IV chord into the 2nd bar. (as shown on the chart) I would advise you not to try the Modern version until you know the Traditional version. You may notice that the last bar on the chart (turnaround bar) has two different chords in it like the second bar does. The chord shown on top of the bar (the V chord) is the chord you play if you are going to repeat the 12 bar blues back to the beginning. You use the I chord if you are ending the song. When you play the 12 Bar Blues, you can't just go out there and play one chord per bar for 4 beats. You have to create a rhythm, shuffle, swing, or whatever brings the blues out. The sound files below are a traditional 12 bar blues in the key of G. 12 Bar Blues Sounds (119k) < prevnext> his lesson is going to show you a quick and easy way to find the IV and V chords of a key by using the Circle of Fifths. (428k)
The circle as you should already know goes up a Perfect Fifth as you go clockwise around the circle. As you go counter clockwise it goes a Perfect Fourth. In other words the IV and V chord are to the left and right of the root chord. For Example: If you are in the key of A, your IV chord would be D, and your V chord would be E. Notice that the D is one position counter clockwise to the A, and the E is one position clockwise of the A.
You can use any Dominant chord when you play the 12 Bar Blues. In other words, you can use Dominant 7th, 9th, or 13th chords. In Lesson 25 I concentrated mainly on the Dominant 7th chords, but any Dominant chord will work just fine in the 12 bar blues. < prevnext> The Pentatonic Scale is a scale consisting of 5 notes (Penta =5, tonic = tones). There is a Minor Pentatonic Scale (which I'll show you first), and there is a Major Pentatonic Scale. You may ask why you should use a scale with such a small amount of notes. The reason is that Pentatonic Scales provide a small margin for error when you are playing over a chord progression of the chords that go with the scale (the chords are shown in the chart below). Another reason to use the scale is if you are looking to find that rock sound. Jimi Hendrix used this scale more than any other. Now, it is hard to find a rock song without pentatonics in it. B.B. King also uses the Pentatonic Scale. He uses the Minor Pentatonic scale for its bluesy quality. Enough chit-chat, let's get to the info. You should learn the patterns below all the way up the neck so you can use this scale at any time when you are playing. I'll go into more detailed uses of the Pentatonic Scales in later lessons, but for now just learn the scales. Minor Pentatonic Scale Description: Quality: A Bluesy sounding scale Bluesy
Musical Styles: Blues, Rock, Heavy Metal, Jazz, Fusion
Minor, Minor Sevenths, Dominant Sevenths (W - Whole Step, H - Half Step)
Root -b3-4-5-b7-Octave W+H-W-W-W+H-W
Full Pattern: D# Minor Pentatonic Scale
Major Pentatonic Scale Description: Quality: Country Flavored Scale Bright Sounding
Musical Styles: Country, Blues, Rock, Jazz, Fusion Chords: Major, Major Sevenths, Dominant Sevenths (W - Whole Step, H - Half Step) Intervals: Root -2-3-5-6-Octave W-W-W+H-W-W+H
Full Pattern: E Major Pentatonic Scale
The Blues Scale is derived from the Minor Pentatonic Scale. It has an added #4th. This note gives the scale a bluesy feel. It is the only difference between the Blues Scale and the Minor Pentatonic Scale. As always, commit the pattern to memory because we will be using the Pentatonic Scale, the Blues Scale, and the Mixolydian Mode in the next lesson. We will, also, be using the 12 bar blues so get ready. Point to notice: Pattern 5 is probably the most used of the blues scale's patterns Description: Quality: A Bluesy sounding scale Bluesy
Musical Styles: Blues, Rock, Jazz, Fusion Chords: Intervals: Minor, Minor Sevenths, Minor Ninths, Dominant Sevenths, Dominant Ninths (W - Whole Step, H - Half Step) Root -b3-4-#4-5-b7-Octave
Full Pattern: D# Minor Blues Scale
This lesson is going to familiarize you with the chord tones within the scale patterns. Yes, that's right now you have to learn the notes instead of blazing trough patterns. Why should you learn them... Because these are the color tones. The tones that make the scale and chord progression melt into one harmonious melody, or electrifying solo. So without further adieu... the charts! Let's start by taking the Dominant 7th chords in the Key of G. If you can't read my chord charts here's how. The numbers on the left of the diagram represent the fret numbers. The numbers on the diagram represent the degree of the major scale that the notes are. Example: 5= D (the 5th) on the G7 diagram. To play it just place your fingers where the numbers are on the diagram
Now Let's look at the chord tones for each of the chords G7 1 3 5 b7 G B D F C7 1 3 5 b7 C E G Bb 1 3 D7 5 b7 D F# A C
Now let's find the chord tones on the fretboard and compare it to the Mixolydian Mode. You might ask why the Mixolydian Mode. It is because when you play Dominant 7th chords, the Mixolydian Mode fits the best because it gives you the flatted 7th note which gives Dominant 7th chords their sound. I didn't chart out C7 and D7 in relation to C Mixolydian and D Mixolydian, but I figured that you could figure out how to do this on your own.
Now that you have studied the relationship of the chord tones to the scale pattern you should try soloing with these notes for that bluesy feel that you get from playing the Mixolydian mode. Sound Hard?? It really isn't, all you have to do is think of the chord tones. Play the chord tones as opposed to the scale. Use the other scale tones that are not chord tones as links to get a smooth transition from one note to the next. Try using slides, hammer-ons, and trills from a scale note to a chord note. This will bring out the flavor in the chords. I really like hitting on the I chord's (G7) 3rd degree note, in this case it's B. It has a bluesy sound that the Mixolydian Mode and Dominant 7th chords really bring out. This next section will compare G7's chord tones to the G Blues Scale, and it will show you why the Mixolydian mode fits a little bit better because the Mixolydian mode contains all of the chord tones. the Blues Scale however omits a couple notes, but it doesn't leave any bad notes for you to hit. Let me show you... G7 The G Blues Scale 1 3 5 b7 1 b3 4 #4 5 b7 C E G Bb G Bb C C# D F As you can see the Blues Scale only contains the root and the flatted 7th note. So now the question is why do you use the Blues Scale? I'll show you with more charts. What you want to notice is that the chord tones for G7, C7, and D7 come together to form the Minor Pentatonic Scale, which is the Blues Scale without the added #4 (which is the only note that is not contained in any of the chords). G7 1 3 5 b7 G B D F C7 1 3 5 b7 C E G Bb 1 3 D7 5 b7 D F# A C
The G Blues Scale 1 b3 4 #4 5 b7 G Bb C C# D F The next question I see coming is why use the Blues Scale when it only adds a note that is not included in the Minor Pentatonic Scale? That question will be answered in Lesson 31: The Flat-Five Substitution < prevnext> Well, now we will continue to play the blues. This time, we will teach you to play over those chord changes in the 12 bar blues. I'll show you a neat way to play them to really bring out the chord tones while playing over the Mixolydian Mode. To show you this trick I have to show you all the notes used in the chords and the mixolydian modes relative to the chords (example: G7 is relative to G Mixolydian). I will give you an example to follow in the key of G. (shown below) G7 1 3 5 b7 G B D F C7 1 3 5 b7 C E G Bb 1 3 D7 5 b7 D F# A C
G Mixolydian Root II III IV V VI VII Octave G A B C D E F G C Mixolydian Root II III IV V VI VII Octave C D E F G A Bb C D Mixolydian Root II III IV V VI VII Octave
Take a look at the 3 mixolydian modes. Notice that the change in notes... Changes from G Mixolydian to C Mixolydian: B changes to Bb Changes from G Mixolydian to D Mixolydian: F changes to F# Changes from C Mixolydian to D Mixolydian: F changes to F# and Bb changes to B Now, when you are playing over the 12 bar blues, you want to play G Mixolydian over the G7 chord, C Mixolydian over the C7 chord, and D Mixolydian over the D7 chord. The hard part is changing between the different modes while bringing out the chord tones. Here's how I do it... After looking at the changes in the the modes you must look at the 12 bar blues (shown below). When the chords change from G7 to C7, try hammering from B to Bb. By doing this you will accentuate the chord change because G7 has a B while C7 has a Bb. You will also play the only note that is different between the G Mixolydian and C Mixolydian Modes. To bring out the C7 chord try playing the chord tones to further accentuate the C7 chord. When the chords change from C7 back to G7, try going from Bb to B, then playing the G7 chord tones. Once again you will have accentuated the chord change. When the chords change from C7 to D7, try going from F to F#, then play the D7 chord tones. Unlike the other chord changes this one leaves 2 changes in the notes of the modes. I like to use the F# because it is also a chord tone, and it does a better job in accentuating the D7 chord. Are you getting the hang of my technique? The basic formula is to play the note change then play the chord tones. All you have to know is the 12 bar blues and the change in the notes. 12 Bar Blues Sounds
< prevnext> The flat five substitution is a chord that you can use as a substitute for any dominant chord. It applies very nicely to the 12 Bar Blues, because of the use of Dominant 7th chords. Enough chit chat, lets get to the facts. When you play a dominant chord there will always be a chord that you can substitute for it and still hace it sound good. That substitute chord is a diminished 5th above the the original chord. So if you are playing an E7, the substituted note would be Bb7. It is called a Flat-Five Substitute because if you are in the key of E the V note is B, and the bV is Bb hence the name Flat-Five. The Flat-Five chord substitutes so nicely because of the notes which are contained in the original chord and the Flat-Five chord. Let's look at the notes in each chord. E 1 3 b7 1 E G# D Bb7 3 b7 Bb D G#
If you will notice, the 3 note and the b7 note are the same notes but switched around the chords. That is why the chords can be substituted for each other. The reason that the notes are the same is because the interval between the 3 note and the b7 note is a diminished 5th (also called the tritone). The neat thing about the tritone is that it divides the root note and octave in half. In other words, It is the same distance from the root note as it is from the root note's octave. This is why you can get the same notes for both chords. Because all dominant chords (7th, 9th, or 13th) must contain the 3 and b7 notes, this subtitution process works every time. Another great thing about this substitution process is that you do not have to substitute a Dominant 7th chord for a Dominant 7th chord. You can substitute any dominant chord for any other dominant chord. For example you can substitute a Bb13 for a E9 chord. For even more possibilities, you can substitute a dominant chord with a flat-five note added. For example, you can substitute an E13b5 for a E7, or you can substitute a Bb13b5 for an E7. You can do this because Bb and E are tritones of each other. In other words, they are a diminished 5th from each other so the note that is a b5 of Bb is E, and the note that is a b5 of E is Bb. If you did not know it already, this is the reason that the blues scale has a #4/b5 note added to it. This lesson should really broaden your playing vocabulary. It will really help you if you are a jazz or blues player who uses a lot of Dominant chords. Jazz Progressions are based on a II-V-I progression. The II-V-I sounds the jazziest with seventh chords. As you already know from past lessons, the II chord is a minor chord, the V chord is a dominant chord, and the I chord is a major chord. So the most basic Jazz progression is the II minor 7 - V dominant 7 - I major 7. Let's look at it in the key of C. The chords are D minor 7 - G7 - C major 7. These are the main chords of the progression.
Here are a few examples of a II-V-I in the key of C. Try playing these examples and you will see the jazzy sound that they give. (Note: The X's do not represent muted notes)
< prevnext> Resolving is a way to lead songs back to the tonic or root. It can be applied to single note applications, or it can be applied to chord progressions. If you don't already know, the 7th degree is also called the Leading Notebecause it leads back to the tonic. The leading note is a half step from the tonic, so when you resolve, you use half steps. In single note applications it is pretty easy because you just have to think to play from one fret down back to the tonic. When you play with chord resolutions it gets a bit more complex. Whenever a chord progression is being played, you are always trying to resolve back to the tonic. Not every chord resolves directly to the tonic, but they will resolve indirectly. Let me show what chords resolve directly to the tonic. Chords that Resolve Directly to the Tonic The chord that resolves to the tonic the best is formed from the 5th (V) degree of the scale. The reason that this chord is the best is because it contains the leading note (7th degree). In the Key of C, B is the leading note because it is the note before C. Look at the chart below.
C Major Scale
I II III IV V VI VII Octave C D E F G A B C
C Major Notes
C E G
G Major Notes (V chord)
G B D The Dominant Chords formed from the 5th degree resolve better than the plain major chord because the b7 note that is added in dominant chords resolves to the third of the tonic (in this case it is E), and the B is still in the chord to resolve to the C. Look at the chart to see the notes.
C Major Notes
C E G
G B D F Because the V chord resolves so nicely to the tonic (I chord), many songs end with this progression because it is such a strong ending for songs. The diminished 7th chord also resolves nicely to the tonic because it is formed from the leading note (B). In the key of C, the diminished 7 is B diminished 7 which contains the notes B, D, F, G#. This is resolves nicely to the tonic because the B resolves to the C (and Bb if you are playing a C7), the F resolves to the E, and the G# resolves to the G. Look at the chart below.
C E G Bb
B Diminished 7 Notes
B D F G# The III chord will also resolve to the tonic. Just remember that it is minor when you play it. It resolves best with just a plain minor chord to a I major chord. Chords that Resolve Directly to the V The II chord resolves directly to the V chord (and therefore indirectly to the tonic) because the II chord is the 5th degree from the V. In other words it is the dominant of the dominant. If you took the V chord (G) and wrote out its major scale the 5th degree of that scale (G major scale) is the same as the II chord (in this case it is D). This is where we get the II-V-I Jazz Progression. The IV chord also resolves nicely to the V chord but not as well as the II chord. This is where we get the chords of the 12 bar blues (I-IV-V). Other Chordal Resolutions The VI chord resolves to the II chord because the VI chord is the dominant of the II chord (just like the II is the dominant of the V). Remember that the II and VI chords are minor chords. < prevnext> n this lesson, I am going to show you how to find and form chords easily from the basic chords that most guitarists know. This lesson will show where chords are in relation to each other. There is an order in which the chords go down the fretboard it is C-A-G-E-D. Each letter refers to a certain chord form or pattern. This pattern is shown in the diagram below. (Ex: C form, A form, etc.)
The forms get their name from when those chord patterns are open chords (chords that use open strings). For example. When the E form uses open strings it is an E major chord, therfore it is named the E form. If you notice the chords run together as you go down the fretboard. Look at the root note ("R") of the C Form chord. Now look at the root note of the A form chord. Notice that they are on the same string. This is the same note on the same fret. In other words the 2 chord forms run together. The C form comes before the A form, and they actually share that note. Now look at the three notes out in the front of the A form. Now look at the three notes on the same strings in the G form. Once again these notes are shared. This pattern continues down through all the forms, and it repeats when the D form goes to the C form. This should help you to find chords much more easily.
Just because the chord is in C form does not mean that it is a C major chord either. That is just the name for the form. The chord is determined by the root note, and remember that all of these chords are moveable. If you know how to apply this lesson you will never have trouble finding a chord again.
All the forms that I have shown you so far have been for major chords. Now I will show you the small differences in chord shapes to get other chords. It is really simple when you think of the little changes that you have to make to change a chord from an A major into an A major 7. I will show you in the following charts, and I will highlight the changes in yellow. Remember: All of the forms shown below can be substituted, so if you want an A major 7 and you need an A form chord, you just have to go to the A major 7 Form below, and apply it.
Some of these chords do not have the root as the lowest note, therefore those ones can be named as a slash chord. I hope you learned to find chords quickly and easily because this is a simple technique that can give you great results. < prevnext> If you know your chords, and you know your patterns, then this lesson will benefit your playing immensely. Knowing how chords and scales relate to each other helps you to find them more easily than if you were not to know their relation. Let's take a look at some chords and the patterns that they go with. To show this, I will use the C, A, G, E, and D chord forms.
You can see that the chords are all major chords, but they can be other chords also. The scale patterns shown in this lesson are all major scale patterns, therefore all major chords will relate to the major scale pattern. If you remember Lesson 14, you know that certain chords work with certain modes, and you know that the major scale and all the modes share the same patterns, but they change root notes. Knowing this, you know that only the chords that work with a certain mode will fit into the patterns for that mode. For example: The Mixolydian mode works with Dominant chords, therefore a G7 chords will work in the Mixolydian Mode Patterns. If you know that the Mixolydian Mode is formed from the 5th degree of the major scale, then you know that G Mixolydian is formed from the C Major scale. Now look at the chart below. Notice that the C Major pattern and the G Mixolydian pattern are the same pattern, and in the same place on the fretboard. You will also notice that there is both a C Major chord and a G7 chord that works in this pattern. The only difference in the pattern is the root note.
If you want to learn how each and every chord works with each mode, I suggest that you write out the patterns for each mode, and the chords as I did in the first chart with the Major Scale (notice that in the 2nd chart, the G7 chord is in the E form). < prevnext> The Minor Scale is the second most important scale (next to the major scale). It is formed from the 6th degree of the Major Scale. It is called the Natural Minor Scale and the Aeolian Mode. If you have read Lesson 14 then you know about this scale already. What you do not know is that it is the basis for two more scales. These scales are the Harmonic Minor Scale and the Melodic Minor Scale. The Harmonic Minor Scale is the same as the Natural Minor Scale except that it has a raised 7th degree. The Melodic Minor Scale raises the 6th and 7th. Look at the chart below (It uses the A Minor Scales). Scale Degrees I II III IV V VI VII Natural Minor Scale A B C C C D D D E F E F G G#
Harmonic Minor Scale A B Melodic Minor Scale A B
E F# G#
As you can see, the scales are slightly different. This means that the chords that work with these scales are also different. Let's take a look at what chords you can play from each degree of the scales. Chords I Natural Minor Scale II III IV V VI VII G maj G# dim
A min B dim C maj D min E min F maj
Harmonic Minor Scale A min B dim C aug D min E maj F maj Melodic Minor Scale
A min B min C aug D maj E maj F# dim G# dim
As you can see, many of the chords change, but there are more that you can use. the chart below shows 7th chords. When looking at the chart below you will see some min/maj7 chords. These chords are 7th chords with a lowered 3rd, which tells you that it is a minor chord, and a regular 7th as opposed to a flat 7th which you use in dominant and minor 7th chords. Legend maj Major min Minor dim Diminished
7th Chords I Natural Minor Scale A min7 II III IV V VI VII G7 G# dim7
B min7b5 C maj7
D min7 E min7 F maj7 F maj7
Harmonic Minor Scale A min/maj7 B min7b5 C maj7#5 D min7 E7 Melodic Minor Scale A min/maj7 B min7 C maj7#5 D7 E7
F# min7b5 G# min7b5
The nice thing about the minor system is that you can use these chords like your regular progressions. For example, when you use the Natural Minor Scale you can play a I-IV-V progression with A minor, D minor, and E minor. You can also use the Harmonic Minor Scale and play a I-IV-V using A min/maj7, D min7, E7. In Lesson 3 I had you memorize patterns for the scales and modes. If you know the Aeolian mode, then you know the Natural Minor Scale pattern. The best way to learn the Harmonic Minor Scale, and the Melodic Minor Scale is to know the Aeolian mode, and then raise the notes that change every time you come across them. This is much easier that memorizing a new pattern. You will remember it even better if you write out the pattern yourself. If you still do not know the scale patterns, go to Lesson 3 on modes. It will help you out. Transposition is when you move something from one key to another. This concept is simple to use and grasp. The easiest way to transpose is to have a listing of the notes of all the major scales in front of you (as shown in the chart below). Let's say that you have a chord progression of C - F - G, and you want to transpose it to the key of A from the key of C. You would go to the C major scale in the chart (below) and see that C is the I degree, F is the IV degree, and G is the V degree. Now you must go to the A major scale and see that the I degree is A, the IV degree is D, and the V degree E. So what you would do is play an A - D - E progression instead of a C - F - G progression. Note: If the chord is a Cmaj7 then you would change it to an Amaj7. The same applies for any other type of chord.
Major Scale Note & Degree Chart
Scale A I A II or IX III IV or XI V B C# D D D# E F VI or XII VII I (octave) F# G G# A A A#
A#/Bb A# C B C B C C# D
D# E E F F F#
F# G# G A
A# B B C C C#
C#/Db C# D# D D E
G# A# A B
F# G G G#
C# D D D#
D#/Eb D# F E F E F F# G
A# C B C C# D
G# A A A#
D# E E F F F#
F#/Gb F# G# G G A
A# B B C C C#
C# D# D E
F# G G G#
G#/Ab G# A#
I pretty much stumbled upon this method of constructing a song. I came across it when I was learning a song called Romance Anonimo. This song has a simple melody that was made completely on the 1st string. The 2nd and 3rd strings are used for harmony, and the 4th, 5th and 6th string are used for keeping rhythm and providing depth to the song. The method is pretty easy to do and you get good results. This method basically splits the guitar into three parts: high strings, middle strings, and low strings. The high strings consist of the 1st and 2nd strings, the middle strings consist of the 3rd and 4th strings, and the low strings consist of the 5th and 6th strings. The high strings are used to give the basic melody of the song. The middle strings are used to provide harmony to enhance the melody
The low strings are used to keep a steady beat and provide depth as well as harmony to the song. Now, you should construct your song in this order: 1. 2. 3. Melody (High strings) Harmony (Middle strings) Bass (Low strings)
Let's take a look at how Romance Anonimo was constructed by taking a look at the 1st half of the song. First we will look at the melody. They are all quarter notes played in 3/4 time. Romance Anonimo Melody (137k) (532k)
Now we will take a look at the harmony by adding it to the melody.
Now we will finish off the song by adding the low strings. Romance Anonimo (146k) (557k)
Everyone wants to know how to transcribe but no one finds out so here we go. These are really tips and tricks because there is no other way than to listen to the song and play it on the guitar, but these are tips that will help you a lot. 1. Find a comfortable, well lighted, quiet place to work When transcribing try to find out the tuning by listening for strings that ring more. These strings are open so if you hear a low D ringing you know you're not in standard tuning. Try to find out the key of the song. It will help if you can use one scale to transcribe with. It also helps when you're looking for what the chords are. See lessons 16, 17, & 18 Get a CD player, but if you use a cassette you might want to invest in one with a "Cue/Review" button so you can hear it rewind or something that will go back to a designated spot. You might be able to find an old one that fits the criteria at a yard sale or flea market. Use headphones. They help... trust me Try to use something with a left/right button. (A mixer is the ideal tool for this) Try to use something with an Equilizer. (All you need is Low, Mid, High but a 10 band one is still more useful) Good pencil, eraser, and pencil sharpener If you have money, buy something that will slow down the playing. I know Ibanez makes one. The problem is that some of these also lower the note an octave too, but I don't think that Ibanez's does.
10. Sometimes music is mixed on different channels (for example: guitars go through the right speaker while vocals go through the left) Use the left/right knob to only listen to the guitar side.
11. Use the Equilizer to lower the Highs and Lows, then boost the Midrange. This helps to bring out the guitar and lessen the rest of the
band 12. If you can get a song onto your computer and have a program to manipulate the song to bring out the guitar, slow it down, etc. use that program. It'll save you time and bad notes. 13. You may also want to invest in a vocal eliminator. 14. You can also cheat and find a video and see how they play it. 15. Most of all... Practice and take it one step at a time. (Start Easy and build up)
< prevnext> Training your ear is something that is extremely valuable but hard to acquire. You cannot train your ear by just reading. It requires that you can hear the differences in sounds. After you play a while your ear develops more and more. This is not something that you can learn instantly, but there are ways to help you hear things better. I have included Real Audio files so that you can learn the differences between the various chords. Listen to the following examples by clicking on the Real Audio Logos. Try to hear the differences between each of the chords. A Major A Minor A Major 7 A Minor 7 A Dominant 7
Once you think that you can tell the chords apart take the test. To take the test, click on the Real Audio logo below. It will play five chords. See if you can tell which one is which. By the way, the chords are played in E this time. Take the Test
Click here to check your answers to the test You can test yourself if you can get a friend to record himself playing a bunch of chords. try it with several different chords. When I get to part 2, we will try to hear the difference between the different notes.
n the last lesson, we concentrated on recognizing chords. In this lesson, we will concentrate on recognizing notes. Remember, the only way to train your ear is to listen several times. There is no easy way out. Click on the pictures below to play the given note. Keep listening to these until you think that you can recognize them. Then take the test below.
5th String Notes A A# B C C# D D# E F F# G G#
Take the Test
Click here to check your answers to the test I am going to show you how to find the key when you have just a written piece of music in standard notation and also when you just know the chord progression. Determining the Key From a Piece of Music in Standard Notation To find the key when you see a piece of music in standard notation, you must look at the key signature. The key signature is located at the beginning of the line (for more info on the key signature refer to Lesson 5: Standard Notation). This is where sharps and flats in standard notation are placed. Their are either sharps, flats, or neither in the key signature. Sharps and flats are never mixed together. You can determine the key by counting the number of sharps or flats in the key signature as long as the key signature does not have 5 sharps or flats. You must use a more complicated process to determine the key if this occurs. Here is a chart to show you the key if you have 4 or less flats or sharps in the key signature. Figure 1 Number of Sharps Key 1 2 3 4 Number of Flats Key Key of F Key of Bb Key of Eb Key of Ab
Key of G 1 Key of D 2 Key of A 3 Key of E 4
When there are no sharps or flats, it is the key of C.
Now, to find out which notes are sharp or flat, we will use the circle of fifths. Figure 2
If you can remember that the 1st sharp is F# and the 1st flat is Bb, then you will have no problem finding the sharps or flats in a key signature. Figure 3 will show you how to find the sharps or flats in a key signature.
Figure 3 Determining Sharps To determine the sharps, you must find F# on the circle of fifths. F# is the 1st sharp. Now go clockwise 1 place. You land on C#. This is the 2nd sharp. Continue this process of going clockwise to get the 3rd, 4th, and 5th sharps. There are only 5 because if you continue this process to find the 6th sharp, you will find F which is not a sharp. Determining Flats To determine the flats, you must find Bb on the circle of fifths. Bb is the 1st flat. Now go counterclockwise 1 place. You land on Eb. This is the 2nd flat. Continue this process of going counterclockwise to get the 3rd, 4th, and 5th flat. There are only 5 flats because if you continue this process to find the 6th flat, you will find B, which is not a flat.
Now comes the hard part... finding the key when there are 5 sharps or flats. When there are 5 sharps or flats, it gets tricky because there are 3 keys that use 5 sharps or flats. These keys are B, F#/Gb, and C#/Db. All 3 of these keys have the same 5 sharps or flats. The difference between these keys is the notes that are not sharp or flat. In the key of B, those notes are B and E. In the key of F#/Gb, those notes are B and F. In the key of C#/Db, those notes are F and C. You must know these notes so that you can determine the exact key because the only way to determine the key now is to find those 2 notes used in the song. For example, if you see a B being used, you have eliminated C#/Db from being the key. Then you must seek find either an E or an F to differentiate between the key of B and the key of F#/Gb. Finding the Key from a Chord Progression
To find the key of a chord progression, you must have some knowledge of chord progressions.
If you recall, certain degrees are major and certain degrees are minor. To find the key from a chord progression, do the following: 1. Write down all of the chords Write down the scales associated with each chord. (ie: If you have E minor, write down the E minor scale. If you have E major write down the E major scale. Do not, however, write down any modes. Just write down major and minor scales.) Look at each scale and see if the chords' root notes are within that scale. If they are, that is the key you are in.
<Drop 2 Voicings are formed by taking a chord and then dropping the next to the highest note to the bass note. Figure 1 shows this in standard notation.
To form Figures 6, 7, and 8, there were four different types of chords that were used. Figure 2 and Figure 3 will show you the difference between them.
Degrees and Order (from lowest to highest note) Type 1 Type 2 Type 3 Type 4 Root-3rd-5th-7th 7th-Root-3rd-5th 5th-7th-Root-3rd 3rd-5th-7th-Root
The 4 types of chords above are the types of chords that Figures 6, 7, and 8 were formed from. Take a look at Figures 4 and 5 to see how the Drop 2 method affected their degrees
Degrees and Order (from lowest to highest note) Type 1 Type 2 Type 3 Type 4 Root-3rd-5th-7th 7th-Root-3rd-5th 5th-7th-Root-3rd 3rd-5th-7th-Root Degrees and Order (Drop 2) 5th-Root-3rd-7th 3rd-7th-Root-5th Root-5th-7th-3rd 7th-3rd-5th-Root
Now if you look at Figures 6, 7, and 8. You will notice that they are all Drop 2 chords formed from the 4 types that I have given you. The first column was formed from Type 4, the 2nd column was formed from Type 3, and so on. You will notice that Figures 6, 7, and 8 cover most of the common 7th chords. You will also notice that all the chords are constucted on 4 adjacent strings. On the guitar, there are 3 different sets of 4 strings. The first set is from the 1st string to the 4th string. The second set is from the 2nd string to the 5th string. The third set is from the 3rd string to the 6th string. You will notice that I separated each row by string sets in Figures 6, 7, and 8. You can use this method on any chord to get a different voicing by just dropping the next to the highest note to the bass note, but now I will tell you how to form a chart like the one below. This is very useful when you want to find chords for alternate tunings. Forming Drop 2 Chord Charts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Pick a key Pick a set of strings to use when forming chords Pick a Type from Figure 4 In Figure 4, go to the Drop 2 Degrees Formula (which is in the column on the far right) Take the degree on the far right of that formula Go to the highest string in your string set and find that degree in the key that you are in. Take the next degree from the right in the formula that you got from Figure 4 Go to the next highest string and find the degree of key that you are in Repeat steps 7 and 8 until you have finished constucting your chord
10. Repeat these steps for all string sets and all types of chords.
Figure 6 - F Major 7
Type 4 Type 3 Type 2 Type
1 Figure 7 - F Dominant 7
Figure 8 - F Minor 7
DADGAD Tuning is a popular alternative to standard notation. It is tuned by taking your guitar in standard tuning and dropping the 1st, 2nd, and 6th string a whole step down. You can do this by following these steps in order. 1. 2. 3. Match the note on the 7th fret of the 6th string with an open 5th string Match your open 2nd string with the 2nd fret of the 3rd string Match your 1st string with the 5th fret of the 2nd string
This is a great tuning for acoustic songs. It is really good for old hymns and fingerpicking acoustic solos. To get you started on DADGAD, I now have a DADGAD arrangement of Amazing Grace in the tablature section. I suggest that you use what you learned in Lesson 43: Drop 2 Voicings to come up with some chord charts. After that you can arrange your own songs in DADGAD. I know that not all of the Drop 2 chords will be usable due to the nature of the tuning but it will get you started with some chords. I have included a diagram of the DADGAD fretboard and some of my favorite DADGAD chords.Amazing GraceLesson 43: Drop 2 Voicings
Many songs written in DADGAD use a lot of 2 note chords and open strings. I suggest that you try using chords like the 2 note chords when you constuct your own songs. To play a 2 note major chord, play the root and the 3rd. To play a minor chord, play the root and the flat 3rd. To play a dominant 7th chord, play the Root and the flat 7th.
< prevnext> prevnext> Drop D Drop D tuning can be tuned by doing the following. 1. Match the note on the 7th fret of the 6th string with an open 5th string
Drop D tuning is the same as standard notation except that the 6th string is lowered a full step. Because of this, all of the notes are the same except that the 6th string has the same notes as the 4th string, but the 6th string's notes are an octave lower. Many rock musicians like to use this tuning. Some guitars, like Eddie Van Halen's guitar, are equipped with a drop D switch. This switch basically lowers the 6th string to a D (therefore making a drop D tuning) when you use it. Chords for this tuning can be derived from the chords you know in standard tuning. You can do this by moving whatever note is on the 6th string of the chord up 2 frets (a whole step).
Drop D Fretboard
Half step down Tuning to 1/2 step down can be done by lowering all of the strings by a half step. Follow these instructions to tune to this. 1. 2. 1. Match the note on the 6th fret of the 6th string to the open 5th string. 2. Match the note on the open 5th string with the 5th fret of the 6th string.
3. 4. 5. 6.
3. Match the note on the open 4th string with the 5th fret of the 5th string. 4. Match the note on the open 3rd string with the 5th fret of the 4th string. 5. Match the note on the open 2nd string with the 4th fret of the 3rd string. 6. Match the note on the open 1st string with the 5th fret of the 2nd string.
This tuning is widely used. all of the chords in this tuning can be played by simply using the same patterns as in standard tuning but sliding them up one fret. Several musicians like Stevie Ray Vaughan and Jimi Hendrix use this tuning to get a lower sound. It also takes some tension off of the strings so they are easier to bend. You can derive chords in this tuning by sliding the ones that you know in standard notation up 1 fret (half step).
Half Step Down Fretboard
< prevnext> Harmonics are played every time you pluck a note. Most of the time, however, you do not hear them. What you hear is the fundamental (sometimes called the first harmonic). The fundamental is the loudest sound produced, but it is accompanied by several harmonics. "Playing harmonics" on guitar is actually playing "artificial harmonics." Basically, it is a way of eliminating the fundamental and the other overtones. It produces a nice effect that many guitarists like to use. There are several ways to play these. Open-String Harmonics Open-string harmonics are sometimes referred to as natural harmonics. To play open-string harmonics, you can place your finger lightly on the string in the places shown in the diagram below. Do not press the string down. It should not touch anything but your finger. By doing this, you will play the note shown in the diagram over the given area.
Fretted Harmonics Playing fretted harmonics can be hard at times. This requires the fretting of a note, plus a "soft touch" on a string which is exactly 12 frets above the note you are fretting. In addition to this you must still pluck the string. To do all three of these tasks at once, you must combine the tasks of the "soft touch" and the plucking of the string. There are 2 techniques of doing this.
Technique 1: Artificial Harmonics
Although all harmonics that you play are actually artificial harmonics, this technique is commonly referred to as playing an artificial harmonic. This technique requires that you "soft touch" with your index finger and then pluck with your pinky finger or a pick held in the other fingers. The other technique is playing a pinched harmonic which is more difficult to learn but will allow you to play fretted harmonics more quickly once it is mastered.
Technique 2: Pinched Harmonics
This is a difficult technique to master. Consistent playing of pinched harmonics require that you use a modified picking technique along with a steady and accurate picking hand. The first thing that you must master is how to hold the pick and pluck the string. You hold the pick by having the pick barely clear the bottom of your thumb. The key is to pluck the string with the pick but have the thumb immediately hit it to produce the harmonic. This pick and thumb should hit the string almost simultaneously. You must also know where to pluck the string. If you do not hit the "sweet spot" on the string it will sound like a muffled note. The ideal place to pluck depends on where your thumb produces the harmonic. Your thumb should hit the string half way between the bridge and the the fret that you are playing on. So when you play on different frets, you must also pluck in different places. This makes it a little harder to play.
Note: There are other sweet spots as well. The sweet spots are proportional to the length of the string. When you play open-string harmonics, there are several places that produce harmonics. These are the "sweet spots" for a full length string (open string). When you fret a note, all the "sweet spots" stay in proportion to the string length, which is the length from the fret you are playing to the bridge. Therefore, several
"sweet spots" exist for both open-string and fretted harmonics. The one thing to remember is that they are not all one octave higher so hitting alternate "sweet spots" will play a different note.
The Physics of Harmonics Did you ever wonder why a harmonic is produced? It's quite simple actually. It is a matter of string length. When you use your finger to produce a harmonic, you modify how the string vibrates. When playing open string harmonics, you split the string into halves, thirds, fourths, fifths, and sixths. So playing the harmonics at the 12th fret split the string in half. Playing at the 7th or 19th fret split the string into thirds, and so on. You will also notice that playing harmonics at the 7th or 19th fret are exactly the same notes. You can also split the guitar into fourths at the 5th fret or the 24th fret (or where the 24th fret would be if you don't have that many frets). Once again, harmonics at the 5th and 24th frets produce the exact same notes. Notice that the 12th fret isn't included because that splits the string into halves (larger subsections of the string). Normal Note's Waveform
Same note one octave higher (harmonic dividing by one-half)
Harmonic dividing wavelength by onethird
So how does it work? Your finger acts as a pivot point for the string by forcing the string to vibrate in halves, thirds, fourths, etc. This cuts the wavelength in half, thirds, fourths, etc. Wavelength determines what the frequency of a note is, and frequency determines what note you are playing. Did you ever hear someone say to tune to A at 440? The 440 represents the frequency of the A note at the 1st string at the 5th fret. If you double that frequency, you will play an A that is an octave higher. This also cuts the wavelength in half. You might be able to see the relationship between frequency and wavelength. Frequency is inversely proportional to wavelength. This basically means that wavelength = 1 / frequency. In other words cutting wavelength in half with double the frequency, and cutting the wavelength into 1/3 will triple the frequency. So why do all my strings make different sounds even though they are the same length? This occurs due to the tension on the string. Basically the tension of the string modifies how the string vibrates so that it has a different frequency. When you adjust the tension, you also change the diameter of the string. Stretching or tightening the string makes the diameter smaller. < prevnext> An arpeggio is a succession of chord tones. When you play a solo, you try to focus on the chord tones of the progression that you are playing over. Sometimes you might stray away from the chord tones, but chord tones act as the base on which solos are derived. As guitarists we like to look at scale patterns as you have seen in previous lessons. In this lesson, I will provide you how to form arpeggio patterns and how to use them to locate chords. I will also show you some examples of arpeggio patterns. To form arpeggio patterns, you must first pick a chord that you want to write in an arpeggio pattern. Write out all the notes in that chord. For example, for C major 7 your notes would be C-E-G-B. Now all you have to do is take a top view of a fretboard and mark down where you would fret each of these notes. Make sure that you mark the root note so you can distinguish it from the other notes. As you can tell in the picture below, I gave a different color to each note. This will be used for finding chords.
Figure 1 - C Major 7 Arpeggio
Red Dots = Root Note Yellow Dots = 5th Blue Dots = 3rd Green = 7th
Arpeggio patterns follow the same rules as scale patterns: • • They are moveable They repeat at the 12th fret
To locate a C major 7 chord using the pattern above, all you have to do is take one note from each color and play it by fretting those notes. You may use more than one of each color as long as you use every color. If you remember that C major is just the C major 7 chord without its 7th degree (the B note), you know that you can form a C major chord from this pattern by finding combinations of the root, 3rd, and 5th, notes (which are the C, E, and G notes). You can also form a C major arpeggio pattern by just eliminating all the 7th note dots.
Figure 2 - C Major Arpeggio
The arpeggio patterns that are really useful are the 7th chord patterns because you can just eliminate the 7th chord to find the triad associated with the 7th chord you are using as we did above. For example a C minor 7 chord is a C minor chord when the 7th is taken away. Shown below are 7th chord patterns for your own use. These patterns can be moved like all the scale patterns that are shown in earlier lessons.
Figure 3 - Major 7 Arpeggio
Figure 4 - Minor 7 Arpeggio
Figure 5 - Dominant 7 Arpeggio
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.