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Operating Instructions

PREVIEW

Please refer to the operating instructions of the TD 3.

This PREVIEW contains mainly the software documentation for the usage of theTC1 & TD4.

TC1
Ring/Plate Tensiometer
LMT 870

TD4
Automatic Tensiometer
LMT 860

Version 00/00/00
LAUDA Scientific GmbH
Postfach 1251
97922 Lauda-Königshofen
Germany
Phone: (+49) 09343/ 503-0
Fax: (+49) 09343/ 503-222
e-mail info@lauda-scientific.de
Internet http://www.lauda-scientific.de
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Table of contents

Table of contents.............................................................................................................................3
List of figures...................................................................................................................................5
List of tables ....................................................................................................................................5
1 Safety information ....................................................................................................................6
1.1 General safety information .................................................................................................6
1.2 Other safety information.....................................................................................................6
1.3 Special symbols..................................................................................................................6
2 Brief instructions.......................................................................................................................7
2.1 Brief description and application ........................................................................................7
3 Controls and functional elements .............................................................................................9
4 Device description ..................................................................................................................10
4.1 Ambient conditions ..........................................................................................................10
4.2 Measurement methods .....................................................................................................10
4.3 Installation of TC1 / TD4 ..................................................................................................10
4.4 Tensio.Touch ...................................................................................................................11
4.4.1 Status bar.................................................................................................................11
4.4.2 Function bar .............................................................................................................12
4.4.3 Process control ........................................................................................................12
4.4.4 Interaction ................................................................................................................12
5 Login ......................................................................................................................................13
6 Home .....................................................................................................................................13
7 Measurement .........................................................................................................................13
7.1 Measurement with the Du Noüy ring .................................................................................14
7.1.1 Surface Tension (SFT) .............................................................................................14
7.1.2 Surface tension pull-through (SFT pull-through) .......................................................15
7.1.3 Surface tension time (SFT time) ...............................................................................15
7.1.4 Interfacial Tension (IFT) ...........................................................................................16
7.1.5 Interfacial tension pull-through (IFT pull-through) .....................................................17
7.2 Measurement with the Wilhelmy plate ..............................................................................18
7.2.1 Surface Tension (SFT) .............................................................................................18
7.3 Utilities ............................................................................................................................19
7.3.1 Weight......................................................................................................................19
7.3.2 Density .....................................................................................................................20
7.3.3 Check balance .........................................................................................................21
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7.3.4 Clean ring.................................................................................................................21
7.3.5 Clean plate...............................................................................................................21
7.3.6 Clean vessel ............................................................................................................21
8 Results ...................................................................................................................................22
9 Configuration..........................................................................................................................22
9.1 Method ........................................................................................................................22
9.1.1 Edit ring geometries .................................................................................................22
9.1.2 Edit plate geometries................................................................................................23
9.1.3 Norm methods..........................................................................................................23
9.1.4 User specific measurement methods .......................................................................23
9.1.5 Printer configuration .................................................................................................23
9.2 System ........................................................................................................................24
9.2.1 Measurement configuration ......................................................................................24
9.2.2 Language .................................................................................................................25
9.2.3 Time/Date ................................................................................................................25
9.2.4 User level .................................................................................................................25
9.2.5 About .......................................................................................................................25
9.3 Data.............................................................................................................................26
9.3.1 Log...........................................................................................................................26
9.3.2 Backup.....................................................................................................................26
10 Popup .................................................................................................................................27
10.1 Alerts ...........................................................................................................................27
10.2 Set temperature ...........................................................................................................27
10.3 Manual platform control ...............................................................................................27
10.4 Abort measurement .....................................................................................................28
10.5 Edit ring geometries.....................................................................................................28
10.6 Edit plate geometries........................................................................................................28
10.7 Adjusting of weighing system.......................................................................................28
10.8 Adjust density ..............................................................................................................29
10.9 Filter measurement methods .......................................................................................29
10.10 Save user specific measurement method.................................................................29
10.11 User management....................................................................................................29
10.11.1 Add user ...............................................................................................................29
10.11.2 Edit user ...............................................................................................................30
10.12 Keyboard..................................................................................................................30
10.12.1 Enter text ..............................................................................................................30

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10.12.2 Enter numbers ......................................................................................................31
10.13 Edit user specific methods parameter ......................................................................31
10.14 Import norm method .................................................................................................31
11 Update firmware .................................................................................................................32
12 Quick start ..........................................................................................................................33
13 Parameter description.........................................................................................................35
14 Appendix.............................................................................................................................36
14.1 Reference values for checking the TC1 / TD4.....................................................................36
14.2 Disposal of packaging .......................................................................................................36
14.3 Technical data..................................................................................................................37
14.4 Order numbers and accessories ........................................................................................38
14.5 References .......................................................................................................................39

List of figures
Figure 1: Tensio.Touch home screen ...............................................................................................11
Figure 2: Status bar ........................................................................................................................11
Figure 3: Function bar ....................................................................................................................12
Figure 4: Process control ................................................................................................................12
Figure 5: Keyboard text ..................................................................................................................30
Figure 6: Keyboard numbers...........................................................................................................31
Figure 7: Update firmware start ......................................................................................................32
Figure 8: Update firmware process..................................................................................................32

List of tables
Table 1: Functions of function bar buttons.......................................................................................12
Table 2: Alerts ................................................................................................................................27
Table 3: Parameter description of measurement parameters............................................................35
Table 4: Parameter description of configuration parameters ............................................................35
Table 5: Surface tension reference values, [mN/m] ..........................................................................36
Table 6: Interfacial tension referred to water reference values, [mN/m] ...........................................36
Table 7: Disposal of packaging ........................................................................................................36
Table 8: Technical data ...................................................................................................................37

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1 Safety information
1.1 General safety information
Surface and interfacial tension are determined with a tensiometer. It may be necessary to stabilise
the temperature of samples to be tested. Hazards arise from this due to high or low temperatures,
fire and the general hazards due to the application of electrical energy. The user is extensively
protected by the application of the relevant standards. Further hazard sources can arise from the
type of material for which the temperature is to be stabilised or from the sample to be measured,
e.g. on exceeding or undercutting certain temperature thresholds or with the fracture of the con-
tainer and reaction with the tempering liquid.
It is not feasible to include all possible situations. They remain essentially subject to the judgement
and responsibility of the operator.
The devices may only be used as intended, that is as described in this operating manual. This in-
cludes operation by instructed specialist personnel.

The device fulfils the following EU directives:


 Low Voltage Directive 73/23/EEC
 EMC Directive 89/336/EEC

Applied harmonized standards:


 DIN EN 61326-1 (IEC 61326-1)
 DIN EN 61010-1 (IEC 61010-1)
 DIN EN ISO 9001:2000

The devices are not designed for use under medical conditions according to DIN EN 60601-1 or
IEC601-1.

1.2 Other safety information


 Only connect the devices to grounded mains sockets.
 Withdraw the mains plug before cleaning, servicing, or moving the tensiometer.
 Have repairs carried out only by specialists.
 Measurements and display accuracy apply under normal conditions according to DIN
12876. High frequency electromagnetic fields may lead to less favorable values in special
cases. Safety is not impaired.

1.3 Special symbols


Be careful! This sign is used when improper handling can lead to personal injury.

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2 Brief instructions

These brief instructions are intended to give you a quick introduction to the operation
of the device. However, for the safe operation of the tensiometer it is essential to read
the instructions completely and carefully and to follow the safety information.

2.1 Brief description and application


The LAUDA Tensiometer TC1 / TD4 is used for the measurement of surface and interfacial ten-
sion, for the determination of the density of liquids and for the measurement of smaller weights.
The device consists of a measuring unit and the graphical user interface “Tensio.Touch”. It has an
integral, precise electromagnetic load cell and operates fully automatically as a stand-alone device
without an accompanying PC. All results can be saved in an internal memory in the Tensio.Touch,
output to an optionally obtainable printer and transferred via an USB-storage device to a commer-
cially available PC.

The TC1 / TD4 is particularly suitable for:


 Universities, advanced technical colleges, teaching facilities and other training establish-
ments.
 Operational and quality laboratories.
 Research and development departments.

The possible applications are plentiful, including:


 The determination and test of physical properties of the types listed above on organic and
inorganic liquids, solutions and dispersions.
 Development and examination of surface-active substances (tensides, emulsifiers, etc.)
and for the detection of such substances in waste water and water courses.
 Tenside content determination below the CMC.

It is possible to carry out a wide variety of measurement tasks by using the most varied test probes
in conjunction with precise weighing technology and high quality electronics.
In case of surface and interfacial tension the following test probes specified according to ASTM
D971 and DIN 53914 are used:
 The Wilhelmy platinum plate.
 The du Noüy platinum/iridium ring.

For density measurements:


 A glass displacement body.

When using the Lauda PTT+ Peltier Thermostating Unit with internal stirrer, measurements over a
temperature range of 5-80°C can be carried out.

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Determination of surface and interfacial tension of liquids
The measurement of surface and interfacial tension is carried out using the Wilhelmy plate or du
Noüy ring method. The vertical force is measured which is exerted on the test probe by the surface
or interface of the liquid.
An especially sensitive, displacement-free measurement system is required to acquire this force. A
force measurement system of this type is the main constituent component of the TC1 / TD4 meas-
urement console. This is achieved through electromagnetic compensation in the force transferred
via the test probe onto a measuring beam. An optoelectronic detector supplies the position deter-
mination of the measuring beam needed for displacement-free measurement.

In the case of measurement with the du Noüy ring, the TC1 / TD4 facilitates the up and down
movement of the sample table, which is required for acquiring the maximum force, through a lim-
ited force range defined by the user.

When using the Wilhelmy plate, the table movement stops immediately once the measurement
system has registered contact between the plate and the liquid.

After entering the measuring parameters, such as measurement method, number of tests, stability
criteria (standard deviation), the measurement can be started by the press of a button. To raise or
lower the test liquid without vibration the TD4 has a motor-controlled sample table which enables
the necessary vibration-free table movement at a speed specified by the user.

Density measurement
The determination of the density occurs by dipping a suitable sample probe, previously tared in air,
into the liquid to be measured. The measured upthrust corresponds to the weight of the displaced
liquid. If the volume of the buoyancy probe is known, the density can be directly determined.

Weight measurement
The sample to be measured can be attached, either directly or indirectly using a suitable holder, to
the hook on the measurement system and its weight determined.

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3 Controls and functional elements

1 Measurement console

2 Sample

3 Platform

4 Tensio.Touch

5 Type plate

6 RS232 port (printer)

7 CAN port for PTT+

8 Power supply

9 CAN port for Ten-


sio.Touch

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4 Device description
4.1 Ambient conditions
The use of the tensiometer is only admissible under the conditions specified in DIN EN 61010-
2010:2003 and DIN EN 61010-1:2001:

1. Initial and routine operation of the device only indoors.


2. Impermeable, flat, non-slip, non-flammable standing area.
3. Normal ambient conditions.
4. Contamination Level 2

4.2 Measurement methods


Density measurement
Measurement of liquids density by means of the method according to Archimedes, i.e. using a
glass buoyancy probe.

Plate measurement
Measurement of the surface and interfacial tensions by the Wilhelmy method using a Pt/Ir plate
specified according to DIN 53914, ASTM D971 and other standards.

Ring measurement
Measurement of the surface and interfacial tensions by the du Noüy method using a Pt/Ir ring
specified according to DIN 53914, ASTM D971 and other standards.

Weight measurement
Measurement of small weights (max. 5 g).

4.3 Installation of TC1 / TD4


1. Unpack the device and put it together. Choose a stable, horizontal operating position which
is not affected by building vibrations. Connect the Tensio.Touch to the CAN port at the back
of the device.
2. Check whether the switch on the power supply unit is set to the position "Off = 0".
3. Connect the device to the external power supply unit (connection socket at the rear of the
device) and connect the power supply unit to a mains socket having an earth conductor.
4. Switch on the TC1 / TD4 using the switch on the external power supply unit. The back-
ground lighting of the Tensio.Touch switches on and the boot screen appears on the dis-
play.
5. As the system has booted, the platform moves to the lowest position automatically. Re-
move the protection tube, when possible.
6. If other accessories are supplied, assemble them appropriately and connect them. For
safety reasons the device must always be switched off when connecting other components.
 Connect the optional protocol printer to the 9-pole socket RS 232 of the TC1 / TD4.
Note: This connection is only used for data transfer to the printer. A PC must not be
connected to this point.
 Place the optional PTT+ Peltier Thermostating Unit in position and connect it.
Note: Follow the operating instructions for the PTT+ Thermostating and Stirring Unit.
7. From here the various measuring methods can be started and the configurations made
which are needed for them.
8. To switch off set the switch on the power supply unit to the “Off” position.

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4.4 Tensio.Touch
The Tensio.Touch is the central user interface of the TC1 / TD4.

Status bar

Process control
Interaction

Function bar
Figure 1: Tensio.Touch home screen

The basic screen consists of four main screen parts (see Figure 1). The following chapters explain
the four parts in detail.

4.4.1 Status bar

Figure 2: Status bar

The text on the left side contains the navigation information. In the middle of the status bar you can
see the username of the current logged in user. The temperatures show the actual and the set
temperature of the sample, when the optional PTT+ is connected. The right side contains the time
and the date.

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4.4.2 Function bar

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Figure 3: Function bar

The function bar contains the most important buttons for the usage of the device. The picture
shows all possible function bar-buttons. They are shown or hidden in dependence of their necessi-
ty. The function of each button is explained in the following table:

Table 1: Functions of function bar buttons

Button Name Function


1 Back button Return to previous screen
2 Configuration button Open device settings
3 Lock button Open user management popup
4 Special function button Additional function being changed depending on necessity
5 Platform move button Open manual platform-control popup
6 Set temperature button Open input of setpoint temperature
7 Special function button Additional function being changed depending on necessity
8 Home button Return to „Home“-screen

4.4.3 Process control


The process control consists of the tabs “Method” (1), “Param” (2), “Measure” (3)
and “Results” (4) and has two main functions.
Firstly, it serves as a navigation bar. You can directly see where you are and 1
where you can get.
Secondly, it shows the progress of a complete measurement.
2

The different colors are indicating different characteristics:

5. Light-blue colored tabs are not selected at the moment, but you can se- 3
lect them
6. Dark-blue colored tabs are already selected and have no interaction pos-
sibilities 4
7. Grey tabs are inactive and therefore not selectable

Figure 4: Process
control
4.4.4 Interaction
This screen part is reserved for interactions. All inputs are done within this screen area.

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5 Login
Login
The login screen shows the selectable user names in a drop-down menu. Every saved user has
his own priority level (Technician, Supervisor or Admin) and password. You may use the „No
Login“-button to login as “Technician” with the lowest priority level or login with your name and
password by tapping the „Login“-button.

6 Home
Home

The home-screen contains no interaction functions. It is the starting point where you may return to
from nearly every other screen using the „Home“- button on the bottom right side of the screen.
You also get to the home-screen after the login-screen.

7 Measurement
Home Method

This screen allows you to select a measurement method. When you are logged in with the user
level “Supervisor” or “Admin”, you may choose from all available measurement methods.
Being logged in with the lowest priority level “Technician”, you are only able to choose from previ-
ously saved user specific measurement methods.

Assuming you are logged in with a higher priority level than “Technician”, the screen is mainly di-
vided into the tabs “Ring”, “Plate”, “Norm”, “User specific” and “Utilities” whereby each subtab con-
tains several measurement methods.

Ring
This subtab contains all measurement methods according to the Du Noüy ring (see 7.1).

Plate
This subtab “Plate” contains all measurement methods according to the Wilhelmy plate (see 7.2).

Norm
The subtab “Norm” contains measurement methods according to the most important norms, where
you have the possibility to choose between eight different methods. Furthermore you may
hide/show specific methods in the configuration menu (see Norm methods).

User specific
The subtab “User specific” contains measurement methods that were specified by a user before.
The user specific measurement methods are user defined methods that are derived from given
measurement methods. When the amount of the saved measurement methods exceeds the num-
ber of eight visible buttons, the „Left“- and „Right“-arrow buttons are activated. This allows you to
have an unlimited amount of saved measurement methods.

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Utilities
The subtab “Utilities” contains methods for measuring the density or weight. Furthermore you may
check the balance of the weight system or let you guide through the correct cleaning of the Du
Noüy ring or the glass vessel by tapping the button “Clean ring” or “Clean vessel”.

7.1 Measurement with the Du Noüy ring


Home Method Ring
The ring method allows you to measure the surface tension or the interfacial tension of fluids with
the help of the Du Noüy ring. Therefore you may choose between several different types of meas-
urements. Every measurement is divided into three parts:

1. Set parameter: Predefined recommended parameters for measuring water. If you have any
other liquid, edit the parameters by tapping the related edit fields
2. Test preparation: A guideline to prepare a measurement correctly
3. Measurement: The measurement progress

7.1.1 Surface Tension (SFT)

Set parameters
The predefined parameters are loaded automatically after choosing the measurement method.
When the parameters are changed, they will be saved until the device will be switched off and on
again or another measurement method is chosen.

After selecting the surface tension method, the device shows the automatically loaded parameter
values. The red framed box is a mandatory field and has to be set whereas any other box may be
edited, if needed. The ring geometry can be chosen from three predefined geometries by using the
drop-down menu. The parameters of the chosen ring geometry are shown in the same box. The
function bar contains, among other buttons, the „Save“- button for saving the parameters to a user
specific measurement method and the “>” button to go over to the test preparation. These buttons
are greyed out, as long as the mandatory field “Sample ID” is empty.

Test preparation
The test preparation guides you to the start of the measurement. The first step of the preparation is
to insert the glass vessel with the sample fluid. After inserting the sample glass and confirming with
the „>“- button, the Du Noüy ring has to be mounted on the hook of the measurement system. The
guideline shows that in a separate screen.

Tap the „>“- button to confirm the mounting of the ring and to get to the taring screen, where the
device automatically begins to tare the weighing system. This is done every time before measure-
ment is started. As long as the environment is not stable enough for the set sensitivity of the weigh-
ing system, the device will wait. When the stability is reached, the label “Unstable” switches to
“Stable” and taring of the weighing system succeeds. A successful taring also activates the
„START“- button and the „<“- button. It is also possible to abort the taring procedure by tapping the
„Abort“- button and start the measurement without taring the measurement system, but it is not
recommended. After aborting the taring procedure it is also possible to restart it.

The “Delay”-field shows the time, that will be waited after tapping the „START“- button to delay the
start of the measurement. The value may be edited in the system settings (see 9.2).

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Measurement
The measurement screen is divided into three main parts. The labels on the left side show the
measured live values of the force, the lamella height, the speed of the platform and the calculated
surface tension. Furthermore the expired measurement time can be seen. The diagram on the right
side shows the measured force over time. It is very important to see what is going on during a
measurement. By tapping the „Data“- button in the function bar, the diagram-view is switched to
the table view, where every force-maximum can be seen with a timestamp, the calculated surface
tension, the standard deviation and the temperature.

Measurement process
With the start of the measurement, the TD4 begins automatically to search the surface. After hav-
ing found the surface, the position is saved and the ring is immersed 2 mm into the liquid. When
this position is reached, the platform changes its movement direction and pulls out the ring of the
liquid while measuring the force. When the maximum of the force is reached, the movement direc-
tion of the platform changes again and pulls the ring back into the liquid. This movement is
stopped, when the maximum return value is reached. The measurement is stopped until the pause
time has expired and the system pulls the ring out of the liquid again measuring the force. This will
be repeated until the calculated standard deviation falls below the standard deviation that was giv-
en in the “Set parameters”-section. Thus, the measurement finishes and the system will wait for the
confirmation with the appearing „OK“- button to switch to the results view.
The measurement can be aborted by tapping the „Abort“- button and confirming the decision in the
appearing popup.

7.1.2 Surface tension pull-through (SFT pull-through)


This measurement method has the same procedure as 7.1.1, but with the difference that the max-
imum of the force is measured once. This leads to a different screen of the set parameters, be-
cause the “Pause time”- and the “Max. return”- parameters are not necessary.

7.1.3 Surface tension time (SFT time)


This measurement method has the same procedure as 7.1.1, but with the difference that the
measurement is finished, when the “Max duration” value is reached. Therefore the screen of the
set parameters changes as the value of the standard deviation (“Stdv.”) is replaced by “Max. dura-
tion”.

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7.1.4 Interfacial Tension (IFT)

Set parameters
The predefined parameters are loaded automatically after choosing the measurement method.
When the parameters are changed, they will be saved until the device will be switched off and on
again or when another measurement method is chosen.

After selecting the interfacial tension method, the device shows the automatically loaded parameter
values. The red framed box is a mandatory field and has to be set whereas any other box may be
edited, if needed. The ring geometry can be chosen from three predefined geometries by using the
drop-down menu. The parameters of the chosen ring geometry are shown in the same box. The
function bar contains, among other buttons, the „Save“- button for saving the parameters to a user
specific measurement method and the “>”- button to go over to the test preparation. These buttons
are greyed out, as long as the mandatory field for “Sample ID” is empty.

Test preparation
The test preparation guides you to the start of the measurement. The first step of the preparation is
to insert the glass vessel with the light solvent phase fluid.
After inserting the sample glass and confirming this with the „>“- button, the Du Noüy ring has to be
mounted on the hook of the measurement system.
Tap the „>“- button to confirm that and switch to the next step. Here the device automatically im-
merses the ring into the light solvent phase liquid detecting and saving the surface position.

You may abort the immersing by tapping the „Abort“- button, but it is necessary that the platform
will be moved down manually until the ring is outside of the liquid after an abort. This has to be
done, because the device searches for the surface while immersing the ring. When the ring is al-
ready immersed, the platform will move upwards until it reaches the highest point allowed.

When the ring is immersed successfully, you have to cover the light phase with the heavy phase
carefully and confirm it by tapping the „>“- button. This leads to the taring-step, which is the last
preparation step before the measurement can be started.
Taring of the weighing system must be done within both phases. It is done automatically after the
confirmation of the coverage of the light phase covering by the heavy phase.

As long as the environment is not stable enough for the set sensitivity of the weighing system, the
device waits. When the stability is reached, the label “Unstable” switches to “Stable” and taring of
the weighing system succeed. A successful taring activates the greyed-out „START“-button and
the „<“- button. It is also possible to abort the taring procedure by tapping the „Abort“- button and
start the measurement without taring the measurement system, but it is not recommended. After
aborting the taring procedure it is also possible to restart it.

Measurement
The measurement is divided into three main parts. The labels on the left side show the measured
live values of the force, the lamella height, the speed of the platform and the calculated surface
tension. Furthermore the expired measurement time can be seen. The diagram on the right side
shows the measured force over time. It is very important to see what is going on during a meas-
urement. The third important part is the table with the measured results. By tapping the „Data“-
button in the function bar, the diagram-view is switched to the table view, where every force-
maximum can be seen with a timestamp, the calculated surface tension, the standard deviation
and the temperature.

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Measurement process
With the start of the measurement, the TD4 begins automatically to pull out the ring of the light
liquid while measuring the force. When the maximum of the force is reached, the movement direc-
tion of the platform changes and pulls the ring back into the light liquid. The lamella in an interfacial
tension measurement is very sensitive. Hence the speed of pulling back the ring into the light liquid
is highly increased to make sure that the lamella cannot break. This movement is stopped, when
the maximum return value, that was typed in in the “Set parameters”-section, is reached. Then the
system waits until the pause time expires and pulls the ring out of the liquid again while measuring
the force. This will be repeated until the set standard deviation is reached.

As soon as the calculated standard deviation falls below the standard deviation that was given in
the “Set parameters” section, the measurement finishes and the system will wait for the confirma-
tion with the appearing „OK“- button to switch to the results view.
The measurement can be aborted by tapping the „Abort“- button and confirming the decision in the
appearing popup.

7.1.5 Interfacial tension pull-through (IFT pull-through)


This measurement method has the same procedure as 7.1.4, but with the difference that the max-
imum of the force is measured once. This leads to a different screen of the set parameters, be-
cause the “Pause time” and the “Max. return” parameters are not necessary.

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7.2 Measurement with the Wilhelmy plate
Home Method Plate

7.2.1 Surface Tension (SFT)

Set parameters
The predefined parameters are loaded automatically after choosing the measurement method.
When the parameters are changed, they will be saved until the device will be switched off and on
again or when another measurement method is chosen.

After selecting the surface tension method, the device shows the automatically loaded parameter
values. The red framed box is a mandatory field and has to be set whereas any other box may be
edited, if needed. The plate geometry can be chosen from three predefined geometries by using
the drop-down menu. The parameters of the chosen plate geometry are shown in the same box.
The function bar contains, among other buttons, the „Save“- button for saving the parameters to a
user specific measurement method and the „>“- button to go to the test preparation. These buttons
are greyed out, as long as the mandatory field for “Sample ID” is empty.

Test preparation
The test preparation guides you to the start of the measurement. The first step of the preparation is
to insert the glass vessel with the sample fluid.
After inserting the glass vessel and confirming it with the „>“- button, the Wilhelmy plate has to be
mounted on the hook of the measurement system. Tap the “>”- button to get to the taring screen,
where the system begins automatically to tare the weighing system. This is done every time before
a measurement is started.

As long as the environment is not stable enough for the set sensitivity of the weighing system, the
device waits. When the sensitivity is reached, the label “Unstable” switches to “Stable” and the
taring procedure of the weighing system succeeds. It is also possible to abort the taring procedure
by tapping the „Abort“- button and start the measurement without taring the measurement system,
but it is not recommended. After aborting the taring procedure it is also possible to restart it.
A successful taring or the abort of the taring procedure activates the „START“- button and the „<“-
button.

The “Delay”-field shows the time, that will be waited after tapping the „START“- button to delay the
start of the measurement. The value may be edited in the system settings (see 9.2).

Measurement
The measurement is divided into three main parts. The labels on the left side show the measured
live values of the force, the lamella height, the speed of the platform and the calculated surface
tension. Furthermore the expired measurement time can be seen. The diagram on the right side
shows the measured force over time. The diagram is very important to see what is going on during
a measurement. The third important part is the table with the measured results. By tapping the
„Data“- button in the function bar, the diagram-view is switched to the table view, where every
force-maximum can be seen with a timestamp, the calculated surface tension, the standard devia-
tion and the temperature.

Measurement process
With the start of the measurement, the TD4 begins automatically to search the surface of the liquid.
When the plate touches the liquid, the point is detected by the weighing system and saved as the

18
surface position. The plate is immersed 2 mm into the liquid to ensure that the whole area of the
plate is moistened, what increases the precision of the measurement. When the plate is mois-
tened, the platform changes its movement direction and pulls out the plate exactly to the previously
stored surface position. This can be seen by comparing the force before and after the immersion. It
has to be nearly the same.

As soon as the calculated standard deviation falls below the standard deviation that was given in
the “Set parameters” section, the measurement finishes and the system will wait for the confirma-
tion with the appearing „OK“- button to switch to the results view.
The measurement can be aborted by tapping the „Abort“- button and confirming the decision in the
appearing popup.

7.3 Utilities
Home Method Utilities

7.3.1 Weight
Measuring the weight can be done by mounting a weight sample on the hook.

Set parameters
The predefined parameters are loaded automatically after choosing the measurement method.
When the parameters are changed, they will be saved until the device will be switched off and on
again or another measurement method is chosen. After selecting the weight method, the device
shows the automatically loaded parameter values. The red framed box is a mandatory field and
has to be set whereas any other box may be edited, if needed. The function bar contains, among
other buttons, the „Save“- button for saving the parameters to a user specific measurement method
and the “>” button to go over to the test preparation. These buttons are greyed out, as long as the
mandatory field for “Sample ID” is empty.

Test preparation
The test preparation guides you to the start of the measurement. The first step asks you to remove
any weight tool from the hook. By tapping the „>“- button you get to the taring step, where the de-
vice begins automatically to tare the weighing system. This is done every time before a measure-
ment is started. As long as the environment is not stable enough for the set sensitivity of the weigh-
ing system, the device will wait. When the sensitivity is reached, the label “Unstable” switches to
“Stable” and the taring procedure of the weighing system succeeds. It is also possible to abort the
taring procedure by tapping the „Abort“- button and to start the measurement without taring the
measurement system, but it is not recommended. After aborting the taring procedure it is also pos-
sible to restart it.
A successful taring or the abort of the taring procedure activates the “START”- button and the „<“-
button. Furthermore the button in the middle of the function bar switches from “Abort” to “Tare”
allowing repeating the taring procedure of the measurement system. Tapping the „START“- button
starts the measurement procedure.

Measurement
The measurement screen shows you the elapsed time of the measurement with the measured
value of the weight and the calculated standard deviation. As soon as the calculated standard de-
viation falls below the standard deviation given in the “Set parameters”- section, the measurement
finishes and the system waits for the confirmation of the appearing „OK“- button to switch to the
results view. During this time, the result of the measurement is shown on the screen.
19
The measurement can be aborted by tapping the “Abort”- button and confirming the decision in the
appearing popup.

7.3.2 Density
Measuring the density can be done by mounting the displacement body on the hook.

Set parameters
The predefined parameters are loaded automatically after choosing the measurement method.
When the parameters are changed, they will be saved until the device will be switched off and on
again or another measurement method is chosen. After selecting the density method, the device
shows the automatically loaded parameter values. The red framed box is a mandatory field and
has to be set whereas any other box may be edited, if needed. The function bar contains, among
other buttons, the „Save“- button for saving the parameters to a user specific measurement method
and the “>” button to go over to the test preparation. These buttons are greyed out, as long as the
mandatory field for “Sample ID” is empty.

After confirming the sample ID, the “Save”- button and the “>“- button get activated.

Test preparation
The test preparation guides you to the start of the measurement. The first step is to mount the dis-
placement body on the hook.
By tapping the „>“- button you get to the taring screen, where the system begins to tare the weigh-
ing system. This is done automatically every time before a measurement is started. As long as the
environment is not stable enough for the set sensitivity of the weighing system, the device waits.
When the sensitivity is reached, the label “Unstable” switches to “Stable” and the taring procedure
of the weighing system succeeds. It is also possible to abort the taring procedure by tapping the
„Abort“- button and to start the measurement without taring the measurement system, but it is not
recommended. After aborting the taring procedure it is also possible to restart it.

A successful taring or the abort of the taring procedure activates the „START“- button and the „<“-
button. Furthermore the button in the middle of the function bar switches from “Abort” to “Tare”
allowing to repeat the taring procedure of the measurement system. Tapping the „START“- button
starts the measurement procedure.

Measurement procedure
Before the measurement of the density can be started, the displacement body has to be immersed
completely into the sample liquid. This is done automatically when the measurement procedure
starts.

The device automatically recognizes the surface position of the liquid and immerses the displace-
ment body completely into the liquid. Directly after the immersion, the density measurement starts.
You may abort the immersing by tapping the “Abort”- button, but it is necessary that the platform
will be moved down manually until the displacement body is outside of the liquid after an abort.
This has to be done, because the device searches for the surface while immersing the displace-
ment body. When it is already immersed, the platform will move upwards until it reaches the high-
est point allowed.

The measurement screen view shows the elapsed time of the measurement with the measured
value of the density and the calculated standard deviation. As soon as the calculated standard de-
viation falls below the standard deviation that was given in the “Set parameters”- section, the

20
measurement finishes and the system will wait for the confirmation with the appearing „OK“- button
to switch to the results view.

The measurement can be aborted by tapping the „Abort“- button and confirming the decision in the
appearing popup.

7.3.3 Check balance


To verify the correct functionality of the weighing system, you can choose this utility. When chosen,
a popup appears that leads you within two steps to a correct verification of the weighing system.
The user guidance tells you to mount the calibration weight and go on by tapping the “>>”- button.
After that the measurement of the weight is started automatically. There is also no judgement of
the weight and no time limit. The system will weigh the mounted weight until you stop it.

7.3.4 Clean ring


This utility contains a short user-guidance for cleaning the ring correctly. This is done in three
steps.
Please prepare some tweezers, a glass vessel filled with methyl alcohol and a Bunsen burner for
the procedure.

1. Remove the ring carefully from the hook with the usage of tweezers. The usage of tweezers
is important to keep the ring clean and be safe when heating it in the next steps.
2. Rinse the ring with methyl alcohol in a prepared glass vessel. Please try to rinse the entire
surface area that will get in touch with the sample fluid in a measurement.
3. Heat the ring in the oxidizing portion of the gas flame of the Bunsen burner. This ensures
that no combustion residues will stick to the ring. When the ring glows, remove it from the
flame, turn the Bunsen burner off and mount the ring on the hook.

7.3.5 Clean plate


This utility contains a short user-guidance for cleaning the plate correctly. This is done in three
steps.
Please prepare some tweezers, a glass vessel filled with methyl alcohol and a Bunsen burner for
the procedure.

1. Remove the plate carefully from the hook with the usage of tweezers. The usage of twee-
zers is important to keep the plate clean and be safe when heating it in the next steps.
2. Rinse the plate with methyl alcohol in a prepared glass vessel. Please try to rinse the entire
surface area that will get in touch with the sample fluid in a measurement.
3. Heat the plate in the oxidizing portion of the gas flame of the Bunsen burner. This ensures
that no combustion residues will stick to the plate. When it glows, remove it from the flame,
turn the Bunsen burner off and mount the plate on the hook.

7.3.6 Clean vessel


This utility contains a short user-guidance for cleaning the glass vessel correctly.
Please prepare enough methyl alcohol and distilled water for the procedure.

1. Remove the glass vessel from its position in the device and dispose the content correctly.
2. Rinse the glass vessel at least three times with methyl alcohol. Make sure that the entire
surface area is touched by the methyl alcohol.
3. Dispose the methyl alcohol correctly and rinse the glass vessel with distilled water.

21
8 Results
Home Results

The result screen is divided into two parts. The list on the left side shows the last five measure-
ments with the related sample id, the date and the time of the measurement. The latest measure-
ment is selected automatically when you open the result-section. To see former measurements,
use the up/down arrow buttons.
The right side of the screen shows the general view with the most important values of a measure-
ment.

Tapping the “Filter”-button in the function bar opens a popup that allows you to filter the results by
measurement methods (see 10.9). If a filter is active, the “Filter”-button is colored orange.

Choosing the results of a surface or interfacial tension measurement opens the following functions:

The central button in the function bar is now visible and allows you to switch the screen view. Tap-
ping The “Data”-button opens the table view with the measurement data showing the timestamp of
each single measurement with the measured force and temperature as well as the calculated sur-
face or interfacial tension and the standard deviations.

The name of the central button in the function bar changes now to “Chart”. Tapping that button,
switches the screen view to a chart, were you can see the calculated values of the surface or inter-
facial tension measurement over time.

The name of the central button in the function bar changes again to “Parameter”. This view shows
you the input parameter of the measurement on three pages. This allows you to see the values of
the parameters that were entered for a particular measurement. The following pictures show the
three pages and the values that can be seen.

If no result is chosen, you can simply switch between empty screens.

9 Configuration
Home Configuration

The configuration menu offers many settings as well as the possibilities to edit the user specific
measurement methods or the geometries of the rings and plates. Furthermore it is possible to ex-
port result data to an USB-device or update the firmware with the usage of a specific USB-device.
The configuration is divided into three main tabs called “Method”, “System” and “Data”.

The three tabs are described in the following sections.

9.1 Method
This tab contains five subtabs that will be described in this section.

9.1.1 Edit ring geometries


To edit the predefined ring geometries, tap the subtab “Ring” in the “Method” tab of the configura-
tion menu.

The subtab contains three LAUDA Scientific- standardized ring geometries. The geometries, their
ID and the related correction may be edited by selecting the ring number in the table on the left
22
side of the screen and tapping the “Edit”- button in the function bar. This opens the popup for edit-
ing the ring geometry (see 10.5).
The only limitation is that no geometry can be added or deleted.

9.1.2 Edit plate geometries


To edit the predefined plate geometries, tap the subtab “Plate” in the “Method” tab of the configura-
tion menu. Editing the plate geometries is done according to the same principle as editing the ring
geometries. You may choose between three different geometries and tap the „Edit“- button to
change geometries. This opens the popup for editing the ring geometry (0).

9.1.3 Norm methods


To hide or show particular norm methods, tap the subtab “Norm methods” in the “Method” tab of
the configuration menu. There are eight predefined norm methods that were created using com-
mon standards to make it possible to do measurements according to the standards.
After selecting one of the norm methods, the „Delete“- button gets enabled. It is possible to delete
only one method at once. Only the remaining norm methods will be shown in the measurement
methods choice menu.
The „Import“- button gets enabled, when at least one norm method was deleted before. When you
tap the „Import“- button, you will be able to import multiple methods at once in the appearing popup
(see 10.14).

9.1.4 User specific measurement methods


To edit previously created user specific measurement methods, tap the subtab “Specific methods”
in the “Method” tab of the configuration menu. To edit or delete one of the methods, you have to
select it and tap the activated “Edit”- or „Delete“- button in the function bar. Editing a user specific
method opens the parameter input screen with the saved user specific parameters in a popup (see
10.5). Deleting a user specific method opens a confirmation popup (see 10.1).
The arrow buttons inside the “Specific methods” subtab are deactivated as soon as you save more
than eight user specific measurement methods. After that they get activated automatically so that
you can turn the pages through all of your methods.

9.1.5 Printer configuration


The protocol printer is an optionally obtainable device that gives you the opportunity to print out
your measured values.

The printer configuration allows you to customize the company name on the top of every printout.
Furthermore you may choose if you want to have a long or a short printout of the measurement
and you have the possibility to print the results automatically after every measurement or manually
by selecting the respective result in the “Results” tab and tapping the “Print”- button.

23
9.2 System
The tab „System“ contains the most important configuration options for measurements, language,
time and date and user management.

9.2.1 Measurement configuration


This subtab includes all important configurations concerning the measurements on three pages. To
turn the pages use the arrow buttons inside the “Measurement” subtab. The following configura-
tions may be done within the measurement configuration subtab:

Brightness
You can set up the brightness of the backlight in 4 steps between 25 % and 100 % by choosing the
corresponding field in the drop-down menu.

Standard deviation (Stdv.)


The SI unit for the calculation of the standard deviation in all measurements can be chosen to be
“%” or “mN/m” from the drop-down menu.

Sensitivity
By choosing the sensitivity from the corresponding drop-down menu, you set up the device for the
environmental conditions.
“Stable” means, the device is placed on a stable location with no flow of air or vibrations.
When you only have a location, where vibrations or airflow can occur, please choose “Rough”. This
will let the device accept less accurate values, but you will be able to measure. Note that this set-
ting leads to more inexact results!
Otherwise choose “Normal” when you have more or less stable conditions.

Temperature scale:
The temperature scale can be chosen to be displayed as “°C” or “F”.

Measure delay
This is the time that will be waited before the start of a measurement. This includes all measure-
ments except the “Norm methods”, because their delay times are given by the concerning stand-
ard.

Gravity
The gravity value is important for the calculation of the surface tension and the interfacial tension. It
is important to set this value as precise as possible to get the most accurate results.

Adjust weighing system:


Tapping this button opens a user guide for adjusting the weighing system. Please prepare the
standard weight, a ring or plate and a tweezer and follow the user guide.
The user guide is also described in section 10.7

Adjust density
Tapping this button opens a user guide for adjusting the weighing system for density measure-
ments. Please prepare a reference liquid, the displacement body and a tweezer and follow the user
guide.
The user guide is also described in section XX

24
Auto login supervisor
By tapping this field you de-/activate the automatic login. When this field is activated, the device
will automatically login with the current user without asking for a password when the device is
switched on.

Audio on/off
The device gives acoustic feedback during a measurement or after a measurement. This allows
you to switch it off or on.

Adjust circular level


A tap on this button opens a popup window where you can adjust the circular level of the device by
adjusting the screw feet of the device.

9.2.2 Language
The language of the device can be chosen by tapping the language in the “Language”- subtab.
After the choice of a language, you will have to confirm your decision.
Note that the device will restart automatically after confirming your choice!

9.2.3 Time/Date
This subtab contains all necessary configurations to setup time and date.
You can change the time and the date by tapping the concerning field and editing the value.
The time format can be chosen between “12h” and “24h”.

9.2.4 User level


The tab “User level“ offers the possibility to manage the created users. Opening the subtab dese-
lects all users. To edit a user, select him and tap the button with the three points on the right side
of the screen. In the appearing popup you can change the priority level and password (see 10.11).
To delete a user, tap the button with the minus, after selecting him and confirming your decision in
the appearing popup. Adding a new user can be done by tapping the button with the plus sign. In
the appearing popup, you will have to assign a user name, a password and a priority level (see
10.11).

The buttons for deleting and editing a user are deactivated as long as no user is selected.
Selecting the current logged in user activates only the button for editing a user.

The number of created users is limited to five. As soon as this number is reached, the button for
adding a new user will be deactivated.

9.2.5 About
This subtab contains all necessary information about the manufacturer LAUDA Scientific GmbH as
well as the software-versions and serial numbers of the connected devices.

25
9.3 Data
The „Data“-tab contains the two subtabs “Log” and “Backup”.

9.3.1 Log
The logging function of the TC1 / TD4 logs all important actions in a separate file on the device.
This simplifies the servicing of the device and helps finding errors. Furthermore a supervisor can
control, which measurements were done and if they were done regularly or at specific times.

Note that no passwords or sample IDs are saved in this file!

9.3.2 Backup

Factory settings
This function allows you to reset the device to factory settings. Tapping that button and confirming
the upcoming popup window will delete the database with the measurement results and causes a
reset of all changed configurations.

Update firmware
This button is normally disabled. When an USB storage device is plugged-in and contains a newer
firmware version of the TC1 / TD4 firmware, the button is activated automatically (contact service
for more information). Tapping that button and confirming the upcoming popup will start the update
process (see 11).

Note: Please do not switch off the device or remove the USB-device during an update. This cor-
rupts the copied data and the device will have to be serviced!

Export results to USB


This button is normally disabled. When an USB storage device is plugged-in, the button is activat-
ed automatically. Tapping it will export the database with the measurement results to the USB
storage-device. In this case the results of the measurement and the configurations will be kept.

Clear results
This function clears the complete result database.
Note: Causes loss of all measurement results. Restoring after clearing the database will not be
possible.

26
10 Popup
Popups are important for showing information during a running process or are used as quick ac-
cess for various configurations. This chapter shows all popups that may appear during the usage.

10.1 Alerts
An alert can be an error, a warning, information or a confirmation. Depending on the type of the
alert, the four main elements of the popup change.

The first element denotes the frame. It changes its color in dependence of the alert type. The sec-
ond element is the symbol showing the alert type (see Table 2). The third element is the short form
explanation of the occurring alert. Element 4 consists of the button for closing the popup. When the
popup is a confirmation-popup, a second button will appear additionally to the existing one to con-
firm the described question or decline it with the “Close” button.

The following table shows the opportunities of the alerts with the related looks:

Table 2: Alerts

Alert Element 1 Element 2

Error Red

Information Green

Warning Orange

Confirmation Yellow

10.2 Set temperature


You can set the temperature in the optionally available PTT+ by tapping the temperature button in
the function bar or by changing it while setting up the parameters for a measurement. If no PTT+ is
connected, the temperature button in the function bar as well as the actual and set temperature in
the status bar are not visible.
As long as no measurement is started and the PTT+ is connected, the temperature can be set
within the allowed range.

Tapping on the light blue box lets the keyboard popup in number mode so that you can type in the
desired temperature value. The red frame means that the box is a mandatory field and must be
filled out to confirm the new temperature with “OK”.

10.3 Manual platform control


To call the platform control popup, you have to tap the platform control button in the function bar.
To move the platform up or down, tap on the left or right upper button in the popup. The “Stop”-
button stops the movement as well as closing the window by tapping the “Close”-button. The “Set
27
meas. pos.”-button and the „Set bottom pos.”-button can be used to save the position, where the
platform is at the moment. The buttons above these two buttons will cause the platform to move to
the previously saved position. These two positions will also be available after a restart of the de-
vice.

10.4 Abort measurement


Aborting a measurement must be confirmed with a separate popup every time. Thus we avoid
aborting a measurement by tapping the “Abort”-button by accident. Confirming the abort of a
measurement brings the user back to the home screen, discards the measured results and moves
the platform back to the lowest position.

10.5 Edit ring geometries


The ring geometries can be changed in the Configuration menu within the tab
“Method“. Three types of rings are available, whereas the names “Ring1”,
“Ring2” or “Ring3” are not editable. The ID can be changed freely and the ge-
ometries for the radius ring (1) and radius wire (2) can be changed within the
allowed ranges that are shown during the input. The correction field allows you
to choose the correction method for the calculation of the surface tension.

Tapping the „Save“-button saves the changes that were made, the “Cancel”-
button discards all changes. 2
1

10.6 Edit plate geometries


The plate geometries can be changed in the Configuration menu within the tab
“Method“. Three types of plates are available, whereas the names “Plate1”,
“Plate2” or “Plate3” are not editable. The ID can be changed freely and the
geometries for the length (1) and the thickness (2) of the plate can be changed
within the allowed ranges that are shown during the input.

2
Tapping the „Save“-button saves the changes that were made, the “Cancel”-
button discards all changes. 1

10.7 Adjusting of weighing system


The weighing system of the TC1 / TD4 is calibrated and adjusted in the production site of LAUDA
Scientific. Because of the ageing of materials the measured values would drift away from the ideal
ones. To minimize the drifting you have to adjust the weighing system regularly. This ensures the
correct functionality and therefore the correct calculation of measured values. To ensure a correct
and precise adjustment, the weighing system must be tared before the adjustment. The sensitivity
can be set in the configuration menu, if the environment conditions are not ideal. When the taring
process succeeds, the screen view of the popup automatically changes to the adjustment prepara-
tion view. Here you have to check, if the standard weight has exactly 500.00 mg. When it differs,
you have the possibility to set the weight by tapping the light-blue box with the given value.

Tapping the “Adjust” button confirms the standard weight value and starts immediately the adjust-
ment process. After finishing the process, the screen view shows that and a “Close”- button ap-

28
pears instead of the “Abort”- button. Tapping the „Close“- button closes the popup and the adjust-
ment is done successfully.

10.8 Adjust density


To minimize the drifting you have to adjust the weighing system regularly. This ensures the correct
functionality and therefore the correct calculation of measured values. To ensure a correct and
precise adjustment, the system contains a user guideline for correctly adjusting it for a density
measurement. In the first step you are asked to prepare the system for the density adjustment.
This includes filling a glass vessel with a reference liquid and put it in the intended position in the
TC1 / TD4. The second step is to mount the supplied displacement body on the hook. Tapping the
“Tare”-button will initiate the taring procedure. As soon as this procedure succeeds, the displace-
ment body will be immersed completely into the reference liquid. When the position is reached, the
system automatically begins to adjust itself. After a successful adjustment, the system will pull the
displacement body up and wait until you close the popup.

10.9 Filter measurement methods


The results of previously finished measurements can be filtered by the measurement methods. To
do this, tap on the “Filter”- button in the “Results”- tab and select the measurement method to filter
by. After confirming the selection with the “OK”- button, the system automatically reloads the
measurement result-list. Furthermore the “Filter”- button turns orange to signalize a filtering of
measurements.

10.10 Save user specific measurement method


When you want to reuse your own parameter setup of a measurement method, save it by tapping
the “Save”- button in the parameter input menu of a measurement method. A popup appears de-
manding to enter a name for the measurement setup. Giving it a name and tapping the „Save“-
button in the popup will save your parameter setup. You can find it later in the “User specific”-
subtab for reusage.

10.11 User management


The TC1 / TD4 gives the opportunity to manage up to five users. Every user gets a specific pass-
word and a priority level. There are three different priority levels. The “Technician” has the lowest
rights. The user logged in with this level may only use previously saved user specific measurement
methods. He cannot change any values or choose any other measurement methods. Furthermore
he is not allowed to change any setting in the configuration menu. The “Supervisor” is one level
higher than the “Technician”. A user having the “Supervisor”-level is allowed to choose measure-
ment methods and to change their values. But he is not allowed to change anything in the configu-
ration menu. The highest user level is the “Admin”. With this level, a user is allowed to use all
measurement methods and change any setting in the configuration menu as well as managing the
users or see the logging.

Therefore you must have the “Admin”-level to get into the configuration menu and have the right to
add, edit or delete a user. This can be done in the subtab “User level”.

10.11.1 Add user


To add a user, you have to tap on the „Add user“-button. This opens a popup, where it is neces-
sary to type in a user name and password with its confirmation. As the last point you can change
the priority level to give him the rights you want (see description below). After confirming your in-
puts by tapping on the “OK”-button, the new user will be created and shown in the user-table.

29
10.11.2 Edit user
A user can be edited by changing his password and/or priority level. The user name cannot be
changed.

10.12 Keyboard
The Tensio.Touch has a virtual keyboard to enter numbers or texts. This keyboard pops up auto-
matically and depending on the type of edit field (text or number), when it is tapped.

10.12.1 Enter text


The keyboard has a complete „QWERTY“-keypad with a switchover function for numbers and spe-
cial characters. Tapping the “Abort”- button closes the keyboard and erases all inputs. The left ar-
row button erases the last sign that was entered. To navigate between the entered signs you can
use the buttons right and left to the “Space”-button. The following picture shows the screen view of
the keyboard for text input.
Tapping the „?123“-button switches the keyboards view to the numbers and special characters

Figure 5: Keyboard text

(see 10.12.2). To get back to text view, you only have to tap the “ABC”-button.

30
10.12.2 Enter numbers
When you tap edit fields where numbers have to be entered, like temperature or standard devia-
tion, the keyboard opens directly in numbers-view, but also with disabled special characters and a
disabled button to switch over to the character-view. Furthermore you can see a field with the per-
mitted range of the value that has to be typed in. The picture shows the described keyboard view
with an allowed temperature range of 5 to 80°C.

Figure 6: Keyboard numbers

10.13 Edit user specific methods parameter


To edit the parameters of a user specific measurement method, go to “Configuration”. The tab
„Method“ contains the subtab „Specific methods“. Here you can see the previously saved meas-
urement methods. Select the one you want to edit and tap the „Edit“-button. Depending on the
measurement method that was chosen for the user specific measurement method, a popup will
appear showing the respective parameters.

Cancelling the editing will discard all changes. By tapping the “OK”-button, the changes will be
saved.

10.14 Import norm method


To import one or more norm methods you only have to tap the „Import“- button in the subtab “Norm
methods” of the configuration menu. This opens a popup showing you only the unimported meth-
ods and allows you to select multiple methods before confirming their import with the „OK“- button.
This closes the popup and adds the selected norm methods to the already imported method list.
Cancelling the popup will discard all selections and close the popup.

31
11 Update firmware
In order to check if you have the latest version, go to “Configuration”, tap the tab “System” and
open the subtab “About”. Here you can see the current versions of your devices and the service
number.

To update the firmware you have to open the tab “Configuration”, tap the tab “Data” and open the
subtab “Backup”. After plugging in the USB-device with the new firmware version, the button
“Firmware update” activates automatically if the version on the USB-device is newer than the one
on your device. Tapping the button and confirming the appearing popup will switch to the update
screen view (see Figure 7).

Figure 7: Update firmware start

The updating process begins automatically. You can see the progress through the coloring of the
LAUDA Scientific logo (see Figure 8).

When the update process is completed, a „Close“- button appears. Tapping this button will cause
the system to restart.

Note: It may take a few seconds, until the system initiates the reboot process.

Figure 8: Update firmware process

32
12 Quick start
This chapter describes a quick start for measurements.

1. Switch on the device and login as the desired user after it has booted-up.

2. Open the method screen by clicking the “Method”-tab

3. Choose a measurement method (see 7)

33
4. Enter a sample-id for your measurement and adjust the preset parameters, if needed
Ring 7.1.1
Plate 7.2.1
Weight 7.3.1
Density 7.3.2

5. To achieve an optimal result, clean the ring/plate according to the description in 7.3.4 or
7.3.5 and mount it on the hook of the device

6. Clean the glass vessel according to 7.3.6

7. Insert the glass vessel into the given position in the device

8. Fill the glass vessel with the sample fluid (about 30ml)

9. Perform the taring procedure (follow instructions on Tensio.Touch)

10. Start the measurement

11. Evaluate measurement results

12. Clean the ring/plate according to the description in 7.3.4 or 7.3.5

13. Clean the glass vessel according to 7.3.6

34
13 Parameter description
Measurement
Table 3: Parameter description of measurement parameters

Parameter Definition
Sample ID: Identification of sample liquid
Δρ: Surface tension: Density difference of the test liquid against air.
Interfacial tension: Density difference of the test liquid against
Adjustment range (0.01…2.5) g/cm³
Stdv. Specification of the admissible standard deviation for the last measured points.
When this value is undercut, the measurements are regarded as stable. The
measurement is terminated.
Adjustment range (0.01…1) % or (0.01…1) mN/m
Speed Speed at which the sample platform is raised (1...100)
Pause Pause time between two measurement points.
Adjustment range (1...999) s.
Meas. points Specification of the number of the last measured values for determining the
standard deviation.
Adjustment range (3…9)
Ring Preconfigured ring geometries with LAUDA Scientific-standard parameters (to
adjust see 9.1.1)
Temp. Ambient temperature when no PTT+ is connected. Otherwise the set tempera-
ture of the PTT+ will be taken.
Adjustment range (5…80) °C or (41…176) °F
Max. return Defines how far the ring is withdrawn after detecting the force maximum.
Adjustment range (0…100) %

Example:
Here, after detecting the first maximum the ring is moved back until 10% of the
maximum force is reached. The ring remains above the level of the interface until
the next extraction is started after the specified pause time. On entering 100%
the ring moves back completely to the interface.
Max. duration Specifies the maximum duration of the measurement. The measurement finishes
after the entered time expires.
Adjustment range (0…199) min
Plate Preconfigured plate geometries with LAUDA Scientific-standard parameters (to
adjust see 9.1.2)
Max. time Maximum duration of the measurement.
Adjustment range (1…999) s.

Configuration
Table 4: Parameter description of configuration parameters

Parameter Definition
Radius ring Radius of a Du Noüy measuring ring (see 10.5)
Radius wire Wire radius of a Du Noüy measuring ring (see 10.5)
Correction Correction factor for the calculation of the surface tension
Length plate Length of the Wilhelmy plate (see 10.6)
Thickness Thickness of the Wilhelmy plate (see 10.6)
plate

35
14 Appendix
14.1 Reference values for checking the TC1 / TD4
The measurement of pure liquids with known surface and interfacial tension is recommended for
checking the accuracy.

Note: The reference values quoted in the literature can often only be verified with highly pure
liquids and with a great deal of effort in the cleaning of sample containers and test
probes and only over a short period of time.
It is therefore quite possible that measurements obtained with the TD 3 in practice may
deviate significantly from the reference values, particularly in the case of interfacial
tension measurements.

Table 5: Surface tension reference values, [mN/m]

System 15 °C 20 °C 25 °C
Water 73.5 72.8 72
Benzene 29.5 28.9 28.2
Etahnol 22.7 22.3 21.4
Diethyl ether - 17.0 -

Table 6: Interfacial tension referred to water reference values, [mN/m]

System 20 °C
Benzene 35.0
Chloroform 10.7
Diethyl ether 32.8

14.2 Disposal of packaging


Table 7: Disposal of packaging

Packaging parts Material Disposal meth-


od
Pallet Laminated wood Recyclable
Wood for export (Douglas) Pallet recycling
Inner and outer packaging Corrugated cardboard Paper recycling
Internal foam packaging Polyurethane (PUR) and Plastics recycling
Poythene bags (PE-HD) Plastics recycling
Coshioning damper parts Polyethylene (PE) foam panels Plastics recycling
(technical foam)
Bubble wrap Polyethylene (PE-LD) film Plastics recycling
Volume filler Air-filled polythene bags (PE- Plastics recycling
LD)
Shaped parts Polystyrene, foamed Plastics recycling
(EPS, Styropor®)
Clear plastic folder for oper- Polypropylene (PP) Plastics recycling
ating instructions
Fastening tapes Polyester tape, high strength Plastics recycling

If recycling is not possible, the packaging parts can also be disposed of in the normal refuse.

36
14.3 Technical data
The following tables shows the technical data of the TC1 / TD4.

Table 8: Technical data

Types of measurement Surface and interfacial tension; density; weight


Measurement range for SFT/IFT < 300 mN/m ring; < 999 mN/m plate
 Resolution 0.01 mN/m
Temperature measurement Digital (optional)
 Resolution 0.1 K
 Accuracy ± 0.5 °C
Density measurement < 2000 kg/m³
 Resolution ± 1kg/m³
Weight measurement < 5000 mg
 Resolution ± 0.1 mg
Calibration Standard weight
 Sensitivity Stable, Normal, Rough
Display 7” Touchscreen, 800x480 px
Measuring mode selection Menu controlled
Parameter input Menu controlled
Sample designation Alphanumeric, max. 20 characters
Measurement memory Max. 200.000 results
Platform movement DC motor
 Lifting speed Selectable in 10 speeds from 0.1 - 1 mm/s
 Max. lift 80 mm
Maximum detection Automatic, sample range selectable from 0…100%
Ring correction Automatic, according to Zuidema/Waters or Harkins/Jordan
Lamella height detection 0.1µm
Magnetic stirrer Integrated controller; magnetic stirrer attachment (optional)
Data recording 3 values per second
Stability criterion Standard deviation, normally over 3…9 single measurements
Interfaces Controller Area Network (CAN)
Protocolling Printer (RS232), PC (optional)
Data trans. Software For PCs under Windows 95 and higher (optional)
Weight Approx. 14 kg
Power consumption 0.05 kW
Size (meas. console) W 230 mm x D 200 mm x H 340 mm
Mains connection External power supply unit 90…264 V,
batt. power supply unit (optional)

37
14.4 Order numbers and accessories
Device type Order no.
Standard accessories TC1 (incl. Tensio.Touch and power supply unit) LMT 870
(included in price) TD4 (incl. Tensio.Touch and power supply unit) LMT 860
Du Noüy measuring ring (2-limb, Pt/Ir)
Calibrating weight 500 mg
Displacement body (glass, for density measurement)
Tweezers
Set of beakers (10 pcs.) 6 cm dia.
Plastic case
Optional accessories Du Noüy measuring ring (4-limb, Pt/Ir)
Wilhelmy plate (Pt/Ir)
Calibrating weight with DKD certificate 500 mg
Set of beakers (10 pcs., for density measurement)
Set of beakers (10 pcs.) 6 cm dia.
Burning-off burner (for cleaning ring / plate)
Data output Dot-matrix printer for recording the data
Ink ribbon for printer, replacement
Paper roll for printer (pack of 10), replacement
Software Data transfer software for PC / TD 2/3
RS 232 connecting lead
Integrable PTT Peltier PTT+ (Peltier thermostating unit with integrated magnetic
Thermostating Unit stirrer and temperature sensor for external control, for
beaker 6 cm dia.)
Standard accessories PTFE stirring rod
for PTT+ Transparent plastic cover with opening
(included in price) Pt 100 temperature sensor for PTT

38
14.5 References

1. Bartell and Miller, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 50, 1961-7


2. Harkins, Brown and Davies, Ibid, 39, 357 (1917)
3. Laprince-Ringuet, Pub. aci. tech. ministere air (France) No. 52 (1934)
4. Lawrence, "Science of Petroleum", Vol. II, pp.1369-74, Oxford University Press (1938)
5. Trillat and Laprince, compi. rend. 196, 124-16 (1933)
6. Vellinger, Petroleum Z. 31, No. 34, 17-21 (1935)
7. Vellinger and Radulesco, World Petroleum Congress, London. 407 (1933)
8. Von Fochs, Wilson and Ediund, Ind. Eng- Chem., Anal. Ed., 13,306 (1941)
9. W. D. Harkins, T.F. Young and L. H. Cheng, Science, 64, 33(1926)
10. W. D. Harkins and H. F. Jordan, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 52, 1751(1930)
11. B. B. Freud and H. Z. Freud, ibid. 52, 1772 (1930)12. S. Sudgen, "The Parachor and
Valency",
12. A. A. Knopf pp. 215-216(1930)
13. N. K. Adam, "The Physics and Chemistry of Surfaces", 3rd Ed., Oxford Univ. Press,
London, p.
370 (1941)
14. A. I. Vogel, J. Chem. Soc., 133 (1946)
15. Cantor, Wied. Ann., 47, 399 (1892)
16. Lohnstein, Ann. Physik, 25, 815 (1908)
17. Lenard, ibid., 74, 395 (1924)
18. Tichanowsky, Physik. Zeit., 25, 300 (1924); 26, 523 (1925)
19. MacDougall, Science, (N.S.) 62, 290 (1955)
20. P. L. Du Nouy, J. Gen. Physiol., New York, 1, p. 521 (1919)
21. H. Zuidema and C. M. Wassers, Ind. Eng. Chem. Analyt. 13, p. 312 (1941)
22. H. W. Fox and C. H. Chrisman, J. Phys. Chem. 56, p. 284 (1952)
23. B. Hartmann, Ann. Phys. 64, p. 24 (1949)
24. R. Finzel, PTB-Bericht IB-4, p. 89 (1976)
25. H. R. Baker and W. A. Zisman, Ind. Eng. Chem. 40, 2338 (1948)
26. Egon Matkijevic, "Surface and Colloid Science", ISBN 471576301,
Pub: Wiley-Interscience / Division of John Wiiey + Sons
27. Drew Meyers, "Surfactant Science and Technology", VCH Publisher: ISBN 0895733390,
VCH Verlagsgem.: ISBN 352726695X
28. L. Wilhelmy, Ann. Physik 119, 117 (1864)
29. J. F. Padday, Dr. R. Russel, J. Colloid Sci. 15, 503 (1960)
30. M. J. Schwuger, H. M. Rostek, Chemie Ing. Techn. 43, 1075 (1971)
31. Barthoioma, Schafer, Mellian Textilberichte 31, 1075 (1971)
32. J. F. Padday Surface and Colloid Science, Vol. I, edited by Egon Matkijevic, Pub: Wiley-
Interscience (1969)

39