You are on page 1of 16

c

cc
  c c

ESCUELA PROFESIONAL INGENIERÍA QUÍMICA

cccccccc ccccccccc 


c 
c c

  c cc c
c
c

c


 cccccc 
c c  
c

 c

c c cc
c

Trujillo ʹ Perú

2010
c

c
c c
Vc c Vc
c
1.cNA AL ZA D AL D L L C ÓN
| c c 
c   c c 
 c c
cc c 
 c  
  cc
 
c c
c
 c c c c c  c    cc   c c  c
   c c c
 c c  cc c  c cc  c c 
c c
  cc   cc  c c c ccc cc
c  c

  cc   c c  ccc c 
c
c  cc
 
 c 
c
c
c c
c  c  c| c c! 
ccc
c
 ccc  c
 c  c " c c
c  c
   cc
c

c
c  c   c c
c
 c cc  c c
c c  c c
c
c 
c
c
cc
c  cc c  c c
c  c 
c #c
c
c$c£ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc %&c
c
' c cc
c c cc ccc
  c c
c  cc
c
 c c
 c(c c  c c
c c c
 cc
c
c$c(cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc %&c
c
   c
c  c%&cc%&c #c
c
£c$c(c
c
)"  cc#c
c
(c$c £c$cc
c

c  c cc
c
c  c 
c  cc*c)c! 
c 
cc
c
 c
c  cc c  c cc
c#c
c
(c$c £c
c
)  c cc
c  c 
c
cccc
 c 
cc c c 
c
 c  ccc+c)  cc, c
c    c c    c| c
  cc
c   c c
c
c
c
c  c c  c
 c c  cc
  cc
c  c   c  cc
" c c c c c
   c
c
c
c
2 cECUACI N E BROGLIE
? c -c cc -c
 ./ 
c c! c 0.0+-c  c c
 c c c
c    c c
c
r 
      
   
     
        
  
  
‰
c
  c 
 c
c   c c c
 cc! cc  c c c1   c  c
c


 
 -cc c
c  c c 
c? 
 c   c c
  c
 c
c c c  c? 
 -c c  c
  
c c c c   c
 c

 -c 
  c c 2c 
c  cc
c c -cc c
 c
 c   c
 -cc c  c    c c c  c c c c c
 c
c c  c -c  c cc c  c c c c   cc c c 

c

c  c 
c? 
 c    c c
c -cc c 
 c c c
 c 
  
 cc c c cc 
c c  cc! cc

cc cc c   cc c  c  -cc  -cc c 
 c

 c  c  c  c 
 c c  c 

cc c c
c
? c c c   c c  
 c c -cc  c c c
c c  
c
c c 
 -c 
c c   c
c
c
c
c
 ccc c  
 c c c c  c c c 
 c c  c ccc c c c
  c-cccc c 

c c  c? c  
c c
  c c  c  c

 -cc 
 
 c c c 
 c/  c c   cc  c
 
-cc c  cc c  c  c ccc  c  
-c  c
     
c c  
 c c c
c
?
c
 cc   c
c 2c  c  c c 
 -c c c  c c c

c  c1  
c c c  c " c c c c c   c c 
 c c

c 
   c   
c? c c  c c   -cc 
c
  c  c c c c 
 c c
 c c c   c  c c 
cc c c

c c  c? c c

 c! -c
 c c   cc

c
 
c c  cc c c
 c c c c 
c
c

c  c cc! cc  c  c c
 c c
 c
c c  -c

  c
  c  c c -c -c ccc  cc c -c c  
 c
c c
c
c 2 cc c cc c   c  cc  

 c
 
 c
c
c! c  c c c c c  c cc c
c
 c  cc
   c 
 c c c c3+c cc
  "c1  
c
c

c
± cFUNCION E ON A

? c   c
 -c c  c c c c c c c 
c c

c c c c 
 c c 
 c 
cc c  c " -c c
  c
  cc   c c c  c  c c c c c c

 c
c   c    c c c  c c c 
 c
 
 c
 c c  c c  c
  c
c  c c c    c c
  c 
 
c  c1  c c  c
  c c c  c c c-c c


-c  c
c c  c 
 c c c
 c  c
c c  c
 cc c c  c c  c c c 
 c /c c  c cc

 
c
c
 
  
c c  cΠ  
cc c cc c 
cc   c
 c c c c c   c  c
 -c  cc
 
 cc c 
 c   c
c 
c 
c c c  ccc   c c c  c? c c
   c   -c c  c c cc
 
c c c"
c c c

 
-cc 
c c  
c c c 
c  c c 
c c   c

cc  c c c   c
c  c 
 c

Formulación original de Schrödinger- e Broglie

? c3cc! c  c c c
 c cc! c c cc c  c

 c   c    c c 
c c c
 cc    c c c c
  cc  
 c c c  c c c  
c  cc c  c
c
c
c c
c
 c  c c  
c  cc c  c 
 c c c 
 -cc  c c

c  c c cc c  c  c  cc   c 
 c
  c c   c c 
c c cc
 c  c c 
c c c
 c  c  c c c c 
 c-c cc -c c  c c  
c c
c 
 c c  c c c  c c c c c c c c c  c c c
 c 
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
 c? c$ccc c c c  c c c1   c   c  c  
c  cc c
  cc c c1   c
 
-c c c c c   c c   c  c

 c -c c  c c c -c  c c c  c c -c  c c c
 c   c
c
c
c
c
c
c

c   c cc! c 
 c    c1  
c c+c c1  
c
c  cc c c c! -c  
c  c  c ccc  c c
c
  -c c
  c c  c 
 c 
c cc  c c  
 c c c
c  
 c 
 c cc! c?cc   c c c c c

c c  c
 c  c c c
 cc c c 
c  c  cc " c c c
   c c  
c   cc c c4
 c  c  c 
 c  c
 c  c c?4 c c c*ccc c  c?  c c c
c
c c
c
c
c
c
 c c
 
c  
c c c c cc c c
 c
c c  c 
  cc c  c c ccc c  
c 
 c  c
  c 
c c  c c c
c
? c 
c 
 c c  c c cc c c 
 
ccc  c c c
 
 c
 c c c
 c c c c c1 

c c c
 c c
  c c   c c
 c?
c
 
 -c
  c c 1c! -c c
 c c  c  c  c c c  c c* c
c
Formulación moderna de Von Neumann
c

c
c c c  c
 cc1  c  
c c 
c c c c
 c "
c 
c c
cc 1  c c  -c c 
c c c cc
 c 
 c  c
c cc  c 
c c   c  c c
c
 cc 1 c c c "
c 
c 
-c
 -c c 
 c
 cc
 c   c c  c  c c
c c
c  c
cc 
c

c c c c
 -cc c  c c c
c
Formalización
c

c   c  c c c  c c c c   c  c c 
c

 -c  c  c 
 c c c  c c  c  c  cc

c "
-c c
 c c    c 
 -c 
c 
 c c  
c
c c c
 c   
c c c c
c 
-c 
 cc
" -c cc   c c  c c   -ccc 
c "
cc c
 c  c c c  c c 
c    -c
 cc
  c 
 c
c  c
c
c
c

  
c c c  c c c 
c -c
cc c  c c c  c
c
 
c c c   
 c  c
c c
c  c 
 c 
c c c
 c 
 c c c c
c
c
c
c
c

cc  c c
c  c  c  c   c c c
   -c cc c  c c 
  c c  c c 
c    c  c
 
 c  c c c  c -c c "
c c   c c cc   c

c c c  c c 
c?c c c c
c  c
  c
c
c
c

cc c   c c c c  -cc c c  c
  -cc c
 c  c c 
c  cc  c c  -c c  c  c  c c c
  c c c  cc
 
c c c   c c   c c   c
c c 
 c c c 
 c c  c  c
c
 c


c  c c
 c c
c  c  c  c  
c  c

  c 
  
c c c  c c c 
c 
 c  c c
   c c cc c  c c  
c? c "
c c
c
c

c  c  c  c  
c c c c  c  c c  .5 c  c

   c c c  c c c
 c c 
c  c  c   ccc c
 c c  . cc c  c c 
 c
c c  c   cc
 
-c c   c c c c  .cc c  .5c c c c
  c
c c
c
c
c
c
? c  c  .5c   c c -c 
 cc c  c  .c
  c  cc cc c  c  c c  cc   c

c c
 c



 
     
 


 
      

    

 
   
   


   

c

c c
.c AD B AL
 c 
 cc c
c  c c
c    c c
c 
c   c
c
 c 
cc cc  c  c
c
u itl s


c 
ccc  c  c
  c 
c6
 c   cc
c  ccc
 c c  c
  c c c
cc
 c cc 
c#cc
c
  c
c  
 c c  c
c
c% c c
c  c c
 &c  c c   cc c
" c 
c 7cc
c cc c
c

 c  cc
cc
c
c  c
c  c c 
c  c
c

c
u itl p

| c  c  c c
c 
ccc
c c c  c   c  c
c c c
   c%
c6
 c   &cc  c6c
c"c c    cc c c

c
cc c c
cc6  c c
c%.c8cc&cc c
cc

cc  c c c
c"clc cc c
 c
c  c  c
c

cc c.c c 
cc
c  c
 c c cc
c
  c
c
c 
c6  c c
c
c  
 c c  c
c

cc
" c 
c6
 c   c
c 
c99c c c
c cc
 cc
ccc  c c   ccc
" cc
c   c 
c6
 cc
c

c

c
c
c
u itl d

| c 
c cc c  c c  c  c c

cc  c c c

c
c c
 c% c
 c
cc  c   c 
c  &cc
c
6
 ccc 
c

c  c cc 

c%c 
c  c
& c c
c
 c  c c.3c c 
 cc

c
c
u itl f

| c 
c cc  c 6c c  ccc c  c c  cc
 c

c c
c  c c
c 
c c c. c c 
 c
c
c
c
c

c c
VV c V c|/c
c
c
ëc ë #c
c  c  c c  c% 
c
c÷  £c

c÷ cc
 c c  c c
 &c    cc
c  c c  c  c
c
c  c
c c c c   c  ccc c  c c
c  c  c
 
c cc   c
c  c cc c  c c  cc 
 c cc c
  c  c  c  c6c
c
c c  cc cc  cc c
  c c c
c  c c
c
c
c c
#c cc
c c c
 c cc 
c  cc
c

  c c  c
  c%
c
c c
 
 cc
& cccc

cc
c  c  c c c cc
c
cc
c  c
c
c
c #cc
c 
c
 
c  
c c
c    c c 
c
  c
  c
c
c
c  
ëc#cc c   ccc
 c
c  c  c
c6  c c
 c c
c   c c c  cc
c c c  c
c
c
c |
ccëc#cc
c   cc c
c  cc
c
c c  c
  cc c   c  c c c cc  c
c
c
c uë#cc c   c c c c c
 c  c cc   c c
" 
c  cc  c
 c c  c  ccc   c c c 
c
  c    c c
c
c
c u
ëcë
#cc c   c
c 
c 
cc  c 
c
  c c
c c c: c  c
c  c cc
c  c cc 
c
 
  c
c
c

c c
VVV c !|c; c
c
3  c' ,c%+ <&c

c
c 
c 
c
cc c c
c c c
c
c
c c
c

c 
c  c
| c
c 
cc c  c c c+*c c8 c' c
&c 

c
c
 c c  cc c   c c c   c
&c 

c
c cc" 
c cc
c c   c c c  c

3  c' ,c%+ 0&c


=
cc
c
 c c  cc c c c  cccc  c c
 c c8c c83c>?
@c=ccc 
c c
  cc
 c c  @c
c

c c
3 3 cc'!,c%+ &c
Ac cc    c"ccc
 cBc c c  c

c
cc%c" 
&c    c"cc  c cc" 
c cB. cc
8 * c c

3 c' !,c%+ 3&c




cc" 
c%c &c c c  c  cc c  c  c"c c

 c

c  c

cc$c*c c

cc$c3 c
c
c
c

c c
3 * c' #,c%+ 3&c


c
c  c%c'&cc
c
 c c  c%c &c 
c c  c cc
 c c  c  cc
c c 
c
cc$c c
c
cc$cc
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
3 < c' #,c%+ 3 &c
c
 cc c  c  c  c c  c  c cc c c

c  c ccc cc$c V cc  c  c c c$ 
c
c 3 c cA ccc  c c@c
c

c c
3 + c' %,c%+ &c
=
cc
c
 c c  c%c &c c)c! 
c cc
c c ccc
c c
8c& c8c @c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
3 0 c' %,c%+ &c
=
cc
c
 c c  c%c &c c)c! 
c   c c c
 c c.
 c c *ccc " c c3*c @c
c

c c
3  c' ',c%+ * &c
;c
c cc ccc
c
c cc$c3 c c
c 
c

c c
c
c
cc
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
3 8 c '',c%+ < &c
V c
c6  c 
c #c
&c 
 ccc
cCc%Dc$c+&c
&c 
 cÿcc
cc%Dc$c &c
&c 
 c±cc
cc%Dc$c<&c

c
c

V/ c CVc!V!|V,!Vc
c
Uc http://(s.wikip(di).o /wiki/u it)l_)t%C±%B±i*o#+o s_d(_los_o itl(s

Uc http://,s.wikip,di.o /wiki/-un.i%C±%B±n_d,_onds

Uc http:///s.wikip/di.o /wiki/Dulidd_ond_0o p%C±%BAs0ulo#D/_B oli/

Uc http://1s.wikip1di.o /wiki/Cunto

Uc http://2s.wikip2di.o /wiki/3f24to_foto2l%C±%A94t i4o

Uc http://5s.wikip5di.o /wiki/6ot%C±%B±n

Uc http://7s.wikip7di.o /wiki/8 uni



Uc http://s.wikipdi.o /wiki/Lonitud_d_ond

Uc http://s.wikipdi.o /wiki/und_%28f%C±%ADsi%29

Uc http://s.wikipdi.o /wiki/u itl_t%C±%B±io

= =
Uc CA9Lu . t l.
1996). C:;NC:A CA. CuNC;< u  NDAN AL.
  ADCÓN.Du ALLB AD. LLu - 

Uc AYuND CHANG.
2002). CA. A DCuN. G AW-HLL
N A CANADu .CuD..
c
c