You are on page 1of 42

Power Computations

EE328 Power Electronics

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mutlu BOZTEPE
Ege University, Dept. of E&E

Outline of lecture
 Introduction
 Power and energy
EE328 POWER ELECTRONICS

– Instantaneous power
– Energy
– Average power
 Inductors and capacitors
 Energy recovery
 Effective values: RMS
 Apparent power and power factor
 Power computations for sinusoidal AC circuits
 Power computations for non-sinusoidal periodic
waveforms
– Fourier series
– Non-linear source and linear load
– Linear source and non-linear load

EE328 Power Electronics, Dr. Mutlu Boztepe, Ege University, 2016 2

1
Introduction
 Power computations are essential in analyzing and designing power
electronics circuits.
 The power calculation methods differ according to the current and
voltage waveforms
– DC
– sinusoidal voltages and currents
– non-sinusoidal voltages and/or currents
 Various definitions of power
– Instantaneous power
– Average power
– Active power
– Reactive power
– Apparent power
– Complex power
– and so on.

EE328 Power Electronics, Dr. Mutlu Boztepe, Ege University, 2016 3

AC & DC quantities
 If the value of any electrical quantity (voltage, current etc.) doesn’t
change with respect to time, it is a DC quantity.

quantity.

EE328 Power Electronics, Dr. Mutlu Boztepe, Ege University, 2016 4

2
Instantaneous power
 The power is defined as the product of current and voltage

 This equation is valid for any device

or any circuit.
 The instantaneous power is the value
of power p(t) at any instant of time.
 The instantaneous power is generally
a time-varying quantity.
 The power has negative or positive
value with respect to the time.
 The sign of the power indicates its
direction of flow.

EE328 Power Electronics, Dr. Mutlu Boztepe, Ege University, 2016 5

Sign conventions
Passive sign convention (Used frequently for passive components)
 At any instant of time;
– if p(t)>0, it indicates the device is absorbing power
– if p(t)<0, it indicates the device is supplying power

Active sign convention (Used frequently for sources)

 At any instant of time;
– if p(t)<0, it indicates the device is absorbing power
– if p(t)>0, it indicates the device is supplying power

Only difference between the conventions are the

reference direction of current i(t).

EE328 Power Electronics, Dr. Mutlu Boztepe, Ege University, 2016 6

3
Exercise 1
 Calculate the power
of all components
in the circuit.

EE328 Power Electronics, Dr. Mutlu Boztepe, Ege University, 2016 7

Energy
 Energy, or work, is the integral of instantaneous power.
 Observing the passive sign convention, the energy absorbed by a
component over the time interval from t1 to t2 is

 where v(t) is in volts, i(t) is in amperes, power has units of watts and
energy has units of joule.

EE328 Power Electronics, Dr. Mutlu Boztepe, Ege University, 2016 8

4
Average Power
 Periodic voltage and
current functions produce
a periodic instantaneous
power function.

 Average power is the time average of p(t) over one or more periods.

EE328 Power Electronics, Dr. Mutlu Boztepe, Ege University, 2016 9

Exercise 2
 Voltage and current, consistent with the passive sign convention, for
a device are shown below.

a) Determine the instantaneous power p(t) absorbed by the device.

b) Determine the energy absorbed by the device in one period.
c) Determine the average power absorbed by the device.

EE328 Power Electronics, Dr. Mutlu Boztepe, Ege University, 2016 10

5
Solution (1)
a) Instantaneous voltage&current

 Instantaneous power

EE328 Power Electronics, Dr. Mutlu Boztepe, Ege University, 2016 11

Solution (2)
b) The energy absorbed by the device can be found by integration of
instantanous power p(t) over the period.

c) The average power is determined as follows;

 or alternatively;

EE328 Power Electronics, Dr. Mutlu Boztepe, Ege University, 2016 12

6
DC voltage source
 The average power absorbed by a dc voltage source is

Therefore, average power absorbed by a dc voltage source is

the product of the voltage Vdc and the average current Iavg .
EE328 Power Electronics, Dr. Mutlu Boztepe, Ege University, 2016 13

Exercise 3
 Assume that the voltage and current waveforms of a DC voltage
source is;

EE328 Power Electronics, Dr. Mutlu Boztepe, Ege University, 2016 14

7
Resistor
 It doesn’t cause a phase difference between voltage and current.
 A dissipative device in electric circuits which obeys Ohm’s law,

a resistor is

EE328 Power Electronics, Dr. Mutlu Boztepe, Ege University, 2016 16

8
Inductors and capacitors
 Inductors and capacitors have some particular characteristics that
are important in power electronics applications.

Inductors store energy Capacitors store energy

in magnetic field in electric field

Inductor’s average power

 If the inductor current is periodic, the stored energy at the end of one
period is the same as at the beginning.

 No net energy transfer indicates that the average power absorbed

by an inductor is zero for steady-state periodic operation.

 Instantaneous power is not necessarily zero because power may

be absorbed during part of the period and returned to the circuit
during another part of the period.
EE328 Power Electronics, Dr. Mutlu Boztepe, Ege University, 2016 18

9
P, V and I for an inductor

Inductor’s average voltage

 From the voltage-current relationship for the inductor

 Therefore, for periodic currents, the average voltage across an

inductor is zero.

This is very important

conclusion which is used
in the analysis of
switching converters

EE328 Power Electronics, Dr. Mutlu Boztepe, Ege University, 2016 20

10
Inductor packages

Capacitor’s average power

 If the capacitor voltage is periodic, the stored energy is the same at
the end of a period as at the beginning.

 Instantaneous power is not necessarily zero because power may

be absorbed during part of the period and returned to the circuit
during another part of the period.

EE328 Power Electronics, Dr. Mutlu Boztepe, Ege University, 2016 22

11
P, V and I for a capacitor

Capacitor’s average current

 From the voltage-current relationship for the capacitor,

 Therefore, for periodic currents, the average current that flows

through a capacitor is zero.

This is very important

conclusion which is used in the
analysis of switching converters

12
Capacitor types

EE328 Power Electronics, Dr. Mutlu Boztepe, Ege University, 2016 25

Capacitor packages

EE328 Power Electronics, Dr. Mutlu Boztepe, Ege University, 2016 26

13
Exercise 4 - Power and Voltage for an Inductor
 The current in a 5-mH inductor is the periodic triangular wave as
shown below.

the inductor.

EE328 Power Electronics, Dr. Mutlu Boztepe, Ege University, 2016 27

Solution (1)
 The current-voltage relationship
of an inductor is

 By using this relationship, the

voltage across the inductor can
be found as shown in the figure
on the right.

 It can be determined easily from

the figure that the average
inductor voltage is zero

EE328 Power Electronics, Dr. Mutlu Boztepe, Ege University, 2016 28

14
Solution (2)
 The instantaneous power in the
inductor is

 when p(t) is positive, the inductor is

absorbing power,
 when p(t) is negative, the inductor is
supplying power.

EE328 Power Electronics, Dr. Mutlu Boztepe, Ege University, 2016 29

Energy recovery
 Inductors and capacitors must be energized and de-energized in
several applications of power electronics.
 For a periodic operations, the net energy in inductors and capacitors
must be zero in steady-state condition, otherwise the current or
voltage ramps up, and can easily destroy the sensitive devices.
 For example, a fuel injector solenoid in an automobile is energized
for a certain time interval by a transistor switch.
 During this time interval, energy is stored
in the solenoid’s inductance.
 The circuit must be designed to remove
the stored energy in the inductor while
preventing damage to
the transistor
when it is turned off.

EE328 Power Electronics, Dr. Mutlu Boztepe, Ege University, 2016 30

15
Solenoid switching
 The solenoid can be modelled as an inductor. The resistance
associated with the inductor is assumed to be negligible
 Transistor switch and diode are assumed to be ideal.
 The diode-resistor path provides a means of opening the switch and
removing the stored energy in the inductor when the transistor turns
off.
 Without the
diode-resistor path,
the transistor could
be destroyed
when it is turned off

Circuit operation: 0<t<t1

 Inductor voltage is equal to the supply voltage Vcc. Therefore the
current can be calculated as follows,

 The transistor current is equal to

the inductor current

 Inductor and source currents

thus increase linearly Transistor
when the transistor is on. is ON

EE328 Power Electronics, Dr. Mutlu Boztepe, Ege University, 2016 32

16
Circuit operation: t1<t<T
 This is a simple RL circuit, so that the inductor current can be
calculated as follows
Time constant

current is

 The current in the inductor

and resistor is decaying
exponential with
time constant L/R.
 The switch current is zero

Average DC source power

 The current waveform supplied by the DC source is

EE328 Power Electronics, Dr. Mutlu Boztepe, Ege University, 2016 34

17
Average resistor power (Method 1)
 The average power absorbed by the resistor could be determined by
integrating an expression for instantaneous resistor power, but an
examination of the circuit reveals an easier way.
 The average power absorbed
by the inductor is zero
 The power absorbed by
the ideal transistor and
diode are both zero.
 Therefore, all power
supplied by the source
must be absorbed
by the resistor

Average resistor power (Method 2)

 Another way to approach the problem is to determine the peak
energy stored in the inductor,

 The all energy stored in the inductor is transferred to the resistor

while the transistor switch is open.
 Power absorbed by the resistor can be determined from

EE328 Power Electronics, Dr. Mutlu Boztepe, Ege University, 2016 36

18
Efficiency considerations
 All the energy stored in the inductor is dissipated in the resistor, and
converted to heat.
 Therefore, the energy efﬁciency is very low for resistive energy
recovery circuits.
 The circuit efficiency can be improved if stored energy in the
inductance can be transferred back to the source rather than
dissipating in resistor.
 The circuit below can be
used for this purpose
 Two transistor switches
are turned on
and off
simultaneously.

Circuit operation: 0<t<t1

 Inductor voltage is equal to the supply voltage Vcc. Therefore the
current can be calculated as follows,

 The transistor current is equal to

the inductor current
ON

 Inductor and source currents ON

thus increase linearly
when the transistors are on.

EE328 Power Electronics, Dr. Mutlu Boztepe, Ege University, 2016 38

19
Circuit operation: t1<t<2t1
 Inductor voltage is vL(t)= –Vcc ,then the current can be found as,

 The source current is negative

then the source is absorbing
power.
 Average source current is zero,
resulting in an average
source power of zero.
No energy losses!!!
EE328 Power Electronics, Dr. Mutlu Boztepe, Ege University, 2016 39

Exercise 5
 In the following circuits Vcc=90 V, L=200 mH, R=20, t1=10 ms,
and T=100 ms. Determine,
a) the peak current and peak energy storage in the inductor
(Ans. 4.5A, 2.025J)
b) the average power absorbed by the resistor,
(Ans. 20.25W)
c) the peak and average
power supplied by the source.
(Ans. 405W, 20.25W)
d) Compare the results with
what would happen if
the inductor were energized
using lossless two
transistor circuit.

EE328 Power Electronics, Dr. Mutlu Boztepe, Ege University, 2016 40

20
Effective value: RMS
 The effective value of a periodic voltage waveform is based on the
average power delivered to a resistor.
 For a periodic voltage across a resistor, effective voltage is deﬁned
as the voltage that is as effective as the dc voltage in supplying
average power.
 Both voltages Veff and Vdc produce same average power on the
 However, Veff is a quantity which corresponds to the effective value
of the ac source v(t)

Effective value: RMS

 Average power on the resistor is

 Then we obtain the definition formula of the effective value as

follows

RMS: Root-Mean-Square

EE328 Power Electronics, Dr. Mutlu Boztepe, Ege University, 2016 42

21
Effective value: RMS
 Similarly, the RMS current is developed from P=I2rmsR
as,

 The usefulness of the RMS value is that it doesn’t vary

with time.
 Thus, the AC circuits can be analyzed as like DC circuits
by using RMS values of voltages and currents in the
circuits.
 Additionally, ratings of devices such as transformers are
often speciﬁed in terms of RMS voltage and current.

EE328 Power Electronics, Dr. Mutlu Boztepe, Ege University, 2016 43

Exercise 6
 Determine the rms value of the periodic pulse waveform that has a
duty ratio of D as shown below.

EE328 Power Electronics, Dr. Mutlu Boztepe, Ege University, 2016 44

22
Exercise 7
 Determine the RMS Value of a sinusoidal voltage of v(t)=Vm sin(wt)

RMS value of a full-wave

rectified sinewave
v(t)=|Vm sin(wt)| is same

EE328 Power Electronics, Dr. Mutlu Boztepe, Ege University, 2016 45

Exercise 8
 Determine the RMS Value of a half-wave rectified sinewave of

The square of the function has one-half the area of full wave,

EE328 Power Electronics, Dr. Mutlu Boztepe, Ege University, 2016 46

23
Exercise 9
 Neutral Conductor Current in a Three-Phase System
 An ofﬁce complex is supplied from a three-phase four-wire voltage
source
 The load is highly nonlinear as a result of the rectiﬁers in the power
supplies of the equipment,

EE328 Power Electronics, Dr. Mutlu Boztepe, Ege University, 2016 47

Exercise 9 (cont.)
 The currents in each of
the three phases has
very distorted waveform.
 The neutral current is the
sum of the phase
currents.
 Due to the non-linear
loads, a certain current
flows through the neutral
conductor
 If the rms current in
each phase conductor
is known to be 20 A,
determine the rms
current in the neutral
conductor

EE328 Power Electronics, Dr. Mutlu Boztepe, Ege University, 2016 48

24
Exercise 9 (cont.)
 Noting by inspection that the area of the square of the current
function in the neutral in, is 3 times that of each of the phases ia

 Note that the rms neutral current is

larger than the phase currents for this
situation.

Three-phase distribution systems

supplying highly nonlinear loads
should have a neutral conductor
capable of carrying times as
much current as the line conductor
EE328 Power Electronics, Dr. Mutlu Boztepe, Ege University, 2016 49

RMS value of two periodic voltage added

 The term containing the product v1v2 is zero if the functions v1 and v2
are orthogonal.
 v1 and v2 are orthogonal if they are sinusoids of different
frequencies, then

EE328 Power Electronics, Dr. Mutlu Boztepe, Ege University, 2016 50

25
RMS of the sum of two periodic voltage (cont.)
 Noting that

 If a voltage is the sum of more than two periodic voltages, all

orthogonal, the rms value is

Note that the equation above can be applied to previous exercise to obtain the
rms value of the neutral current.
EE328 Power Electronics, Dr. Mutlu Boztepe, Ege University, 2016 51

Exercise 10
 Determine the effective (rms) value of

EE328 Power Electronics, Dr. Mutlu Boztepe, Ege University, 2016 52

26
Solution of
 The rms value of a single sinusoid is Vm/2
 The rms value of a dc voltage equals to its dc value.
 The sinusoids have different frequencies, then they are orthogonal
 All the terms are orthogonal, therefore the the rms value is,

EE328 Power Electronics, Dr. Mutlu Boztepe, Ege University, 2016 53

Solution of
 The sinusoids have same frequencies, then they are not orthogonal

EE328 Power Electronics, Dr. Mutlu Boztepe, Ege University, 2016 54

27
Exercise 11
Find the RMS Value of Triangular Waveforms at below

supply circuits.

Solution for triangular waveform

 The current is expressed as

EE328 Power Electronics, Dr. Mutlu Boztepe, Ege University, 2016 56

28
Solution for offset triangular waveform
 It is assumed that the waveform
has two parts;
– A dc offset
– A triangular waveform
 DC signal and triangular waveform
are orthogonal

Power computations for sinusoidal ac circuits

 For any element

EE328 Power Electronics, Dr. Mutlu Boztepe, Ege University, 2016 58

29
Power computations for sinusoidal ac circuits
Average power is

Power computations for sinusoidal ac circuits

 In the steady state, no net power is absorbed by an inductor or a
capacitor.
 Reactive power, Q, represents the energy exchange between the
source and reactive part of the load, such as inductive and
Unit of Q is VAR

with power

 Apparent power, S, is magnitude of complex power. Alternatively it

is the product of rms voltage and rms current magnitudes and is
often used in specifying the rating of power equipment such as
transformers. Unit of S is VA

EE328 Power Electronics, Dr. Mutlu Boztepe, Ege University, 2016 60

30
Power triangle
 Power factor of a load is deﬁned as the ratio of average power
to apparent power

 The power factor is also equal to the cosine of the power angle 
pf=cos 

Power of Ayran
Reactive
power
Apparent power

power
Active

EE328 Power Electronics, Dr. Mutlu Boztepe, Ege University, 2016 62

31
Power computations for nonsinusoidal periodic waveforms

 Power electronics circuits typically have voltages and/or currents

that are periodic but not sinusoidal.
 The Fourier series can be used to describe nonsinusoidal periodic
waveforms in terms of a series of sinusoids.
 The Fourier series for a periodic function f(t) can be expressed in
trigonometric form as

Alternative expression to Fourier series

 Sines and cosines of the same frequency can be combined into one
sinusoid, resulting in an alternative expression for a Fourier series:

 Or alternatively

 The term a0 is a constant that is the average value of f(t) and

represents a dc voltage or current in electrical applications.

EE328 Power Electronics, Dr. Mutlu Boztepe, Ege University, 2016 64

32
Alternative expression to Fourier series

 The coefﬁcient C1 is the amplitude of the term at the fundamental

frequency.
 Coefﬁcients C2, C3, . . . Cn are the amplitudes of the harmonics that
have frequencies 2w0, 3w0, . . . nw0

Visualization of Fourier series

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fourier_series

EE328 Power Electronics, Dr. Mutlu Boztepe, Ege University, 2016 66

33
Some examples for Fourier series
Square wave

Ramp signal

Average power calc. from Fourier series

 If periodic voltage and current waveforms represented by the Fourier
series as

 then average power is computed as

The average of
voltage and current
products of different
frequencies is zero.

 Note that total average power is the sum of the powers at the
frequencies in the Fourier series.
EE328 Power Electronics, Dr. Mutlu Boztepe, Ege University, 2016 68

34
Non-sinusoidal Source and Linear Load
 If a non-sinusoidal periodic voltage is applied to a linear load the
power absorbed by the load can be determined by using
superposition.
 A non-sinusoidal periodic voltage is equivalent to the series
combination of the Fourier series voltages, as illustrated below.
 The current in the load can be determined using superposition.

same frequency.

EE328 Power Electronics, Dr. Mutlu Boztepe, Ege University, 2016 69

Exercise 12
 A non-sinusoidal voltage source has a fourier series of

 This voltage is connected to a load that is 5 ohm resistor and 15 mH

inductor in series.
 Determine the power absorbed by the load.

35
Solution
 The dc term is

phasor analysis:

EE328 Power Electronics, Dr. Mutlu Boztepe, Ege University, 2016 71

Solution (cont.)
 The power at each frequency in the Fourier series can be
determined as follows,

 Alternative Method: Since the average power of inductor is zero,

the power absorbed by the load can be calculated using rms current
as follows

EE328 Power Electronics, Dr. Mutlu Boztepe, Ege University, 2016 72

36
Sinusoidal Source and Nonlinear Load
 If a sinusoidal voltage source is applied to a nonlinear load, the
current waveform will not be sinusoidal but can be represented as a
Fourier series.
 Voltage source is linear,

 and current is represented

by the Fourier series

Sinusoidal Source and Nonlinear Load

 then average power absorbed by the load (or supplied by the
source) is computed as

Note that the only nonzero power term is at the

frequency of the applied voltage!!!

EE328 Power Electronics, Dr. Mutlu Boztepe, Ege University, 2016 74

37
Sinusoidal Source and Nonlinear Load
 The power factor of the load

Sinusoidal Source and Nonlinear Load

 Note that the power factor term commonly used in linear circuits is
called the displacement power factor.

 The ratio of the rms value of the fundamental frequency to the total
rms value is the distortion factor (DF)

 The distortion factor represents the reduction in power factor due to

the non-sinusoidal property of the current. Power factor is also
expressed as

Power Distortion
factor Displacement factor
factor

EE328 Power Electronics, Dr. Mutlu Boztepe, Ege University, 2016 76

38
Sinusoidal Source and Nonlinear Load
 Total harmonic distortion (THD) is another term used to quantify the
non-sinusoidal property of a waveform.
 THD is the ratio of the rms value of all the non-fundamental
frequency terms to the rms value of the fundamental frequency term

Sinusoidal Source and Nonlinear Load

 Since only non-zero term for reactive power is at the frequency of
voltage, the reactive power can be expressed as follows,

 With P and Q defined for the non-sinusoidal case, apparent power S

must include a term to account for the current at frequencies which
are different from the voltage frequency.
 The term distortion volt-amps D is traditionally used in the
computation of S

 where

EE328 Power Electronics, Dr. Mutlu Boztepe, Ege University, 2016 78

39
Sinusoidal Source and Nonlinear Load
 Other terms that are sometimes used for non-sinusoidal current (or
voltages) are form factor and crest factor.

EE328 Power Electronics, Dr. Mutlu Boztepe, Ege University, 2016 79

Exercise 13
 A sinusoidal voltage source of v(t)=100 cos(377t) V is applied to a
nonlinear load, resulting in a non-sinusoidal current which is
expressed in Fourier series form as

 Determine,
a) The power absorbed by the load
b) The power factor of the load
c) The distortion factor of the
d) The total harmonic distortion
of the load current

EE328 Power Electronics, Dr. Mutlu Boztepe, Ege University, 2016 80

40
Numerical calculation
100

50
Voltage [V]

-50

-100
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 2000
time [s]

30 1500

20

Power [W]
1000
Current [A]

10
500

0
0
-10
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05
time [s] -500
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05
time [s]

EE328 Power Electronics, Dr. Mutlu Boztepe, Ege University, 2016 81

Solution
a) The power absorbed by the load is determined by computing the
power absorbed at each frequency in the Fourier series

EE328 Power Electronics, Dr. Mutlu Boztepe, Ege University, 2016 82

41
Solution
c) The distortion factor is computed as

42