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Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Karun Phogat

S3162015

24th Aug

Contents

NOMENCLATURE & SYMBOLS ............................................................................................................................ 3

1 Introduction ...................................................................................................................................................... 5

1.1 Specifications............................................................................................................................................. 5

2 Calculations ....................................................................................................................................................... 6

2.1 Estimating WTO, WE and WF ...................................................................................................................... 6

2.1.1Determine WPL ................................................................................................................................... 6

2.1.2 Guessing Initial value of WTO ............................................................................................................ 6

2.1.3Determine WF...................................................................................................................................... 7

2.1.4Determine tentative WOE.................................................................................................................. 9

2.1.5Determine tentative WE ..................................................................................................................10

2.1.6Determine allowable value of WE ...................................................................................................10

2.2 Sizing to Stall, Take-off and Landing Requirements .............................................................................11

2.2.1 Sizing to stall requirements.............................................................................................................11

2.2.2Sizing to take-off requirements .......................................................................................................11

3.Sizing for landing distance requirements ....................................................................................................12

4.Construction of drag polar.............................................................................................................................13

5.Sizing to climb requirements .........................................................................................................................14

FAR 25.111 (OEI) ― Ini al Climb Segment Requirement CGR > 0.012, at V1 =

1.2V STO ............................................................................................................................................................15

FAR 25.111: For Gear down and take off flaps CGR > 0 1.1 VSTO -

1.2V STO ............................................................................................................................................................15

FAR 25.111: For Gears Up Flaps Up CGR >.012

1.25Vs ............................................................................................................................................................16

FAR 25.111: For Balked Landing CGR >.0321 1.3Vsl

........................................................................................................................................................................16

FAR 25.111: Approach Configuration CGR >.021 1.5Vsa

........................................................................................................................................................................16

6.Sizing to cruise speed requirements .............................................................................................................17

7.REFERENCES ....................................................................................................................................................18

8. Appendix A .....................................................................................................................................................19

NOMENCLATURE & SYMBOLS

a ― Speed of Sound

q ― Dynamic Pressure

AEO ― All Engines Operating

AMC ― Air Mobility Command

AR ― Aspect Ratio

ATM ― Air Traffic Management

CBR ― California Bearing Ratio

CD ― Drag Coefficient

CDi ― Induced Drag Coefficient

CDo ― Zero Lift Drag Coefficient

cf ― Skin Friction Coefficient

CGR ― Climb Gradient Requirement

CL ― Coefficient of Lift

CLmax ― Maximum Coefficient of Lift

CONUS ― Continental United States

e ― Oswald’s Efficiency Factor

FAR ― Federal Aviation Regulation

FDAV ― Future Deployable Armoured Vehicle

M ― Mach number

Mff ― Mission Fuel Fraction

MIL ― Military

MTOW ― Maximum Take-Off Weight

N ― Number of Engines

OEI ― One Engine Inoperative

P ― Pressure

R ― Specific Gas Constant

RC ― Rate of Climb

S ― Wing Area

SFL ― Field Length

SL ― Sea Level

STOL ― Short Take-Off and Landing

Swet ― Wetted Area

T ― Temperature or Thrust

TOP25 ― Take-Off Parameter Relating to FAR 25

TREQ ― Thrust Required

USAF ― United States Air Force

VA ― Approach Speed

VLFO ― Speed at Lift-Off

VS ― Stall Speed

VSA ― Stall Speed at Approach

VSL ― Stall Speed at Landing

VSTO ― Stall Speed at Take-Off

W ― Arbitrary Weight

Wcrew ― Crew Weight

WE ― Empty Weight

WF ― Mission Fuel Weight

WF(res) ― Fuel Reserves Required For The Mission

WF(used) ― Fuel Actually Used During The Mission

WL ― Landing Weight

WOE ― Operating Weight Empty

WPL ― Payload Weight

Wtfo ― Trapped Fuel and Oil Weight

WTO ― Take-off Gross Weight

ρ ― Density

σ ― Density Ratio

1 Introduction

chart and understanding the interaction between design parameters and aircraft

performance. In order to determine the combination of wing loading (W to/S) and thrust

loading (Tto/W to), Cq, power loading (Pto/W to) for an aircraft design, a matching chart can be

made which gives a graphical representation of different design constraints as a function of

these two important design parameters. This diagram provides information on parameter

sensitivity and allows the designer to select the best possible aircraft within the feasible

design region.

The category of midsize business jets is loosely defined here as aircraft which weigh

roughly 20,000-25,000 lb, carry 7-9 passengers. Falling in the range are the Bombardier-

Learjet 45, Cessna Citation XLS+, the gulfstream G150 and Hawker-Beech 750. Another

key requirement is to be able to operate from airports with shorter runways. This allows

departure and destination airports to be closer to the users’ home base and final point of

destination, reducing trip time further.

1.1 Specifications

• Full fuel payload: 1000 lb (includes 100 lb baggage)

• Max cruise speed: M=.85 at 35,000 ft

• Service Ceiling: 45,000 ft

• Sea Level Takeoff Balanced Field Length: 4,000 ft at Maximum Gross Weight

• Landing Field Length: 3600 ft at Typical Landing Weight

2 Calculations

guidelines listed in Roskam (1985)[1]. This publication was used because it is applicable

to business jet , such as the one specified in the RFP.

To calculate the values of take-off, empty and fuel weight, we will use the

procedure outlined in Roskam (1985):

2.1.1Determine WPL

We will assume that since this is a military transport aircraft, each crew member will

weigh 200 lb (gear included) and since the RFP makes no reference to baggage, we

will exclude this from further calculations. In addition to this, where applicable, there

will be two sets of equations accounting for each mission

WTO = 22900 lb

2.1.3Determine WF

A fuel-fraction method described in Roskam (1985) will be used in the following calculation

to discover a value for equation (2.3).

Phase 1: Engine start and warm-up. Initial weight is WTO and final weight

0.99

0.995

.

0.995

Phase 4: Climb to cruise altitude and accelerate to cruise speed. Initial weight is W3 and

final weight is W 4.

0.980

A portion of range will be used for climb. Assuming a velocity of 290 knots for climb and an

initial climb rate to of 3500 ft/min, it would take 10 minutes to reach an altitude of 35 000 ft.

The range in this phase of flight can then be calculated from

57.6nm

Phase 5: Cruise. Initial weight is W 4 and final weight is W5. RFP calls for Mcruise = 0.85

at 35 000 ft altitude which gives 490.1 knots]. Using Breguet’s range equation and

average values listed in Roskam (1985)

Table 2.2, we find:

.

2500- 57.6 = x 11 x

.

= .7516

0.990

Phase 8: Landing, taxi and shutdown. Initial weight is W7 and final weight is W8.

0.992

Now we have Mff for each step, we can calculate mission fuel fraction:

= 0.990x0.995x0.995x0.980x0.990x0.992x0.7516

= 0.7088

=22900x(1-0.7088)

=22900x0.2911

=6668.3lbs

( )= - -

= 15231.7lbs

2.1.5Determine tentative WE

( )= ( ) - -

It has been suggested by Roskam (1985) to use 0.5% of WTO for Wtfo. Also, since Wcrew

has already been suggested in the given specifications

( ) = 12607.16 lbs

Using equation 2.16 and in Roskam (1985) and appropriate references listed in the text, we

find allowable value for :

Where values of A and B are given in Roskam (1985), for Business Jet aircraft. Hence,

A=0.2678

B=0.9979

.

= 10 .

= 12608.2 lbs

−

Tolerance=

= -6.7905E-05

The three values of primary interest are now given as:

= 22900lbs

= 12608.2lbs

= 6668.34lbs

= = 106.66 lb/ft^2

.

At SL conditions with temperature of 38˚ C, we have for density ratio:

From equation 3.7 in Roskam (1985), we find:

98.81lb/ft^2

By using the typical values of CLmaxTO found in Table 3.1 of Roskam (1985), we can plot a

relationship of thrust-to-weight ratio versus wing loading at take-off conditions. This chart is

can be found in the Appendix A.

Table 3.3 in Roskam (1985) lists typical values for landing weight to takeoff weight ratio. In

the case of Business jet, this is given as 0.88. Therefore we can write:

=0.88

= = =109.54kts

. .

= = 84.26 kts

.

Using the values from above and substituting into equation 3.1 in Roskam (1985) yields:

142.23

. .

= = 24.04

= 27.32

The chart of thrust-to-weight ratio versus wing loading at landing conditions is given in

Appendix A.

S cd log W

wet

10 10 TO

100.22630.6977log

2

10 22900

1854.20 ft

2

From figure 3.21 (b) in Roskam (1985) we find that for 1854.2 ft wetter area, and an average value

2

of 0.004 for cf, the corresponding equivalent parasite area is approximately 5.56 ft . It will be

2 2

assumed that the wing loading is 75 lb/ft . Hence an approximate wing area would be 305.33 ft . It

will also be assumed that aspect ratio and Oswald’s Efficiency Factor are 8 and 0.85, respectively.

Therefore, with all our calculated and assumed information, we can work out the zero lift drag

coefficient and the drag coefficient as follows:

2

C

C C L

D Do π Ae

f C2

L

Sπ Ae

5.6 1 C2

305.3 π 8 0.85

2

0.0182 0.04681CL

By varying the value of CL, we can use the relation found in to plot a graph of CD versus CL.

This chart can be found in the Appendix A.

There are two conditions which must be accounted for in the design process: aircraft

operating with all available engines and aircraft operating with one inoperative engine. For the

former, thrust-to-weight ratio can be described by:

T 1

L CGR

W AEO D

Drag polar information at different flight configurations must be first determined in order to size

to climb requirements. Roskam (1985) table 3.6 was used to compile the following data:

Clean 0.0182 9 0.85 CL^2/ 24.0331635 1.7

Take-off flaps 0.0332 9 0.8 CL^2/ 22.619448 2.2

Landing flaps 0.0832 9 0.75 CL^2/ 21.2057325 2.6

Gear down 0.0382 9 no effect CL^2/ No effect

Since the aircraft must meet the prerequisites of FAR 25, the following section will investigate

various conditions of CGR for the specified aviation requirements. We will use the following

method of calculation:

1. Find the critical value of CGR and the fraction of appropriate speed;

2. Use the CL specified for that flight condition (from Table 2-1) and divide by appropriate

speed fraction (from step 1);

3. Substitute the new value of CL into the drag polar (from Table 2-1);

4. To find the ratio of (L/D), use the new values of (CL/CD);

5. Using equation (2.40) or (2.41), find the appropriate (T/W);

6. Correct for temperature difference to find the correct, required (T/W).

CGR > 0.012, at V1 = 1.2VSTO

.

= + = .0182 + .

= 0.1363

= = 11.2015

= 0.2025

CGR > 0 1.1 VSTO - 1.2VSTO

.

= + =

.0182 +

.

= 1.82

= = 9.86

= 0.2028

FAR 25.111: For Gears Up Flaps Up

CGR >.012 1.25Vs

CLo = 1.088

Cd = 0.067

L/D = 16.13

(T/W) to = 0.148

CGR >.0321 1.3Vsl

Actual CL 1.538461538

Cd 0.194814343

L/D 7.897065037

(T/W) L 0.158629323

CGR >.021 1.5Vsa

CL max A 2.3

Actual 1.022222222

Cd 0.111579015

L/D 9.16142004

(T/W) L 0.260306768

Assumed WL 20152

6.Sizing to cruise speed requirements

And

Using reference [6], speed of sound was calculated at 823.39 ft/s at M = 0.85 and an altitude of

30 000 ft. We can now work out a value for dynamic pressure using the density of air at altitude

from equation (2.27). The value that is obtained is approximately 249.8 lb/ft2. Due to the high

value of Mach number, drag rise effects must also be accounted for. Roskam’s (1985) Figure

3.32 gives a rapid method for estimating drag rise at a given Mach number. For the aircraft in

this paper, an approximate drag rise of 0.0020 was calculated. This adjusts our parasitic drag

from equation (2.39) in the following way:

A plot of this relation is given in the Appendix A

7.REFERENCES

101/sys/ac/c141.htm>.

12/airplane/mach.html>.

12/airplane/sound.html>.

8. Appendix A

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

CLmaxto=1.8

0.4 CLmaxto=1.9

CLmaxto=2

0.3

CLmaxto=2.2

0.2

0.1

0

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140

Landing Sizing

0.6

0.5

0.4

CLmaxL=1.8

0.3

CLmaxL=2.2

0.2 CLmaxL=2.6

0.1

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

cruise

0.35

0.3

0.25

0.2

0.15 cruise

0.1

0.05

0

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140

0.3

0.25

0.2

Take-off Climb flaps

Take-off Climb gear down

0.15

Balked Landing

Take-off Climb gear up, flap up

0.05

0

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140

Matching Chart

0.8

0.7

0.6 CLmaxto=1.8

CLmaxto=1.9

0.5 CLmaxto=2

CLmaxto=2.2

CLmaxL=2.6

0.4

CLmaxL=2.2

CLmaxL=1.8

0.3

cruise

Balked Landing

0.2 Take-off Climb flaps

Take-off Climb gear up, flap up

0.1

0

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140

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