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RMIT UNIVERSITY

Matching Chart Report


Karun Phogat
S3162015
24th Aug
Contents
NOMENCLATURE & SYMBOLS ............................................................................................................................ 3
1 Introduction ...................................................................................................................................................... 5
1.1 Specifications............................................................................................................................................. 5
2 Calculations ....................................................................................................................................................... 6
2.1 Estimating WTO, WE and WF ...................................................................................................................... 6
2.1.1Determine WPL ................................................................................................................................... 6
2.1.2 Guessing Initial value of WTO ............................................................................................................ 6
2.1.3Determine WF...................................................................................................................................... 7
2.1.4Determine tentative WOE.................................................................................................................. 9
2.1.5Determine tentative WE ..................................................................................................................10
2.1.6Determine allowable value of WE ...................................................................................................10
2.2 Sizing to Stall, Take-off and Landing Requirements .............................................................................11
2.2.1 Sizing to stall requirements.............................................................................................................11
2.2.2Sizing to take-off requirements .......................................................................................................11
3.Sizing for landing distance requirements ....................................................................................................12
4.Construction of drag polar.............................................................................................................................13
5.Sizing to climb requirements .........................................................................................................................14
FAR 25.111 (OEI) ― Ini al Climb Segment Requirement CGR > 0.012, at V1 =
1.2V STO ............................................................................................................................................................15
FAR 25.111: For Gear down and take off flaps CGR > 0 1.1 VSTO -
1.2V STO ............................................................................................................................................................15
FAR 25.111: For Gears Up Flaps Up CGR >.012
1.25Vs ............................................................................................................................................................16
FAR 25.111: For Balked Landing CGR >.0321 1.3Vsl
........................................................................................................................................................................16
FAR 25.111: Approach Configuration CGR >.021 1.5Vsa
........................................................................................................................................................................16
6.Sizing to cruise speed requirements .............................................................................................................17
7.REFERENCES ....................................................................................................................................................18
8. Appendix A .....................................................................................................................................................19
NOMENCLATURE & SYMBOLS

a ― Speed of Sound
q ― Dynamic Pressure
AEO ― All Engines Operating
AMC ― Air Mobility Command
AR ― Aspect Ratio
ATM ― Air Traffic Management
CBR ― California Bearing Ratio
CD ― Drag Coefficient
CDi ― Induced Drag Coefficient
CDo ― Zero Lift Drag Coefficient
cf ― Skin Friction Coefficient
CGR ― Climb Gradient Requirement
CL ― Coefficient of Lift
CLmax ― Maximum Coefficient of Lift
CONUS ― Continental United States
e ― Oswald’s Efficiency Factor
FAR ― Federal Aviation Regulation
FDAV ― Future Deployable Armoured Vehicle
M ― Mach number
Mff ― Mission Fuel Fraction
MIL ― Military
MTOW ― Maximum Take-Off Weight
N ― Number of Engines
OEI ― One Engine Inoperative
P ― Pressure
R ― Specific Gas Constant
RC ― Rate of Climb

RFP ― Request For Proposal


S ― Wing Area
SFL ― Field Length
SL ― Sea Level
STOL ― Short Take-Off and Landing
Swet ― Wetted Area
T ― Temperature or Thrust
TOP25 ― Take-Off Parameter Relating to FAR 25
TREQ ― Thrust Required
USAF ― United States Air Force
VA ― Approach Speed
VLFO ― Speed at Lift-Off
VS ― Stall Speed
VSA ― Stall Speed at Approach
VSL ― Stall Speed at Landing
VSTO ― Stall Speed at Take-Off
W ― Arbitrary Weight
Wcrew ― Crew Weight
WE ― Empty Weight
WF ― Mission Fuel Weight
WF(res) ― Fuel Reserves Required For The Mission
WF(used) ― Fuel Actually Used During The Mission
WL ― Landing Weight
WOE ― Operating Weight Empty
WPL ― Payload Weight
Wtfo ― Trapped Fuel and Oil Weight
WTO ― Take-off Gross Weight
ρ ― Density
σ ― Density Ratio
1 Introduction

The objective of this assignment is to practice the process of preparing a matching


chart and understanding the interaction between design parameters and aircraft
performance. In order to determine the combination of wing loading (W to/S) and thrust
loading (Tto/W to), Cq, power loading (Pto/W to) for an aircraft design, a matching chart can be
made which gives a graphical representation of different design constraints as a function of
these two important design parameters. This diagram provides information on parameter
sensitivity and allows the designer to select the best possible aircraft within the feasible
design region.

The category of midsize business jets is loosely defined here as aircraft which weigh
roughly 20,000-25,000 lb, carry 7-9 passengers. Falling in the range are the Bombardier-
Learjet 45, Cessna Citation XLS+, the gulfstream G150 and Hawker-Beech 750. Another
key requirement is to be able to operate from airports with shorter runways. This allows
departure and destination airports to be closer to the users’ home base and final point of
destination, reducing trip time further.

1.1 Specifications

• Range: 2500 nm (w/ Reserves – see note)


• Full fuel payload: 1000 lb (includes 100 lb baggage)
• Max cruise speed: M=.85 at 35,000 ft
• Service Ceiling: 45,000 ft
• Sea Level Takeoff Balanced Field Length: 4,000 ft at Maximum Gross Weight
• Landing Field Length: 3600 ft at Typical Landing Weight
2 Calculations

The following methodology of calculating relevant parameters closely follows the


guidelines listed in Roskam (1985)[1]. This publication was used because it is applicable
to business jet , such as the one specified in the RFP.

2.1 Estimating WTO, WE and WF

To calculate the values of take-off, empty and fuel weight, we will use the
procedure outlined in Roskam (1985):

2.1.1Determine WPL

We will assume that since this is a military transport aircraft, each crew member will
weigh 200 lb (gear included) and since the RFP makes no reference to baggage, we
will exclude this from further calculations. In addition to this, where applicable, there
will be two sets of equations accounting for each mission

WPL 1000lb  8  175lb  66 739 lb

2.1.2 Guessing Initial value of WTO

WTO = 22900 lb
2.1.3Determine WF

A fuel-fraction method described in Roskam (1985) will be used in the following calculation
to discover a value for equation (2.3).

Phase 1: Engine start and warm-up. Initial weight is WTO and final weight

0.99

Phase 2: Taxi. Initial weight is W 1 and final weight is W 2

0.995

Phase 3: Take-off. Initial weight is W2 and final weight is W 3


.

0.995

Phase 4: Climb to cruise altitude and accelerate to cruise speed. Initial weight is W3 and
final weight is W 4.

0.980
A portion of range will be used for climb. Assuming a velocity of 290 knots for climb and an
initial climb rate to of 3500 ft/min, it would take 10 minutes to reach an altitude of 35 000 ft.
The range in this phase of flight can then be calculated from

57.6nm

Phase 5: Cruise. Initial weight is W 4 and final weight is W5. RFP calls for Mcruise = 0.85
at 35 000 ft altitude which gives 490.1 knots]. Using Breguet’s range equation and
average values listed in Roskam (1985)
Table 2.2, we find:

.
2500- 57.6 = x 11 x
.

= .7516

Phase 6: Descent. Initial weight is W5 and final weight is W 7

0.990
Phase 8: Landing, taxi and shutdown. Initial weight is W7 and final weight is W8.

0.992

Now we have Mff for each step, we can calculate mission fuel fraction:

= 0.990x0.995x0.995x0.980x0.990x0.992x0.7516
= 0.7088

=22900x(1-0.7088)
=22900x0.2911
=6668.3lbs

2.1.4Determine tentative WOE

( )= - -

( ) = 22900lbs – 6668.3lbs – 1000lbs

= 15231.7lbs
2.1.5Determine tentative WE

( )= ( ) - -

It has been suggested by Roskam (1985) to use 0.5% of WTO for Wtfo. Also, since Wcrew
has already been suggested in the given specifications

( ) = 12607.16 lbs

2.1.6Determine allowable value of WE

Using equation 2.16 and in Roskam (1985) and appropriate references listed in the text, we
find allowable value for :

Where values of A and B are given in Roskam (1985), for Business Jet aircraft. Hence,
A=0.2678
B=0.9979
.
= 10 .
= 12608.2 lbs

Tolerance=

= -6.7905E-05
The three values of primary interest are now given as:

= 22900lbs
= 12608.2lbs
= 6668.34lbs

2.2 Sizing to Stall, Take-off and Landing Requirements

2.2.1 Sizing to stall requirements

FAR 25 applicable aircraft have no stall requirements

2.2.2Sizing to take-off requirements

From equation 3.8 in Roskam (1985), we find:

= = 106.66 lb/ft^2
.
At SL conditions with temperature of 38˚ C, we have for density ratio:
From equation 3.7 in Roskam (1985), we find:

98.81lb/ft^2

By using the typical values of CLmaxTO found in Table 3.1 of Roskam (1985), we can plot a
relationship of thrust-to-weight ratio versus wing loading at take-off conditions. This chart is
can be found in the Appendix A.

3.Sizing for landing distance requirements

Table 3.3 in Roskam (1985) lists typical values for landing weight to takeoff weight ratio. In
the case of Business jet, this is given as 0.88. Therefore we can write:

=0.88

From equation 3.16 in Roskam (1985):

= = =109.54kts
. .

= = 84.26 kts
.
Using the values from above and substituting into equation 3.1 in Roskam (1985) yields:

142.23

. .
= = 24.04

= 27.32

The chart of thrust-to-weight ratio versus wing loading at landing conditions is given in
Appendix A.

4.Construction of drag polar

Using Roskam’s (1985) equation 3.22, we get:


S cd log W
wet
 10 10 TO

 100.22630.6977log
2
10 22900

 1854.20 ft
2
From figure 3.21 (b) in Roskam (1985) we find that for 1854.2 ft wetter area, and an average value
2
of 0.004 for cf, the corresponding equivalent parasite area is approximately 5.56 ft . It will be
2 2
assumed that the wing loading is 75 lb/ft . Hence an approximate wing area would be 305.33 ft . It
will also be assumed that aspect ratio and Oswald’s Efficiency Factor are 8 and 0.85, respectively.
Therefore, with all our calculated and assumed information, we can work out the zero lift drag
coefficient and the drag coefficient as follows:
2
C
C C  L
D Do π Ae
f C2
  L

Sπ Ae
 5.6  1 C2
305.3 π  8  0.85
2
 0.0182  0.04681CL

By varying the value of CL, we can use the relation found in to plot a graph of CD versus CL.
This chart can be found in the Appendix A.

5.Sizing to climb requirements

There are two conditions which must be accounted for in the design process: aircraft
operating with all available engines and aircraft operating with one inoperative engine. For the
former, thrust-to-weight ratio can be described by:

T 1
 L  CGR
W AEO D
Drag polar information at different flight configurations must be first determined in order to size
to climb requirements. Roskam (1985) table 3.6 was used to compile the following data:

Table 2-1 ― Drag Polar at Various Configurations

Cd0 A e Cdi Clmax


Clean 0.0182 9 0.85 CL^2/ 24.0331635 1.7
Take-off flaps 0.0332 9 0.8 CL^2/ 22.619448 2.2
Landing flaps 0.0832 9 0.75 CL^2/ 21.2057325 2.6
Gear down 0.0382 9 no effect CL^2/ No effect
Since the aircraft must meet the prerequisites of FAR 25, the following section will investigate
various conditions of CGR for the specified aviation requirements. We will use the following
method of calculation:

1. Find the critical value of CGR and the fraction of appropriate speed;
2. Use the CL specified for that flight condition (from Table 2-1) and divide by appropriate
speed fraction (from step 1);
3. Substitute the new value of CL into the drag polar (from Table 2-1);
4. To find the ratio of (L/D), use the new values of (CL/CD);
5. Using equation (2.40) or (2.41), find the appropriate (T/W);
6. Correct for temperature difference to find the correct, required (T/W).

FAR 25.111 (OEI) ― Initial Climb Segment Requirement


CGR > 0.012, at V1 = 1.2VSTO

.
= + = .0182 + .
= 0.1363

= = 11.2015

= 0.2025

FAR 25.111: For Gear down and take off flaps


CGR > 0 1.1 VSTO - 1.2VSTO
.
= + =
.0182 +
.
= 1.82

= = 9.86

= 0.2028
FAR 25.111: For Gears Up Flaps Up
CGR >.012 1.25Vs

CLo = 1.088
Cd = 0.067
L/D = 16.13
(T/W) to = 0.148

FAR 25.111: For Balked Landing


CGR >.0321 1.3Vsl

Assumed Cl maxL 2.6


Actual CL 1.538461538
Cd 0.194814343
L/D 7.897065037
(T/W) L 0.158629323

FAR 25.111: Approach Configuration


CGR >.021 1.5Vsa

CL max A 2.3
Actual 1.022222222
Cd 0.111579015
L/D 9.16142004
(T/W) L 0.260306768
Assumed WL 20152
6.Sizing to cruise speed requirements

From four fundamental forces acting on an aircraft at cruise, we have:

And

Assuming parabolic Drag polar:

Using reference [6], speed of sound was calculated at 823.39 ft/s at M = 0.85 and an altitude of
30 000 ft. We can now work out a value for dynamic pressure using the density of air at altitude
from equation (2.27). The value that is obtained is approximately 249.8 lb/ft2. Due to the high
value of Mach number, drag rise effects must also be accounted for. Roskam’s (1985) Figure
3.32 gives a rapid method for estimating drag rise at a given Mach number. For the aircraft in
this paper, an approximate drag rise of 0.0020 was calculated. This adjusts our parasitic drag
from equation (2.39) in the following way:

= .0182 + 0.002 = 0.0202


A plot of this relation is given in the Appendix A
7.REFERENCES

[1] Roskam, J 1985 Airplane Design ― Part I: Preliminary Sizing of Airplanes,

Roskam Aviation and Engineering Corporation, Kansas.

[2] Military Analysis Network 1999, Federation of American Scientists,

Washington, viewed on 16 September, 2007, <h p://www.fas.org/man/dod

101/sys/ac/c141.htm>.

[3] Aerospaceweb.org 1997, United States of America, viewed on 16 September,

2007, <http://www.aerospaceweb.org/aircra /transportm/c141/>.

[4] Tom Benson 2007, National Aeronautics and Space Administration,

Cleveland, viewed on 17 September, 2007, <h p://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/K

12/airplane/mach.html>.

[5] Wikipedia 2007, Wikimedia Foundation, Inc, United States of America,

viewed on 18 September, 2007, <h p://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C141_Starli er>.

[6] Tom Benson 2007, National Aeronautics and Space Administration,

Cleveland, viewed on 21 September, 2007, <h p://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/K

12/airplane/sound.html>.
8. Appendix A

Take off Sizing


0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5
CLmaxto=1.8
0.4 CLmaxto=1.9
CLmaxto=2
0.3
CLmaxto=2.2
0.2

0.1

0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140

Landing Sizing
0.6

0.5

0.4

CLmaxL=1.8
0.3
CLmaxL=2.2
0.2 CLmaxL=2.6

0.1

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
cruise
0.35

0.3

0.25

0.2

0.15 cruise

0.1

0.05

0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140

0.3

0.25

0.2
Take-off Climb flaps
Take-off Climb gear down
0.15
Balked Landing

0.1 Balked Landing


Take-off Climb gear up, flap up
0.05

0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
Matching Chart
0.8

0.7

0.6 CLmaxto=1.8
CLmaxto=1.9

0.5 CLmaxto=2
CLmaxto=2.2
CLmaxL=2.6
0.4
CLmaxL=2.2
CLmaxL=1.8
0.3
cruise
Balked Landing
0.2 Take-off Climb flaps
Take-off Climb gear up, flap up
0.1

0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140