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MODULE-11A

Analytic functions, Cauchy’s integral theorem

________________________________________________________________

**Complex number: A number of the form x+iy, where x and y are real numbers and i =√
**

is called a complex number.

**Every complex number x+iy can be expressed in the from r(cosѲ+isinѲ) where
**

r=√ = .

**Complex plane: The complex number x+iy can be represented in x-y plane on a point (x,y).
**

The x-coordinate is called real axis and y-coordinate is called imaginary axis. This is called

complex plane.

**Complex conjugate number: The complex conjugate of a complex number z=(x+iy)is
**

defined by ̅= x-iy.

Demoiure’s theorem: [r(cos +isin )]ⁿ = rⁿ.(cos +isin )

Roots:

**If Z=wⁿ (n=1,2,3,4,-------) then to each value of w there corresponds one value of Z. Each of
**

these values is called root of Z andwe write

w= √

√ = √ ( )

Where k=0,1,2,-------n-1.

**Complex function: If for each value of the complex variable Z=x+iy in a given region R, we
**

have one or more values of w=u+iv, then w is said to be a complex function of Z and we

write w=u(x,y)+iv(x,y)=f(Z)

Where u,v are real function of x and y

**If to each value of r , there corresponds one and only one value of w, then w is said to
**

be a single valued function of Z otherwise a multivalued function.

**JH ACADEMY Page 1
**

SUB: MATHEMATICS MODULE-11A

Exponential function of a complex variable.

=1+ where Z=x+iy

=1+ + +

=1+ - – + +

=( )+i( )

=cosθ + isinθ

z =x + iy = r(cosθ + i sinθ) = r.

is periodic function having imaginary period 2πi

= - =

sin z= cos z=

sinh x = sinhx=

sinh z and cosh z are periodic functions having imaginary period of 2

sinh(z+2πi)=

= = = sinh z

Sin ix= = = ( )

=i. =isinhx

Similarly

**JH ACADEMY Page 2
**

SUB: MATHEMATICS MODULE-11A

Limit of a complex function:

**A function w=f(z) is said to tend to limit l as z approaches a point , if for every real ε,we
**

can find a positive real δ such that

| |<ε for | |<δ

**This definition of limit though similar to that in ordinary calculus, is quite different for in real
**

calculus. x approaches only along the line where as here z approaches from any

direction in the Z-plane .

**Continue of f(z): A function w=f(z) is said to be continuous at z= if
**

.

**Further f(z) is said to be continuous in any region R of the z-plane, if it is continuous of every
**

point of that region.

Derivative of f(z).

**Let w=f(z) be a single valued function of the variable z=x+iy. Then the derivative of w=f(z)
**

is defined as =

Provided the limit exists and has the same value for all the different ways in which δz

approaches zero.

C-R Equations:

=

Since δz can approach zero any manner, we first assume δz to be real and then imaginary.

When δz is real then δy =0 and δz=δx.

=

When is imaginary then and

=

**JH ACADEMY Page 3
**

SUB: MATHEMATICS MODULE-11A

Now the existence of equating two cases

**Thus the necessary conditions for the existence of the derivative of is that the C-R
**

equation should be satisfied and it is sufficient also

**Analytic function: A function which is single valued and possesses a unique derivative
**

with respect to z at all points a reason R, is called as Analytic function of z in that region.

**A point at which Analytic function cases to a possesses a derivative is called a single point of
**

the function

Integral of around the unit circle

∮

We may represent the unit circle C in the from

**So that the counter clock wise integration corresponds to an increase of t from 0 to 2 . By
**

differentiation and with we get

∮ ∫

**Cauchy’s integral theorem: If is analytic in a simply connected domain D, then for
**

every simple closed path c in D

∮

This is sufficient condition rather than necessary because ∮ is not analytic at z=0

Cauchy’s theorem for multi-connected Domain

**JH ACADEMY Page 4
**

SUB: MATHEMATICS MODULE-11A

∮ ∮ ∮ ∮

Cauchy’s integral formula:

**Let be analytic in a single connected domain D .Then for any point in D and single
**

closed path c in D that enclose

∮

**JH ACADEMY Page 5
**

SUB: MATHEMATICS MODULE-11A

JH ACADEMY Page 6

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