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# SUB: MATHEMATICS MODULE-11A

MODULE-11A
Analytic functions, Cauchy’s integral theorem
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Complex number: A number of the form x+iy, where x and y are real numbers and i =√
is called a complex number.

Every complex number x+iy can be expressed in the from r(cosѲ+isinѲ) where
r=√ = .

Complex plane: The complex number x+iy can be represented in x-y plane on a point (x,y).
The x-coordinate is called real axis and y-coordinate is called imaginary axis. This is called
complex plane.

Complex conjugate number: The complex conjugate of a complex number z=(x+iy)is
defined by ̅= x-iy.

Demoiure’s theorem: [r(cos +isin )]ⁿ = rⁿ.(cos +isin )

Roots:

If Z=wⁿ (n=1,2,3,4,-------) then to each value of w there corresponds one value of Z. Each of
these values is called root of Z andwe write

w= √

√ = √ ( )

Where k=0,1,2,-------n-1.

Complex function: If for each value of the complex variable Z=x+iy in a given region R, we
have one or more values of w=u+iv, then w is said to be a complex function of Z and we
write w=u(x,y)+iv(x,y)=f(Z)

Where u,v are real function of x and y

If to each value of r , there corresponds one and only one value of w, then w is said to
be a single valued function of Z otherwise a multivalued function.

SUB: MATHEMATICS MODULE-11A

Exponential function of a complex variable.

=1+ where Z=x+iy

=1+ + +

=1+ - – + +

=( )+i( )

=cosθ + isinθ

z =x + iy = r(cosθ + i sinθ) = r.

is periodic function having imaginary period 2πi

= - =

sin z= cos z=

sinh x = sinhx=

sinh z and cosh z are periodic functions having imaginary period of 2

sinh(z+2πi)=

= = = sinh z

Sin ix= = = ( )

=i. =isinhx

Similarly

SUB: MATHEMATICS MODULE-11A

Limit of a complex function:

A function w=f(z) is said to tend to limit l as z approaches a point , if for every real ε,we
can find a positive real δ such that

| |<ε for | |<δ

This definition of limit though similar to that in ordinary calculus, is quite different for in real
calculus. x approaches only along the line where as here z approaches from any
direction in the Z-plane .

Continue of f(z): A function w=f(z) is said to be continuous at z= if
.

Further f(z) is said to be continuous in any region R of the z-plane, if it is continuous of every
point of that region.

Derivative of f(z).

Let w=f(z) be a single valued function of the variable z=x+iy. Then the derivative of w=f(z)
is defined as =

Provided the limit exists and has the same value for all the different ways in which δz
approaches zero.

C-R Equations:

=

Since δz can approach zero any manner, we first assume δz to be real and then imaginary.

When δz is real then δy =0 and δz=δx.

=

When is imaginary then and

=

SUB: MATHEMATICS MODULE-11A

Now the existence of equating two cases

Thus the necessary conditions for the existence of the derivative of is that the C-R
equation should be satisfied and it is sufficient also

Analytic function: A function which is single valued and possesses a unique derivative
with respect to z at all points a reason R, is called as Analytic function of z in that region.

A point at which Analytic function cases to a possesses a derivative is called a single point of
the function

Integral of around the unit circle

We may represent the unit circle C in the from

So that the counter clock wise integration corresponds to an increase of t from 0 to 2 . By
differentiation and with we get

∮ ∫

Cauchy’s integral theorem: If is analytic in a simply connected domain D, then for
every simple closed path c in D

This is sufficient condition rather than necessary because ∮ is not analytic at z=0

Cauchy’s theorem for multi-connected Domain