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EL E 431 Fall’09 Exam # 1 September 23, 2009 1

Instructions:

• Read these instructions carefully before you begin your solution.


• Create a sensible amount of space between yourself and your nearest neighbor, and clear your desk
area of everything but your paper, your writing instruments, and your calculator.

• Read all questions of the exam and the formula sheet before you begin. The weight of each part of
each question is given explicitly.
• This exam is closed book, closed notes. If you have a question, you may ask the instructor.

• You are allowed up to 50 minutes to complete the exam. Turn in your solution when requested to do
so.

• Do not write on the backs of pages. Any work appearing on the back of a page will not be graded.
Paper is available from the proctor.

• Start the solution of each problem on a new page. When you assemble your exam to turn it in, put
the problems in order, that is, first problem 1, then problem 2, etc. Problem solutions beginning in
the middle of a page containing a different problem will not be graded. That is, you will earn a zero
for all parts of that problem.

• You must provide complete arguments leading to your conclusions; you cannot simply state answers
without justification.

• Write and sign the following statement on the back of the last page of your exam: “On my honor, I
pledge that I have neither given nor received any assistance on this exam.”
EL E 431 Fall’09 Exam # 1 September 23, 2009 2

1. Figure 1 shows a block diagram of a mechanical system.

x y

b1
b2 F (t)
k1 M1 M2

b3
b4

Figure 1: A mechanical translational system.

(a) (10 points) Draw free body diagrams for each of the masses. Bearing in mind that the force due
to spring is proportional to its length and the force due to friction is proportional to velocity,
label each of the forces acting upon each body.
(b) (10 points) Develop the dynamical equations for the system.

2. Figure 2 shows a block diagram for a closed loop control system.


R(s) +
E(s) U (s) Z(s) Y (s)
+
Σ 1 Σ 1
s s
- -

Figure 2: A closed loop control system.

(a) (10 points) By directly reading the block diagram,


i. write an expression for Y (s) in terms of Z(s).
ii. write an expression for Z(s) in terms of U (s) and Y (s) and the system constants.
iii. Substitute the expression for Z(s) of part 2(a)ii into the result of part 2(a)i and solve to
obtain Y (s) in terms of U (s).
(b) (10 points) By directly reading the block diagram,
i. write an expression for U (s) in terms of E(s).
ii. write an expression for E(s) in terms of R(s) and Y (s) and the system constants.
iii. Substitute the expression for E(s) of part 2(b)ii into the result of part 2(b)i to obtain U (s)
in terms of R(s) and Y (s).
iv. Substitute the expression for U (s) of part 2(b)iv into the result of part 2(a)i and solve to
obtain Y (s) in terms of R(s).
EL E 431 Fall’09 Exam # 1 September 23, 2009 3

3. (10 points) The following equations are dynamical equations for a circuit containing an electic motor:

Va (s) = (La s + Ra )Ia (s) + Ke s Θm (s) (1)


0 = −Kt Ia (s) + (Jm s2 + b s)Θm (s) (2)

Using (1) and (2) solve for the transfer function from Va (s) to Θ(s); that is solve for
Θ(s)
T (s) = .
Va (s)

4. Figure 3 shows a block diagram of a circuit involving operational amplifiers.


C

+
vin +
vout
- -

Figure 3: Circuit diagram involving operational amplifier.

(a) (10 points) Label the polarities of the resistor and capacitor in Figure 3 and then use KCL, KVL,
and the physics equations for circuit elements to determine the dynamical equations that relate
vout (t) to vin (t), R, and C.
(b) (10 points) Assuming that a driver of the form vin (t) = Vin (s)est would yield an output voltage
of the form vout (t) = Vout (s)est , use the result of the previous part of this problem to find the
transfer function for the circuit, T (s), which is the ratio of Vout (s) to Vin (s).
5. Suppose we are given two complex numbers, a and b, which can be written in the forms
a = ar + jai and b = br + jbi ,
where the subscript r denotes the real part and the subscript i denotes the imaginary part of a number.
(a) (5 points) Plot the point a = −3 + j5 on the complex plane.
(b) (5 points) Describe how you would find the magnitude, |a| and the angle of a, 6 a. Find the
magnitude and the angle of a for the special case a = −3 + j5.
(c) (5 points) Given the individual magnitudes and angles of a and b, describe how you would find
the magnitude and the angle of the product of a and b. Find the magnitude and the angle of the
product for the special case a = −3 + j5 and b = 5 − j3.
(d) (5 points) Given the individual magnitudes and angles of a and b, describe how you would find
the magnitude and the angle of the quotient of a/b. Find the magnitude and the angle of the
quotient for the special case a = −3 + j5 and b = 5 − j3.
(e) (5 points) Describe how you would find the square root of a in general. Find the square root of
a for the special case a = −3 + j5.
(f) (5 points) Describe how you would find the cube root of a in general. Find the cube root of a for
the special case a = −3 + j5.
EL E 431 Fall’09 Exam # 1 September 23, 2009 4

Formula and Fact Sheet

1. Newton’s law: F = ma. The vector sum of the forces acting upon a body is equal to the mass of the
body multiplied by its acceleration.

2. Forces due to friction and viscous damping are proportional to velocity.


3. Forces due to springs are proportional to the amount the spring has stretched or compressed.
2
4. Magnitude of a complex number. If c is a complex number, then |c| = c∗ c, where ∗
denotes the
complex conjugate.
5. Argument of a complex number. If c is a complex number, then
 
Im[c]
arg (c) = arctan ,
Re[c]

where Re[c] and Im[c] denote the real and imaginary parts of c, respectively.