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: Antibiotic, Antituberculotic (first line)
MOA Indication/Dosage > Inhibits DNAdependent RNA polymerase activity in susceptible bacterial cells. Treatment of Pulmonary TB in conjunction with at least one other effective antituberculotic. Neisseria meningitidis carrie rs, for asymptomatic carriers to eliminate meningococci from nasopharynx; not for treatment of meningitis. Unlabeled uses: Infections ca used by Staphylococcus aureus and Staphy lococcus epidermis, usually in combination therapy; gramnegative
Contraindicati on Hypersensitivi ty, liver disease and kidney disease, pregnancy, breast-feeding (optional waiver of breastfeeding).
Adverse effects Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, loss of appetite, headache, arthralgia, necrosis impaired vision, lakopenia, menstrual irregularities, urticaria, swelling Kwinke and other allergic manifestations .
Nursing responsibilit y Administer on an empty stomach, 1 hr before or 2 hr after meals. Administer in a single daily dose. Consult pharmacist for rifamoin suspension for patients unable to swallow capsules. Prepare patient for the reddishorange coloring of body fluids (urine, sweat,
advise patients not to wear them during therapy. and ophthal mologic examina tions. CBC. Legionella pneumophilia. lepr osy (in combination with dapsone). feces. soft contact lenses may be permanentl y stained. • Warning: arrange for follow-up visits for liver and renal function tests. saliva). not responsive to erythromycin. prophyl axis of meningitis caused by Haemophilis influenzae. tears. sputum.bacteremia in infancy. .
Give in a single daily dose. previous isoniazidassociated hepatic injury. including druginduced hepatitis. and within caseous Tuberculosis of Contraindicati on Isoniazid is contraindicated in patients who develop severe hypersensitivity reactions. Stomach pains or tendern ess. Skin rash. Dec. Fever. foods containing tyramine or histamine . and acute liver disease of any etiology. The active form inhibits the synthesis of mycolic acid in the mycobacteria l cell wall. Unusual bleeding or bruising. severe adverse reactions to isoniazid such as drug fever. Vision problem s. Numbness or tingling in the hands and feet. chills. may be given with food if GI UPSET OCCURS. Nursing responsibility • all forms Prophylaxis in specific patients who are tuberculin reactors (positive Mantoux test)) or who are considered to be high risk for TB. cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). arthritis. Isoniazid reaches therapeutic concentration s in serum. Reverse parenteral dose for pt unable to take oral meds. • • Give in an empty stomach 1 hr before or 2 after meals. Swollen glands. Eye pain. Adverse effects Diarrhea.Generic/Trade name/Classific ation GENERIC NAME: Isoniazid Trade Name: Niazid Classification: Anti-TB agent MOA Indication Isoniazid is a prodrug and must be activated by bacterial catalase. Sore throat.
the half-life is bimodal with peaks at 1 hour and 3 hours in the US population. There are two forms of the enzyme responsible for acetylation. The in pt diet. so that some patients metabolize the drug quicker than others. . Isoniazid is metabolized in the liver via acetylation. Hence.granulomas.
for infection appetite (appearance upset of wounds. Doses do not usually have to be adjusted in case of renal failure. . Isoniazid is bactericidal to rapidly-dividing mycobacteria.metabolites are excreted in the urine. but is bacteriostatic if the mycobacterium is slow-growing. Generic/Trade name/Classific ation GENERIC NAME: Ethambutol Trade Name: MOA Indication Ethambutol is bacteriostatic against actively growing TB Ethambutol are indicated for the treatment of pulmonary Contraindicati on Contraindicated in patients who are known to be hypersensitive to Adverse effects • • Nursing responsibility loss of assess pt.
• • • stomach vomiting numbness and tingling in the hands or fee optic neuritis– blurring of vision sputum. Disruption of the arabinogalactan synthesis inhibits the formation of this complex and leads to increased permeability of the cell wall. It is also contraindicated in patients with known optic neuritis unless clinical judgment determines that it may be used. considerations of comparative safety and appropriate in vitro susceptibility studies this drug. It should not be used as the sole antituberculous drug. tuberculosis. Take drug as indicated. Selection of the companion drug should be based on clinical experience.) at the beginning and during therapy • Obtain specimens before initiating therapy. • Not to be given to children 6 years below due to optic neuritis Provide supplemental vita min A. urine and WBC.Myambutol. Servambutol Classification: Antituberculotic bacilli. VS. but should be used in conjunction with at least one other antituberculous drug. It disrupts arabinogalactan synthesis by inhibiting the enzyme arabinosyl transferase. it works by obstructing the formation of cell wall. if not contraindicated . Mycolic acids attach to the 5′-hydroxyl groups of Darabinose residues of arabinogalactan and form mycolylarabinogalactanpeptidoglycan complex in the cell wall.
Misellaneous: Paresthes ia of face. Adverse effects Nursing responsibility Inhibiting protein synthesis in bacterial cell. vomiting. cell death Dermatologic: rash. hemolytic anemia. ultimately. • Instruct patient to immediately report the following to health care provider: headache. which causes misreading of genetic code and. Contraindicati on Hypersensitivit y to aminoglycosid es or any components of the product. ringing in the . • Advise patient that medication will be prepared and administered by a health care provider in a health care setting • Review dosing schedule and prescribed length of therapy with patinet. EENT: vestibular otototxici ty like vomiting nausea and vertigo Genitourinary: Nephroto xicity Hematologic: Eosinophi lia.Generic/Trade name/Classific ation GENERIC NAME: Streptomycin Trade Name: Streptomycin Sulfate Classification: Antituberculosis agent MOA Indication Treatment of moderate to severe infections caused by susceptible strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and nontuberculosi s infections. fever. urticaria. nausea. leucopeni a. exfoliativ e dermatiti s.
vertigo. itching. ears. anaphyla xis muscular treatmen t. dizziness. rush . roaring noises. sense of fullness in ears. hearing loss.angioneu rotic edema.