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Chapter 16 Section 3- Struggle for North America

How was New France created?


• French ships were going to Newfoundland, Canada, and other places to
harvest each year
• Distracted by war at home, paid little attention to Canada or New France
• In 1608 Samuel de Champlain built first permanent settlement in Quebec-
Jesuits and missionaries follow- advanced into wilderness converting NA to
Christianity

Why was there a slow growth?


• Help of NA allies- fur traders traveled inland and claim territory
• Population of New France grew slowly- wealthy landowners own tracts along
St. Lawrence River- sought settlers to farm land-harsh climate attract few
peasants
• Most abandon farming and go to fur trading/trapping- hard life in wilderness
but European demand for fur ensured good prices
• Learned survival and trapping skills from NA-many marry NA women
• Fishing supported settlers in coastal villages and exported cod and other fish
to Europe

What was the government’s policy in the colonies?


• Louis XIV want strengthen royal power and boost tax revenues overseas-
appoint officials to oversee justice and economic activity in New France-send
settles and soldiers to North America- pay for unmarried women to go to New
France to find husbands-help build new communities
• Louis was Catholic so prevent Protestants from going to New France
• French forts, missions and trading posts from Quebec to Louisiana but
population of New France was less than 13 British colonies
What were the 13 English Colonies and how did they form?
• First permanent settlement in Jamestown, VA- at first it was a disaster-
starvation and disease-the rest survived with help of NA- improve when
settlers start to grow and export tobacco- learned about from NA
• Pilgrims in Plymouth, MA for religious freedom- signed the Mayflower
Compact=guidelines for governing the colony-today seen as step towards
self-govt.
• Many pilgrims die at first-NA help grow corn and how to survive- new wave of
Puritan immigrants- establish MA Bay Colony
How was there growth in the colonies?
• Other groups found colonies- for commercial ventures, organized for profit-
some set up for persecuted religious groups
• Geographic conditions shape the way of life in New England, middle and
southern colonies
• New England- many were farmers who transferred to North America village
life of England
• In South- plantation economy
• Needed workers to clear land and raise crops-growing number of Africans
were brought to land and sold as slaves- in mainland colonies enslaved
Africans and descendants outnumber Europeans
What was the government like in the colonies?
• English monarchs have control over the colonies- royal governors to oversee
colonial affairs- Parliament pass laws for colonial trade
• Enjoy self-govt.-more than Spain/France colonies-own representative
assembly elected by propertied men-advise royal governor and made local
decisions
• Consult representative assemblies grew out of English experience
• Parliament important role in English affairs
• English citizens gain certain legal and political rights-colonists expect same
rights
• Colonists later protest British policies in North America-saw themselves as
“freeborn Englishmen” defending traditional rights
How were they caught up in global power struggles?
• Countries competing for trade and colonies in the world
• Spain, France, England, Netherlands- colonies in N. America where fought for
land
• After many battles- England seize Dutch colony of New Netherlands-named in
NY- English in Georgia clash with Spanish in FL
• Competition in Caribbean region- Dutch brought sugar production from Brazil-
make big business
• French in Haiti-richest sugar colony
• English in Barbados and Jamaica
• Colonies worked by slaves-more sugar than Brazil-surpass all of N. America in
exports
What caused the British-French rivalry?
• Rivals for power around the globe- Seven Years War spread to many areas of
world also called French and Indian War
• France more territory in N. America but English have more people- English
were spreading to land owned by France- French try to fight them
• British and colonial troops launch campaigns in CA and Ohio frontier- capture
Quebec and Montreal- British won control of CA in end
How was the peace treaty formed?
• Treaty of Paris end the war- French ceded CA and its lands of E. Mississippi to
Britain-force French out of India- but French regain sugar islands in Caribbean
and slave trading outposts in Africa that Britain seized
• Peace treaty ensure British dominance in N. America- many French remain in
CA and Louisiana- French culture shape both areas today
How did everything impact the Native Americans?
• Big impact on NA-some trade of formed alliances with newcomers- arrival of
horse transformed buffalo-hunting NA
• Many clashes erupt-when settlers claim more land, NA resist their advance-
bitter fighting result
• In end English always win-Indians slowly keep moving westward as more
newcomers arrive
How was disease spread?
• NA population decrease –disease weaken and kill many
• In New England disease brought by European fishing fleets kill many NA
villages even before settlers arrive
What legacy did NA leave?
• Encounters with Europeans brought NA disaster- NA way of life helped shape
new N American culture- adopt NA technologies-learn grow corn, beans,
squash, tomatoes, hunt and trap
• Some adopt NA clothing
• Trails of NA became highways for settlers moving west
• Different rivers/mountains have NA names
• Some Europeans respect NA medical knowledge-stress respect for natural
environment