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All content following this page was uploaded by Hans Milos Toquica Cáceres on 11 October 2017.

E NGINEERING FACULTY

M ECHANICS AND M ECHATRONICS D EPARTMENT

ROBOTICS AND V ISUAL S ERVOING

Toquica Cáceres Hans Milos, hmtoquicac@unal.edu.coζ

October 11, 2017

This workshop was typeset using the LATEX typesetting system originally developed by Leslie Lamport, based on TEX created by

Donald Knuth.

several devices, allowing robots to interact with each other

through the usage of several systems working interconnected. 1) Make a basic model of the Kobuki robot for the Gazebo

In this workshop, a brief ROS script is implemented in order simulator, based on its dimensions and calculations.

to key-operate a Kobuki robot simulated in Gazebo. 2) Create a Gazebo plugin in order to control the robot

Index Terms—Kobuki, Robotino, Kinematics Modeling, from a computer keyboard. The ROS node must contain

ROS, Gazebo a stop button, motion keys (forward, backward, right

and left), exit button (from the node), a topic containing

I. I NTRODUCTION the linear and angular velocities. Take into account

the maximum linear speed is 1m/s and the maximum

T HE world of robotics, specially in the Industry 4.0 era

is aimed for interconnection in order to develop a single

task among several systems. In this document a script is

angular speed is 180deg/s.

simulated robot in the same computer. A. Theoretical Component

Throughout this document, the reader will find the G OALS,

the W ORKSHOP D ESCRIPTION, the W ORKSHOP D EVELOPMENT, 1) Let XI and YI be the inertial reference system, and

the C ONCLUSIONS AND D ISCUSSION and lastly, the R EFER - XR and YR be the local (robot) reference system, then

ENCES, in case the reader would like to deepen in any

the robot pose can be describe as

subject. x

ξI = y ,

II. G OALS

θ

• Develop terrestrial mobile robot analysis, description

and programming abilities. and a rotation matrix relating the local and inertial

• Understand the concepts related with kinematics mod- reference frames is

els and apply model development using the Gazebo

cos θ sin θ 0

simulator and the ROS framework.

R(θ) = − sin θ cos θ 0 ,

III. W ORKSHOP D ESCRIPTION 0 0 1

A. Theoretical Component then

1) Carry out the Kobuki mobile-robot kinematic descrip- ξ˙R = R(θ)ξ˙I . (*)

tion, include the description of the parameters r, l,

α and β. Additionally, describe the robot physical For forward motion, XR is positive, as shown in Fig.

dimensions, number and type of wheels it possess and 1, then the contribution of each wheel is

the wheels each wheel imposes on the robot motion

(J1 matrix). rϕ̇1

2) What would happen if parameter l is modified, letting X˙R1 = ,

2

l1 = l22 ? How does one modifies the contribution of ˙ rϕ̇2

XR2 = ,

each wheel so that the robot has pure linear motion 2

(v = V , ω = 0)? How are they compensated in order Y˙R = 0 ,

to have pure rotational motion (v = 0, ω = W )? rϕ̇1

3) Make the kinematic description of the mobile robot ωR1 = ,

2l

Robotino, according to the first item. rϕ̇2

ωR2 = − ,

ζ Mechatronics Engineering Student. 2l

1

E NGINEERING FACULTY

M ECHANICS AND M ECHATRONICS D EPARTMENT

ROBOTICS AND V ISUAL S ERVOING

" #

cos(αl + βl ) sin(αl + βl ) l sin βl

C1 = ,

cos(αr + βr ) sin(αr + βr ) l sin βr

replacing αl , βl , αr and βr , it is obtained

" #

0 1 0

C1 = .

0 1 0

Also let

" #

→

− ϕl

ϕ = .

ϕr

Now, recalling that

J2 →

−

" # " #

J1 ϕ

˙

R(θ)ξI = →− ,

C1 0

−

→

Fig. 1: Reference system and parameters for kobuki analysis with replacing J1 , J2 , J2 and C1

P in the center.[1]

" #

1 0 −l

rl 0 →−

1 ϕ

0 l 0

rr

so that R(θ)ξ˙I = ,

rϕ̇1 +rϕ̇2

2

0 1 0 0

ξ˙I = R(θ)−1 0 , 0 1 0 0

r ϕ̇1 −r ϕ̇2

2l where the two last rows are redundant, and can be

also note that reduced to one, as follows

− sin θ

" #

cos θ 0 1 0 −l rl 0 → −

ϕ

R(θ)−1 = sin θ cos θ 0 . (1) 1 0 l R(θ)ξ˙I = 0 r .

(2)

r

0 0 1 0 1 0 0

The rolling restriction for the fixed standard wheels In order to obtain the velocity in the inertial refer-

makes the rolling restriction matrix be (the fixed stan- ence system, the J1 -C1 matrix needs to be inverted,

dard wheels non-motorized are dismissed because their multiplication shall be performed between the inverted

friction on the surface is taken as negligible, they don’t matrix and the expression obtained. This same process

contribute to J1 , J2 nor C1 ) is performed with the R(θ) matrix.

The inverse of the J1 -C1 matrix can be obtained by

means of using the Gauss-Jordan process as follows

" #

sin(αl + βl ) − cos(αl + βl ) −l cos βl

J1 = ,

sin(αr + βr ) − cos(αr + βr ) −l cos βr

1 0 −l 1 0 0

for the Kobuki robot, αl = π/2, βl = 0, αr = −π/2 1 0

l 0 ,

0 1

and βr = π, evaluating in the J1 matrix

0 1 0 0 0 1

" # 1 0 −l 1 0 0

1 0 −l −1 1

J1 = . 0 0 l 0 ,

2 2

1 0 l

0 1 0 0 0 1

On the other hand, the constant diagonal matrix

1 1

0 0 2 1

0

" # 2

rl 0 0

1 0 0 0 1 ,

J2 = .

0 rr 0 0 1 −1

2l

1

2l 0

2

E NGINEERING FACULTY

M ECHANICS AND M ECHATRONICS D EPARTMENT

ROBOTICS AND V ISUAL S ERVOING

1 1

2 2 0 " →−

# ϕr = ϕl = ϕw .

J2 ϕ

ξ˙I = R(θ)−1 0 0 1 ,

0 For a linear speed v = V

−1 1

2l 2l 0

V = rw ϕw ,

R(θ)−1 comes from (1)

then the needed wheel speed in radians is

1 1

cos θ − sin θ 0 2 2 0 " →−

# V

J2 ϕ ϕw = ϕl = ϕr = .

˙ξI =

sin θ cos θ 0 0

0 1 , rw

−1 1

0

0 0 1 2l 2l 0 On the other hand, for angular motion only (v = 0)

computing the first two matrices rl ϕl rr ϕr

0= + ,

2 2

cos θ cos θ

" # rl ϕl = −rr ϕr ,

2 2 − sin θ rl 0 →−

ϕ

ξ˙I = letting rr = rl = rw

sin θ sin θ

cos θ 0 ;

2 2 rr

−1 1

2l 2l 0 0 −ϕl = ϕr = ϕw .

taking into account that

For an angular speed θ̇ = ω

rw ϕw

ω= ,

ẋ

l

˙ξI =

ẏ ,

then the needed wheel speed in radians is

θ̇

ωl

so ϕw = ,

rw

ωl

cos θ cos θ ϕr = ,

ẋ = rl ϕl + rr ϕr , rw

2 2 −ωl

sin θ sin θ ϕl = .

ẏ = rl ϕl + rr ϕr , rw

2 2

−rl ϕl rr ϕr ll

2) If lr = 2, as shown in Fig. 2, J1 matrix changes

θ̇ = + .

2l 2l

The speed can be calculatedp with its components, by

" #

1 0 −ll

the simple relation v = ẋ2 + ẏ 2 , whose calculation J1 = ll

,

is 1 0 2

then

v 1 0 −ll

J2 →

−

u 2 2 " #

u rl ϕl cos2 θ rr2 ϕ2r cos2 θ 2 cos2 θrl ϕl rr ϕr ϕ

u + + + 1

0 ll ˙

R(θ)ξI = , (3)

4 4 4 2

v=u

u

, 0

2 2 2

t rl2 ϕ2l sin θ rr2 ϕ2r sin θ 2 sin θrl ϕl rr ϕr 0 1 0

+ +

4 4 4 calculating the inverse of the J1 -C1 matrix

so

1 0 −l 1 0 0

1p

v= (rl ϕl + rr ϕr )2 , 1 0 l2l 0 1 0 ,

2

rl ϕl + rr ϕr 0 1 0 0 0 1

v= ,

2

1 0 −ll 1 0 0

−rl ϕl rr ϕr −2 2

θ̇ = + . 0 0 ll

0 ,

2l 2l 3 3

0 1 0 0 0 1

For linear motion only (θ̇ = 0)

1 0 0 13 2

0

−rl ϕl rr ϕr 3

0= + , 0 1 0 0 0 1 ,

2l 2l

−2 2

rr ϕr = rl ϕl , 0 0 1 3ll 3ll 0

3

E NGINEERING FACULTY

M ECHANICS AND M ECHATRONICS D EPARTMENT

ROBOTICS AND V ISUAL S ERVOING

p with its components, by

the simple relation v = ẋ2 + ẏ 2 , whose calculation

is

v

u 2 2

u rl ϕl cos2 θ 4rr2 ϕ2r cos2 θ 4 cos2 θrl ϕl rr ϕr

u + + +

v=u

u 9 9 9 ,

2 2 2 2 2 2 2

t rl ϕl sin θ 4rr ϕr sin θ 4 sin θrl ϕl rr ϕr

+ +

9 9 9

so

1p

v= (rl ϕl + 2rr ϕr )2 ,

3

rl ϕl + 2rr ϕr

v= ,

3

−2rl ϕl 2rr ϕr

θ̇ = + .

3ll 3ll

For linear motion only (θ̇ = 0)

−2rl ϕl 2rr ϕr

0= + ,

3l 3l

Fig. 2: Reference system and parameters for kobuki analysis with rr ϕr = rl ϕl ,

ll = 2lr .[1]

letting rr = rl = rw

ϕr = ϕl = ϕw .

then (3) becomes

1 2

0 " → For a linear speed v = V

J2 −

3 3

#

ϕ

ξ˙I = R(θ)−1 0 0 1 , V = rw ϕw ,

−2 2 0

3ll 3ll 0

then the needed wheel speed in radians is

−1

using R(θ) from (*) V

1 2

ϕw = ϕl = ϕr = .

cos θ − sin θ 0 0 " → rw

J2 −

3 3

#

ϕ

ξ˙I = sin θ cos θ 0 0 0 1 , On the other hand, for angular motion only (v = 0)

−2 2 0

0 0 1 3ll 3ll 0 rl ϕl 2rr ϕr

0= + ,

computing the first two matrices 3 3

cos θ 2 cos θ " # rl ϕl = −2rr ϕr ,

− sin θ rl 0 →

3 3 −

ϕ

˙ξI = sin θ 2 sin θ

cos θ 0

rr ; letting rr = rl = rw

3 3

−2 2

3ll 3ll 0 0 ϕl = −2ϕr = ϕw .

taking into account that For an angular speed θ̇ = ω

2rw ϕw

ẋ ω= ,

l

ξ˙I = ẏ ,

then the needed wheel speed in radians is

θ̇

ωl

so ϕw = ,

2rw

cos θ 2 cos θ

ẋ = rl ϕl + rr ϕr , ωl

3 3 ϕr = ,

sin θ 2 sin θ 2rw

ẏ = rl ϕl + rr ϕr , −ωl

3 3 ϕl = .

−2rl ϕl 2rr ϕr rw

θ̇ = + .

3l 3l 3) In order to make the analysis, it is important to define

4

E NGINEERING FACULTY

M ECHANICS AND M ECHATRONICS D EPARTMENT

ROBOTICS AND V ISUAL S ERVOING

recall that

J2 →

−

" # " #

J1 ϕ

R(θ)ξ˙I = →− ,

C1 0

then

√

3 −1

2 2 −l

0 1 −l R(θ)ξ˙I = [J2 →

−

ϕ] ,

√

− 3 −1

2 2 −l

√

3 −1

2 2 −l 1 0 0

0 1 −l 0 1 0 ,

√

− 3 −1

2 2 −l 0 0 1

√

3 0 −3l 2 1 0

0 −1 −l 0 1 0 ,

−1 −1 −1

0 0 l 3 3 3

Fig. 3: Reference system and parameters for robotino analysis with −1

√1

P in the center.[2] 1 0 0 3

0 √

3

−1 2 −1

0 1 0 ,

3 3 3

−1 −1 −1

0 0 1 3l 3l 3l

it can be defined

π √1

0 −1

√

α1 = , 3 3

3 →

−

ξ˙I = R(θ)−1 −1 2 −1

3 J2 ϕ ,

α2 = π , 3 3

−1 −1 −1

−π 3l 3l 3l

α3 = ,

3

β1 = 0 , using R(θ)−1 from (*)

β2 = 0 , −1

1

cos θ − sin θ 0 √

3

0 √

3

β3 = 0 , ˙ξI = −1 2 −1 →

−

sin θ cos θ 0 3 3 3 J2 ϕ ,

γ1 = 0 , 0 0 1 −1 −1 −1

3l 3l 3l

γ2 = 0 ,

γ3 = 0 , computing the first two matrices

cos θ sin θ −2 sin θ −√

cos θ

+ sin3 θ

√ +

3 3 3 3

according to Fig. 3, then ξ˙I = sin

√ θ − cos θ 2 cos θ −√

sin θ

− cos3 θ

3 3 3 3

−1 −1 −1

√ 3l 3l 3l

3 −1

−l

2 2 r1 0 0

0→

J1 = 0

1 −l ,

−

0 r2 ϕ ;

√

− 3 −1

2 2 −l 0 0 r3

C1 = ∅ ,

taking into account that

r1 0 0

J2 = 0

r2 0 ,

ẋ

0 0 r3 ξ˙I = ẏ ,

→

−ϕ = [ϕ

0

1 , ϕ2 , ϕ3 ] , θ̇

5

E NGINEERING FACULTY

M ECHANICS AND M ECHATRONICS D EPARTMENT

ROBOTICS AND V ISUAL S ERVOING

then R EFERENCES

cos θ sin θ 2 sin θ [1] Index of /kobuki/hardware/drawings/pdf, Kobuki File-

ẋ = √ + r1 ϕ1 − r2 ϕ2

3 3 3 Server. [Online]. Available: http : / / files . yujinrobot .

− cos θ sin θ

com / kobuki / hardware / drawings / pdf/ (visited on

+ √ + r3 ϕ3 , 10/09/2017).

3

3 [2] Robotino myrio toolkit, Robotino Wiki. [Online].

sin θ cos θ 2 cos θ

ẏ = √ − r1 ϕ1 + r2 ϕ2 Available: http : / / wiki . openrobotino . org / index .

3 3 3 php ? title = Robotino myRIO Toolkit (visited on

sin θ cos θ 10/09/2017).

− √ + r3 ϕ3 ,

3 3 [3] DanielStonier (d.stonier@gmail.com), Gazebo simula-

−r1 ϕ1 r2 ϕ2 r3 ϕ3 tion, ROS Wiki. [Online]. Available: http://wiki.ros.

θ̇ = − − .

3l 3l 3l org / kobuki / Tutorials / Gazebo % 20Simulation (visited

on 10/04/2017).

B. Practical Component

1) In order to make the workshop development correctly,

it was used the ROS kobuki model, instead of creating

one from scratch.

2) The process made in order to create the gazebo

plugin was by means of using the Gazebo Simulation

tutorial[3] , it was used the tabletop playground

for the process while running roslaunch

kobuki_keyop keyop.launch --screen

as a publisher, a sniffer, with rostopic echo

/mobile_base/commands/velocity allowed

identifying the keyop plugin modus operandi,

the type of data was retrieved with rostopic

type /mobile_base/commands/velocity,

forging information into the topic provided

confirmation of the message type and proper

operation upon the corresponding injection,

this was done with rostopic pub -1

/mobile_base/commands/velocity

geometry_msgs/Twist --’[2.0, 0.0,

0.0]’ ’[0.0, 0.0, 1.8]’.

The synthesized code is shown in

Code 1. In order to use it, it should

be ran roslaunch kobuki_gazebo

kobuki_playground.launch --screen

and (after running catkin_make and sourcing

with catkin) rosrun beginner_tutorials

myKeyop.py.

It is important to take into account the physical limitations

of the robot when doing a model.

Gazebo simulates physics in its models, in this case,

the wheels seem to slide a bit according to the model,

ergo applying the same rotations and translations in reverse

doesn’t provide the same initial state.

6

E NGINEERING FACULTY

M ECHANICS AND M ECHATRONICS D EPARTMENT

ROBOTICS AND V ISUAL S ERVOING

Code 1: myKeyOp.py

#!/usr/bin/env python

import rospy

import curses

from geometry_msgs.msg import Twist

def main(win):

pub = rospy.Publisher(’/mobile_base/commands/velocity’, Twist, queue_size=10)

rospy.init_node(’HansKeyOp’, anonymous=True)

rate = rospy.Rate(10)

global cmd

win.nodelay(True)

key=""

win.clear()

win.scrollok(1)

win.addstr("Kobuki keyoperation:\n\n")

win.addstr("Press P to stop the robot\n")

win.addstr("Press A to spin to the left\n")

win.addstr("Press D to spin to the right\n")

win.addstr("Press W to move forward\n")

win.addstr("Press S to move backwards\n")

win.addstr("Press Q to quit KeyOp\n")

while not rospy.is_shutdown():

try:

key = str(win.getkey())

processKey(win, key)

print cmd

if key == os.linesep:

break

except Exception as e:

# No input

pass

pub.publish(cmd)

rate.sleep()

global cmd

win.addstr("Detected key:")

win.addstr(key)

win.addstr("\n")

if key == ’p’ or key == ’P’:

stop(win)

elif key == ’q’ or key == ’Q’:

quit(win)

elif key == ’a’ or key == ’A’ or key == ’d’ or key == ’D’:

changingAngular(win, key)

elif key == ’w’ or key == ’W’ or key == ’s’ or key == ’S’:

changingLinear(win, key)

def stop(win):

global cmd

win.addstr("Robot is stopping now\n")

cmd.linear.x = 0.0

cmd.angular.z = 0.0

def quit(win):

win.addstr("Exiting node\n")

rospy.signal_shutdown("Manual shutdown")

global cmd

win.addstr("Changing angular speed\n")

if key == ’a’ or key == ’A’:

cmd.angular.z = cmd.angular.z + angularStep

if cmd.angular.z > 180:

cmd.angular.z = 180.0

elif key == ’d’ or key == ’D’:

cmd.angular.z = cmd.angular.z - angularStep

if cmd.angular.z < -180:

7

E NGINEERING FACULTY

M ECHANICS AND M ECHATRONICS D EPARTMENT

ROBOTICS AND V ISUAL S ERVOING

cmd.angular.z = -180.0

def changingLinear(win, key):

global cmd

win.addstr("Changing linear speed\n")

if key == ’w’ or key == ’W’:

cmd.linear.x = cmd.linear.x + linearStep

if cmd.linear.x > 1:

cmd.linear.x = 1.0

elif key == ’s’ or key == ’S’:

cmd.linear.x = cmd.linear.x - linearStep

if cmd.linear.x < -1:

cmd.linear.x = -1.0

cmd = Twist()

cmd.linear.x = 0.0

cmd.linear.y = 0.0

cmd.linear.z = 0.0

cmd.angular.x = 0.0

cmd.angular.y = 0.0

cmd.angular.z = 0.0

linearStep = 0.2

angularStep = 36

curses.wrapper(main)

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