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Improved Calculation of Diffuser

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9 References 6 Figures

Moshe Tarnopolsky

4.1 · Technion - Israel Institute of Technology

Abstract

Experimental data and computational results are compared for a pressure-driven separation in a turbulent boundary layer in short diffusers. The

ow conditions in diffusers with larger divergence angles can be greatly improved, and the resistance lowered, by preventing ow separation within

them or by attenuation vortex formation.The comparison includes main measures that improve ow conditions in the diffuser: use of curvilinear and

stepped walls, and boundary-layer suction. This paper outlines a semi-empirical method for calculating the velocity and temperature elds in

diffusers. The method takes into consideration the interaction between the various jets in the diffuser, the boundaries of the diffuser and the exhaust

ow by adding the momentum ux of all jets at each point and later correcting the velocity elds for deviations from the equation of continuity.

Similarly, the temperature eld is calculated so that the heat balance equation is preserved. The effect of the walls is calculated by the mirror

method. Boundary layer suction is used to prevent laminar and turbulent separation by removing ow of low momentum to remove the boundary

layer. The method consists of operating a powered system to suck boundary layer ow from wall slots and superposes the ow in the diffuser and

the suction ow by adding the velocity components at each point and later correcting the velocity elds for deviations from the equations of

continuity and momentum ux. The results of the calculations are shown to be in good agreement with measurements in scaled models. This paper

compares calculations with computer modeling using computational uid dynamics (CFD) Fluent.

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Figures

+2

Diffuser ow scheme. This Different means to improve Schematic description of the NASA Velocity vectors along symmetrical

phenomenon is known as bo… operation of diffusers. test section. boundary of the domain.

File (PDF)

Download full-text PDF

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M. Tarnopolsky, Ph.D.

Abstract

Experimental data and computational results are compared for a pressure-driven separation

in a turbulent boundary layer in short diffusers. The flow conditions in diffusers with larger

divergence angles can be greatly improved, and the resistance lowered, by preventing flow

separation within them or by attenuation vortex formation.The comparison includes main

measures that improve flow conditions in the diffuser: use of curvilinear and stepped walls,

and boundary-layer suction. This paper outlines a semi-empirical method for calculating

the velocity and temperature fields in diffusers. The method takes into consideration the

interaction between the various jets in the diffuser, the boundaries of the diffuser and the

exhaust flow by adding the momentum flux of all jets at each point and later correcting the

velocity fields for deviations from the equation of continuity. Similarly, the temperature

field is calculated so that the heat balance equation is preserved. The effect of the walls is

calculated by the mirror method. Boundary layer suction is used to prevent laminar and

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turbulent separation by removing flow of low momentum to remove the boundary layer.

The method consists of operating a powered system to suck boundary layer flow from wall

slots and superposes the flow in the diffuser and the suction flow by adding the velocity

components at each point and later correcting the velocity fields for deviations from the

equations of continuity and momentum flux. The results of the calculations are shown to

be in good agreement with measurements in scaled models. This paper compares

calculations with computer modeling using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) Fluent.

Introduction

An increasing crossection area of flow causes a velocity reduction (according to continuity)

and hence a pressure rise (according to the Bernoulli equation). Howevever an opening

angle of a diffuser increases the probability of boundary layer separation.

Fluid outside the boundary layer has enough momentum to overcome this pressure which is

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Dr. Moshe Tarnopolsky is with Department o f Civil and Environmental Engineering, Technion, Haifa, Israel

(tarm@tx.technion.ac.il)

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trying to push it backwards. The fluid within the boundary layer has so little momentum

that it will very quickly be brought to rest, and possibly reversed in direction. If this

reversal occurs it moves the boundary layer away from the wall surface as shown in Figure

1

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This phenomenon is known as boundary layer separation. At the separation point, where

the velocities change direction, a line of vortices (known as a vortex sheet) is generated.

This happens because fluid to either side is moving in the opposite direction. This boundary

layer separation and increase in turbulence because of the vortices results in very large

energy losses far more than in parallel or convergent flows. Our objective is to increase the

outlet crossection in order to slow down the fluid flow and gain enrergy. However we must

make sure that a boundary layer separation will not occur.

Boundary layer control includes all those methods that can be used to reduce the skin

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friction drag, by controlling the turbulent transition, the development of turbulent flows and

separation (laminar as well as turbulent), all phenomena occurring within the boundary

layer. Understanding the stability of the boundary layer is in fact of great importance for

the development of technology for skin friction drag reduction. Some technical methods for

diffuser boundary layer control, both powered and unpowered, are described below.

Early research efforts of basic flow-separation control were experiments conducted at the

NASA Langley Research Center Wind Tunnel (Schubauer, 1949). Numerous types of

passive flow-control devices were examined and compared for their separation-control

effectiveness. The most effective performance results for each device category were

summarized (Lin, 1999).

The main measures that improve flow conditions in the diffuser (Figure 2) include

boundary-layer suction (Figure 2a) and blowing (renewal) (Figure 2b), instalation of guide

vanes (baffles, Figure 2c) and dividing walls or splitters (over the whole length of the

diff t f it Fi

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diffusers or part of it, Figure 2d), use of curvilinear and preseparation diffusers (Figure 2e),

stepped walls (stepped diffusers, Figure 2f) (Idelchik, 1986).

With the use of boundary-layer suction (Figure 2a), the portion of the flow that separated

from the wall reattached to the surface with the result that the separation zone displaced

downstream, the flow becomes smoother, and the resistance diminished. The efficiency of

boundary-layer suction depends on the ratio of the flow rate of the medium aspirated

through the slots in the side walls of the diffuser (Gs) to the total flow rate of this medium

(G) through the diffuser (depends on the discharge coefficient Gr = G/Gs) and the relative

distance between the slot and the inlet section of the diffuser. At Gr = 0.02 – 0.06 diffuser

resistance decreases by 30 – 40%. In this case the losses in the suction system are relatively

small.

Blowing (renewal) of the boundary layer (Figure 2b) increases the flow velocity at the

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walls. Guide vanes (baffles, Figure 2c) deflect portion of the flow with higher velocity

f th t l i

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from the central region of the diffuser to its walls. In these cases the separation zone is also

displaced downstream.

Splitters divide the diffuser with large divergence angles into several diffusers with smaller

angles (Figure 2d). This provides both the decrease in the resistance and a more uniform

velocity distribution in the section.

The variation of the pressure gradient is smoother in a diffuser with curved walls (Figure

2e), in which the rate of increase of the cross-sectional area is lower in the initial section

than in the end section. This reduces the main cause of flow separation, and, consequently,

diminishes the main source of losses.

In stepped diffusers (Figure 2f) a smooth change of the cross-sectional area is followed by

a sudden expansion. The main losses (shock losses) occur even at relatively low velocities.

As a result, the losses in the diffuser are greatly reduced.

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Boundary layer suction is used to prevent laminar and turbulent separation, by removing

flow of low momentum, to remove the boundary layer. The method consists of operating a

powered system to suck boundary layer flow from closely spaced vertical slots (Wilbur,

1957).

A straight outer-wall annular diffuser having a centr al-body length of one-half the outer-

body diameter and area ratio of 1.9:1 was investigated for mean inlet flow angles of 0 o and

19.5o in order to determinate the effect of area suction applied on the inner wall. The

entrance shape, number, and location of the openings through which the air was removed

were changed. The auxilary air flow was varied from 0 to 4% of the main stream air flow.

For suction flow rates in excess of 1%, the measured values of static-pressure rise and

total-pressure loss through the diffuser were not affacted by the number of rows of suction

holes used. With increasing flow rate, the measured values of total-pressure loss decrased

contnuously to a maximum of 22.6% static-pressure rise and 63% of total-pressure loss at

ti fl f 2 8%

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NASA test section. It consisted of an upstream portion having a rectangular cross section of

150 mm height x 1150 mm width followed by an adverse pressure gradient section where

the roof contoured upward, increasing the height of the channel to 258 mm (Schwarz,

1996). A suction slot at the roof provided the impetus for a three-dimensional separation

pattern to develop on the floor of the test section. The suction mass flow rate was 6% of the

test-section entrance mass flow rate. A schematic of the side view of the test section is

shown in Figure 3.

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Our analysis assumes that a jet is supplied from a rectangular inlet to the diffuser. It also

assumes that the cross-section of the diffuser is also rectangular (see Figure 4).

Th l i i f

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The analysis is performed in two stages: Initially, the effect of the side walls, ceiling and

floor is taken into consideration by the mirror method using virtual jets symmetrical to real

jet (ignoring friction in the boundary layer). The real jet is shown by solid lines and the

virtual jets are shown by dotted lines in cros-section 1 - 1 of Figure 4 (total number of jets

are My and Mz along axes Y and Z, respectively). The velocity field obtained in this stage

will be denoted as current by the index c (Uc).

In the second stage of the calculation this solution must be corrected to take into

consideration the counterflow between jet and enclosure. The velocity field in the diffuser

(U) is calculated using a correction denoted as a velocity shift by the index s (Us):

U =Uc - U s , (1)

To calculate the current velocity normal to the cros-section and temperature difference at

point considered inlet, are divided to Ny and Nz increments along axes Y and Z,

respectively. The current velocity (Uc) and temperature difference (Tc) are determined by

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adding momentum flux and excess heat, as supplied from all real and mirror jets jy and jz,

and all inlet increments Ky and Kz, along axes Y and Z (Tarnopolsky 1994):

My Ny Mz Nz k1 k 1

U 2c 1

g

=

g Bo H o

U

jy=1 ky=1 jz=1 kz=1

2

i

d d , (2)

k k

and

My Ny Mz Nz k 1 k 1

Ch

Ch Uc T c =

Bo H o jy=1 ky=1 jz=1 kz=1 U i T i d d , (3)

k k

a Ta

= , (4)

Ta + T

Ui and Ti are air velocity and temperature difference, respectively, induced by elementary

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jet i:

2 2

(Yj + ) (Z j + )

Ui = Um Exp [- ] (5)

2 C2 S 2

and

U

Ti = Tm ( i ) , (6)

Um

where Yj and Zj are coordinates of a point in real and virtual jets jy and jz, m:

jy

j y - M - (-1 ) jy

Y j = Br ) - B( 1 + (-1 ) ) - Y (7)

2

and

jz

jz - (M - (-1 )

Zj = Hr - H(1 +(-1 )

jz

- Z, (8)

2

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flux and excess heat of cell made by increments ky and kz :

Br -B Hr - H

U i 2dYdZ Uk 2 k 1 k k1 k

= , (9)

-B -H g g

and

Br -B Hr - H

-B - H

Taking into consideration Equations 4 through 6 and after further integration, we obtain:

2 2 2 2

(11)

and

2

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1 β

U

Z

βc

Bo*Ho Btp*Htp

H

X 1

Xa

Cross-section 1-1

Z

Br Br Br

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H

Y Hr-H

Hr-H

Hr η Z

δ Y

H

Hr

Hr-H

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0.5

2

Ct = C 0.095 , (13)

1+

After substitution of Equations 4, 5, 11, and 12 into Equations 2 and 3 and further

integration, current velocity and temperature difference can be presented as:

g Ic 0.5

Uc = ( ) Uy Uz (14)

a Bo H o

and

Qo

Tc = T yT z , (15)

Ch (g a Ic Bo Ho )0.5

h U dU th

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2

Uy =0.5

My Ny

U (Erf[ Y

k

j + i 1 Y j i

] ) ,

0.5

CS

] - Erf[

CS

(16)

jy =1 ky=1

U o

and

2

U z = 0.5

Mz Nz

U k Z j + i1 Z j - i 0.5

] ) .

(Erf[

CS

] - Erf[

CS

(17)

jz=1 kz=1

U o

My Ny

U kTk Y j + i 1 Yj - i

Ty = 0.5 (Erf[ ] - Erf[ ]) , (18)

jy =1 T U

ky=1 U o o y C t S C t S

and

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Mz Nz

T Z j + i 1 Z j - i

Tz = 0.5 Uk k (Erf[ ] - Erf[ ]) , (19)

jz=1 kz=1 U T U

o o z C t S C t S

where Io and Qo are the inlet momentum flux and excess heat of the diffuser calculated as

the product of sums of increments of momentum flux and excess heat in the inlet along the

axes Y and Z:

Ny Nz

U k 2 k 1 kk 1 k

Io= , (20)

ky=1 kz=1 g

and

Ny Nz

Qo = Ch Uk Tk k1 k k 1 k . (21)

ky=1 kz=1

This solution must be corrected to take into consideration the velocity “shift” (Us), which is

determined by the equation of continuity:

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Br -B Hr - H

U dY dZ = Gc , (22)

-B -H

Gc

Us = -U e, (23)

a Br Hr

G

Ue = ; (24)

a Br H r

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0.5

Gc = (g a Bo H o Ic ) Ly Lz ; (25)

Br -B

Uy

L y= dY (26)

-B

Bo

Hr - H

Uz

L z= dZ . (27)

-H

Ho

To determine the trajectory of the jet, we have to calculate the effect of the momentum flux

and the buoyancy flux. The momentum flux in the cross-section of the diffuser is:

Br -B Hr - H

U2

Iu = dY dZ , (28)

-B -H

g

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Bo H o 2 2

Iu = Ic (1 - Ly L z ) + I e , (29)

Br H r

a Ue2

Ie = Br H r . (30)

g

of current and ambient air, is:

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Br -B Hr - H

dI t = ( a - ) dY dZ dX , (31)

-B -H

Using Equations 4 and 15, and after approximate integration, Equation 31 becomes:

Qc

dI t = a Bo Ho 0.5 Qy Qz dX , (32)

Ta C h g Ic

Br -B

Ty

Qy = dY (33)

-B

Bo

and

Hr - H

Tz

Qz = dZ . (34)

-H

Ho

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The components and the resultant momentum flux in a cross-section of diffuser will be:

I y = I x tan c , (36)

X

I z = I x tan c + dIt , (37)

0

and

2

I =( Ix + Iy +I z ) ,

2 2 0.5

(38)

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S

Ix

X= dS , (39)

0 I

and

S

Iy

Y = 0 I dS , (40)

and

S

Iz

H = dS . (41)

0 I

Y H

Now ratious of the coordinates of current trajectory and can be used as

X X

tangents to find the angles of current trajectory αc and βc along axes Y and Z.

The above analysis can also be used to calculate the air distribution for the case of a plane

jet. In this case, Bo = Br and Uy = Ly = 1. It should be noted that plane jets are greatly

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affected by the ceiling or floor, as a result of the Coanda effect. The static pressure

difference between the lower and upper regions of the current (relative to the current axis)

creates a vertical pressure force:

X

I p = Br PdX , (42)

0

where ΔP is static pressure difference between the lower and upper regions of the current

and calculated as momentum flux difference between these current regions:

Br -B Hr - H 0

dZ dZ dY

P = ( U

2

- U2 ) . (43)

-B 0

g H r - H -H g H Br

The jet trajectory can be calculated using Equations 41 and 42, taking into consideration

Equation 43:

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X

Iz + I p

H = dX . (44)

0

I

Now, the static pressure in the cross-section of the diffuser is given (from the momentum

flux equation for closed space):

X

dI x

Ps = Po , (45)

o Br H r

To solve the above equations, initial values of the total quantity of air and the momentum

flux the of the diffuser should be known. The total quantity of air depends on the position

of the exit and on the cross-section considered. If the distance from the inlet to the cross-

section is less than the distance to the outlet (X < Xa), the total quantity of the air in this

cross-section equals the initial value (G =Go). The initial momentum flux of the diffuser

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can be calculated (taking into consideration that when S = 0, then Ly = Lz =1, Ie = 0, and Iu

= Io) from (29) as follows:

Io

Ic = , (46)

B H

1- o o

Br H r

In case of boundary layer suction when the outlets and inlets are placed in the walls

perpendicularly to one another, additional correction to the velocity field must be applied

using a semi-empirical method for calculating suction patterns in the vicinity of outflow

orifices. The method takes into consideration the superposition of the flow in the diffuser,

the boundaries of the diffuser and the suction flow, by adding the velocity components at

each point and later correcting the velocity field for deviations from the equations of

continuity and momentum flux. The effect of the walls is calculated by the mirror method.

The vertical Vi and longtitudinal Wi componets of the elementary suction velocity are

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(Shepelev 1978 ):

V o Zi

dV i dd (47)

2 i 3

and

V o i

dWi d d , (48)

2 i 3

i Z2i i i

2

2 0.5

(49)

Taking into consideration the coordinates of the orifice in the diffuser (Xs, Ys, and Zs):

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iX X , (50)

i YS Y , (51)

and

Z i ZS , (52)

the vertical V and longtitudinal W componets of the suction velocity could be determined

by the adding velocities, as a result of elementary suction flows interaction,

r o

V dV i (53)

r

o

and

r o

W dW i , (54)

r o

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o r2 2 .

0.5

(55)

Figure 5 shows the resultant velocity Cs calculated along the centerline of the circular

orifice:

Cs V 2 W 2

0.5

(56)

Cs / Vo (Y = 0) Cs / Vo

5

0-0.02 0.02-0.04

0.04-0.06 0.06-0.08

0.08-0.1 0.1-0.12

4 0.12-0.14 0.14-0.16

0.16-0.18 0.18-0.2

0.2-0.22 0.22-0.24

0.24-0.26 0.26-0.28

0.28-0.3 0.3-0.32

3 0.32-0.34 0.34-0.36

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0.36-0.38 0.38-0.4

0.4-0.42 0.42-0.44

0.44-0.46 0.46-0.48

Z/ 0.48-0.5

0.52-0.54

0.5-0.52

0.54-0.56

2

0.56-0.58 0.58-0.6

0.6-0.62 0.62-0.64

0.64-0.66 0.66-0.68

0.68-0.7 0.7-0.72

0.72-0.74 0.74-0.76

1 0.76-0.78 0.78-0.8

0.8-0.82 0.82-0.84

0.84-0.86 0.86-0.88

0.88-0.9 0.9-0.92

0.92-0.94 0.94-0.96

0.1 0.96-0.98 0.98-1

-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5

X/r

Vo

Figure 5. Resultant suction velocities along the centerline of the circular orifice.

The effect of the walls is calculated by the mirror method taking into consideration the

coordinates of the real and virtual orifices (Xs, Ys, and Zs) similar to the diffuser coordinates

(Equations 6, 7)

To correct the velocity field for deviation from the equation of continuity the air-removal

velocity (Equation 24) should be changed as:

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G Gs

U e= (57)

a Br H r

X Br B Hr H

1

Gs VdXdYdZ (58)

N s 0 B H

For a comparison of results of the analytical study with the experimental data should be

conducted first the inlet velocity Uk and temperature Tk profiles. From these profiles the

inlet momentum flux and excess heat are calculated as:

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I o = Go Ir U o (59)

and

Qo = Ch G o Qr To (60)

takinng into consideration the fricton losses in the diffuser:

Xa

dIx

Po = Pa 0 Br H r k fr Pu . (61)

a Uo 2

Pu = , (62)

2g

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Kfr is the friction resistance coefficient of the diffuser As was mention above boundary

layer calculations were ignored. However, the friction losses in the diffuser were calculated

similarly to the calculation of losses in tubes with an increasing area cross-section:

X

K fr = dX , (63)

0 De AR2

2 Br H r

De , (64)

Br H r

Figures 6 and 7 show calculated velocity contours in rectilinear (lin) and curved (curv)

diffusers of the same dimensions as in NASA test section (Figure 3) with the inlet axial

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velocity of Uo = 30 m/s:

0.26

0.21 U, m/s

-1-0 0-1

1-2 2-3

3-4 4-5

0.15 5-6 6-7

7-8 8-9

9-10 10-11

Z, m 11-12 12-13

13-14 14-15

0.10 15-16 16-17

17-18 18-19

19-20 20-21

21-22 22-23

23-24 24-25

0.05

25-26 26-27

27-28 28-29

29-30 30-31

0.00

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8

X, m

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0.26

U, m/s

0.21

-1-0 0-1

1-2 2-3

3-4 4-5

5-6 6-7

0.15 7-8 8-9

9-10 10-11

Z, m 11-12 12-13

13-14 14-15

0.10 15-16 16-17

17-18 18-19

19-20 20-21

21-22 22-23

23-24 24-25

0.05 25-26 26-27

27-28 28-29

29-30 30-31

0.00

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8

X, m

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Plane diffusers with free discharge were studied in experiments of Miller (1971), where air

was supplied through an inlet of Bo = 0.46 m width and Ho = 0.23 m height, area ratio AR =

3 , 6, and 9, horizontal divergence angle α = 0, and vertical divergence angles of β =8, 12,

and 20 degree. Kinematic characteristic of the inlet was calculated by integration of the

initial velocity profiles: Ir = 1.08.

Br H r

AR , (65)

Bo H o

and calculated values by static pressure in cross-section of outlet (X = Xa) , Pa = 0

(according to the Bernoulli equation):

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Po Pa

K pf 1 , (66)

Pu

Ir = I.08, α = 0

1.0

Miller, β = 20

0.8

Miller, β = 12

Resistance coefficient

0.6 Miller, β = 8

Calcul., β = 20

0.4

Calcul., β = 12

0.2

Calcul., β = 8

0.0

1 2 3 4 5

Area ratio

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Measured values of the resistance coefficient in the experiments of Idelchik (1986) and

calculated values by free discharge from the rectangular diffusers: (Bo = Ho, α = β) were

compared in Figure 9:

Ir = 1, Bo = Ho, α = β

1.0

Idelchik, α = 4

Idelchik, α = 6

Idelchik, α = 8

0.8

Idelchik, α = 10

Resistance coefficient

Idelchik, α = 14

0.6 Idelchik, α = 20

Idelchik, α = 30

calcul., α = 4

0.4 calcul., α = 6

calcul., α = 8

calcul., α = 10

0.2

calcul., α = 14

calcul., α = 20

calcul., α = 30

0.0

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Area ratio

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consideration the outlet dynamic pressure (in Bernoulli equation) and the additional

recovery which takes place within about the first four diameters of tailpipe. Measured

values of the resistance coefficient in the experiments of Idelchik (1986) and calculated

values by supplying air through transition rectangular diffusers (Bo = Ho, α = β) are

compared in Figure 10:

1 Po Ptp

K pt 1 (67)

AR

2

Pu

P ua

where is the outlet dynamic pressure ratio:

Pu

1

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Pua = 1 2 , (68)

Pu AR

B H 1

Ptp = I Io o o (69)

Btp H tp

Btp H tp

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Ir = 1, Bo = Ho, α = β

0.6

Idelchik, α = 4

Idelchik, α = 6

0.5 Idelchik, α = 8

Idelchik, α = 10

Idelchik, α = 12

Idelchik, α = 14

Resistance coefficient

0.4

Idelchik, α = 16

Idelchik, α = 20

0.3 Idelchik, α = 30

calcul., α = 4

calcul., α = 6

0.2 calcul., α = 8

calcul., α = 10

calcul., α = 12

0.1 calcul., α = 14

calcul., α = 16

calcul., α = 20

0.0 calcul., α = 30

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Area ratio

Air distribution in a diffuser with large divergence angles divided into several diffusers

with smaller angles (Figure 2d) can be calculated as separate diffusers.

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In a stepped diffusers (Figure 2f) an abrupt enlargement of the cross-sectional area gives

rise to so-called shock losses. Measured values of the resistance coefficient in experiments

of Idelchik (1986) and calculated values by supplying air through transition rectangular

diffusers with stepped walls (Bo = Ho, α = β) were compared in Figure 11:

1 Po Ptp Psw

K ps 1 (70)

AR 2 Pu

where Psw is the additional shock pressure losses dependent only on the cross-sectional area

ratio (measure of expansion AR/ARtp) and is calculated from the Borda-Carnot formula

(Chanson, 2004, Massey, 1998) by measured and calculated relative distances to step

Xa

( ) compared in Figure 12 :

Do

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2

Io

Psw = 1 AR (71)

2 ARB r H r AR tp

where Atp is the area ratio of the diffuser tailpipe at the step cross-section (X = Xa):

B tpH tp

ARtp (72)

Bo H o

Ir = 1, Bo = Ho, α = β

0.6

Idelchik, α = 4

Idelchik, α = 6

0.5 Idelchik, α = 8

Idelchik, α = 10

Idelchik, α = 12

Idelchik, α = 14

tance coefficient

0.4

Idelchik, α = 16

Idelchik, α = 20

Idelchik, α = 30

0.3

calcul., α = 4

calcul., α = 6

l l 8

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calcul., α = 8

Resist

0.2 calcul., α = 10

calcul., α = 12

calcul., α = 14

0.1

calcul., α = 16

calcul., α = 20

calcul., α = 30

0.0

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Area ratio

Figure 11. Resistance coefficient of the transition rectangular diffusers with stepped walls.

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Ir = 1, Bo = Ho, α = β

20 Idelchik, α = 4

Idelchik, α = 6

Idelchik, α = 8

Idelchik, α = 10

15 Idelchik, α = 12

Idelchik, α = 14

Relative distance.

Idelchik, α = 16

Idelchik, α = 20

Idelchik, α = 30

10

calcul., α = 4

calcul., α = 6

calcul., α = 8

calcul., α = 10

5 calcul., α = 12

calcul., α = 14

calcul., α = 16

calcul., α = 20

0 calcul., α = 30

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Area ratio

Figure 12. Relative distance to the sudden expansion of the transition rectangular diffusers.

As a result, the losses in the diffuser are greatly reduced: at divergence angles α = β = 4 -10

degree a diffuser resistance decreases by 5 – 10% and at divergence angles α = β = 12 -30

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The semi-empirical method for calculating suction patterns in the vicinity of outflow

orifices shows close agreement between the results of axial suction velocities calculation

and the experimental results (Delaval, 1932). The results are compared in Figure 13.

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1

0.8

0.6

Vs/Vo

0.4

0.2

0

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5

X/R

Boundary layer suction is used to prevent laminar and turbulent separation by removing

flow of low momentum. Figure 14 shows resultant suction velocity contours in NASA test

section diffuser (Figure 3) Cs calculated using Equation 56 (the effect of the walls is

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Resultant suction velocity contours in diffuser.

0.26

Cs, m/s

0.21 19-20

18-19

17-18

16-17

15-16

14-15

0.15 13-14

12-13

11-12

Z, m 10-11

9-10

8-9

0.10 7-8

6-7

5-6

4-5

3-4

0.05 2-3

1-2

0-1

0.00

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8

X, m

Figure 14. Resultant suction velocity contours in the diffuser along centerline of the orifice.

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(taking into consideration the superposition between the flow in the diffuser and the suction

flow by adding the velocity components at each point and later correcting the velocity

fields for deviations from the equations of continuity and momentum flux):

C d V 2 U W

2 0.5

(73)

0.25

Cd, m/s

-1-0 0-1

0.20 1-2 2-3

3-4 4-5

5-6 6-7

7-8 8-9

0.15 9-10 10-11

11-12 12-13

13-14 14-15

Z, m 15-16 16-17

17-18 18-19

0.10 19-20 20-21

21-22 22-23

23-24 24-25

25-26 26-27

0.05 27-28 28-29

29-30 30-31

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0.00

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 X, m 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8

Figure 15. Resultant suction velocity contours in the diffuser along the centerline of the

orifice.

Results of tests on NASA section with a suction slot at the roof (Schwarz, 1996) were

compared with calculated values of the static-pressure coefficient Cp variation along the

section centerline in Figure 16:

Po Ps

Cp K fr (74)

Pu

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Uo=30 m/s, dTo= 0 C, Alpha=0, 0, 0, Beta=0, 0, curved

0.8

0.6

0.4

Schwarz, 1996

Cp

Cp (lin)

Cp (curv)

0.2 Cp (curv+suct)

0.0

-0.2

0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0

X, m

Figure 16. Calculated and experimental static-pressure coefficients along the diffuser

centerline.

These results show close agreement between the experiment and the calculation using

Equations 48-61 and 65 for curved diffuser with suction (curv+suct in Figure 16).

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However, the calculated pressure coefficient was slightly lower than the experimental data

near the suction orifice. Pressure recovery in rectilinear (Figure 6 and lin in Figure 16) and

curved (Figure 7 and curv in Figure 16) diffusers of the same dimensions was 10- 20%

lower, and exit velocity profiles were less equal than in curved diffuser with suction

(Figure 15 and curv+suct in Figure 16).

This paper compares calculations with computer modeling using computational fluid

dynamics (CFD) code. The CFD model included the scoop and the domain (Fig. 17) and

was developed using Fluent. Due to symmetry, only half of the scoop and associated area

were modeled. The modeled domain was made prismatic of 4000 * 2000 * 2200 m and had

a length and width of 13.3 times that of the tower radius of 200 m and a height two times

the scoop, in order to minimize the blockage problem.

The front boundaries of the domain were defined as velocity and the end and symmetrical

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boundaries of the domain were defined as pressure outlet boundary conditions. The rotor of

the turbine inside the scoop was simplified as a porous ring of height Ho = 60 m and radius

R = 300 m. After the turbine was modeled radial diffuser by vertical divergence angle of β

= 12 degree.

Hexahedral, quadrilateral and mixed elements were used to mesh the domain and scoop,

resulting in a 514,592 cell mesh. RNG k–e turbulence model was selected for all

simulations.

Figs. 17, 18, and 19 show the velocity vectors, temperature and static pressure differences

contours along symmetrical boundary of the domain, respectively. The first plot shows a

gradual increase in airspeed after turning from the tower, until a peak of Uo =16.2 m/s is

reached at the turbine in the scoop by vertical angle of current trajectory βc = -3 degree.

After passing this peak the speed reduces due to increasing area of flow in the diffuser

(area ratio AR = 2.1) and then after exit from diffuser by radius of R = 440 m due to

increasing area of flow in the domain.

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Contours of temperature difference between cold air from tower and ambient air in Fig. 18

show a slow decrease until a peak of To=-13 C is reached at the turbine and then, after

exiting the diffuser the temperature difference increases considerably.

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Figure 18. Temperature difference contours along symmetrical boundary of the domain.

Contours of static pressure difference between airflow and domain in Fig. 19 show a rapid

decrease until a peak of Po = -116.6 Pa is reached after the turbine and then gradual

pressure recovery in the diffuser.

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Figure 19. Static pressure difference contours along symmetrical boundary of the domain.

Turbine velocity and temperature difference profiles from Fluent data were used as inlet

profiles for calculation airflow parameters in the diffuser. The above analysis can also be

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used to calculate the air distribution at difference radiuses R for the case of a radial flow

(Tarnopolsky 1967, 1987). In this case, Br = R * ά and Uy = Ly = 1.

Calculated (U) and Fluent (Uf) vertical velocity and temperature difference (Tc and Tf)

profiles are compared in Figs. 20 and 21.

Velocity and temperature difference profiles calculated at exit from diffuser were used as

inlet profiles for calculation airflow parameters in the domain. Calculated and Fluent axial

velocity(Uac and Uaf), temperature (Tac and Taf) and static pressure (Pc and Psf) differences

vs. radius R compared in Fig. 22.

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18

16

14

Uf_R300

Uf_R302

12

Uf_R314

Velocity, m/s

Uf_R377

10 Uf_R440

U_R300

8 U_R302

U_R314

6 U_R377

U_R440

0

0 20 40 60 80 100

Y, m

R, m

0

-2

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-4 Tf_R300

Tf_R302

-6 Tf_R314

Tf_R377

Tf_R440

-8 Tc_R300

Tc_R302

-10 Tc_R314

Tc_R377

Tc_R440

-12

-14

-16

0 20 40 60 80 100

Y, m

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200 20

150 15

100 10

Psf

Ps

Static pressure, Pa.

difference, deg

50 5 Uaf

Uac

Taf

0 0 Tac

-50 -5

-100 -10

-150 -15

0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000

R, m

Figure 22. Calculated and Fluent velocity, temperature and static pressure differences along

centerline.

One can see formation region of velocity and shock pressure losses at exit from diffuser.

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Overall, the magnitudes of velocity, temperature and static pressure differences were in

good agreement and the two sets results show good similarity.

Conclusions.

This study presents basic concepts of a semi-em pirical method for calculating the velocity

and temperature fields in diffusers. It compares this method calculations with computer

modeling using computational fluid dynamics (CFD Fluent).

The results of the calculations are in good agreement with measurements in scaled models

of rectangular, plane and radial diffusers with rectilinear and curvilinear walls.

In stepped diffusers an abrupt enlargement of the cross-sectional area gives rise to so-called

shock losses. Additional shock pressure losses depends only on the cross-sectional area

ratio (measure of expansion) and can be calculated from the Borda-Carnot formula. As a

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result, the losses in the diffuser are greatly reduced relative to the losses in rectilinear

diffusers of the same dimensions: at divergence angles 4 - 10 degrees the diffuser

resistance decreases by 5 – 10% and at the divergence angles 12 - 30 degrees the deffuser

resistance decreases by 15 – 25%.

In case of boundary layer suction, additional correction to the velocity field must be applied

using a semi-empirical method to calculate the suction patterns in the vicinity of the

outflow orifices. The method takes into consideration the superposition between the flow in

the diffuser, the boundaries of the diffuser and the suction flow.

These results show close agreement between the experiment and the calculation for curved

diffuser with suction. In rectilinear and curved diffusers of the same dimensions, pressure

recovery was 10- 20% lower, and exit velocity profiles were less equal.

The results of the calculations are shown to be in good agreement with measurements in

l d d l S ll

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scaled models. Small-scale modeling and Fluent computational of the airflow in a diffuser

is relatively expensive. Experience indicates, however, that in most cases it is possible to

arrive at almost optimum solution on thebasis of analytical calculations.

NOMENCLATURE.

AR tp area ratio of the diffuser tailpipe at the step cross-section (given by Equation

72)

B, H distance from current axis to wall , respectively, along axes Y and Z, m

Bo, Ho width and height of inlet, respectively, along axes Y and Z, m

Br, Hr width and height of diffuser, respectively, along axes Y and Z, m

Btp, Htp width and height of the diffuser tailpipe, respectively, m

C empirical constant (a value of C = 0.082 is used here)

Ch specific heat of air (at constant pressure), kJ//kg/ oK

Cp static-pressure coefficient (given by Equation 73)

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Ct , temperature profile constant (given by Equation 13)

Do, De equivalent diameters of inlet and at cross section of diffuser considred (given

by Equation 64), m

dVi, dWi vertical and longtitudinal componets of elementary suction velocity (given

by Equations 47, 48), m/s/m2

ΔY, ΔH coordinates of current trajectory along axes Y and Z (given by Equations 40,

41), m

G quantity of air moving trough considered cross-section of diffuser, kg m2s-4

g acceleration due to gravity, m/s2

Gc quantity of air in considered current cross-section (given by Equation 25) ,

N s-1

Gs quantity of air suction at cross-section of diffuser considered (given by

Equation 58), N s-1

I, Ix, Iy, Iz components and resultant momentum flux in cross-section of diffuser

( i b E

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Ic initial momentum flux of diffuser (given by Equation 46), N

Ie momentum flux of air removal in considered cross-section (given by

Equation 30), N

Io inlet momentum flux (given by Equations 20, 59), N

Ip vertical pressure force created by static pressure difference between the

lower and upper regions of the current (relative to the current axis) and

(given by Equation 42) , N

Ir kinematic characteristic of the inlet (selected from Equations 20 and 59)

It buoyancy force, created by temperature-density difference between

elementary volume of current and ambient air (given by Equation 32), N

Iu momentum flux in cross-section of diffuser (given by Equation 29), N

i elementary jet

Jy, My ordinal and total numbers of jets interacted, respectively, along axis Y

Jz, Mz ordinal and total numbers of jets interacted, respectively, along axis Z

Kfr friction resistance coefficient of diffuser (given by Equation 63)

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Kpf resistance coefficient by free discharge from diffuser (given by Equation 66)

Kps resistance coefficient by supplying air through transition diffuser with

stepped walls (given by Equation 70)

Kpt resistance coefficient by supplying air through transition diffuser (given by

Equation 67)

Ky, Ny ordinal and total numbers of increments, respectively, in inlet along axis Y

Kz, Nz ordinal and total numbers of increments, respectively, in inlet along axis Z

L y, L z nondimensional discharge factors (given by Equations 26, 27)

Ns total number of integration steps along the axis Z

Pa static pressure in cross-section of outlet (X = Xa) , Pa

Po static pressure in the cross-section of inlet (given by Equation 61) , Pa

Ps static pressure in current cross-section considered (given by Equation 45) ,

Pa

Psf axial static pressure obtained by Fluent, Pa

Psw additional shock pressure losses (given by Equation 71), Pa

P t il i

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Pu, Pua inlet and outlet dynamic pressure (given by Equations 62, 68), Pa

Qo inlet excess heat (given by Equation 21, 60), W

Qr thermal characteristic of the inlet (selected from Equations 21 and 60)

Qy, Qz nondimensional factors of excess heat (given by Equations 33, 34)

R radius of cross-section considered in radial diffuser, m

r orifice radius, m

S distance from inlet to cross section of current along jet axis, m

T temperature difference at point considered, oC

Ta absolute temperature of ambient air, oK

Tac, Taf calculated and obtained by Fluent axial temperature difference, oC

Tc current temperature difference (given by Equation 15), oC

Tf vertical temperature difference profiles obtained by Fluent, oC

Ti temperature difference induced by i - elementary jet, (given by Equation 6),

o

C

Tk inlet temperature difference of cell made by increments Ky and Kz, oC

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11 and 12), oC

To inlet axial temperature difference, oC

T y, T z nondimensional factors of current temperature difference (given by

Equations 18, 19)

U velocity at point considered (given by Equation 1), m/s

Uac, Uaf calculated and obtained by Fluent axial velocity, m/s

Uf vertical velocity profiles obtained by Fluent, m/s

Uc current velocity (given by Equation 14), m/s

Ue air-removal velocity in considered cross-section of diffuser (given by

Equations 24, 57), m/S

Ui air velocity induced by i - elementary jet (given by Equation 5), m/s

Uk inlet velocity of cell made by increments Ky and Kz, m/s

Um air velocity on axis of i - elementary jet (selected from Equations 11), m/s

Uo inlet axial velocity, m/s

U l i “ hif ” ( i

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Uy, Uz nondimensional factors of current velocity (given by Equations 16, 17)

V, W vertical and longtitudinal componets of suction velocity (given by Equations

53, 54), m/s

Vo velocity at the suction orifice, m/s

X, Y, Z coordinates of point considered, m

Xa distance from inlet to outlet position, m

Xs, Ys, Zs coordinates of the orifise in the diffuser, m

Yj, Zj coordinates of point in jet j (given by Equations 7, 8), m

Zi distance from orifice to cross-section considered (given by Equation 52), m

α, β divergence angles of diffuser in Y and Z directions, degrees

αc angle between current trajectory projection in XY plane an X axis, degrees

βc angle between current trajectory projection in XZ plane an X axis, degrees

βxy angle between current trajectory and XY plane [βxy = atan(cosαc tan βc)],

degrees

δ, η coordinates of elementary jet i in inlet along axes Y and Z, m

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δk, δk+1 start and end of increment Ky, respectively, in inlet along axis Y, m

ΔP elementary static pressure difference between the lower and upper current

parts (given by Equation 43), Pa

γ specific weight of the air at point considered, N m

γa specific weight of ambient air, N m

ς, τ coordinates of the orifice i – point along the axes X and Y, m

ςi, τi distances from the orifice i-point to suction flow point considered along the

axes X and Y (given by Equations 50, 51), m

ςo orifice circle abssissa (given by Equation 55), m

ηk ,ηk+1 start and end of increment Kz, respectively, in intlet along axis Z, m

λ friction coefficient is function of Reynolds number (Re) and relative

roughness (h/De) (Idelchik 1986)

ρi distance from orifice i-point to suction flow point considered (given by

Equation 49), m

σ turbulent Prandtl number (a value of σ = 0.5 is used here)

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REFERENCES

Chanson, Hubert (2004), Hydraulics of Open Channel Flow: An Introduction (2nd ed.),

Butterworth–Heinemann, 650 pp

T. Delaval. 1932. Velocity characteristics of hoods under suction. Heating, piping, air

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conditioning, 5: 13-17.

Idelchik I. E. 1986. Handbook of hydraulic resistance. Hemisphere Publishing Corporation,

New York.

John C. Lin. 2002. Review of research on low-profile vortex generators to control

boundary-layer separation. Flow Physics and Control Branch, NASA Langley Research

Center, Progress in Aerospace Sciences 38 () 389–420Hampton, VA 23681-2199, USA

Massey, Bernard Stanford; Ward-Smith, John (1998), Mechanics of Fluids (7 th ed.), Taylor

& Francis, 744 pp.

Schubauer, G B Spangenberg. 1949. W G Effect of screens in wide-angle diffusers. NACA

Report 949, NACA TN 1610.

W. R. Schwarz, K. A. Flaek, D. M. Driver, S. Jovi. 1996. A Combined Experimental and

Computational Study of Pressure-Driven Three-Dimensional Separation in a Turbulent

Boundary Layer . Thermal and Fluid Science; 13:252-265.

I. A. Sheplev. Air flow room aerodinamics. 1978. Stroyizdat, Mooscow, 145 p.

TARNOPOLSKY, M. 1967. Spreading of fan jets in bounded space. Journal of

E i i Ph i V XII NI 20 25

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TARNOPOLSKY, M.D. and GELMAN, N.A. 1987. Air diffuser with controlled flow

dissector. Air distribution in ventilated spaces, Stocholm:1-12.

TARNOPOLSKY, M. 1994. Improved calculation of air distribution in an auditorium.

ASHRAE Transactions.100:1195-1209.

Stafford W. Wilbur and James T. Higginbotham. 1957. Investigation of a short-annular-

diffuser configuration utilizing suction as a means of boundary-layer control. Langly

Aerodinamical Laboratory, NACA TN 3996.

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Citations (0) References (9)

Article Full-text available

May 1994

M Tarnopolsky · I D Ph

Separation in a Turbulent Boundary Layer . Thermal and Fluid Science

Jan 1996 · 252-265

W R Schwarz · K A Flaek · D M Driver · S Jovi

W. R. Schwarz, K. A. Flaek, D. M. Driver, S. Jovi. 1996. A Combined Experimental and

Computational Study of Pressure-Driven Three-Dimensional Separation in a Turbulent Boundary

Layer. Thermal and Fluid Science; 13:252-265.

Jan 1978

I A Sheplev

I. A. Sheplev. Air ow room aerodinamics. 1978. Stroyizdat, Mooscow, 145 p.

Jan 1967 · Journal of Engineering Physics · 20-25

TARNOPOLSKY, M. 1967. Spreading of fan jets in bounded space. Journal of Engineering

Physics, V.XII, NI: 20-25.

Boundary-layer Control

Article

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Jun 1957

Stafford W Wilbur · James T Higginbotham

View

Article

Jan 1987 · J PRESS VESS-T ASME

I. E. Idelchik

Article

Feb 2002 · PROG AEROSP SCI

John C Lin

Article

Jan 1999

Hubert Chanson

Article

G. B. Schubauer · W. G. Spengenberg

View

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