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Ammonia Chillers

Stefan S. Jensen,
B.Sc.Eng, F.AIRAH, FIEAust, CPEng, NPER

Scantec Refrigeration Technologies

Head Office: Shanghai Office: Beijing Office:


225 Queensport Road Suite 1502 Yuan Mansion 7G No 4 Office Building
Murarrie, Brisbane 738 Dong Fang Road City Plaza No (A) 3 Shilipu
QLD 4172 Australia Shanghai 200120, China Chaoyang District Beijing 100025,
Phone: (61-7) 3890 9400 Phone: (86-21) 5830 3488 China
Fax: (61-7) 3890 9444 Fax: (86-21) 5830 1730 Phone: (86-10) 6556 2554
Fax: (86-10) 6556 2517
Introduction

Ammonia
• Natural refrigerant (used for >130 years)
• Very favourable transport properties
• Admirable safety record (statistically <2
fatalities per 1 billion inhabitants of 14
countries per year; source: IIAR Dallas, 2009)
The case studies will provide an overview of actual operating
air conditioning systems using NH3 as working fluid.
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Why NH3?

Global HFC emissions by 2050 are ~9-19% (CO2e basis)


of projected global CO2 emissions in the BAU scenario.
This rises to 28-45% in a 450 ppm CO2 stabilization scenario.

Source: Velders et al
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Why NH3?

• June 2013 agreement between Presidents Xi


and Obama to work together towards an
HFC phase-down
• 6th of September 2013 Australia commits
internationally to HFC phase-down by 2030

• 16th of December 2013 EU agrees to phase


down HFC’s by 79% by 2030
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Why NH3?
Climate change legislation 1997 & 2013

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Why NH3?
Climate change legislation 1997 & 2013

Source: The Globe Climate Legislation Study: “A review of


climate change legislation in 66 countries, 4th edition”
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Chiller Plant with NH3
Location Brisbane CBD

Engine
Room

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Chiller Plant with NH3
Location CBD

Engine Room
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Chiller Plant with NH3
R134A Centrifugal Chillers

BEFORE

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Chiller Plant with NH3
Condensers

Receiver
HP float
AFTER
NH3 accumulator

Evaporators

Screw compressors

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Chiller Plant with NH3

Condensers

AFTER
Receiver
HP float

NH3 charge NH3 accumulator


Evaporators
= 1300 kg or
~0.2 kg/kW
Screw compressors

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Chiller Plant with NH3
Relief valve

Evaporators

Compressor Condensers

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Chiller Plant with NH3
Annual reduction
from 40% to <30%

NH3 Scrubbers

465 kW VFD’s

MCC A/C

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Public building with NH3

BEFORE

Two Air Cooled R22 Water Chillers


for Office Air Conditioning, 1200 kW
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Public building with NH3
HCFC 22 Compressors

BEFORE

Condenser HCFC 22 DX AHU


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Public building with NH3

AFTER

Two Water Cooled R717


Water Chillers, 1200 kW

Annual
Energy Saving
500 MWh
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Public building with NH3
Connection of Basement AHU

AFTER

Roof top
plant room

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Public building with NH3

AFTER

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Public building with NH3
Emergency Ventilation – 41.4 m3/s

<20% of LEL or
<30,000 ppm

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Public building with NH3

Desuperheater

Future Heat
Recovery System
NH3 compressor

~66 m

Existing 613315 hot


water system used
as booster
Cold water

Edwards GXC50
indirect, open vented,
high pressure water
tank to AS3498 AFTER

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Commercial offices
During Construction

Completed

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Commercial offices
Design Refrigeration Capacities
System LT HT
Refrigerant NH3 NH3 PGB CHW
System temperature, [°C] -24 -10 -7 5
Capacity, [kW] 160 0 719 619
Chilled water system services >50 air conditioned office spaces
Legend:
LT: Low Temperature
HT: High Temperature
PGB: Propylene Glycol Brine
CHW: Chilled Water

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Commercial offices
PGB SBY CHW

LT
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Commercial offices

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Conclusions

▪ No HFC Levy (GWP for NH3 = 0)


▪ No environmental impact of fugitive gas loss
▪ Superior COP
▪ Annual NH3 leakage rate <1%
▪ Suitable for high grade heat recovery
▪ Enables elimination of all SGG’s
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Conclusions

Plant room design – HFC versus NH3


• Unobstructed escape routes – lack of same eliminates NH3
• Charge cost of HFC plant 10-20 times higher than NH3
• Change of image by factory packaging of NH3 systems
• Increased production numbers of factory assembled NH3
packages ⇒ lower capital costs
• Barriers: Legislation (policies, standards),
technology/safety, supply/availability (components etc.),
psychology (perceptions, acceptance), funding/costs
(subsidies, tax etc.), markets (competition, demands etc.),
training/know-how

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