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Interior Electric Lighting

1. Architectural & Energy Factors

• Mini-Glossary
• Luminous Efficacy
• Light Color Temperature
• Color Rendering
• Light Intensity Distribution
• How Atoms Emit Light
2. Lamps and Fixtures
• Incandescent
• Fluorescent
• Metal Halide
• Solid-State
(luminous flux, a
rating of a lamp)
lux or
watts (luminous
(electricity input flux incident
to the lamp) on a surface;
the factor of
concern for
visual tasks)

luminance (perceived bright-

ness of a surface)
Luminous Efficacy (Lumens per Watt)

• lumen: luminous flux (can- • candela: luminous intensity

dela * steradian), photomet- (lumens/steradian); a candle
ric power radiated into a unit emits about 1 candela
solid angle (steradian) from • steradian: solid angle with
a point source having a lumi- area equal to the radius
nous intensity of one candela squared
Performance Ranges
Light Color Temperature
• Design: “warm” light for relaxation,
“cool” light for concentration
• The absolute temperature (K) at which
an ideal blackbody would radiate light
at a particular color
• Chromaticity diagram describes eye
cone perception (x,y) of wavelengths
• Blackbody curve traces photon wave-
lengths released by perfect radiator as
its temperature increases → correlated
color temperature (CCT)
• Red is a “warm” color, low temperature
• Blue is a “cool” color, high temperature
Color Rendering
• CRI describes comparison of 8 test colors
between a reference (sunlight if >5000K;
blackbody if <5000K) and specific lamp
• Scale of 0-100
• Above 70, imperfect correlation of CRI
with user preference
• A lamp with wavelength (spectral pow-
er distribution) “spikes” will only render
those colors well
• Design: CR especially important in muse-
ums, shops, schools, some workplaces
Illumination Shape
• “Light Distribution Curve”
• “Luminous Intensity Distribution Curve”
• “Photometric Curve”
• Polar plots show candelas at each angle
• Series of plots show symmetry around
vertical axis
How Atoms Emit Light

“Energy” can be kinetic (from collisions)

or electromagnetic (from heat or photons)
Incandescent Lamps:
Light from Heat
What’s so bad about
ordinary lamps?
• Mechanism of light production = heat
• Tungsten wire resists electricity flow and
gets hot
• Metal atom electrons absorb heat and
move to higher energy levels
• High-energy electrons are unstable, so re-
turn to ground state by giving off energy
as light
• Photon’s color corresponds to the energy
given off
• Red hot is about 1750K
• White hot is about 4500K
• Result: only ~10% of the input electricity
is recovered as light
• 5-15 lumens/watt ingfluorescentlamp.html

Incandescence is the emission of light (visible electromagnetic

radiation) from a hot body due to its temperature.
Is “High-Performance” Incandescence an Oxymoron?
• tungsten-halogen lamps
• tungsten (W) filament
• inert (“noble”) gas (Ne, Ar, Xe)
• small amt of halogen gas (Br2, I2)
• halogen gas reacts with vapor-
ized tungsten to keep it from de-
positing on inside of bulb
• result: little loss of light output
over lamp life
• can operate at higher tempera-
ture → 10-30 lumens / watt
• requires high-melting-point glass
Fluorescent Lamps:
Light from Collisions
How they Work

1. Base that plugs into socket

2. Circuit with transformer to boost voltage + ballast to
regulate current
3. Electrodes (tungsten), that release electrons as elec-
tricity flows in, eventually to be captured at other end
4. Mercury atoms collide with electrons
5. Excited mercury electrons jump to higher energy lev-
els, then fall back, releasing ultraviolet photons
6. UV photons strike phosphors (CaSiO4, ZnSiO4, CaWO4)
coating glass tubes
7. Phosphor electron excitation / relaxation releases vis-
Fluorescence is the emission of light by a substance that has
ible photons absorbed light or other electromagnetic radiation of a differ-
8. Result: 65-90 lumens / watt (4-6x more than incandes- ent wavelength.

cent lamps!)
Ballast Issues
• ballasts = circuits that regulate current flow
• necessary because ionized Hg has very low
resistance, and heat lowers resistance fur-
ther → unchecked, explosion would occur
• magnetic: inductor (L1) establishes a mag-
netic field when current travels around its
iron core and creates counter-EMF that op-
poses current change, protecting FL1
• note positions of the FL1 electrodes
• electronic: use analogous but more in-
volved circuits, in solid-state form; increase
AC frequency from 60Hz to ~20,000 Hz →
eliminates “flicker” and increases lumens/
watt by keeping more Hg gas ionized
• instant start: begins current without heat- tronic-ignition/
ing the electrodes by using high voltage;
most energy efficient but shortens lamp life • programmable start: heats electrodes
• rapid start: applies voltage & heats elec- first, then applies voltage; best for lamps
trodes simultaneously; prolongs lamp life; expecting frequent starts (e.g. on mo-
dimmable while maintaining heating tion detectors)
The T8
A T8 is a System
is a System
• lamp types:
• • Choices of Lamp
standard (20,000h)
• premium
– Basic(+4,000h)
Type (generic, premium,
• low-Hg, premium
“super”) low-Hg
• color temperature
– wattages:
• lamp Quality (lumen maintenance
and life)
• standard: 32 W
– Color
• “low temperature
wattage”: 30, 28, 25 W
– Mercury
• phosphor content
Range of 2 lamp system
• • standard 75 CRI (2800 lumens)
Range of lamp watts
• “new” 78-82 CRI (2850 lumens) (non dimming)
– 32 standard
• standard 82-85 CRI (2950-3000 lm)

– 30, 28, 86
• high-lumen 25CRI (3100-3200 lm) Worst 3930 L 52w

• ballast options: efficient or
• magnetic or electronic
dimming electronic ballast Best 6986 L 72w
• standard, efficient, or dimming
Less lamp power, same
• • Normal, high
instant, rapid, or low ballast
or programmed start
• factor
normal, ballast
high, or low ballast factor maintained output
• low-wattage lamps only compatible with
instant-start, non-dimming ballasts
Are Low-Wattage T8’s Better?
Lamp/Ballast Systems
MART 120 T-8 3100/EIS
32 30 28 25 T-8 3100/EPS
100 T-8 3000/SIS
T-8 3000/SPS
80 T-8 30w/EIS
T-8 30w/SIS
60 T-8 28w/EIS
T-8 28w/SIS
40 T-8 25w/EIS
T-8 25w/SIS

20 T-8 2800/SIS
T-8 2800/SPS
0 T-12 ES Mag
Mean Lumens Per Watt T-12 ES/ES Mag
For Further Investigation
• compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs)
• cool cathode fluorescent lamps (CCFLs)
• electrodeless lamps
• power is transferred by (electro)magnetic fields
• extended lamp life: electrodes usually limit life
• can use high efficiency light-generating substances
that would react with metal electrodes
• plasma lamps use radio waves to create a plasma
in a noble gas with metal halides, Na, Hg, or S
• magnetic induction lamps use windings around a
magnetic core to create current inside the bulb
Metal Halide (MH) Lamps:
Light from Plasma
How they Work
• A high potential difference is placed across two electrodes
within a gas (Ar, Hg) seeded with metal salts (ScBr, NaI).
• Gases lose electrons to the cathode, creating a plasma
(ionized, electrically conductive gas-phase substance).
• Ongoing plasma discharge constitutes an electrical “arc”.
Establishment of the arc is called “striking”.
• Once the arc is established, increased current results in a
lower voltage between the arc terminals and resistance
• Heat generated by the arc vaporizes the mercury and
metal halides, which produce light as the temperature
and pressure increases.
• The mixture of halides determines the color and intensity
of light produced.
• 65-115 lumens / watt
Metal Halide Issues
• striking the arc:
• traditional standard probe start: uses a third, “start-
ing” electrode to establish the arc
• pulse start: an “ignitor” generates a high-voltage (1-
5kV) pulse to start the arc; no starting electrode
• warmup: a “cold” metal halide lamp’s inner arc chamber
requires time to reach the operating-level temperature
(2000°F) and pressure (70-90 psi)
• few seconds to strike the arc
• up to 5 min to reach full operating conditions
• bluish color while warming up
• restrike: if power is interrupted, the arc will extinguish,
and high pressure in the arc tube will prevent restriking
• normal ignitor: a cool-down period of 5–10 min re-
quired before the lamp can be re-started, but with
• special ignitors: arc can be immediately re-established
in some pulse-start lamps with >30kV pulse
• ballasts: required - why?
For Further Investigation
• Venture Lighting
• dimming ballasts
• wireless: LeafNut
• integral: eLamp with electronic ballast
• Energy Master lamps (90-100 lm/W)
• track lighting ballasts
• “designer” colors
Solid-State Lamps (SSLs)
light from electroluminescence
How they Work
First a bit about semiconductors:
How they Work
• an electron is a negative charge-car-
rying entity
• a “hole” is an open spot in the va-
lence shell, available to accept an
• n-type semiconductors have more
electrons than holes (so a lot of elec-
trons in the conduction band)
• p-type semiconductors have more
holes than electrons
• a diode allows current through in
only one direction → a p/n junction
creates a diode
• the Fermi level is the energy state • result: 10-40 lumens/watt
with 50% chance of being occupied
by an electron • competitive in small-size lighting applications

• a light-emitting diode (LED) is one

in which electron recombination has
sufficient energy to emit photons
LED Issues
• efficiency is greater than incandescents;
comparable to fluorescents
• light is typically strongly colored at the
wavelength corresponding to the energy
band gap
• white light created by mixing RGB LEDs
or passing blue LED light through a phos-
phor (the latter is more common, cheap-
er, less efficacious)
• small size; form characteristic groups for
high-lumen applications
• instant startup
shaping the solid-state portion
• on/off cycling: no shortening of lamp life
• expensive
• cool; very little heat emission
• sensitive to high temperatures
• low fragility
• color rendering is better than incandescents,
• easily dimmable but not always great for reds
• can be focused without a reflector, by
For Further Investigation
• T8 replacements
• linear office lighting
• square light bulbs
• anything with dots!
An Emerging Resource