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BELGAVI UNIVERSITY, BHOOTRAMANHATTI, BELGAVI

SYLLABI FOR B.SC.I & II SEMESTER GEOLOGY (OPTIONAL)

(w.e.f. 2010-11).

S. Paper Code Title of the Paper Marks Exam Inst.


No. Theory/ Interna Total Time Hrs/
Practical l week
B.Sc Semester I
1. UG-GEOL- I A. Dynamic Geology Part I and 80 20* 100 3 hrs 5
B. Crystallography
2. UG-GEOL-PR-I Practical I : Study of 40 10** 50 4 hrs 4
Toposheets, use of Brunton,
Clinometer & GPS;
Geomorphological models; and
Crystallogrpahy
B.Sc Semester II
3. UG-GEOL-II A. Dynamic Geology Part II, 80 20* 100 3 hrs 5
and
B. B. Mineralogy & Optical
Mineralogy
4. UG-GEOL-PR-II Practical II : Mineralogy & 40 10** 50 4 hrs 4
Optical Mineralogy
* Theory Internal 20 marks covers: Two theory tests (20 marks reduced to 10 marks);
**One Practical internal test (20 marks reduced to 10 marks).

a) Student batch: As this is a semi technical and at present available only at GSS
College, each batch should consist of not more than 6 students for the regular classes
and practical (for the sake of workload distribution).

b) Field Trip: There will be a Geological Study Tour to the places of geological interest
mainly to study the field occurrence of geological features. It carries 5 marks.

c) Practical Record: Submission of a well-maintained Journal of the Practical Work


done during the year is necessary before the Practical Examination. Assignments/
Student Projects: The students will be given assignments or student project, which
are to be submitted during the practical examination. This carries 10 marks.
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Nature of Theory and Practical Examination

a) Theory Examination: (Total 100 Marks)


There will be one theory paper of 80 marks in each semester. viz. Paper I for Semester
I and Paper II for Semester II.
Each paper will contain Three Sections, which are to be written in the same
answer book.
Section A: Definitions/two sentence answers – Any 10 out of 12 (2x10 = 20)
Section B: Short answers (about 5-10 lines – Any 6 out of 8 (5 x 6 = 30)
Section C: Descriptive answers (about 20-25 lines) – 3 questions with OR in each
(3x10=30)
The remaining 20 marks in the theory is: Internal Assessment Marks –
Theory (10 marks): Two internal tests of 20 marks each reduced to 10 marks.
Internal Assignment/Seminars/Student project work (10 marks): Students are given
assignments/seminars on the subject taught or a student project work.
b) Practical Examination: Total 50 Marks.
Practical examination will have 3 sections of 10 marks each. (3x10=30 marks)
Practical Record (Journal), Study tour report and Viva Voce: (10 marks).
Practical Internal test: One internal test of 20 marks reduced to 10. (10 Marks)

Following combinations of subjects can be best suitable for GEOLOGY, under any
three options. (PMG), CBG, CGComp, MGComp,GGComp,CGStat

A B C D E F
Physics Chemistry Maths Botany Geology Computer
Science
Microbiology Electronics Biotechnology Statistics Zoology
Geography
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1. OBJECTIVES: Introduce the ward to the geological processes, earth


resources, our natural environment and the human interactions from a
geological perspective. Topics to be covered will include; Earth Materials and
Structure, Human interactions with nature, Environmental Hazards, Pollution
of the Environment, Natural Resources, Energy Sources and their exploitation.
Through these objectives the students will achieve the following know how:
• Develop the understanding of earth and its material.

• Develop greater self-awareness of personal role regarding environmental

issues.

• Increase awareness of environmental issues and how they affect society.

• Develop skills and insight into critical thinking and situational awareness of

surrounding environment.

• Gain an understanding of the physical processes that operate in and on earth.

• Understand the interactions between humans and the geological processes.

• Understand past, present, and future environmental issues and how they affect

the earth and our society.


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B.Sc (GEOLOGY OPTIONAL) SEMESTER I

UG GEOL-I
Dynamic Geology - Part I; and
Crystallography

Max. Marks: 80
Total teaching hours: 75
5 hrs/week

A. Dynamic Geology - Part I


Unit I 5 hrs

Introduction: Definition of Geology, Branches of Geology, Role of Geology in the


development of mankind.
Solar System. Origin of Earth: Nebular– Planetesimal– Tidal hypothesis and Big Bang
theory.
The age of the earth – Relative age: Sedimentation, Salinity of sea water,
paleontological records. Absolute age: Radio Activity, half life period, Uranium-lead,
Rubidium- Strontium, and C-14 methods.
Interior of Earth: Seismic waves: P – S waves description, their application to
understand the interior of earth, discontinuity definition – Mohorovicic and Gutenberg
discontinuities. General description of Crust, Mantle and Core of the earth.

Unit II
Geological processes – Geological agencies: atmospheric- heat, gases, moisture, surface
& subsurface water, sea water, wind and ice. Classification: Exogenic & Endogenic
processes. 1 hr
Weathering: Definition, Agents of weathering- Physical, Chemical & Biological
weathering.
Types of weathering: Physical weathering- Thermal weathering- spheroidal weathering,
exfoliation; frost action; mechanical weathering- action of waves, action of wind and
action of water.
Chemical weathering: Water as a chemical agent. Oxidation, hydration and carbonation.
Biological weathering: Action of plants, animals and man.
Products of weathering- soil, talus and scree deposit. 5 hrs
Wind – Geological action of wind- Erosion, transportation and deposition.
Erosion and Erosional features- deflation, winnowing action of wind, abrasion, attrition,
ventifact, honeycomb structure, pigeonhole structure, pedestal rocks.
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Deposition and depositional features: sand dunes- longitudinal and transeverse dunes;
barachans, loess deposit. 3 hrs
River- Origin of River. Drainage patterns: dendritic, trellis, rectangular, radial, braided.
Stages of River – Initial stage; Youth stage -water fall, cascade, and river capture; Mature
stage- meandering & oxbow lake; and Old stage, base level of erosion, delta, and fijord.
Geological action of River- erosion: hydraulic action, attrition, abrasion, corrosion;
transportation and deposition.
Erosional features: valley, gorge, pot hole.
Transportation: solution, suspension, Saltation and rolling.
Depositional features- Natural levee, flood plain, shoals, alluvial fan.
Rejuvenation of river.
Unit III

Glaciers – Definition, snow line, Snow field, Neve/Fern.


Formation of glacier, Avalanche. Types of glaciers – valley glacier, Ice sheet, Piedmont
glacier; movement of glaciers.
Surface features: Creavasses, types of creavasses – bergshrund, longitudinal, transeverse
& marginal.
Geological action of glacier: erosion – abrasion, excavation/valley plucking, frost
wedging and scraping; Erosional features- cirque, arête, horns, U-valley, hanging valley,
rochesmoutonnee.
Transportation process.
Deposition – depositional features: moraines- lateral, medial, terminal/end, ground
moraines, tillite, erratic.
Glacialfluvial deposits- Outwash plain, kames, drumlins, eskers.
Lake – Brief description on Origin of lake: tectonic- volcanic crater, rifting.
non tectonic- meteorite impact, oxbow lake, kettle, doline, sink hole;
manmade- ponds, reservoirs.
Types of lakes: Saline, freshwater
Bog deposits.
Sea – waves, tides and currents
Sea as a geological agent.
Definition of coast, shoreline. Classification of shore lines: emergent and submergent;
Coastal land forms: beach, island, spit, barrier beach, tombolo and headland.
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Oceanic deposits: Marine sediment, manganese nodules, phosphate nodules, Carbonate


deposits- shells, oozes.
Causes, effects and evidences of Sea level Changes.

B. Crystallography
Unit IV
Definition of crystal – morphological characters of crystal – face –form – edge- solid
angles, Euler’s law.
Interfacial angle, Contact Goniameter and its use.
Symmetry characters– crystallographic axes – crystal notation – parameter system of
Weiss and Miller indices – axial ratio – laws of crystallography.
Study of crystal forms of normal classes of all six crystal systems.

Unit V 20 Marks
Two internal test examinations (10 marks); and
One independent home assignment and one seminar presentation related to the above
topics OR a student project.

Max. Marks: 50 Time: 4 hrs/week Total 50 hrs

PRACTICALS I: Interpretation of Toposheet, Use of Brunton compass and GPS;


Geomorphological Models; and Crystallography

Topographical maps; latitude -longitude concepts, Survey of India (SOI) map index,
Contours, Scales, major conventional signs and symbols, physical and socio-cultural
features. Taking bearings with the help of Brunton Compass, Clinometer to find out dip
and strike of the beds (attitude of beds). Taking bearing with Global Positioning System
(GPS).
Describe the following Geomorphological models with neat sketch and labeling: Stages
of River (Youth, Mature & Old stage), River Piracy, Drainage patterns (Radial, Annular,
Trellis, Rectangular, Dendritic, Meandering & braided) Coastal landforms- beach, island,
headland, barrier, tombolo, and bay. Typical Volcano & associated features, Karst
Topography, Glacier landforms.
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Crystallography: Forms of a crystal: face, edge, solid angle, Euler’s law, Interfacial
angle with the help of contact goniometer. Crystal symmetry: planes, axes and center of
symmetry. Crystallographic axes and axial angles, parameters, indices. Study of elements
of symmetry of crystal models of normal classes of six crystal systems: Isometric/Cubic,
Tetragonal, Orthorhombic, Hexagonal, Monoclinic, Triclinic systems.

BOOKS RECOMMENDED

Principles of Physical Geology A. Holmes


Geomorphology V.K. Sharma
Aspects of tectonics K.S. Valdiya
Environmental Geology K.S. Valdiya
General Geology Radhakrishanan. V
A text book of Geology Mahapatra, G.B
Text book of Geology P.K.Mukherjee
Text book of Geology A.K.Datta
Engineering Geology Parbin Singh
Rutley's Elements of Mineralogy H.H. Read
Dana's Text book of Mineralogy W.E. Ford
Mineralogy Berry & Mason
Mineralogy for students M.I. Batty
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B.Sc II SEMESTER
UG GEOL – II
A. Dynamic Geology Part – II ; and
Mineralogy and Optical Mineralogy
Max. Marks: 80
5hrs/week Total hrs: 75 hrs.

Dynamic Geology Part – II


Unit I
Volcanoe: Definition – Typical volcano. Classification of Volcano: effusive, explosive
and extrusive, active, dormant & extinct.
Types of volcano: cinder cone, composite or strato volcano, shield and lava domes.
Types of eruptions: fissure, Hawaian, Strombolian, vesuvian, pelean
Products of volcano: Solid- cinder, lapilli, vocanic bombs, aa, ropy lava, ash; Liquids-
lava; and Gases.
Earthquakes: Definition ––Focus and Epicenter. Causes- non tectonic & tectonic:
Elastic Rebound Theory; and effects of earth quake. Classification based on depth of
epicenter; Intensity: Rossiferal & Richtor scale; seismic waves: Body (P & S) and Surface
waves (Love & Rayleigh); Seismograph and Seismogram; Prediction of Earthquakes;
Tsunami; Seismic belt of India.
Unit II
Continental Drift and Plate Tectoncis: Principle of isostasy, concept of Pangea,
Laurasia and Gondwana. Wegener’s continental drift theory with jigsaw fit, mineral and
fossil evidences.
Sea floor spreading and plate tectonics- kinds of plate margins- convergent, divergent and
subduction.
Mountains: Definition, Origin and types of mountains, Geosynclines, plateaus, plains,
mesa, butte.
Unit III
Environmental geology: Definition of ecology and environmental Geology. Hazards:
Definition, Types of hazards- natural (volcano, earthquake, tsunami, landslide, cyclone &
flood) and manmade hazards (soil erosion, coastal erosion, water and air pollution),
hazard management – hazard zoning maps, risk assessment.
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B. Mineralogy and Optical Mineralogy


Unit I
Mineralogy- definition, man and minerals. Rock forming minerals.
Study of Physical Properties of minerals: Properties depending upon light- color, streak,
diaphaneity, luster.
Properties depending upon state of aggregation- form- columnar, lamellar and granular.
Imitative shapes- botryoidal, amygdaloidal, vesicular & stalactitic. Isomorphism,
polymorphism, pseudomorphism.
Properties depending upon cohesion and elasticity - Cleavage, Fracture, Hardness and
Tenacity; and other properties of minerals – acid test, taste, luminescence, feel,
magnetism.
Mohos scale of hardness. Specific gravity- definition, Walker steelyard balance.
General study of general characters and uses of following group of minerals:
• Quartz group
• Felspar and felspathoid Group
• Mica group
• Pyroxene group
• Amphibole group
• Garnet group
Unit II
Nature of light – Electromagnetic wave. Ordinary and polarized light – Reflection.
Refraction and Refractive index, Critical angle and Total internal reflection. Double
refraction.
Petrological microscope: Introduction to parts of Microscope.
Construction of Nicol Prism – Behavior of light in the microscope without mineral, with
isotropic mineral and with anisotropic mineral.
Polarisation: polarization by reflection, Brewster’s law - polarization by Refraction,
polarization by absorption.
Unit III
Mineral optical properties: in plane polarised light- Colour, Pleochroism Form,
Cleavage, Fracture, Relief. Properties in analysed/ crossed nicols- Isotropism and
Anisotropism, Extinction, Birefringence and Interference Colours, Zoning and Twinning.
Extinction- Definition, types of extinction, Determination of extinction angle.
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Optical accessories– Quartz wedge (Determination of order of Interference Colour),


– Gypsum plate and Mica plate (Determination of Fast and Slow vibration directions).

Unit IV 20 Marks
Two internal test examinations and one practical internal examination. One independent
assignment and one seminar presentation related to the above topics OR a student project.

Max. Marks: 50 Time: 4 hrs/week Total 50 hrs

PRACTICALS II: MINERALOGY & OPTICAL MINRALOGY

Megascopic study of following minerals: Quartz, Rock Crystal, Amethyst, Chalcedony,


Agate, Flint, Jasper, Chert, Opal. Orthoclase, Microcline, Plagioclase; Muscovite, Biotite,
Hornblende, Asbestos; Hypersthene; Olivine; Garnet; Calcite, Dolomite, Magnesite;
Kyanite, Corundum, Beryl, Tourmaline, Talc, Serpentine; and Zeolites- Natrolite, Stilbite.
Estimation of specific gravity by Walker Steel Yard balance.

Optical Mineralogy: Optical properties (under plane polarized and analysed light) of
following minerals- Quartz, Feldspar – Orthoclase, Microcline, Plagioclase; Feldspathoid
– Leucite and Nephelene; Olivine, Pyroxene –Hypersthene, Augite; Amphibole –
Hornblende; Mica – Muscovite, Biotite; Alumino Silicates – Kyanite; Carbonates –
Calcite; Garnet; Zircon.
Determination of Extinction and Cleavage angle under microscope.

BOOKS RECOMMENDED
Rutley's Elements of Mineralogy H.H. Read
Dana's Text book of Mineralogy W.E. Ford
Mineralogy Berry & Mason
Mineralogy for students M.I. Batty
Optical Mineralogy E.E. Wahlstrom
Optical Mineralogy F.F. Kerr
Elements of Optical Mineralogy A.N. Winchell
Engineering Geology Parbin Singh