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c 



  




 are available in c  but are not found in the 


drop down menu as in previous versions of c .
The
cascading menu in c 
offers the   
creation
options but not 
. To
access 
 use the 


    option and
add the 
icon to the


.

Select the 


 icon to activate the


 
c 


  


dialog and 
 
.

The 
dialog has a new look but offers
the same options as seen in c !. The operators
work the same as they did before. The 
 

looks and functions the same as in previous
versions of c .

The 
dialog offers several of the 
creation tools
from left to right in the top of the dialog.

0  
0 

The active option will highlight as
0 
 
seen by the orange color  icon.
0  
0 

0 ^

 






 
c 


  


dialog options will differ depending on the creation option
chosen.

    

    

 
When 
 is accessed the

 
is also made
active. This is used for input values and the cursor is not necessary for curve
creation. To advance from one text field to the next use the " #. If
$" or % is used either nothing will happen or the curve will be created
with the wrong input.




 !
c 


  

The   option offers three methods for  


:
0 þ'  
0   
0 !  





 
$'
0 ^
þ
 and ^ values in the proper text fields
in the

( bar.
0 ›hange the % ) to  

and key in
the þ
 and ^ values in the , * , and +
text fields.
0 Select existing geometry.
0 ›reate 
  to the current , * , or + ,.
0 ›reate 
  at ( 
.
0 ›reate 
'  
or at an  from an existing line.
0 ›reate an     using the Graphics Window
borders as the þ
 and ^ limits of the  . This can
only be used if þ
% is deactivated.

  are created using the þ
% if active. þ
% provides a
(#
 - or  
. display in the Graphics Window of


 &
c 


  

the new object from the end of the previous curve to the cursor. þ

 can be ended by either selecting the 
 þ
 toggle or pressing
%.

Start point of line to be created.

Dynamic
Preview

›ursor

Existing Line.

(  is used in conjunction with the 


 
. If active any value
entries will be measured from the previous defining point.

 
  is a þ' value that allows c to create a
/
0 or 1
 if your selection is with angle limits.

 % is available when creating a  
 , 
'  
, or
at an  to another line. It is only available after selecting a line start
point and selecting the   . When the desired relationship to the
reference line is displayed in 
 - press % to activate  %
and lock in the relationship no matter where the cursor is moved. If  
% has been activated the toggle description changes to  %
and can be activated using %.


 
c 


  

Start Point of new line.

Base Line selected between an


end point and the mid-point with
the cursor Selection Ball.

Once the   is selected the new line can only be created either
 , 
'  
, or 
  to it. The  
. will
continue to change between the three options as the cursor is moved around
the Graphics Window. When the  
. displays the desired
relationship to the   pressing % will lock that relationship.
 
% )3

 ( 
 has two options.
$
 allows you to create a single line or multiple lines 
 
 ( 
 a base curve using a value keyed into the Offset

Text Field.


 2
c 


  

When creating offset lines 


 (
selection is important. Select the curve with the
Selection Ball between the End and Mid Points.
The crosshair of the cursor is placed on the side of
the line to define the offset direction as shown in the
graphic to the right.
This operator does not work if þ
% is toggled $.
New Line

Base Line

›ursor location when


selecting Base Line.

Key in the $55  distance and press ^


. Every time you press ^
a
new line will be created. If you have the $
 option active every new
line created will be on top of the previous line because the $55  is always
measured from the $
 
.


 4
c 


  


  -
7

þ   Arc 1 with the selection ball away from


a control point of the arc.
(
 the cursor away from the arc
to see the  # .

There are two possible  # . If the tangency displayed is
incorrect pass the cursor between the arc center and the tangency attachment
point to reverse it.




 Result of Tangency change
þ   Arc 2 with the selection ball away from any defining point of
the curve.

Line created using this method.


 6
c 


  


 -# - -'
  7
þ   ›urve 1 near the end point you want
›urve 1
the new line to start from.
þ   ›urve 2 from the same end making
sure no point is inside the selection ball.
Selecting the 2 existing curves in that
fashion establishes the base point of the
›urve 2
new curve midway between them.
þ   the end point of either existing curve to
establish the end point of the new ›urve.

Select the End Point of ›urve 2 for Length.

New curve created midway


between ›urve 1 and ›urve 2


  ) )   -  7
þ   Line 1 between control points.

þ   Line 2 between control points.


 8
c 


  

After selecting Line 2 c creates the base point of the new line at the
intersection of the two lines selected. Because of this it does not matter
which end of the two lines you select.

(
 the cursor to where you want the end point of the line to be and
either select geometry or do a cursor location pick to crate the line.

Place the cursor where the The Asterisk displayed is the cursor
new line end point will be. location pick defining the new line
end point


  ) (

" # in the coordinate location of the    in the , * ,


and + Test Fields and 
 the ^
key.

The values used for the graphic on the left


were:
:9799
 * :.9799
 + :9799
These values establish the   of
the Line to be created.

 9
c 


  

) (
5
.
a. Activate the Text Field by Double ›licking it and key in the
desired value.
b. 
 the  key.
c. Key in the value in the Second Text Field.
d. 
 the  key.
e. Key in the value in the third Text Field.
f. 
 the ^
key.
When using the Dialog Bar for creation 
 the ^
key to execute the
desired values. Using % does not work.

 ) " # to get to the Text Field needed to key in the second set
of coordinate values. When completed 
 the ^
key.

Result


  
5 )
 )'7
þ   an Existing Point to define the Lines Base Point.


 
c 


  

Select a Base Point for


the line to be created.

) the % ) to þ   in the Basic ›urve dialog.


þ   the face the line is to be created normal to.

A line is created from the point


selected to the face selected.


 
c 


  





offers two creation options:

0 þ
;^;
.
0 
;þ
;^.

There is also an 


 þ  toggle that will create an 
 opposite
the one defined. This toggle is only available before the final point is
specified and can be tricky during creation. It is easier to get the 
 
þ  using the ' 
 toggle found in the ^


 
 dialog.

þ
;^;

This creation option requires the selection of a þ
 for the 
, an
^ for the 
 and a 
 that defines the   value of
the 
 being created. All three points can be either screen selections,
points on geometry, or values entered in the 
 
.

 !
c 


  

The 
 
for þ
;^;
 has two text fields grayed
out. These fields are only available when using the 
;þ
;^
creation option.

These two text fields are used to enter a þ


 and ^ value when
creating the 
 using 
;þ
;^ option if desired. Geometry can
also be used to define the þ
 and ^ points of the 
 as well as screen
selections.

þ  ) 

þ


þ  ) 

^
þ  ) 



This is an example of selecting the 
 
as a screen selection and the
þ
 and ^ being defined using geometry.

The next example uses the 


 
for the entries that will define the

 to be created. The , * , and + entries define where the 


will be located in space. The   and ( 
values


 &
c 


  

determine the 
 size, and the þ
 and ^ entries define
the actual 
(  .
&< 
1 
&=^ 
!!=þ
 

9;9;9




  
 is only available if þ
% is deactivated. Use this to
create a   
 once the third point is specified.

þ
% and ( both work the same way described in  

.


 

This creation method is limited. The only option available is % ' 
. Once a 
 has been created this option can be activated
allowing % '  
  of the same value to be created by selecting
different origins.

 

  offers three methods of creation:


 
c 


  

0 þ'  - will apply a Fillet of the value in the Radius


text field if the intersection of two curves will fit inside the
cursor selection ball. The cursor crosshair will identify the
Fillet ›enter. The curves are trimmed automatically.

Selection Result Selection Result



0   - will apply a Fillet at the intersection of two
curves of the value in the Radius text field. Select the
›urves in a ›ounterclockwise rotation and identify the
Approximate Fillet ›enter. The ›urve Trim options are
available for deactivation.

›urve 1

Select Approximate ›enter

›urve 2

 Result


 2
c 


  

0 !  - will apply a Fillet between three curves. The


Radius is determined by the curve relationship and no
Radius value can be entered. An Approximate Fillet ›enter
is required. The Trim options are also available using this
creation method.

Fillet created as a result of the


selection sequence shown to the
left.
















 4
c 


  






has four selection options.



dialog collapsed.



selection options.
þ  

 $> 
 $> 

 
þ 



dialog expanded.

The selection sequence for 



in c is different than in
previous c versions. The first object to select now is the
to be

 . If the
is to be shortened to a  $> select the

in the area that is to be removed by the 
operation. After
selecting the
to be 
 the  will prompt you to select
the  $> or $> . If the
being 
  is to be

 6
c 


  

extended to a  $>  select the


near the end to be affected
by the 
. If the end selected is incorrect use the ^
 option to
modify the selection.

þ  
is the

to be 
 .



 is the
that is to be either  )   or þ)
  .
Select the end of the
to be modified. When a
is selected to be

  it is flagged þ  
and a small circle will appear at the end
nearest where it was selected. When a  $>  is selected it is
flagged þ  $> . The þ  
is the
to
be 
  and the small circle
indicates the end of the curve to be
 affected by the 
.

The þ  $>  is the
 
 
# and the
small circle indicates the end

of the curve to be affected by
 the 
.



If the ball is at the wrong end use the ^
 drop down to change
ends.


 8
c 


  

A  $>  must be selected but a  $>  does not.


If a second $>  is not needed press % to skip that selection
step.

1 
(
 is only available
if the 
 method
is set to þ' 5#1 
.

If the   $>  is to be trimmed as well as the




activate 
  $> . If the  $>  is to be used for
more than one trim activate " ' $> þ   .







^, 
There are four
^, 
options that affect a splines shape if
it is to be extended.

c
. This extends the spline by attempting to calculate the additional
length based on the shape of the end to be extended.
 
. A straight transition tangent to the spline at the end to be extended.


 9
c 


  


 
. Extends the spline by calculating a radius value based on the
spline end being extended.
c . If None is selected you can only shorten to a boundary but not
extended.

Spline Natural Extension Spline Linear Extension

Spline ›ircular Extension Spline None Extension



5


  will 
 a curve to the nearest intersection point to
the  $> . The % )
  options only
have an impact on the result if the curves being 
  are not on the
same plane as the  $> .

 $ '  will 


 a
but keep the original þ


 only display it in a () .

' 
 controls what happens to the original
being 
 .

 
c 


  

0  - keeps a copy of the original Trimmed ›urve


0 (   - only keeps a copy of the Trimmed ›urve
0  - keeps a copy of the original Trimmed ›urve only
Blanks it.
0  ' - replaces the original ›urve to be Trimmed with
the Trimmed ›urve.
If  $ ' is active only  ' and  are available under
' 
.


The selection sequence can be
changed by activating the
þ   Object buttons for each
select step in the desired
sequence.
þ  $>  


To change the selection
sequence select the þ  
$>  button for  
$>  and select the first
boundary for the curve to be
trimmed to. You will automatically advance to the  $> 
selection step. Select  $>  if desired, if no second bounding


 
c 


  

object is to be used press % to return to the þ  


step to select
the
to be 
 .

^

 
allows the^of any

' 7
^ 
 
7


When you select a line to edit the Text Fields will display its current values.
You can key in new  ) or  values. The  is measured in
relationship to the current axis of the ? þ.

Key in the new values as required and press the ^


or  
 key to
execute the edit.
New values

The line will update to the new values.


 !
c 


  

a. A line end point can also be relocated. If you select ^


 
 and select the end point of a line that point will attach
itself to the cursor and you can move it to a new location.

Select the line with its end point inside


the

þ  .

The line is now attached to the


cursor and can be placed in a
new location by selecting
another curve end point.

Select the end point of another curve to


complete the edit.

^) 
 
5
 
 
When you select 


^
 
 the
creation tool bar will appear. When a 
 or 
 is selected the Text
Field dialog will change listing the current values which you can change.
The edit options are the same for 
 and 
 .
It is important when an 
 or 
 is selected to know what the small
balls appearing on the geometry are telling you.
a. The small circles on an 
 are indicating the þ
, %, and ^
 of that 
. The small circles are indicating the þ
 and
^ points of a 
 , which are the same, and the 
 ›enter.


 &
c 


  

If you are using 


.þ   a   sign will also display at the center of
both 
 and 
 . That display will disappear once the object is
selected.

b. If you select either curve with an end point inside the selectionball
that point attaches itself to the cursor. This allows you to move the
cursor and modify the Delta Angle of the creation.

New Arc end point. Select the


screen or existing geometry to place
the arc end at this location.

Original Arc end point.

c. If you select the curve at the radius center indicator, the small plus
sigh, the arc or circle attaches itself to the cursor and can be moved
to a new location.

^

 
$'3
1. 
 
. Activates the Text Fields Dialog bar when curves are
selected allowing you to key in new defining values. When selecting
curves select between control points rather than selecting where the arc
end point is inside the selection ball.

 
c 


  

c 3 If values are keyed into the 


 
Text Fields %
does not execute the edit. In order to execute the edit after keying in
new values Press the ^
or  
 key.
If you select an end point instead of the arc between control points
you will be in the (
% no matter whether you have

 
 or (
 mode toggled.

2. (
. Dragging allows you to modify the radius value of an arc or
move its Delta Angle or relocate the arc depending on how you select the
geometry.
a. If you select the arc between control points the arc attaches to the
cursor and you can drag the radius value larger or smaller.
b. If you select the arc with an end point in the selection ball you can
drag the end point to change the arcs delta angle.
c. If you select the arcs center the arc attaches to the cursor and can
be relocated.

3. ('#$
þ' allows you to see the original spline as well as
the edited version until the edit is accepted. At that time the original
spline display disappears.

4. ^ 
3
#
 
- This allows you to edit an associative curve
without breaking the associative link.


 2
c 


  

$
- This option breaks the associative link of the
curve to be edited and its original defining curve. You will
receive a warning if this option is used.






















 4
c 


  

EXER›ISE-›reating Lines
›reate a new file named ,
 @
@97'


Use the Text Fields in the Tracking


Bar and create the lines required
to duplicate the image to the right.

1. Select the


icon.
2. Activate þ
% and the (  option
3. Activate the Text Field by double selecting it with %. Key in the
following values displayed below. Remember to press the  key to


 6
c 


  

move to the * and + Text Fields. Make sure the Text Field is
active before starting to key in the next row of values.
   *   + 
a. 979  979 979 Press Enter
b. 979  479 979 Press Enter
c. A7979979 Press Enter
d. 979979979 Press Enter
e. 979979979 Press Enter
f. 979.79979Press Enter
g. 979  979 979 Press Enter
h. 97979979Press Enter
j. 979  979 979 Press Enter
k. 979 .979 979 Press Enter
m. A79 .79 979 Press Enter
n. 979 .479 979 Press Enter
4. ›lose the ›urve ›reation by selecting the Start Point of the first curve
created where the ? þ is displayed as the End Point of the last line to be
created.
5. Offset all the curves inward 79< using the 
 (
option.
Remember each time a line is selected to Offset the $55  Text Field must
be activated and the key used to obtain the desired results.

When all 12 lines have been$55 save the file and close it.
 Select þ 
 Select   


 8
c 


  

EXER›ISE-›reating Arcs

›reate a new file named ,


 @
@97'

›reate þ,
 using the text fields in the Tracking Bar. Select the Basic
›urve icon and activate the Arc option.

Since þ
 and ^ angles will be used the
% ) must be

;þ
;^. Also turn off þ
% .

3 :979
    * :979
    + :979
 :979
    þ
 :6979B
    ^ :!2979B
When creating multiple arcs the Arc icon must be selected between
each set of entries in the Text Fields.
  
3 :979
* :&9979
    + :979 
     :979
    þ
 :979B
    ^ :6979B

  
!3 :979
    * :979
    + :979

 !9
c 


  

     :979
    þ
 :979B
    ^ :&!79B (If you use 75 º an
invalid entry error
message will appear.)

  
&3 :979
    * :&9979
    + :979
     :979
    þ
 :.479B
    ^ :79B

  
3 :979
    * :9979
    + :979
     :6979
    þ
 :.279B
    ^ :279B

  
23 :979
    * :9979
    + :979
     :6979
    þ
 :79B
    ^ :&79B


 !
c 


  

When you are finished with the six arcs


the file should appear as the graphic to
the right. If it does not check the
entries for the arc/arcs in question.

If you have made mistakes delete the


incorrect arc/arcs and recreate them.

To delete an object select ^


(   and select the object or
objects you wish to delete and select
$".

When you are finished Save the file


and close it.


 !
c 


  

EXER›ISE-›reating ›ircles and Arcs


Open file: ,
 @
@!7'


File as opened


3
›reate a &79( 
circle at  , , , and (.
Use the % '  option to minimize keying in entries.



 !!
c 


  


3
Turn Off % '  and crate the following circles and arcs
using the chart below.

Point Radius or Start End


Designation Diameter value Angle Angle
Point E 30.0 r 180 degrees 270 degrees
Point F 20.0 r -90 degrees 360 degrees
Point G 50.0 dia*
Point H 33.0 r*
Point J 20.0 r 0 degrees 180 degrees
Point K 30.0 r 0 degrees 180 degrees
Point L 44.0 r 180 degrees 360 degrees
Point M 25.0 r 0 degrees 180 degrees
Point N 25.0 r 180 degrees 360 degrees
* Select the ›ircle icon and create a circle instead of using the Arc option.
When you have completed creating the arcs and circles make #
9
  and  ) 5 .

c 3 To make #


9  select 
#
þ, select
#
9 from the layers listed in the bottom listing window and choose the
Invisible toggle.

c 3 To save the file select  þ Select the directory to save
the file in and key in the name ,
 @
@!7'
.


 !&
c 


  

File when complete.


 !
c 


  

EXER›ISE-›reating Fillets
Open file: ,
 @5 7'


Exercise as opened.
þ '3
Apply a 979
Fillet at Locations 1, 2, 3, and 4.
c 3 If you happen to select the curves in a clockwise order
use the Third Mouse Button Pop-Up menu option 
to remove the Fillet and select again in the reverse order.
þ '3
Apply a 9979
Fillet at Locations 5, 6, 7, and 8.


 !2
c 


  


þ '!3
Apply a 979
Fillet at Locations 9 and 10.

þ '&3
Apply Fillets at Locations 11, 12, 13, and 14.

þ '3
Go to 
#
þ,
select Layer 10 and select
the   toggle below
the listing window.
Select the $" Push Button
to execute the command.

›ompleted exercise


 !4
c 


  

EXER›ISE-Trimming ›urves
Open file: 
@
7'


þ '3
þ  
#7Zoom in on the portion labeled Trim to
Same Boundry and follow the instructions below.

a. Either select 



..
and select the 


icon or select ^

 to activate the 


dialog.
b. Make sure the þ þ   option is toggled $55.
c. 
 $>  icon will be active. Select the $


for the Bounding Object.
d. Select the þ

 icon to activate it.
e. Select the ‰
# curve to the left of the Bounding Object.

After each Trim has been executed and you will be prompted to Select
String to Trim.

f. Select the #


to the left of the Bounding Object.
g. Since Reuse Bounding Object is activated there will be no need to
respecify the Bounding Object. Select the  , * -, and
%  curves to the right of the Bounding Object.
h. If all three curves are selected properly and the trim will remove
the right portion of the curves choose $" to execute the trim.


 !6
c 


  

Trim to Same Boundry.


Results of þ '7

þ '3þ' ^, 7 Zoom in on the portion labeled Trim to Same


Boundry and follow the instructions below.

Makesure 5


 is toggled $. If you want the
selection options to advance automatically toggle $ þ 
þ  . Remember this will only march through the icons if you
are selecting two  $> . For this particular trim
operation you will only need one  $> . You might
prefer selecting the icons needed to perform the trims rather than
using %and trying to march through the selection sequence.

a. Select ^



.
b. Trim the # Spline to the ‰
 ›urve using c
for the
extension method.
0 Select the ‰

as the Bounding Object.


 !8
c 


  

0 Either select the þ



 icon or press %
twice to advance to the String to Trim icon.
0 Select the #Spline at the end nearest the
Bounding Object.
The extension is executed when the spline is selected and you remain
in the trim operator.

c. ›hange the Spline Extension method from c


 to  
and
select the %  Spline to be trimmed to the ‰
 þ' .
d. ›hange the Spline Extension method from  
to 
 
and
select the * -Spline. The trim is executed as soon as the
spline is selected but because of the spline shape the trim result
looks very similar to the Natural Extension.
e. ›hange the Spline Extension method from 
 
to c and
select the C 
 þ' .
If you are wondering why nothing happened you have to
remember what was said about the None Extension
earlier. c will not lengthen a curve, it will only
shorten a curve.
f. Select the 
 $>  icon and de-select the original
boundary curve by pressing the þ)5 key on the keyboard and re-
selecting the curve you wish to replace with another Boundary
›urve.
g. Select the short * - ›urve as the Bounding Object and press
% twice to advance to the þ

icon.


 &9
c 


  

h. Select the shorter portion of the C 


 Spline to trim back
to the  $> .

Spline Extension Options.


Results of þ '7

þ '!3
-) 5


 7
If  5


  is toggled $ c will trim the curve
selected to the point closest to where the Boundary Object was
selected. With  5


  toggled $55 there can
possibly be two trim solutions.
Use the $
 Line and the C 
 Arc.
a. Select the  5


  to change its status to $55.
b. Select the $
 Line as the 
 $> .
c. Press % one time to advance to the þ

 icon.


 &
c 


  

Small plus (+) signs appear on the Bounding Object indication the
intersection of two possible trim results.

Two trim
possibilities
Select the First Bounding
Object from this end.

d. Select the Plus Sign to the right when the Secondary Trim ›urve
dialog appears.
e. Select $" to execute the trim.



 Trim Result



þ '&3

 7
This portion of the exercise deals with trimming boundaries with the
þ

 as well as the 

 $'.


 &
c 


  

a. Zoom up on the curves identified as INTERSE›TION METHOD


SHORTEST 3D DISTAN›E.
b. Select ^



Leave þ þ   toggled $, Set the  5


 
toggled to $55, toggle $55 the option    $> , and toggle
$ the option 
 $> . Put the % )

  at þ)
 !(( . Since the curves you are to trim
physically intersect the result will not be affected by these sittings.

Select curve to
c. Select the  $>  as trim here
indicated to the right.
d. Select the ‰
Line as indicated
by the in the graphic and watch
the trim result.

Bounding Object 1
Bounding Object 2

 &!
c 


  

e. Toggle the 


 $>  option to $55 and select the
same two $
 ›urves as the  $> .
f. Select the long ‰
Line between the two  $>  to
remove the center portion.
Intersection Method:
g. Again, select the two $
 .
Shortest 3D Distance
›urves as the  $> .
h. Select the % ›urve as the
þ

.


The result of the trim just performed is predictable. The Magenta ›urve is
not on the same plane as the Orange ›urves. The Orange ›urves create a
plane. There is a theoretical intersection between the Orange and Magenta
›urves normal to the plane defined by the Bounding Objects. The Shortest
3D Distance is the theoretical intersection along the normals of the two
curves.

þ '3
 % )  ? þ7
Since this trim method defines the intersection along the axis
based on the current ? þ it will be necessary to redefine the ? þ.
If the ? þ is not changed, the result of this trim will be identical to
the previous one.

a. Select ? þ$
  from the Gateway Menu Bar. On the þ*þ

 &&
c 


  



select the 
widget and select the þ*þ option.
b. Select the Green Saved ? þ.

Existing
W›S

c. Select the two $


 

as the  $> .
d. Select the %  ›urve near
either end to execute the trim.
Trim Result using Intersection
Relative to W›S


   ? þtrims along the + axis normal to the
current .* plane. If you study this and the previous trim you will
notice some differences between the results.

þ '23
  )1 
7
a. Return the ? þ to   . Select ? þ$
  and
choose the Absolute ›SYS icon and select $".
b. Select ^

 to activate the Trim ›urve
dialog.
c. Select the two $
 ›urves as the  $> .
Remember to read the  for the selection prompts.


 &
c 


  

d. When the 1 


(
 icon becomes available the 1 

% ) option also becomes available. Select the 1 
% )
option 1 
 

.

e. Key in the following Values in The ;D;" text fields:


I= 0.000
J= 1.000
K= 2.000
f. Select $" after keying in the values for ;D; and ". Look at the
1 
that appears at the ? þ. That Vector tells c what
direction to look for the theoretical intersection for those curves
selected.
g. Select $".
h. Select the % ›urve near either end to trim.

Trim Vector Display Trim Along a Vector Result


 &2
c 


  

þ '43þ
c

c : This trim option can produce results that appear to physically
intersect even though they do no.
a. Select the two $
 ›urves as the  $> .
b. ›hange the Intersection Method to þ
c
.
c. Select the % ›urve near either end.

Rotate the geometry after the trim to


Trim Result
see the curves used were on different
planes.


 &4
c 


  

^ ^ þ^.^

 


Open file: @


.'
 
7'


File as Opened.

þ '3^ 7
a. Select 


.
b. Select the ^

 
icon.
c. Select   and connect it to  .
c 3 Remember when selecting  the end of the line must be
inside the selection ball.
d. Once the Line End Point is attached to the cursor move the
cursor to   and select the line end.


 &6
c 


  

þ '3
 
 #  , 7
a. Repeat the process in þ ' and place   on
 ^(.
b. The final edit to create the triangle is to place  ^^
onto  ^.

þ '!3^ 
 
 7
a. ›hange the ( 
of 
  to 279.
b. ›hange the   of 
  to 87!.
c. Move both ‰
›ircles to be centered on ‰
.
c 3 Remember to select the circle to move at its theoretical radius
center so it will attach to the cursor for moving.
d. Select 
 and change its   value to equal 279.
e. Select the arc just modified and move it to the % 
Point, .
f. Select 
 and enter the following values for  ;
þ
 and ^ .
Radius = 7.9
Start Angle = 30.0º
End Angle = 240º
g. Move the newly modified 
 from its present location to
the same %  used to satisfy instruction (e).
h. Go to 
#
þ and make #

  .


 &8
c 


  

i. Save the file.

Exercise ›omplete


 9
c 


  


 )5

Select the )5
icon from the


This selection sequence produces the )5


dialog which offers two
)5
options.


þ'  )5
- Enter a single value that is measured along two curves to
determine the portion removed in creating the )5
.
When you select þ'  )5
the first dialog that appears
is the )5
parameter dialog where you enter the actual
)5
value.

The next dialog that appears is for specifying the curves to be


chamfered. The selection process requires both curves be
inside the þ    in order to produce the desired result.


 
c 


  

If both curves are inside the selection ball the )5


will be
applied.


 The graphic above shows the )5

created and how the values were measured


 along each curve.

The graphics below shows the proper selection sequence to produce the
desired )5
7
Not only do both curves affected have to be inside the selection ball, the
crosshairs have to be in the correct quadrant to define which direction the
)5
will be applied.


If the curves to be )5
 are

selected with the crosshairs

positioned as is displayed to the left

the result will be unacceptable.



 
c 


  



 Result with improper
 selection


For the desired result select the curves

as show in the graphic to the left.



 Result with proper
selection


( 5  )5
is the second option. When the 
( 5 
)5
toggle is selected it produces the )5

 options.
 
- This option 

both curves affected by the )5
.
% 
- This option allows
 to tell c to 


you

and/or
 after the actual

)5
is performed. Selecting the
 option requires you to select the
* 
 of each curve to be removed.
end

Selecting c for either curve will

execute the )5
and leave the

curves untrimmed.


 !
c 


  

c
- This option will create the ›hamfer and leave both curves
untrimmed.

When you select 


.( 5  )5
the default option is $55 < .
 The $55  is measured along the
 þ 
selected from the
 intersection of the two curves used.
 The  is measured at the
 $55  from the þ 

selected.

Second ›urve

Offset Distance


 Angle

Applied

›hamfer
 First ›urve

  þ  þ C  5
$55   )5

a. 

 )5
.
b. 
.( 5  )5
.
c. þ   the 
 option.
d. ^
the $55  and  values.
e. þ  
.
f. þ  
.

 &
c 


  

g.  ''


, 
  point.
Even though it has been mentioned before it is important enough to be
mentioned again. þ   order is important when using 
.( 5 
)5
. The $55  value is measured along the second curve. The
 is measured from the offset point to the second selected curve.

The two examples above show the difference dictated by selection


sequence. They are the same curves, and the same values. The only
difference is the ›urve 1, ›urve 2 selection sequence.

If þ' $55  or $55  does not apply to a )5


need,
there is one additional option available.

When the )5


dialog appears
after selecting the 
.( 5 
)5
toggle, select the $55 
1  toggle.

The $55 1  offers the


opportunity to key in two different
offset values to define


 
c 


  

$55 1  is also selection sensitive. The 


$55  is  

) þ 
selected. The þ $55   

) 

selected. Second Offset Value

›urve 1

›urve 2

First Offset Value


 2
c 


  


  
Specifying two diagonal points creates rectangles.
Select the  option from the

7
This selection sequence
activates the Point
›onstructor. Use the icons
to select ^,
‰  
# for the
('  or use the
Text Fields to give

 
 for creation.

When    are created their boundaries are parallel to the and
* ,  of the

 ? þ if viewed down the + axis. If a  


is created by using

 instead of selecting existing geometry
or specifying coordinate points it is created on the

 * ' .

The   displayedhas two


boundaries parallel to the axis
and two boundaries parallel to the
* axis.


 4
c 


  

Point 4
Point 8
Point 3

Point 6

Point 5

Point 2

Point 1
Point 7

 and  were



 picks so the   was created
on the current * plane.

! and & were 


  keyed into the Text Fields so the
  was created off the * plane

;2;4; and 6 were created by þ  ^,‰  


# and the
point locations selected defined the plane of creation.

 6
c 


  


#
Select the#icon in the

7
By selecting the #
option you activate the
# dialog for side

This dialog is used to enter the number of sides you want your # to
have. You must have a  5! sides and a , 5! sides.
Select $" after specifying the number of sides your # is going to
have to activate the ›reation Method dialog. Select the Method you wish to
use to create your #.


  . This determines the size of the # by specifying
the largest diameter circle that will fit inside the
specified # tangent to its sides. The circle
defining the size is tangent to the sides of the Polygon.


 
  . This option determines the # size by

 8
c 


  

specifying a value that will pass through all the


side intersections of the #.

þ 5#. This option determines the # size by specifying the
length of each side. Radius values are not considered.

# are created on the current .* plane and the intersection of


þ
 and ^þ lies on the axis.

$
  allows you to create the # starting off the
axis rotated toward the * axis using the using a positive orientation angle.

# with no
$
  # with $
 
 of 30 degrees


 29
c 


  


^' 
Select the ^' icon from the

.
c defines an ^' by
specifying a þ .%
and
þ .%>
radius value
positioned about a center point.
The first dialog that appears after selecting the ^' option is the 


. Use this to specify the ^'  
or   of the
^' .

After specifying where you want the ^' center to be the ^'

 
dialog is activated for the creation values to be entered.
þ >
- This is the top
and bottom radius values of
the ^' .
þ 
- This value
defines the two ends of the
^' .

þ
 and ^ are set by default from 0 degrees to 360
degrees. Both points reside on the axis. An ^' can be created
at any þ
 and ^ by keying in values in these two Text
Fields.
 determines where the 0 degree Start Angle will be in
relationship to the current axis.

 2
c 


  

^'  are created on the current .* plane and the  is


measured counter clockwise from the axis toward the * axis.

The ^' displayed was positioned at the 9, 9, 9 of the ? þ. Its


þ >
  is &979< and its þ 
  is 979<. It
was created as a complete ^' , 9 to !29B, with no  .



 2
c 


  

^ ^ þ^.


›reate a new file and name it: ,
 @
@&7'


Use the graphic below and create the profile using as many of the Basic
›urve creation operators as you can.


 2!
c 


  



Select 
( < to activate the  

for creating
or specifying .
You can either create  or
c.  using the
 

.
To either activate or de-activate the
 option select the þ 
down arrow.

Under þ  is where the


 option is located.

Prior to the actual creation of a  a small cube will display showing
where the  will be located.

 2&
c 


  

The  



offers all the
options displayed in the drop down
for specifying .

5

 allows the selection of


most but not all filter specific options.



 will create points
on the .* ' of the ? þ.

^ limits the selection to the


end points of curves and edges.


 allows the selection of End Points, Mid Points, and defining
points of a spline.


  will create a point at the physical or theoretical
intersection of two objects.


<^' <þ')
 
creates a point at the center of those types of
geometry.

 
<^' allows the creation of a point on an Arc or Ellipse at a
keyed in angle to the creation 9 
point.


 2
c 


  

E 
 will create a Point at the 0, 90, 180, or 270 degree location
of an Arc or ›ircle based on the 0 degree creation location.


<^ will crate a point on a curve or edge where the cursor
is located when the geometry is selected.

 - - allows the creation of a Point between two specified


points using a text field percentage value. After the first and second points
have been specified enter the location of the desired point and select either
''# or $" to create the point.

Select either ''# or $" to create a point F between the first point, the
‰
 point, and the second point, the   point.


 22
c 


  

The  



also offers the ability to key in a 
 
 in relation to either the

? þ or   .

If the  


<^' is being used the text fields change for 
'  after the 
 or ^' is selected.

The þ'
also becomes available when the  option is
selected. Both  and c.  creation work in
conjunction with the þ'
for creating Points in 3
dimensional space or on geometry.
  update to geometry modification, c. 
 do not update to geometry modifications.
Enable Snap Point

Intersection Point

Point on Surface
Quadrant Point

Point on ›urve
Existing Point
›ontrol Point

Arc ›enter
Mid Point
End Point


 24
c 


  

^ þ' if activated allows selections to snap to points on


objects.

^ limits the selection to the end points of curves and edges.

% limits the selection to the Mid Point of curves and edges.


 allows the selection of End Points, Mid Points, and defining
points of a spline.


  will create a point at the physical or theoretical
intersection of two objects.


 
will create a point at the center of an Arc, Ellipse, or Sphere.

E 
 will create a point at the 0, 90, 180, 270, or 360 degree
mark of an Arc or Ellipse.
^, limits the selection to a point that already exists.


allows you to place a point along a curve. The only
drawback is there is no way of knowing the arc length location prior to
placement.

þ
5 places a point anywhere on a surface but as is the case
with Point on ›urve there is no way of knowing the coordinate location of
the point when placed.

 26
c 


  

þ 
Select theþ icon from the

to activate the þ 
dialog.


 28
c 


  



This option offers five Spacing Methods.

^C 
 )3 Works with percentages.
Places a set of points at an equally spaced distance along a curve. The
distance value is measured using percentage values of the curves total
arc length and the user can control the percentage of the curve the
points are applied to.
Five points were placed on
the spline using 

, ^C 
 ).
The arc length between
points is 9!722.

^C 
 
3 Works with percentages.


 49
c 


  

Places a set of points along a curve at equal 


 


based on )
(   .
Line parallel to ›hord 2
and tangent to the curve.
Line parallel to ›hord 1
and tangent to the curve.

Point of tangency between


the purple curves.

Point of tangency between


the olive curves.
›hord 2 ›hord 1
This illustrates how c determines how the points will be placed on
the curve based on the ^C 
 
þ'% ).
This will also work with curves that have 
5

.
Technically you cannot chordally divide a curve in the ways just mentioned,
but the software makes estimates based on the concept of chordal divisions.
This is why you can enter any number of points and select any type of curve
when spacing  by equal parameters.

‰  


3 Works with percentages.

 4
c 


  

This spacing method places points on a curve based on a geometric


ratio of the previous arc length percentage. The Ratio is user defined
in the Points On ›urve dialog. Prior to placing points NX analyzes
the entire curve to determine the spacing so there is no remainder
distance.

)

 3 Works with the entire curve and not percentage.
Works better with curves that approximate an arc rather than complex
splines because it produces a more uniform spacing between points.
The )

 represents the %, ( between
the 

and a )
 between two adjacent points in the
set.

Point

›hordal bisector

›hord


 4
c 


  


 
 )3
This method allows the user to define the 
 ) value between
points. When the curve is selected its true arc length is displayed in
the þ  . Enter the 
 ) spacing desired in the 
$
text field and select $" or ''# to create the points.

The spline was not equally divisible by the 


 ) value
specified so there was a remainder at the right side of the curve.
c no longer displays what the remainder arc length value is
but the curve 
 ) is displayed in the þ 
 .
This is also selection sensitive, the 
 ) values are
measured from the end closest to where the curve was selected.

The most commonly alignment methods used is ^C 


 ) and
^C 
 
.


 4!
c 


  

‰ 
 
( 53

 ²›utting plane is parallel to
the cone base.
^' ²›utting plane is angled to the
cone centerline.

²›utting plane is parallel to
the cone wall.
/#'
²›utting plane is parallel
to the cone centerline.


 

^' 




/#'


 4&
c 


  



#

To construct ‰ 
  a familiarity with their mathematics is
required as well as some of the terms associated with them.

þ' -The relative angle between the tangent vector at any


point and the .,.
)
-(Apex) The intersection point of the tangent lines from
the end points of the curve.
)
-A line between the end points.
   - ›onic with minimum amount of curvature
(maximum radius) to satisfy the initial conditions.

A     usually produces an ^' , but if the angle


between the tangent vectors and chord are equal the resultant is an 
.

 4
c 


  

ð 

angle A angle

); also known as the 


>  (
 is another factor of a
‰ 
 .
):*<*and must be between 799 to 7888. The Larger the )
value the Pointier the
.



 42
c 


  

Select the ‰ 
  icon from the

.

)

þ  
 )7

›reates a conic through five defining points using the 




.
If the conic is an 
, ^' , or 
, it will pass through all 
'. If the conic is a /#'
, it does not always pass through
the first and last points, but generally uses those points to determine
the asymptote.
&;þ' ²›reates a conic through four points, the slope applied is
to the starting end of the conic.


 44
c 


  

The þ' is defined using one of 5


 ), and prompted for
after the first point is selected.

^,' $ 3 1 


 ' .
0 þ   .
0 þ   the 1 
 '  toggle. Dir Pt A
0 ^
the values: Point 1

0 þ   the remaining 3 Points to create the .


 46
c 


  

^,' -3 (


.
0 þ   .
0 þ   the (
 toggle.
0 þ   (
.
0 þ   the remaining 3 Points to create the ›onic.


!;þ' ²›reates a conic through three points and defines the
slope at both ends of the conic.
The þ'  are defined using one of the same four methods used for
&;þ' , and are prompted for after selecting the first and last
points.
!;)
²›reates a conic )
 ))
, with a specified
)
. The )
 is the intersection of the   
at the endpoints of the conic that establishes the conic slopes.
;)
;)²›reates a conic through - that define
the conic þ
 and ^, an )
, the intersection of the
tangent lines at the endpoints, and a ) value. The ) determines which
type of conic is created:
0 ‰

)
 C  799 but  ) 799, an ^' is
created.
0 If the value is C  to 799, a 
 is created.

 48
c 


  

0 ‰

) 799 but  )
 C 7888, a H#'
 is
created.
 55 ²Allows for the creation of any conic by equation. The
coefficient values of the mathematical equation are entered as A through F
in the parameters dialog. These values control size, type, and orientation
based on the location of the W›S. c uses a general equation for all conic
types as long as A, B, and › are not all zeros.
Ax + Bxy + ›y + Dx + Ey + F = 0

;þ' ;) ›reates a conic through two points, with slopes


assigned to each end and a Rho value determining the peak transition.


)
 

1. 1 
(
.
a. Starting Slope values: :
*:.4
b. End Slope values: :
*:4
7 þ' 5
7
a. Use the Green curve to define the slope at Point One.
b. Use the ›yan curve to define the slope at Point Two.
Since this ›onic does not pass
through all three points what kind of
curve was created?
3 Points, 2 Slopes
Slope of ›urve -
3/#'
7


 69
c 


  

!7  7
a. The Angle for the 
þ' is ( 
.
b. The angle for the þ þ' is A( 
.

3 Points, 2 Slopes
Angle


 6
c 


  

$55 

$55  allows you to perform a true $55  of a curve or series of curves a
specified ( ,  , or - 
.

Select the$55 icon in the



to access the curve selection
dialog.

This is the expanded $55  dialog


showing the þ  and 
 -
option . The $55 
dialog
shows the objects that can be selected
for $55 . If you select an ^ or
 to $55  only $55 

are created.

After selecting the


<

to $55  several additional options
have to be considered. If a þ 

is selected a  is required
to establish the $55  . If
% ' 
 are selected they
define the $55  .


 6
c 


  

Type determines which of the


four methods of Offset will be
performed.

( 
( allows the $55  to be measured along the geometry normals at a
specified distance value.
When executing an $55  it is important to know the  $55 
Direction. The 1 
that displays when the $55 
dialog becomes
active tells you the  (
.

$55 ( 1 


 (
 

 $55 (




If the $55  (
 is wrong
select the 
 (
 button
to flip the direction of the Offset 180°.


 6!
c 


  

Being able to reverse the positive direction eliminates the need to key in
negative values. This operator will accept negative values but it is better not
to use them if possible.
( as the $55  option offers a ( text field for entering the
offset value. The (-

- offers additional ways of inputting the


$55 1 .
% 
allows the $55  input to
be the ( % 
 
between two objects.


  allows the creation of a
formula to define the $55 
( .

The 
  will then display in
the ^,'
 dialog defining the $55 if it is accepted by selecting the
by selecting the green check Accept button at the right end of the formula
text field.

  allows the selection of a 


 
  to use as the
$55  input. This can be viewed as an additional 
  method of
defining an $55 .


 6&
c 


  

 5
 allows the selection a defining feature parameter from an existing
feature to define the $55  input.

The 1  listed below the  5


 option are previously used inputs
that can be selected to define the $55  input.

%   locks the input value for the $55  guaranteeing minimum
deviation when $55  complex curves.

(
5
This option requires both an $55  value for ( and an  for
(
5.
The ( is measured normal to the plane of the curves.
The  is measured in the direction the  5
 1 
is
pointing.

Using an $55 1 of 679 and an  of !9B could produce


different results depending on the  1 
direction.

Offset outward Offset inward


The # that appears when the $55 
dialog is
activated is representative of the ( 1 in the text field at the time
of activation.

 6
c 


  

If those are not the desired


values key in the correct ones in
the Text fields and select the
 '# 5
 $> 
to get an update.

Values of Previous Offset

Not only does (


5/ ) and (
5  $55  the
 in a
distance relationship to the Base ›urve plane, it also $55  them at
an angle to the Base ›urve plane.

- 

- 
 allows you to create a 1
 1 $55  by creating a
-
to define the $55 1 .

It is important to select the  


properly so the - 
 
$55  gives you the desired result. The  (
1 
is where
the 
$55 1 will be applied when the $55  is created.


 62
c 


  

$55 -#' offers several options for offsetting the curves.


The - functionality within c  is covered in a separate module
and covers all the - options available with the different operators.

þ allows you to select a  to $55  all its edges. It


minimizes the selection process.


 64
c 


  

!(, $55 #' is used to offset coplanar or non-coplanar !(



. It offers options that allow specification of $55 (
 using
the 1 
 

or using an 5

1 
. The + ., is the
initial default $55 (
 and the $55 
created is always a
þ' .

$55 


This is the 1 


 

used for specifying the $55 (
.


 66
c 


  

These are the 5


(

options available for specifying
the $55 .
This $55  method does
require a (
 as well as a
( of the $55 . If no
(
 is selected the
default direction will be
accepted when the $55  is
created.

After selecting the curves to be $55 , choosing an $55 % ), and
entering the $55 
 
 the next option to be considered is how the
$55 

 will be controlled.

Select a 
 option


 68
c 


  

a. c will not extend a curve if the Offset creates a gap between
curves
b. ^,    will allow c to increase the length of an
$55 
to eliminate possible gaps. This is where the
^,  
becomes important if the Offset is set to Non-

associative, . The
^, 
is a multiple of the $55 ( . That is the
maximum Arc Length distance a curve can be extended to fill a
gap between curves. This factor is most important with angles less
than 89B.

The $55  ›urves are ^, 


set to 5 The ^,  option is set
the same length as the so the $55  ›urves to  . The transition
Base ›urves selected. can extend to an radius is the same as the
intersection. $55  value


 89
c 


  

It is acceptable to key in a high ^, 


value because c will not
^,  beyond an intersection of two curves.

c.   will create an Arc transition between $55 


 that
have not been extended.

In this example the   value will be 79


because the $55  value is 79 and the ^, 

is set on .

‰
 '$>  allows the $55 
 to be linked in a group. ‰
 ' 

 can be dealt with individually or as if they were one object. Toggle
the option $ to activate ‰
 '$>  or toggle it $55 to have the option
inactive.

 is the acceptable deviation value of the Offset ›urves to the
original curves if you are offsetting splines or conics.
c 
5 '  allows you to create % ' $55  using the same
value. Each $55  applied is from the previous set of curves.

For this result the c 


5 '  was 3.

 8
c 


  

 )$55  is only available for ( and (


5
$55 . This
is primarily used when the input curves are self-intersecting but can produce
unexpected results in the 
 options if the output is set to  . It
can also create unexpected results in the actual input curves as well as the
output curves if the output is c. .


 8
c 


  

^,


^,

  geometry, curves, using edges and faces of existing bodies.

Select the^,

icon in the

to activate the ^,


dialog.


#' that can
be ^,
 

^ 
 allows you to create curves from of selected edges of existing
bodies. Selecting the ^ 
 toggle activates the þ ^ 

filter dialog.

 8!
c 


  

 activates a filter


dialog that controls what objects
can be selected for extraction.

If you choose not to use any of the filter toggles you can select any   or
^ of a solid body or sheet body.

If you select a  it will highlight displaying


the ^  that will be ^,
 . After
selecting the face you must $" back to the
^,

 dialog to actually create the
curves.

What appears to be ‰

^  defining the face
selected earlier are actually
the
 created.
Selected
face


 8&
c 


  

>  will ^,


 all the edges adjacent to the Face/Faces
selected.

The ^  displayed in  are the


edges that will be ^,
 . This also
requires selecting $" until the ^,


 dialog is active before the
curves are actually created.

›urves created by selecting individual


faces or >  are visible
in any other view you may wish to view
the geometry in. This means they are not
view dependent and if you Replace Work
View the ^,
  curves are visible and
can be selected if necessary.

The ‰

 in the graphic above were ^,
  using > 
 . If you replace the current work view with another view they will
still be displayed.


 8
c 


  

Examples showing only the curves in other views:

View the curves


TFR-Iso View Top View
were created in.

^ 
.þ allows you to ^,
 curves from all the edges
of a body.

These curves are also displayed in all other


views and can be used if necessary.


 82
c 


  

^  ) allows you to select a series of Edges to be ^,


 .
Selection procedure is important. If you want to ^,
 the edges
displayed in (
  select at 
Point1
first and  second.
This may or may not select
the desired edges.

You should be aware that


^  ) is more
likely to produce the desired Point 2
results if all the edges are on
the same plane. You might
be better off selecting the
edges individually if they are
on different planes.

'
 

 are the equivalent to the <1‰
 display and help
define face contour. Select the '
 

toggle to activate the
'
 

dialog.
You can only create the '
 


 in one direction at a time.  is
the 
 of the face and 1 is the
*
 of the face.
  
is the number of curves to be created.

  dictates what portion of the
face will display the '
 


. It is in essence the þ
 and
^ distance to create the

 84
c 


  

'
 

. If you leave the 
  at 9 and 99 curves
will be created on the þ
 and ^ edges.

Select the face to display the <1


directions.
Select $" to create the curves.

›hoose direction Result

The 1 direction '


 

 works the same as
 except the ^,
  curves are crated Perpendicular to the 1
1 
.
þ  c - deselects the previously selected face and lets you select
another face.


 86
c 


  

þ)  
 allows you to ^,
 the c generated curves that help
define a contoured face.

The curves you see on the interior of the sheet


are þ)  
 and are c generated to
help define the sheet contour. These are
reference curves from View Display.

Select the þ)  


option, select the
Sheet and c will generate þ)  
.
The Green ›urves are the ^,
 þ)  
which include the View Display Silhouettes
along with additional curves for contour display.

Rotate the model and reselect the body to ^,


 the þ)  

again. Repeat this procedure as many times as necessary to generate enough
curves to identify the contour.

Sheet after 10 rotations.


 88
c 


  

 
 are curves where the (
5 is constant. They are
›reated Perpendicular to a (
1 
where a specified angle is
tangent to a face.

Parameters and the result using the


* 
.

Same sheet body using the same


parameters as before but the
direction is + .


 99
c 


  

þ)-$  creates an outline of the solid in the work view. It ignores
any interior edges and must be displayed with the   / ^
option.

›annot use þ)-$  with


this display.


 9
c 


  

You must have this display in


order to use þ)-$  .

Select the þ)-$ 


toggle and the curves are
created showing only the
outline of the body.








 9
c 


  

^' 
Select the^' icon from the

to activate the ^'
parameter dialog.

^' , like circles, are created in the plane of the ? þ.


An ^' can be created by the user specifying five values:
þ >
- This value is measured along the X-axis and is
half the major diameter of an ^' .
þ 
- This value is measured along the Y-axis and is
half the minor diameter of an ^' .
þ
 - This is a user defined start point for the ^'
specified in the X to Y rotation.
^ - This is a user defined end point for the ^' .
 - this function defines the starting angle of the
^' measured in the X to Y rotation.

^' 
 
dialog after
specifying the ^'  
.


 9!
c 


  

Display of ^' creation requirements.


 9&
c 


  



A Parabola is a planar curve created by a point moving so its distance from a
fixed point is equal to its distance from a fixed line.

 ):( 5
1
 ,(

,7
The  ) is a distance from the 1
 , to the
  and must be greater than zero.
‘ 
A Parabola is created through a set of points equidistant
from the   and the (

,.


 9
c 


  

/#'

A /#'
 is a curve with no reversals of curvature.

The parameters required to create a /#'


 are:
Semi-TransverseA point along the Axis of Symmetry defining the curve
Apex.
þ . >  ²A distance measured perpendicular to the Axis of
Symmetry.
*Semi-Transverse and the Semi-›onjugate define the curve slope.
% (*²Start Distance that extends past the Axis of Symmetry.
The value can be either positive or negative.
%, (*²End Distance that extends past the Axis of Symmetry.
 ²Orientation angle of curve relative to the +X› axis.


 92
c 


  

/ ,
/ , is a simple operator that requires some complex mathematics to define
the curve to be created. A / , is always created along a + .,.

Select the/ ,icon from the



to activate the / , dialog.










›reating a Helix using Parameter entries.

c 
5
 defines the number of / , coils. This value must be
greater than zero.

 94
c 


  

) is the distance between a complete 360 degree revolution.

 % )^


  allows you to define the / , diameter.

(
 determines if the Helix is to be a ›lockwise (Left Hand)
or ›ounterclockwise (Right Hand) construction.





















Turn Direction

 96
c 


  

( 5 $
  allows you to use the +.,, ' option of the
›SYS ›onstructor to define the Helix orientation. The / ,
›enter will be on or parallel to the defined +.,.

 

allows you to specify the / ,  (start point)
using existing geometry or coordinate locations by entering
values in the Text Fields.

The second  % ) for creating a / , is  -.


When using - you are defining the radius values using a curve. You will
have to enter c 
5
, ), and 
(
. Those entries
can be made either before or after specifying the - definition.

Select the  - radio button to activate the - dialog.

The first three options from the left are ,  
, and .

 requires a single radius value.


 98
c 


  

 
requires a þ
 and ^ radius value and the transition is straight
without contour from the þ
1 to the ^1 .

 works the same as Linear but makes an S-shape transition from
the þ
1 to the ^1 .

1 þ'  
allows you to select points along a
þ'
and assign Radius values at those points. The
þ'
defines the orientation of the / , center. This
option creates a straight transition from point to point without
contour.

1 þ'   works identical to 1 


þ'  
except the transition is þ.)' .

#^C  allows you to define the / , by using an equation


To define the radius values.


 9
c 


  

#-
allows you to select a user defined curve in
relationship to a  
to define the / , shape.

  
 

Law
›urve

Base
›urve

þ'  
 þ'   #-



The importance of selecting a   is the distances between the -

and the   are calculated proportionally along the / , axis
for its height. The height is determined by c 
5
and ).


 
c 


  


 


 creates a curve that fills the gap between two curves at a specified
point along those curves. It is not restricted to only end points.
Select the
 
icon from the


to activate the 

dialog.


 curves can either be  
or

.
 #% ):  , and


.
 ²›reates a !. 
, &
' curve that is tangent to the
Parent ›urves.



²›reates a . 
,
2' curve that is tangent and
curvature continuous to the
selected curves.

When the 
 
first appears it
is a 
 -. $" or ''# will create
the 
 
,   will close
the operator and not create the 
 

.


 
c 


  



creates a more rounded curve in the
transition between the selected curves to Bridge
between.

Tangent

›urvature

After the 
 

'
 - is displayed the
þ
<^portion of the dialog
is available. þ
<^
determines which of the two
curves selected will be
highlighted. The þ
 is the
first parent curve selected and
the ^ is the second parent
curve selected.


 !
c 


  

 # determines the #' of 


 
transition between parent
curves. The options are ‰9 GH, ‰ G H, ‰ G

H,
and ‰! G-H.

‰9.  ‰.   ‰.





‰!.-

Also available is a þ



that allows the placement of the start and end
of the 
 
along the two parent curves.  offers a
percentage þ

for dragging the 
 
along a parent curve
depending on which curve is active. ›hange the active curve by selecting
the þ
 or ^ option.


 &
c 


  

The Slider Bar drags the attachment point of the 


 
along the

 and/or þ  curve by percentages. To specify which curve the

First ›urve

Second ›urve

The 
 (
 toggle allows you to 
 the 
 

(
 while in preview mode. You 
 (
 on each curve
individually so again you must select the þ

or ^
button
before selecting the 
 (
 toggle.


 - 
 ) þ





 ) ^



 
c 


  

þ)'  
 allows you to modify the 
 
shape by changing
its ( ') and þ -.
^ allow you to modify the  % 
between the ranges of 79 and 79 for curves one and two.








This shows the
 
 %  modification of
!79for both theþ
and^
7
Entering new values in the text field can change the range. Key in the value,
press ^
, and the slider bar updates to the entry where the dial is located.

The ( ')þ - #' allows the modification of both the depth of the

 
as well as which parent curve the transition emphasis is
drawn toward, the þ

or the ^
.


 2
c 


  

( ') controls the amount of curvature the 


 
has
between the two selected objects.

þ - determines which curve, þ



or ^
, the peak
of the 
 
is drawn toward.
þ -/ 
( ')/ 

( ') and þ - can be


modified by using the þ


or using the /  in the

 

 -.
Use the   (
 method to modify the ( ') and þ - when
using the / .

þ)'  
  allows the modification of the ) value of the


transition. The closer the ) is to 799 the flatter the
transition, the closer the ) is to 7888 the more pointed the transition. The
) can be modified using the þ

or the / .


 4
c 


  

 5
 þ)' 

allows you to select
another curve to assign

   to the 


to be created.


 6
c 


  

 

c offers two  operators:
0 (  
0 # 

#  are infinite just as (   but are c.


 to the geometry used to create them. They can be partially
associative to the model depending on how they are used.
If a  is selected as a 
 the 
 is  to
the  . Move the  and the 
 updates.

Original Trim Transform Plane and the Trim Updates

Move the %  and the 


moves with the % .

5
 the %  and the 
and 
 move with it. However, the
 can be deleted without deleting
the Trim.


 8
c 


  

If the   



or an5

 option is used to perform a 



no is created and there is no associatively.

Select the  icon from the



to activate the  dialog.
#  display in
the graphics window as
triangles. These   can be
created in relationship to the
? þ or   and there are
14 methods available to define
them. There are also three

' options that
allow the definition of a 
along a chosen axis. The text
field allows for an $55  value
entry.


 9
c 


  

There are six options for creating


#  displayed when the
 dialog is activated.
These options from left to right are 5

, (
, 

, * .+  , .+  , and .*  .

Select the Type down arrow to display these six options along with eight
additional methods of creating an Analytical Plane.

( 5% )

5

 has the ability to create a  using any of these methods but
there are times when using the actual method is easier for selection purposes.


 
c 


  

The following are illustrations of several  creation methods.



 Select a 
 and a
  
 ,.  
 (
 the 
 / to the desired
  to the  and
 press % to create the
  .




( 
 Select a 
 .
 Enter the desired (
 value from the selected
  and press ^
to
 have the display update.
 Press % to create the
  .






 
c 


  

 

Select two 


 
for the  to be created
half way between them and
press % to create the
 .

If the parameters between


the two selected faces
change the Plane will not
update to remain half way
between the two faces.



Select the
or ^ to
have the 
 - display.

Drag the 
 - to the
desired location and press
% to create the  .


 !
c 


  

If the , *, or + option is selected the dialog offers the option of placing the
 to be created at either   or the ? þ.

This shows the  


 - at the * .+  of   because
that is the active  .

This shows the  


 - at the * .+ 
 of the? þ7
The most common use of #  is  þ .

 &
c 


  

þ  
þ  allows you to create geometry that can display the cross sectional
profile depending on the geometry selected.
If you cut þ  through
 a  is created at the Intersection of
the curve and the section defining plane.
If you cut a þ  through a þ# or þ) #
 are
created defining the solid faces where the cutting plane intersects them.

Select theþ 


icon fromthe

to activate the
þ 
dialog.


 
c 


  

The #' down arrow opens a drop down with the four Section ›utting
options available.

þ     allows you to specify the cutting plane by using the  
þ 5  dialog.
þ  þ C  3
0 Select the object/objects to be sectioned.
Use the þ  
to
specify the #' of geometry
selectable to have the þ 

 created through.

0 Select the   



button to the right of the
þ' 5# option.

0 Decide if  or c. output is the


desired result of the þ ‰  
#. This decision will
have an impact on what options are available.


 2
c 


  

 or c. output is located under


þ .

 3

The þ 
dialog changes if  
$ '  is toggled $55. There are additional options to
be considered if the output is to be Non-associative.

c. 3

 and c. both offer the same



 options.


  creates 3-degree Splines at the intersection of
the cutting plane and the faces to be sectioned It
creates lines on planar faces and arcs if the cutting

 4
c 


  

plane is normal to cylindrical faces. It is considered


an approximation of the face especially if the face has
complex curvature.

 E  creates 5-degree Splines at the intersection of
the cutting plane and the faces to be sectioned. It
creates lines on planar faces and arcs if the cutting
plane is normal to cylindrical faces. It is also
considered an approximation of the face especially if
the face has complex curvature.

    allows the user to determine the Maximum
Degree and Maximum Segments of the curves being
created to define the section cut. This can also be
consider an approximate representation of the faces if
more complex curves are required to define a face or
set of faces.

c.  ' '3


‰
 '$>  will gather all
the curves needed to define a
Section together in a ‰
 '.
‰
 '  objects can either be
dealt with individually or as if
they were a single curve
depending on the operation you
are performing.


 6
c 


  

$ ' þ'  will create a series of  instead of


curves at the intersection of the cutting plane and the object/objects
being sectioned.

If $ ' þ'  is activated the þ' ( is


available for determining the spacing between .

D
 is also an option when creating c. þ 

.

The default D option is c which allows c to create the þ 



 on each þ  $>  at the intersection of the cutting
plane.  and E  were defined earlier and work the same
here. ‰ 
 will create an exact curve defining the section based
on the most complex face sectioned. This can create an extremely
complex curve.

0 Select the   



icon to activate the  
þ 5  dialog for specifying the  for
the þ  to be created. Specify the  and press
% to preview the  . Multiple þ 


 8
c 


  

can be defined but each  must be specified


individually.


 !9
c 


  

The triangle that displays is a preview of where the þ  will be cut
through the model. If you wish to cut additional þ  you have to select
the   

button and specify a cutting plane for each þ .

Section Plane 2

Section Plane 1

The  
 and (
 
curves represent the two þ 
cut.







 !
c 


  


   allows you to cut multiple þ  through a model with a
common distance between each cutting plane.

The first þ  þ ' is the same as the previous operator but the
second þ  þ ' is different.

   require a   . The   is the  all
  are located relative to. Select the   


button to activate the  dialog. Define the   and press
% to return to the þ 
dialog.

In this example the .+ 


 was defined as the
  . The (
option allows you to place
the  anywhere along the * axis by entering a location value. The
  can also be located from   or the current ? þ. The
 ) 1 
on the  
 - shows the positive direction for the

 !
c 


  

þ
, ^, and þ ' values. If the  direction is incorrect select the

 (
 button under the  $
  option..

It is a good practice to enter the þ ' ( , þ


( , and ^
( test field values before specifying your   because as
soon as your return to the Section ›urve dialog after specifying the 
 c creates a preview of the cutting planes using the values displayed
in the text fields.

If the þ
, ^, or þ ' values need to be modified enter the new
values and press the ^
key to update the preview.

þ '( is the distance between each cutting plane.

þ
( is where the first cutting plane is to be located in
relationship to the   .

^( is where the last cutting plane is to be located in


relationship to the   .

 !!
c 


  

Desired result of Plane preview




Once the preview is displayed select $" to cut the þ .


 !&
c 


  

This is an example of the  (


 for the þ  being
incorrect. Reselect the   

button and select the 

(
 button in  $
  and press % to return to the
þ 
dialog. The   have been updated to be in the correct
direction.

  creates true þ  through solids. It requires a


þ ' as well as a þ
 and ^ measured to a   .


 !
c 


  

This option also has three selection steps instead of two and each step
changes the þ 
dialog requirements. This operator is governed
by the same rules that apply to
  .

The first requirement is to


þ  $> , the object to be
þ  .

The next step is to þ' 5#


1 
to define the 
,. This is done by either
selecting the 1 



button to activate
the 1 
 

,


 !2
c 


  

or by using the 5

1 
option.

The 1 
indicates the 
, as well as the  
.

The third requirement is selecting a


 5
  to define the 
 the þ
 and ^ values
will be measured from.

Reference Point for


Plane definition

The þ
 text field is the þ
 from the   , the ^ text
field is the ^ from the   , and the þ ' text field is the
 increment between þ .


 !4
c 


  

Key in the þ


;^;andþ 'values to display a preview of the 
 . If the 
 -is incorrect enter new values and press the ^

key to update the display. Select $" to create the þ .

 
'  


gives you several options in defining
the   along an existing
curve based on the  
option selected.


 !6
c 


  

^C 
 ), ^C 

 
, and‰  



 all use a
Percentage value rather than an
actual arc length value.
The percentage values are measured from the start end of the curve at
creation. If the curve was created left to right, no matter which end of the
curve is selected the measurement is 9F from the left to 99F on the right.
You tell c how many þ  you want and at what
þ
 and ^
  along the line depending on
which þ' 
option is used.

^C 
 ) takes the actual

 ) value of the curve and
divides equally using the parameters
you enter into the þ'

Text Fields.


 !8
c 


  

^C 
 
 uses the curve equation to divide the curve by the values
entered into the þ'
Text Fields. The result can be
slightly difference from the ^C 
 ) option or be much more
noticeable depending on the curve shape.
^C 
 
-orks with percentages by placing a set of 
  along a curve at equal 
 

 based on chordal
division tangencies.

Line parallel to ›hord 2


and tangent to the curve.
Line parallel to ›hord 1
and tangent to the curve.

Point of tangency between


the purple curves.

Point of tangency between


the olive curves. ›hord 2 ›hord 1

This illustrates how c determines how the   will be


placed on the curve based on the ^C 
 
þ'
% ).


 &9
c 


  

‰  




This spacing method places the þ   along a curve based on a


‰  
.
‰  


-orks with percentages and places  
on a curve based on a geometric ratio of the previous arc length percentage.
The  is user defined. Prior to placing   c analyzes the
entire curve to determine the spacing so there is no remainder distance.

)

 
)

 -orks with the entire curve and not percentage.
It works better with curves that approximate an arc rather than complex
splines because it produces a more uniform spacing between points.


 &
c 


  

The )

 represents the maximum distance between the
parent curve and a chord between two adjacent points in the set.
›hordal bisector

Point where the ›utting


Plane would appear
Normal to the ›urve.

›hord


 
 )

 
 ) places the þ   evenly along a curve at
an 
 ) value entered into the parameter text field between the
 .

c will place as many planes along the curve at the 


 ) value
entered. If the
is not evenly divisible by the 
 ) value a
remainder will be left.


 &
c 


  

The spline was not equally divisible by the 


 ) value specified so
there was a remainder at the end of the curve. c no longer displays what
the remainder arc length value is.

^,' 3
›ut sections through the Sheet Body
every &979 along the curve above it.
The
is &&I long.
To accomplish this requirement a plane
should be placed at the spline þ
, at
&979, 6979, 979, and at the ^ of the
spline.

Instead of what should be created,


several more than five planes
are displayed. The results in more
sections than is required.


 &!
c 


  



^,
 3


 &&
c 


  

56.0R
2 PLA›ES

8.0R 19.0 DIA


8 PLA›ES 4 PLA›ES
17.0R
4 PLA›ES

50.6
32.4
64.8

101.2 10.0R
2 PLA›ES

12.0
TYP

33.95

67.9


 &
c 


  


 &2
c 


  

175.0 37.5R
2 PLA›ES
70.0
30.0 DIA
2 PLA›ES

115.0
25.0R
2 PLA›ES

218.0

25.0R
2 PLA›ES
12.0R
12 PLA›ES 15.0
TYP
30.0R

50.0
74.0 42.0

60°

25.0R 113.0

15.0R
60.0
12.0R
8 PLA›ES


 &4
c 


  


 &6
c 


  


 ) 5-!. 
 7


 &8
c 


  


 9