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4. System Schematic Layout – not included in this example

5. Psychrometric Chart – not included in this example

17.7 Temperature Mapping

The purpose of temperature mapping helps confirm that the area as a whole remains within its defined limits and
determine the locations representing temperature extremes within the area.

The second objective defines the locations for permanently installed sensors that provide data for the quality system
of record for the area, the information from which the MKT is calculated (if required).

There are benefits to a smaller number of sensors for this purpose, while it is necessary to use a sufficient number of
sensors to ensure that the mapping study is robust.

There is very little guidance on temperature mapping, the French Standard, (NF X15-140 October 2002
“Measurement of Air Moisture – Climatic and thermostatic Chambers – Characterisation and Verification”) (Reference
11, Appendix 12) provides some guidance on sensor locations to be used for mapping of environmental chambers, as
summarized below.

The method is based on the size of the chamber and the area potentially occupied by product. For chambers
over 700 cubic feet (20 cubic meters), the standard suggests considering the factors that may affect the specific
installation, including:

• door openings

• location of the cooling system

• position of the control sensor

Figure 17.6 is based on the French Standard (Reference 11, Appendix 12). The drawing on the left shows the
minimum number and suggested location of sensor locations mounted in the working area for a chamber up to
approximately 70 cubic feet (2 cubic meters). For bigger areas, up to 700 cubic feet (20 cubic meters), the standard
suggests using as a minimum the number and location of sensors shown on the right hand drawing. The number of
sensor locations suggested should be increased as necessary to monitor, for example, conditions for product located
near a conditioned air discharge or the door, as well a sensor located near the temperature control sensor.

Figure 17.6: Temperature Mapping for Chambers up to 2 m3 and up to 20 m3

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Note: The inner box represents the working area (where product is stored); the dots represent the sensor locations.

While not directly relevant, the guidance provided should prove helpful – distances between sensors depend on the
local conditions and influences, such racking layout, positions of the HVAC outlets, doors, internal and external walls,
etc. An approach that has been used with some success is to consider the area around each HVAC outlet as a zone
and apply the logic suggested in the right hand drawing shown above with a sensor adjacent to the temperature
control sensor as well as others monitoring the supply and return temperatures.

For an area bounded by an external wall, the area requires mapping in the seasonal extremes in order to determine
the influences of heating and cooling supply temperatures from the HVAC system, and the heating or cooling effect of
the external walls and roof adjacent to the racking. The strategy developed for this seasonal testing should consider
the effects, because of empty and full racking, the effects of the thermal mass/insulation/airflow changes. As an
example, Figure 17.7 shows a potential mapping layout with one part of the room full of product and one part empty –
a simple approach in this instance as the layout is symmetrical.

Figure 17.7: Warehouse Temperature Mapping Layout Plan

Other factors that should be defined before testing include:

• Product temperatures – if upon delivery these are significantly different from the defined storage conditions, the
product may require monitoring to determine how long it remains outside the defined storage conditions.

• Loading and unloading – will the product be at a different temperature, how much is loaded/unloaded at any
one time, will there be a significant ingress/egress of conditioned air, replaced by unconditioned outside air from

• Is there an outside door that can be left open or is it monitored to a defined maximum time that it could be open?

• storage locations nearest the heating/cooling system inlet/outlet

• internal loads – lighting, equipment. and personnel

• conditions during minimum (empty) and full storage capacity

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Ideally these factors will be reviewed and considered with a representative test method defined. An example is
included below:

Example Plan:

External Heat Gains and Losses

The major heat gains and losses to the cold room are due to the influences of the external environment with the most
significant being through the walls and ceiling.

Internal Heat Gains and Losses

Lighting – the lighting is from low energy fluorescent lamps that are left on during the working day.

Product – the product stored in the room is supplied at the storage temperature and will not represent additional load
to the room.

Equipment – the equipment used in the room is a stacking fork truck - a relatively small intermittent load.

People – there are 2 people occasionally working in the area; therefore, the heat gains are small and transient.

HVAC – the room is conditioned through two registers mounted as shown with a common return air grille located at
high level in the center of the room.

Mapping Sensor Placement

The areas considered during the mapping are only the areas where product will be stored.

The proposed sensor locations are based on the following:

• The chamber may be considered as two zones with each zone supplied by a register.

• As a minimum, a temperature sensor will be placed in the location of the lowest and highest storage point that
product could be stored at each corner of the room on the racking nearest the perimeter.

• One temperature sensor will be located in the center of these locations at the midpoint level between these

Monitoring Sensor Placement

The mapping data will be used to define the sensor locations that indicate the typical positions where of minimum and
maximum temperatures, considering the results of the tests represent normal usage.

Load Testing

The unit will be mapped during the peak summer and winter seasons, considering two “load” scenarios:

• empty chamber

• One half of the warehouse will be kept empty

Note that the HVAC has constant flow rate and with the room empty, there are no constraints on the airflow direction,
hence, the airspeed will be low. When the room is not empty, the airflow will be at a higher speed, as the same
volume of air must travel through a smaller area.

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• “full” sections

One half of the warehouse will be filled with full boxes of product simulating the largest stored full pallet (40 inches
× 48 inches × 46 inches tall). This scenario will give minimum thermal mass, but maximum interruption of airflow,
allowing the effect of a full room to be seen in the filled zones. Note that the area selected is based on the fact that
the room is symmetrical.

For individual use only. © Copyright ISPE 2009. All rights reserved.