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PEER-REVIEWED PAPER

SCOPE MANAGEMENT USING PROJECT DEFINmON
RATING IND~

By Peter R. Dumont,1 Member, ASCE, G. Edward Gibson Jr.,2 Member, ASCE, and John R. FIsh3
Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by Dokuz Eylul Universitesi Rekto on 10/14/12. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved.

ABSTRACT: It is widely accepted that poor scope definition is one of the leading causes of
project failure in the U.S. construction industry. Many owner and contractor companies un-
derstand this, however, they share the misconception that it is not economically feasible to
spend the time or money necessary to adequately define the scope of work early in a project's
life cycle. In other cases project participants are ignorant about the requirements for an ade-
quately defined scope of work. A tool called the project definition rating index (PORI) was
created to address these problems. The PORI is an easy-to-use, weighted checklist of 70 scope
definition elements allowing the user to measure and manage the level of scope definition as
project planning progresses. Results from 40 pilot projects will be presented showing that a
specific PORI point threshold provides some measure of confidence in project outcome. The
implications of this tool in the project scope management process will be explored. Conclu-
sions and recommendations about the PORI will be made for project management profes-
sionals.

INTRODUCTION lems. It is a simple and easy-to-use checklist that
identifies and precisely describes each critical element in
The downsizing and decentralization of many owner
a project scope definition package. The PDRI allows a
engineering organizations has forever altered the way
project team to quickly analyze the scope definition
that industrial construction projects will be pursued in
package and predict factors that may impact project risk.
the future. With these organizational changes has come
It is intended to evaluate the completeness of scope def-
internal business fragmentation, loss of experience and
inition, specifically on industrial construction projects, at
institutional memory, and the need to use and rely on
any point prior to the time a project is considered for
outside consultants to perform many project functions
authorization to perform detailed design and construc-
within businesses. The market-driven need to incorpo-
tion.
rate more complex technology into projects, while re-
For the purposes of this tool, industrial construction
ducing cost and schedule, combined with the organiza-
projects may include, but are not limited to the following
tional changes mentioned makes effective project scope
types of facilities:
planning, definition, and control imperative. Yet, it is
often challenging to ensure that effective scope manage-
• OiVgas production facilities
ment will take place under these circumstances.
The project definition rating index (PDRI) is a revo- • Refineries
• Chemical plants
lutionary tool created under the guidance of the Con-
• Pharmaceutical plants
struction Industry Institute (CII) to help with these prob-
• Paper mills
'Presented at the 1996 Project Management Institute Annual Sem- • SteeValuminum mills
inars and Symposium held in Boston. MA (October). • Power plants
'Proj. Engr.. S&B Engrs. & Constructors Ltd., 7825 Park Place • Manufacturing facilities
Blvd.• Houston. TX 77087. • Food-processing plants
2Assoc. Prof.• Dept. of Civ. Engrg.• ECJ 5.2. Univ. of Texas at
• Textile mills
Austin. Austin. TX 78712-1076.
'Dir. Proj. Quality Controls. Procurement. and Service. Process
Services Inc .. P.O. Box 86810. Baton Rouge. LA 70879. This paper will highlight the importance of scope def-
Note. Discussion open until March 1. 1998. To extend the closing inition and its direct impact on project success, specifi-
date one month. a written request must be filed with the ASCE Man- cally focusing on how recent industry trends are chang-
ager of Journals. The manuscript for this paper was submitted for ing the traditional project environment. Too often
review and possible publication on May 12, 1997. This paper is part
of the Journal of Management in Engineering, Vol. 13, No.5. Sep-
communication breakdowns between primary stakehold-
tember/October, 1997 ©ASCE. ISSN 0742-597X197/0005-0054- ers along with poorly defined objectives result in projects
0060/$4.00 + $.50 per page. Paper No. 14967. that fall short of their cost, schedule, and operational
54/ JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT IN ENGINEERING / SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 1997

J. Manage. Eng. 1997.13:54-60.

projects revealed total potential cost and schedule per- ipants. Inadequate addition. A brief synopsis of how the PORI was preproject planning effort tested on 40 capital projects in order to validate its ac- curacy and usefulness will be discussed. thus developing a quality scope definition package. construction. A comparison be- a resource that improves performance in these areas by tween high and low preproject planning efforts for these creating an "environment to win" for all project partic. and assess the level of ect objectives and fulfill the driving business need. This scope definition on industrial construction projects prior package should include sufficient supplemental infor. significant feature of the PDRI is that it can be utilized neering to proceed (Gibson et aI. 17 of which had been executed with • Means to monitor progress at various stages during a high level of preproject planning effort. Copyright ASCE. sections. Finally. including required level of effort and checklists project schedule. • Industry standard for rating the completeness of the search concluded that higher levels of preproject plan. prediction of escalation. Mer. goals. the preproject planning effort JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT IN ENGINEERING / SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 1997/55 J. It will be shown to be an effective tool for preventing a poorly defined scope of work. phase of a project can greatly improve the ac. (Gibson and Dumont I996b). research by CII investi. Hamilton and Gibson 1996. further a scope definition package should receive a level of man- reinforces the need in the U. categories. project scope definition to facilitate risk assess- ning effort can result in significant cost and schedule ment. ital facility projects. it provides industry with a common and definitive un- Previous research has shown that increased levels of derstanding of what constitutes complete definition of scope definition during the early planning. small Success during the detailed design. to authorization for detailed design or construction. tial for disputes. to fit the needs of almost any individual project. etc. and 18 with a low level. or preproject each element. Until formation identified during this process is usually pre. It allows a project the execution phase of a project to accomplish the proj. planning. In runs and a greater potential for disputes. all rights reserved. I. Oue to its importance. A poorly defined project can experi. For personal use only. The 70 elements are divided into three and Tucker 1983). industry officials consider lack of scope definition to be The PDRI consists of 70 elements in a weighted the most serious problem on construction projects (Smith checklist format. thus eliminating them from completeness of the scope definition. Specifically. The PORI is the first a continuous and systematic strategy to be used during publicly available tool of its kind. project's scope row et al. on a venture's outcome. DESCRIPTION OF PORI BACKGROUND Most experienced industry participants recognize the Project scope definition is the process by which importance of scope definition during preproject plan- projects are defined and prepared for execution. planning team to quantify. rate. evaluation of poten- savings. This will be Obviously.13:54-60. Hackney ing the necessary steps to follow in defining the 1992. Griffith and Gibson 1995. main sections and 15 categories. construction industry for agement attention commensurate with its potential for a tool like the PORI. the industry has been lacking a practical. now. facilitating better scope definition. 1981). Merrow 1988. The PDRI has been proven beneficial as a curacy of cost and schedule estimates as well as the probability of meeting or exceeding project objectives • Checklist that a project team can use for determin- (Pre-Project 1995. • Listing of standardized scope definition terminol- gated the importance of preproject planning on capital ogy for use throughout the construction industry projects and its influence on project success. It is apparent that the industry could benefit from dium level. This is significant because and lower the productivity and morale of the workforce. Some construction the final scoring calculation. A complete list of the ence considerable changes that may result in cost over. 1995b). formance differentials as follows (Hamilton and Gibson The PORI will be introduced as a resource to help 1996. followed by an explanation of how today's rapidly savings of this magnitude can have a significant impact changing business environment.org by Dokuz Eylul Universitesi Rekto on 10/14/12.S. A mation to permit effective and efficient detailed engi. and elements are given in Fig. disrupt project rhythm. cause rework. ning and its potential impact on project success. Elements that are not applicable to a specific start-up phases of a project is highly dependent upon the project can be zeroed out. This re. Manage. improvement in project predictability and Downloaded from ascelibrary. which has placed in. In particular this research effort studied 53 cap. . sented in the form of a project scope definition package. project team members with a structured approach for proach to the project scope management process. The in. The • A 20 percent cost saving with a high level of pre- structure and format of the PORI will be explained along project planning effort with a sample listing of the many benefits it can provide • A 39 percent schedule saving with a high level of the project team. preparing creasingly rigorous pressures on project teams. Eng. nonproprietary method for determining the degree of A scope definition package is a detailed formulation of scope development on a project. this paper will conclude impacting project performance. and or large. Pre-Project 1994): with this problem. 18 with a me. The PORI provides by describing how the PORI provides a structured ap. however. all elements are described in a detailed glos- scope definition can lead to changes that may delay the sary. 1997.

For personal use only.Distribution Matrix F4. Shut Down I Turn-Around G4. Equipment Utility Requirements B3. Procurement Responsibility Matrix F. Project Execution Plan G2. Training Requirements FIG. Technology J3. Value Engineering E1. Piping & Instrumentation Diags. Startup Requirements G8. simple. Manage. Products H2.Piping Specialty Items List A2. Piping System Requirements P5. Environmental Assessment M3. in order to predict the fined areas in a scope definition package probability of success on future projects • Means for project team participants to reconcile differences using a common basis for project eval- uation HOW PORI WAS DEVELOPED • Training tool for companies and individuals throughout the industry The elI research team that developed the PDRI was • Benchmarking tool for companies to use in eval. Procurement Strategy E3. Heat & Material Balances P1. BASIS OF PROJECT DECISION G9. Instrument & Electrical Specs. Loading I Unloading I Storage C. Reliability Philosophy G12. P2. Project Objectives Statement K2. Social Issues J2. Equipment Location Drawings B2. Project Schedule K6. Architectural Requirements Downloaded from ascelibrary. Project Scope K1.Tie-in List A 1. Processes K. & Architectural B4. . Risk Analysis G1. Logic Diagrams D2. Process Safety Management (PSM) Req'mts. Manufacturing Objectives G11 . Permit Requirements N. company and externally. Civil I Structural Requirements B5. Affordability I Feasibility 11. and Elements • Tool that aids in communication between owners the performance of past projects. Basic Data Research & Development Facilities Requirements C1. Identify Long Lead I Critical Equipment & Materials II. Categories. Operating Philosophy H.1 nstrument Index A3. G5. Capacities 12. Req'd K4. Plan & Approach (P&ID's) P3. and easy- uating the completeness of scope definition versus to-use scope definition tools so that owners and contrac- 561 JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT IN ENGINEERING 1 SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 1997 J. Engr. Business Objectives H1. Fire Protection & Safety Considerations N2. Equipment Scope B. Process Flow Sheets P. Specifications Sequence Requirements G7. Lead I Discipline Scope of Work K5. Site Characteristics Available vs. all rights reserved. EXECUTION APPROACH E2. Utility Flow Diagrams P4. Site Location M1. Design & Material Alternatives Considered I Rejected L. formed in 1994 to produce effective. Transportation Requirements C2. Infrastructure B7. both within their and design contractors by highlighting poorly de. I Constr. Project Control Requirements F6. Project Control F5. Future Expansion Considerations J. Maintenance Philosophy G13. 1997. E. Design for Constructability Analysis L1. Procurement Procedures and Plans L3. Site Information M.Line List A.Deliverables Defined F3. Substation Requirements I Power D4. Plot Plan P6. Mechanical Equipment List G10. FRONT END DEFINITION L2. Civil.org by Dokuz Eylul Universitesi Rekto on 10/14/12. Project Definition Rating Index (PORI) Sections. Project Design Criteria K3. Deliverables F1.CADDI Model Requirements F2. 86. Project Accounting Requirements G. Process Simplification III. Process I Mechanical N3. Utility Sources With Supply Conditions N1. Market Strategy H3. Eng. Instrument & Electrical D. Structural. Owner Approval Requirements G3. Dismantling & Demolition Requirements Sources Identified D5. 1.13:54-60. Pre-Commissioning Turnover G6. I. Copyright ASCE. Electrical Area Classifications D3. Surveys & Soil Tests M2. Control Philosophy D1. Water Treatment Requirements 88. Electrical Single line Diagrams D6. Expected Project Life Cycle J1. Equipment Status B1. Project Strategy I.

structed between 1988 and 1995. From these findings the research team mation on this research methodology can be found in realized that its primary challenge was to develop a sim. A PORI score was cluded in this document. 1. Industrial project planning effort or the degree of scope develop. Through Although the PORI weights were based upon the ex- affinity diagramming and nominal group techniques. This tool 38 weighted score sheets were based on a standard would consist of a weighted index of critical scope def. Each score sheet then was normalized to velopment. Hackney (1992) pioneered one of the 1. Each was con- for brevity the detailed element descriptions are not in. Statistical tests were per- first attempts to quantify and define the specific elements formed looking at standard deviation. This preliminary list was expanded using scope development documentation and best prac. J. ple and easy-to-use tool for project scope development. range from zero to 1. The respondent scored each element index (PORI). skewness. based on the impact that it would have on the total in- In order to achieve its objective. gas production. previous ell work. This success rating lack of definition could have the most seriously negative had been used in previous research regarding preproject effect on project performance. A success rating based upon cost performance. documenta. Eng.000 were scored with the tion companies who had not seen the approach previ. the pertise of 54 experienced project managers and estima- list was further refined and agreement reached regarding tors. The team's objective each element in importance based upon their own ex- was to quantify preproject planning efforts. the research team stalled cost of the facility in question in terms of level Downloaded from ascelibrary. Initial topic categories were obtained from Hack. each element ule performance. and correlate them to the predictability from the workshops. an extensive literature review. computed for each project based upon the level of def- inition at project authorization prior to detailed design Element Weighting and construction.000. and adjustments were is excellent it has not been widely accepted. Suffice it to say that each of the would be based on industry best practices. that certain elements within the score sheet lack adequate mators. Summing the individ- within a good scope definition package the research team ual element evaluations and their corresponding weights utilized four primary sources: the expertise of the re. was presented earlier in Fig. The types of projects included their descriptions. began by examining past research in project scope de.org by Dokuz Eylul Universitesi Rekto on 10/14/12. score sheet that can be found in a separate document proprietary method for benchmarking the level of pre. Copyright ASCE. element in a scope definition package and allow a project Each of the 70 elements is subjectively evaluated by key team to quickly predict factors impacting project risk. For personal use only. Validating PDRI tices from 14 owner and contractor companies. which can search team. tested on actual projects to verify its viability as a tool.3 ously was held to "fine tune" the list of elements and billion in authorized cost. Once this was completed a focus group of six individuals Forty validation projects ranging in authorized sizes representing one owner and three engineering/construc. This input was used to determine the individual to its complexity. planning (Hamilton and Gibson 1996). from $1. more well defined the project. therefore. The lower the total score. however. the tion from a variety of owner and contractor companies. Higher weights signify and a separate workshop of project managers and esti. Together these projects represent greater than $3. These weights comprise the PORI the research team found the industry lacking in a non. Apart from Hackney's work.000.13:54-60. Oue to the need plants. element weights. . Therefore. refining. and through using the team's thorization. power PORI. This list. W.000 points and averaged. and kur- required for proper scope definition. Although his work tosis of the individual elements. and owner and contractor companies to two workshops. petrochemical. A total of 38 weighted score sheets resulted scope definition. To develop credible weights the research team invited A statistical analysis revealed that the PORI score and 54 experienced project managers and estimators from 31 project success variables were linearly rated with a co- JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT IN ENGINEERING / SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 1997/57 J. 1997). Manage.") not equally important with respect to their potential im. 1997. sched- pact on overall project success. definition and should be reexamined prior to project au- ney. project that the respondent. in press.000 to $635. (Note that all of these projects were The research team hypothesized that all elements were scored "after the fact. Additional infor- ment on a project. and plant utilization attained at six months weights were to be assigned to those elements whose also was computed for each project. Gibson and Oumont (l996a). Projects (Gibson and Oumont 1996b). the document is opinion based and. which forms the basis fo the chemical. project stakeholders based on its level of definition ver- To develop a detailed list of the required elements sus its corresponding description. PORI.000. At project objectives (Pre-Project Planning Tools: PDRI each workshop the participants were asked to weight and Alignment. The weighted PORI score sheet is used to evaluate the This tool must identify and precisely define each critical level of completeness of the project scope definition. perhaps due made. or respondent team. Higher six months. Its goal was to develop The weighting process is fairly complex and beyond a tool for measuring project scope development that the scope of this paper. was exact terms and nomenclature of element descriptions. internal expertise. specifically perience. leads to a single PORI score for the project. entitled PDRI:Project Definition Rating Index. of achieving project objectives. all rights reserved. operational. of definition. had re- inition elements and be titled the project definition rating cently completed. and manufacturing facilities. tors could better achieve business. percentage design capacity attained at needed to be weighted relative to the others.

better scope definition can correlate to savings in terms but small project management is where I really need of both time and money. ago. Much of the responsibility for detailed design is now being assumed by engineering and construction contrac- Downloaded from ascelibrary. mately two hours or less) a PDRI evaluation of a project The PDRI alone will not ensure successful projects can highlight the most important elements that must be but. team addressed before project execution is authorized (Gibson alignment. Although it is not the ideal situation. team while developing the PDRI indicated that they are Note the significant 19% difference in cost perfor. The estimates. and good project execution.) The 200 point cutoff was used because it was The age of the megaproject has probably passed. projects. Specifically. Younger. contractors often are not capable of taking on the responds to an increased probability for project success.org by Dokuz Eylul Universitesi Rekto on 10/14/12. ever. . 1997). Summary of Cost. Copyright ASCE. the ability to for planning. the PDRI can help improve elements (those with higher relative weights) that will completion of the five major subprocesses of scope man- have the greatest ability to influence project success. agement: initiation. 58/ JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT IN ENGINEERING / SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 1997 J. It quickly and accurately predict factors that may impact provides an industry approved "road map" that can as- project risk becomes more critical. if combined with sound business planning. Although not shown the stan. research team found that a trend existed between low schedule. cor.39 between the two tors. scope planning. TABLE 1. indicating less variation. "I have 50 small projects for every magnitude of these numbers confirms the conclusion that large project. In today's rapidly changing business environment it is becoming increasingly important for companies to re. it can greatly im. mean of final project cost for the 20 projects scoring 200 and below was 5% less than the cost estimate at author. and verifying project scope. 1995a). This phase is shown pictorially in Fig. Schedule. responsibility of effectively leading the definition phase Based on the analysis of the validation projects. however the ager commented.13:54-60. as well as a means to evaluate their performance peri- ample. The PDRI can help sist a project team towards reaching or exceeding its the project team identify and focus on the few major objectives. et al. Table 1 contractors could benefit from a tool such as the PDRI shows the difference in subgroup means between that would provide a detailed checklist for determining projects that scored less than 200 (out of 1. the of a project. Manage. The PDRI is a great tool for large projects. a logical break in the data set and also corresponded to Many of the companies surveyed by the CII research projects that met most of their authorization objectives. (For ex. a cost performance of "-5%" indicates that the odically throughout the process. For personal use only. As one project man- set of validation projects is relatively small." The answer is. or operational performance. A low PDRI score represents a project def. This often results in projects with poor cost. How- inition package that is well defined and. whereas 20 years press.000 total the necessary steps to follow in defining a project scope points) and those that scored greater than 200. Eng. efficient of determination (R 2 ) of 0. in general. scope definition. all rights reserved. it rarely occurred (Merrow and Yarossi 1994). In just a short amount of time (approxi- much smaller as well. Contractor-led project definition is prevalent on (Pre-Project Planning Tools: PDRI and Alignment. Multiple Small Projects ization. in roughly one-third of all projects today. allocating more of their capital funds towards the con- mance and the 13% difference in schedule. proach to give them guidance. Identifying the critical few elements that prove the probability of meeting or exceeding project can directly impact performance is paramount on small objectives. Pushing a project into the field prematurely cle. With this downsizing <200 >200 Difference has come the loss of many experienced personnel as well Performance (%) (%) (%) as the institutional memory and expertise required for (1 ) (2) (3) (4) sufficient project planning. if owners decide to proceed with PDRI can be integrated easily into this phase as a tool projects that have poorly defined scopes. 2 as devel- can adversely affect the accuracy of cost and schedule oped by the Project Management Institute (PMI). The sample struction of multiple small projects. and Change Order Downsizing Mean Performance versus Authorization Estimate for Another trend emerging in the industry is the down- Project Definition Rating Index (PORI) Validation Projects sizing of owner companies and the elimination of in- PORI Score house detailed design capabilities. However. INTEGRATING PORI WITHIN PROJECT SCOPE duce project cycle times in order to get products to the MANAGEMENT market sooner. owners often feel that market demand or other pressures The PDRI can significantly improve execution of the warrant authorization of projects with underdeveloped project scope management phase of the project life cy- definition. It is apparent that PDRI scores and high project success levels. 1997. less experienced Cost -5 +14 19 engineers now are being asked to prepare scope pack- Schedule -I +12 13 ages without adequate mentoring or a structured ap- Change orders +2 +8 6 (n = 20) (n = 20) . the PDRI is well suited for small dard deviations for the "less than 200" group were projects also. Currently several owners and contractor com- panies are successfully pursuing unique methods of scal- PORI AND RECENT INDUSTRY TRENDS ing down the PDRI for use on small or discipline-spe- Reduced Cycle Times cific projects. developing. help.

and Dumont (l996a). owner companies are not aware of the level of def- cesses: inition necessary for contractors to successfully complete the project. Initiation. It also can assist companies should consider incorporating the PORI as a in assigning work responsibilities to the scope def. Manage. management processes. The PORI. Although it was developed for use on industrial ment descriptions in a checklist format help ensure construction projects the writers feel that similar tools that each appropriate element is adequately ad. scope verification and scope change control. The ultimate results of scope planning will be one of the leading causes of project failure in our be a scope management plan and a scope state. The PORI provides a structured ducing the potential for failure due to poorly defined approach to project scope definition. Therefore. The PORI also can assist in developing project milestones. Scope change control. can be created for other project management applica- dressed. This. standardizing ter. Eng. scope package. Copyright ASCE. categories. CONCLUSIONS minology (either between owners and contractors The PORI is an easy-to-use tool that can greatly im- or between multiple owners involved in joint-ven. This is important because often cilitate successful completion of each of these subpro. standard tool to assist in their scope development and inition WBS. ferences using an objective tool as a common basis for tractors either separately or together to ensure a fair project scope evaluation. Project evalua. panies. regarding the need for additional information in the ing discussion includes ideas for using the PORI to fa. can assist be identified more easily. It can help all stakeholders tion. scopes. The PORI can be used to score the com. involved in the project understand its scope defi. thorize the project for detailed design and construc- bling the project team. and elements can form It also provides a basis for "lessons learned" dur- the basis of a work breakdown structure (WBS) for ing future endeavors. industry. Scope planning. Project Scope Management OvervIew (Project Management Institute 1996) Downloaded from ascelibrary. the nition requirements. For personal use only. Scope verification. see the methodology outlined in Gibson planning process in order to measure progress.org by Dokuz Eylul Universitesi Rekto on 10/14/12. The writers also recommend that sess risk. Scope definition. Contractors can use it as a can provide a benchmark for comparison against means of identifying poorly defined project scope defi- the performance of past projects in order to predict nition elements. tions. 1997. proper scope planning. and redirect future effort. can ment. The PDRI provides a means for all the probability of future success. The hierarchy of straints. tion projects. 4. Project Scope Management I I I I Initiation Scope Planning Scope Definition Scope Scope Change Verification Control FIG. it can be used as one 1. . Detailed ele. The PORI also can be used in PORI forces good scope definition. greatly improve the probability of project success by re- 3. perhaps due to time or financial con- cal in the project scope package. For information on how to develop one for other pleteness of the project scope package during the business needs. JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT IN ENGINEERING / SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 1997/59 J. tool for establishing a comfort level at which they are ment by highlighting the project's weak areas. PORI sections.13:54-60. Poor scope definition has been shown to sultants. early on. The PORI allows the in creating the project charter. Owner companies can use it as an assessment Analysis of these scores can facilitate risk assess. The follow. project. developing a baseline for understanding the current when scope changes occur the affected areas can level of project definition. The detailed element descriptions projects will find the PDRI to be a simple. It willing to authorize projects. and take action to improve their definition. and in the tool provide an objective basis for discussion powerful tool. The PORI can help define the overall indicator in making the decision of whether to au- project requirements for developing and assem. The PORI can help the project cution on any elements that were not well defined team determine which elements are the most criti. when implemented effectively. PORI scores reflect the quality The PORI can benefit both owner and contractor com- and completeness of the project scope package. all rights reserved. When used effectively. prove scope management efforts on industrial construc- ture operations) and in communication with con. in tum. Any company wishing to im- assessment and a "meeting of the minds" among prove performance on their industrial construction all stakeholders. effective. as. 2. Finally. 5. team to refocus effort during project exe- 2. project participants to communicate and reconcile dif- tions can be conducted by both owners and con.

Calif. RANDIR- The University of Texas at Austin. Merrow. Industry Inst.Y. REFERENCES plants.. McGraw-Hili Inc. Hamilton. Tex. 113-11. H. Eng. ASCE. E.312-318.. Austin. E. PDR1: project definition Pre-project planning: beginning a project the right way...." Proc. Engrg.. Rep. Manage. G. dustry Institute for supporting this research investigation. W. Project Management Institute. E... E.. For personal use only. Austin.. K. E. G. in Engrg. (1988). 3560-PSSP. project-planning process for capital facilities. 2nd Ed. H. R. Industry Inst. 76-83. New York. E. W. Annu. "Managing capital index (PDRI) for industrial projects. R. M.. Austin. Univ. Gibson. Tex. Inc. Industry Inst. (1995). Tex. Calif. G. Industry Inst. N. Constr. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS and alignment during pre-project planning. Copyright ASCE. Industry Inst. Jr.. W.. Smith. Dumont. R..25-33. Merrow. and Myers. J. industrial projects. Implementa. Understanding the outcomes of megaprojects: forts. Const. J. (1994). Engrg. problems occurring in the engineering phase of an industrial Griffith.. Gibson. Control & management of capital projects. "Project communication project. ment body of knowledge.. (1994).. (1981). . Project definition rating Merrow. 108-111. Project Management Institute. 101(10). Tex.13:54-60. R. M. of Texas at Austin.. PA. E. Cll Res. "Pre. Santa Monica.. 1997. A. tion Resour." Proc. PMI '95 Conf. (1995b). G. 12(2). The writers would like to thank the Construction In. E. A guide to the project manage- Constr. (1996). Constr. "Pre. Const.. Univ. Publ. A. of Texas at Austin.. W. (1996a). projects: where have we been-where are we going?" Chern. Industry Inst. Hackney. Mgmt. Peter Dumont was formerly a graduate student at a quantitative analysis of very large civilian projects. The Rand Corp. W.. Rep. RANDIR-2569-DOE." J. 60 I JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT IN ENGINEERING I SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 1997 J. E. An assessment ofthe potential and Mgmt. Special Publ. Austin. A.org by Dokuz Eylul Universitesi Rekto on 10/14/12. Upper Gibson. 121(3)." J. P.. and Griffith. ASCE. Austin.. 39-2. Conf. Phillips. rating index. and Lore.. Univ. E. of the Front End Planning Research Team for their ef. and Tucker. Gibson. Constr. Tex. 39·1.. R. (1996b).. Darby. Santa Monica. to Texaco. Jr. (1996)... Tex. Industry Inst. Pre-project planning handbook. project planning tools. and Dumont. E. G. Constr. P. M. Kaczmarowski. and Gibson. 113-2. (1992). (1995). all rights reserved. E. and Yarossi. P. L. The Rand Corp.. "Benchmarking pre- They would also like to especially thank the members project planning effort.. and Dumont. of Texas at Austin.. C. Jr. (1983). G. Understand- ing cost growth and peTj'ormance shortfalls in pioneer process APPENDIX. Austin. Jr. and Gibson. Constr. E (1995a). Downloaded from ascelibrary. E.