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FIBER REINFORCED CONCRETE
N. Banthia
Synopsis: The usefulness of fiber reinforced concrete (FRC) in
various civil engineering applications is indisputable. Fiber
reinforced concrete has so far been successfully used in slabs on
grade, shotcrete, architectural panels, precast products, offshore
structures, structures in seismic regions, thin and thick repairs,
crash barriers, footings, hydraulic structures and many other
applications. This paper presents a brief stateoftheart report on
mechanical properties and durability of fiber reinforced concrete.
In particular, issues related to fibermatrix interaction,
reinforcement mechanisms, standardized testing, resistance to
dynamic loads, and transport properties are discussed.
Keywords: FRC, fiber reinforced concrete, fibermatrix
interaction, dynamic loads
2
Nemkumar Banthia is a Professor and Distinguished University
Scholar at the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada. A
fellow of the ACI, the Canadian Soc. of Civil Engg., Indian Concrete
Institute and the Canadian Academy of Engineering, his awards include
the Wason Medal of the ACI and the Solutions through Research Award
of the Innovation Council of British Columbia.
INTRODUCTION
Compared to other building materials such as metals and polymers,
concrete is significantly more brittle and exhibits a poor tensile
strength. Based on fracture toughness values, steel is at least 100
times more resistant to crack growth than concrete. Concrete in
service thus cracks easily, and this cracking creates easy access
routes for deleterious agents resulting in early saturation, freeze
thaw damage, scaling, discoloration and steel corrosion.
The concerns with the inferior fracture toughness of concrete are
alleviated to a large extent by reinforcing it with fibers of various
materials. The resulting material with a random distribution of
short, discontinuous fibers is termed fiber reinforced concrete
(FRC) and is slowly becoming a well accepted mainstream
construction material. Significant progress has been made in the
last thirty years towards understanding the short and longterm
performances of fiber reinforced cementitious materials, and this
has resulted in a number of novel and innovative applications.
There are currently 200,000 metric tons of fibers used for concrete
reinforcement. Table 1 shows the existing commercial fibers and
their properties. Steel fiber remains the most used fiber of all (50% of
total tonnage used) followed by polypropylene (20%), glass (5%)
and other fibers (25%).
3
PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF FIBER
REINFORCED CONCRETE
Reinforcement Mechanisms
Concrete carries flaws and microcracks both in the material and at
the interfaces even before an external load is applied. These defects
and microcracks emanate from excess water, bleeding, plastic
settlement, thermal and shrinkage strains and stress concentrations
imposed by external restraints. Under an applied load, distributed
microcracks propagate coalesce and align themselves to produce
macrocracks. When loads are further increased, conditions of
critical crack growth are attained at the tips of the macrocracks and
unstable and catastrophic failure is precipitated.
The micro and macrofracturing processes described above, can be
favorably modified by adding short, randomly distributed fibers of
various suitable materials. Fibers not only suppress the formation of
cracks, but also abate their propagation and growth.
Soon after placement, evaporation of the mix water and the
autogenous process of concrete hydration create shrinkage strains in
concrete. If restrained, this contraction can cause stresses far in
excess of those needed to cause cracking. In spite of every effort,
plastic shrinkage cracking remains a serious concern, particularly in
large surface area placements like slabs on grade, thin surface repairs,
patching and shotcrete linings. With large surface areas, fibers
engage water in the mix and reduce bleeding and segregation. The
result is that there is less water available for evaporation and less
overall free shrinkage [1]. When combined with postcrack bridging
capability of fibers, fibers reduce crack widths and cracks areas when
concrete is retrained [2], (Fig. 1).
In the hardened state, when fibers are properly bonded, they interact
with the matrix at the level of microcracks and effectively bridge
these cracks thereby providing stress transfer media that delays their
coalescence and unstable growth (Fig. 2). If the fiber volume fraction
is sufficiently high, this may result in an increase in the tensile
4
strength of the matrix. Indeed, for some high volume fraction fiber
composite [3], a notable increase in the tensile/flexural strength over
and above the plain matrix has been reported (Fig. 3). Once the
tensile capacity of the composite is reached, and coalescence and
conversion of microcracks to macrocracks has occurred, fibers,
depending on their length and bonding characteristics continue to
restrain crack opening and crack growth by effectively bridging
across macrocracks. This postpeak macrocrack bridging is the
primary reinforcement mechanism in the majority of commercial
fiber reinforced concrete composites.
Based on the discussion above, it emerges that fiberreinforced
cementitious composites can be classified into two broad categories:
normal performance (or conventional) fiberreinforced cementitious
composites and highperformance fiberreinforced cementitious
composites. In FRCs with low to medium volume fraction of fibers,
fibers do not enhance the tensile/flexural strength of the composite
and benefits of fiber reinforcement are limited to energy absorption
or ‗toughness‘ enhancement in the postcracking regime only. For
high performance fiber reinforced composites, on the other hand,
with a high fiber dosage, benefits of fiber reinforcement are noted in
an increased tensile strength, strainhardening response before
localization and enhanced ‗toughness‘ beyond crack localization.
FiberMatrix Bond
As in any fiber reinforced composite, fibermatrix bond in FRC is of
critical importance. However, unlike fiber reinforced polymers
(FRPs) used in aerospace and automobile industries where fibers are
employed to enhance strength and elastic modulus, in FRCs,
‗toughness‘ or energy absorption capability is of primary interest.
Therefore, inelastic bond failure mechanisms such as interfacial
crack growth, crack tortuousity and fiber slip are of greater relevance.
Fiber pullout tests are often performed to assess fiber efficiency in
FRC and in such tests fiber bond and slip are monitored
simultaneously. Fig. 4 shows such a test, and the bondslip curves
obtained [4].
5
For a fiber embedded in a cementitious matrix and subjected to a
pullout load (Fig. 5), shearlag will occur and interfacial debonding
will commence at the point of fiber entry which will slowly
propagate towards the free end of the fiber. Thus, some energy
absorption will occur at the fibermatrix interface while the bond is
being mobilized and the fiber prepares to slip. Early in the
development of fiber reinforced concrete it became apparent that for
large, macrofibers with small surface areas, a straight fiber will pull
out at low values of interfacial stress and will generate stress in fiber
far below its tensile strength. Most commercial macrofibers of steel
and other materials (polypropylene, for example) are now deformed
to enhance their bond with the surrounding matrix. However, even
here there is a limit. If deformed excessively, fibers may develop
stresses that exceed their strength and fracture in the process (Fig. 3).
The energy absorption in such cases is limited, and although some
fiber slippage may precede fracture, poor toughening ensues. For
maximized fiber efficiency, a pullout mode of fiber failure where
pullout occurs at a fiber stress close to its tensile strength is
preferred. It is important to mention that fiber failure mode is highly
dependent on the angle at which fiber is inclined with respect to the
direction of the pullout force.
Fundamental Fracture Studies and Modeling
In the case of classically brittle materials like glass, Linear Elastic
Fracture Mechanics applies and fracture can be completely defined
by a single parameter called the ‗critical stress intensity factor‘, K
C
.
In microfracturing, strainsoftening material like concrete, one
parameter description of fracture is not possible and multi
parameter fracture criterion have been proposed [5,6]. In the case
of fiber reinforced concrete, in addition to crack closing pressure
due to aggregate interlocking, fiber bridging occurs behind the tip
of a propagating crack where fibers undergo bondslip processes
and provide additional closing pressures. The fracture processes in
fiber reinforced cement composites are therefore even more
complex and advanced models are needed to simulate these
processes. Attempts have been made to model fracture in FRC
using the cohesive crack model [7] as well as the Jintegral [8].
However, strictly speaking, these are only crack initiation criteria
6
and fail to define conditions for continued crack growth. To define
both crack initiation and growth, there is now general agreement
that a continuous curve of fracture conditions at the crack tip is
needed as done in an Rcurve [9]. An Rcurve (Figure 6) is a
significantly more suitable representation of fracture in FRCs, as
one can monitor variations in the stress intensity as the crack
grows and derive a multiparameter fracture criterion.
A contoured double cantilever specimen is often used to obtain R
Curves for FRC. A typical test is shown in Fig. 7, and the resulting
RCurves are shown in Fig. 8 [10].
Standardized Tests for Toughness Measurements
Characterization of toughness (or energy absorption capability) of
FRC through standardized testing remains a hotly debated topic.
There is still no general agreement on how the toughness of fiber
reinforced concrete should be measured [1113]. ASTM has two
standards [14,15] and Japan Society for Civil Engineering (JSCE)
Standard SF4 [16] is also often used. These three techniques and
their analysis schemes are compared in Table 2. Unfortunately, they
all treat toughness differently and there is little cross relationship
between the toughness parameters they produce [17].
Blast and Impact Resistance
Since 9/11, there has been an increased interest in developing
materials with enhanced resistance to explosive and impact loads.
Testing has clearly demonstrated that the ideal way to enhance the
impact resistance of concrete is by fiber reinforcement. Fibers
enhance the postfracture stress transfer capability in concrete,
enhance dynamic fracture toughness, decrease dynamic crack
velocities and increase the absorption of energy under impact loads.
Drop Weight Impact Tests [18] are generally performed to measure
the resistance of fiber reinforced concrete to impact loads. In most
modern impact test systems, sufficient instrumentation is provided
such that loads, deformations, and velocities are simultaneously
measured; these are needed for a later analysis of the data. One
7
major issue that needs to be dealt with is that of inertial loading.
Specimen accelerates during a test and all measurements are made
while the specimen is still under acceleration. One commonly
adopted technique is to carry out direct measurements of
accelerations, and then use the principle of virtual work to derive
expressions for generalized inertial loads. For a simply supported
plate specimen impacted in the center, the generalized inertial load
(P
i
(t)) is given by [19]:
l
.x
t).cosec l/2, (x, u
4
hl
(t) P
2
i
t p
= (1)
where, l is width (also length) of the plate, p is the mass density, h
is the thickness of the plate and ü(x,y,t) = acceleration at any point
(x,y) on the plate at time t. Once the generalized inertial load is
obtained, the plate can be modelled as a Single Degree of Freedom
(SDOF) system and the generalized bending load can be obtained
from the Equation of dynamic equilibrium,
P (t) P (t) P(t)
b t i
= ÷ (2)
Similar expressions have been developed for beam specimens [18]
and other geometries [20].
For fiber reinforced concrete, while an improvement in impact
properties is widely reported, on a worrisome note, steel fibers are
reported [21] to fracture across cracks at high rates of loading and
thus produce a brittle response at very high strainrates. As seen in
Fig. 9 and 10, SFRC may show increased brittleness under very
high strain rates.
The exact reasons of the observed brittleness of some FRC
materials under impact can be understood only via fundamental
testing of bondslip mechanisms, fracture studies and modeling
[22]. In a recent study [23], a model proposed by Armelin and
Banthia [24] was adopted to predict the loaddisplacement
response of beam under impact (Fig. 11). The compressive strain,
c
o,
at the topmost fiber of the specimen leads to an axial
shortening, A
o,
as shown. This in turn leads to stress, o
c,
in the
8
uncracked concrete. On the other hand, it results in fiber slippage,
w
i
, below the neutral axis and corresponding forces, f
i
, as the fibers
pullout. Thus, the flexural load carried during the postcrack
phase is obtained by satisfying the equilibrium of moments:
l
M
P
e
2
= (3)
The equilibrating moment, M
e
, may be calculated by summing the
moments generated by concrete stresses and the individual
moments generated by the N individual fibers bridging the crack
below the neutral axis. It follows from Fig. 11, that
( )
í
¯
= +
'
0
1
0 .
c
N
i c
f dy b o (equilibrating forces) (4)
( ) ( )
¯
í
+ =
N
i i
c
c e
y f y dy b M
1
0
.
'
o (equilibrating moments) (5)
where b is the width of the beam, c’ is the depth of the uncracked
section and y is the distance from the neutral axis.
In the model, the pullout force in each fiber (f
i
) is expressed as a
function of the crack width, w
i
, according to the average pullout
force versus slip (or crack width) relationship obtained
experimentally at the full embedment length, l
e
=l/2. To enable this,
single fibers must be pulled out from a concrete matrix at various
inclinations with respect to the pullout load. The bondslip
response is then represented using the RambergOsgood
formulation so that the force carried by each fiber may be
expressed in terms of its orientation, o
i
and the slip, w
i
, as follows:
( )
( )  
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
+
÷
+ =
C
C
i
i p i i i
Bw
A
A w E w f
1
1
1
, o
(6)
where the constants A, B, C and E
p
, are obtained for each
orientation through the RambergOsgood formulation.
Recognizing that the average force in the fibers at a layer which is
9
at a distance ‗y‘ from the neutral axis is averaged over the entire
range of embedment and inclination that is possible, the value of
‗f
i
‘ in Equations 4 and 5 may be computed as follows (24):
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
+ + + + = w f
w f
w f w f w f
w f
f
geometry i
4
1
2 2 2
1
90
5 . 67 45 5 . 22
0
(7)
or
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
+ + + + + + = w f
w f
w f w f w f w f w f
w f
f
geometry i
6
1
2 2 2
1
90
75 60 45 30 15
0 (8)
The resulting model prediction is plotted together with the
experimental flexural response under impact in Fig. 12. Not
surprisingly, the analytical response is monotonic and predictions
are not excellent. Nevertheless the model can approximate the
experimental response, and predict both peak load and toughness.
For proper predictions, one needs to somehow engage information
on crack velocities and changes in the stressintensity factors at the
tip of a fast moving crack. Such attempts are currently underway.
BioInspired FRCs for Longer Service Life
The decreasing life span of concrete structures is becoming an
issue of greater and greater importance for societies. The primary
problem is the corrosion of the steel in reinforced concrete
structures. Chloride penetration and carbonation are the primary
reasons for such corrosion and any measures aimed at mitigating
the ingress of chlorides or CO
2
into the body of concrete are
expected to significantly enhance the durability of concrete
structures. These deleterious agents enter the body of concrete
through one of the three transport mechanisms: diffusion, capillary
sorption and permeability—of these, the permeability is considered
as the dominant mechanism. Any measures adopted to reduce
permeability of concrete will therefore help in preserving
durability. Results have indicated that permeability, in turn, is
highly dependent upon cracking in concrete and an increase in the
crack width will not only produce a highly permeable concrete (Fig.
13) but also enhance the possibility of rebar corrosion, Figure 14,
Bentur [25].
10
There is an increased interest these days in bioinspired fiber
reinforced cementitious composites. These are based on bio
degradable and recyclable natural fibers (such as cellulose) and are
both environmentally friendly and sustainable. Current research at
The University of British Columbia is focussing on such
composites, and the preliminary indications are that such bio
inspired materials are highly promising in building and
regenerating a sustainable infrastructure.
The influence of an externally applied stress on the permeability of
concrete remains poorly understood. Banthia and coworkers [26]
& [27], developed a novel technique of measuring the permeability
of concrete under an applied stress and investigated the benefits of
fiber reinforcement. The permeability cell was mounted directly in
a 200 kN hydraulic Universal Testing Machine (UTM) such that a
uniform compressive stress could be applied directly on the
concrete specimen housed in the cell. The water collected was
related to the coefficient of water permeability (K
w
) by applying
Darcy‘s law:
h A
QL
K
w
A
= (9)
K
w
= Coefficient of water permeability (m/s), Q = Rate of Water
Flow (m
3
/s), L = Thickness of specimen wall (m), A = Permeation
area (m
2
) and Ah = Pressure head (m).
Their data are plotted in Fig. 15. Notice that under conditions of
nostress, fibers reduce the permeability of concrete, and the
reduction appears to be proportional to the fiber volume fraction.
Data further indicates that stress has a significant influence on the
permeability of concrete. When stress was first increased to 0.3f
u
,
both plain and FRC showed a decrease in the permeability.
However, when the stress was increased to 0.5f
u
, plain and FRC
showed very different trends. At 0.5f
u
, the permeability of plain
concrete increased substantially over that of the unstressed
specimen, but for FRC, while there was an increase in the
permeability over 0.3f
u
, the permeability still stayed below that of
the unstressed specimen.
11
The above observations can be related to cracking. At 0.3f
u
, it is
conceivable that in both plain and FRC, there is no discernible
cracking that can affect the flow of water. However, at 0.3f
u
, the
stressstrain response for both plain and FRC would become non
linear indicating the presence of cracking. As given by the
Poiseuille Law, Edvardsen [28], the flow of water through cracks
is proportional to the cube of the crack width. In the case of FRC,
one can expect the fibers to suppress cracking and hence maintain
the rate of flow similar to an unstressed specimen. When combined
with the phenomenon of ‗pore compression‘, this implies that the
permeability of FRC under stress can in fact be lower than that of
an unstressed specimen.
Bhargava and Banthia [27] extended the permeability data
described above towards service life prediction. Most service life
prediction models for concrete involve the use of diffusion
coefficients Tutti [29]. Unfortunately, studies relating different
transport coefficients are rare. In particular, experimental data
relating permeability and diffusion coefficient is lacking, and only
a theoretical correlation can be established between these two
coefficients via a correlation constant, as follows:
Empirical equations for the permeability coefficient were proposed
by Hedegaard et al. [30] and for diffusion coefficient were
proposed by Hansen et al. [31] as follows:
+

.

\
 +
÷ = 0 . 4
w
f 31 . 0 c
3 . 4 exp K
w
(10)

.

\

+
+
÷
=
0 . 7
3 . 0
10 7 . 1
w
f c
x D (11)
where,
K
w
= water permeability coefficient (m/s)
D = Chloride ion diffusion coefficient, in cm
2
/s
c = cement content of concrete, in kg/m
3
12
w= water content of concrete, in kg/m
3
f = flyash content of concrete, in kg/m
3
By substituting the values of c, w and f for the concrete mixture
used in the permeability tests in Eqs. (10) and (11), one obtains
K
w
=1.07x10
10
(m/s) and D = 7.89x10
13
(m
2
/s).
Further, the permeability K (m
2
) of a single straight pore with
effective pore radius
eff
r embedded in a medium of crosssectional
area A can be related to effective pore radius by assuming Hagen
Poiseuille’s law to be valid for small pores.
A
r
K
eff
8
4
t
= (12)
where
eff
r is the effective pore radius defined as the radius of the
effective pores which take part in the transport. Also, the diffusion
coefficient can be related to the area fraction of effective pores as,
A
r
D a D D
eff
o eff o
2
t
= = (13)
where
eff
a = is the area fraction of effective pores
o
D = is the diffusion coefficient in a bulk fluid
Assuming that the effective pore radius in Eqs. (12) and (13) is the
same, a general relationship between permeability K
(m
2
) and
diffusion coefficients D (m
2
/s) emerges,
D
D
r
K
o
eff
8
2
= (14)
Further, it is to be noted that an interconnected pore system is
necessary for a continuous network of flow paths to be available
for various transporting media. In saturated conditions, the steady
state flow coefficient can be related to the water permeability
coefficient as the two processes occur simultaneously,
13
g
K
K
w
p
n
=
(15)
Using Eqs. (14) and (15), the water permeability coefficient
w
K
(m/s) and the diffusion coefficient D(m
2
/s) can be related as,
D
D
g r
K
o
eff
w
n
p
8
2
= (16)
Where K
w
as before is the water permeability coefficient (m/s),
D is the diffusion coefficient (m
2
/s),
r
eff
is the effective pore radius,
n is the viscosity of water (Ns/m
2
),
p is the density of water (kg/m
3
) and,
g is the gravity (m/s
2
)
This equation corresponds to KatzThompson Equation, Garboczi
[32], and is based on the assumption that the effective radius
affecting the permeability and the diffusion coefficient is the same.
Equation (16) can be further modified to consider the effect of
stress and the fibers on concrete. Since the permeability coefficient
is proportional to the fourth power of effective pore radius Eq. (12)
and since the normalized permeability coefficient is related to the
water permeability coefficient of unstressed plain concrete through
the previously defined factors F and S, describing, respectively, the
influence of fiber reinforcement and stress Bhargava & Banthia
[27], the effective pore radius can be modified to:
eff normalized
r S F r
25 . 0 25 . 0 *
= (17)
where, r*
normalized
is the effective pore radius corresponding to
normalized permeability values and
eff
r in this case is the effective
pore radius of plain concrete under zero stress condition.
Substituting Eq. (17) into Eq. (16), we get a modified equation
which relates normalized water permeability to diffusion
coefficient as,
14
D S CF K
normalized
5 . 0 5 . 0
= (18)
where C =
n
p
o
eff
D
g r
8
2
is a constant proportional to second power of the
effective pore radius of plain concrete under zero stress condition.
For plain concrete and zero stress condition F=S=1 and for this
case:
CxD K K
unstressed plain
w normalized
= =
÷
(19)
Substituting the empirical values of the water permeability
coefficient K
w
=1.07x10
10
m/s and the chloride ion diffusion
coefficient D = 7.89x10
13
m
2
/s, as obtained previously, the value
of constant C for the concrete in question can be calculated:
C = 135.62 m
1
(20)
The constant C computed above takes into consideration the
effective pore radius of plain concrete under zero stress condition
and properties of the chloride ion diffusion coefficient. The
calculated chloride ion diffusion coefficients are given in Table 3.
The Durability Factor, D, for a given concrete under a given stress
level can be defined as the ratio of its expected service life to that
of companion plain concrete under zero stress. Using Tuutti‘s
model [29], ingress of chlorides is estimated by a onedimensional
diffusion process using the Fick‘s Second Law of diffusion. For
nonsteady state condition, the chloride concentration C at a
location x and at a time t is given by Crank [33].

.

\

=
x
C
D
x t
C
o
o
o
o
o
o
(21)
Here, the diffusion coefficient D may be a constant or a function of
other variables such as chloride concentration, location, time,
temperature, etc.
15
For a simple case with known geometry and boundary conditions
where the diffusion coefficient D can be assumed to be a constant,
solution to Eq. (21) is given by Newman [34]:


.

\

÷ =
Dt
x
erf C t x C
s
2
1 ) , ( (22)
í
÷
=
z
t
dt e z erf
0
2
2
) (
t
(23)
where,
erf is a standard error function,
x is effective concrete cover depth,
s
C is the concentration of the chloride ions at the outside surface
of the concrete and is assumed to be constant with time. That is,
s
C C = for x = 0 and for any t
i
C is the concentration at the depth of the reinforcement; assumed
to be zero at t =0.
t
C is the threshold concentration required to initiate steel
reinforcement corrosion. The initiation period is accomplished
when
t i
C C = and,
t = time
Eq. (22) can be solved by using a normal standard distribution
Bertolini et al. [35]:
1 ) 2 ( 2 ) ( ÷ = z N z erf (24)
dt e z N
z
t
í
· ÷
=
2
2
2
2
1
) 2 (
t
(25)
The initiation time can thus be calculated by assuming a constant
diffusion coefficient for concrete, a known surface chloride content
(dictated by the environment), the thickness of the concrete cover
and critical chloride ion content at which onset of corrosion is
expected.
16
Solving the above equation for
t
C = threshold concentration of
chloride ions = 0.50 % (based on the mass of cement),
s
C =chloride
ions concentration at the surface of concrete = 0.70 % (based on
the mass of cement), x = 25 mm, and diffusion coefficients, D,
from Table 1:
D 2678 . 0
x
t t
2
i
= ~ (26)
Notice that a lower value of 0.50% threshold concentration of
chloride ions was chosen due to the presence of flyash in concrete
which is known to increase the rate of corrosion. The above
equation predicts that service life of any concrete is proportional to
x
2
, and holds an inverse relationship with the chloride ion diffusion
coefficient. Therefore doubling the concrete cover increases
service life of concrete by a factor of 4, whereas a 10fold
reduction in diffusion coefficient will result in a 10fold increase in
the predicted service life. Substituting the values of diffusion
coefficient from Table 3 into Eq. 26 for different concrete types
and stress conditions, the Durability Factors were computed and
are plotted in Fig. 16. Notice in Figure 16 that as per the model,
fiber reinforcement can be effective in enhancing the durability of
concrete under both stressed and unstressed conditions.
CONCLUDING REMARKS
A brief stateoftheart report on fiber reinforced concrete is
presented. Our understanding of fibermatrix interaction,
reinforcement mechanisms and performance characteristics is fairly
advanced. Fiber reinforced concrete is a promising material to be
used in the MiddleEast for sustainable and longlasting concrete
structures. Its performance has already been proven in other hot and
arid climates and in other chemically deleterious environments.
17
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[10]. Banthia, N., and Genois, I., Controlled Crack Growth Tests for Optimization
of MicroFiber Reinforced Cement Composites, ACI, Special Publication:
Application and Testing of Fracture Mechanics Concepts (Ed. C.
Vipulanandan), SP201, pp. 5574; 2000.
[11]. Banthia, N. and Trottier, J.F., ―Test Methods of Flexural Toughness
Characterization: Some Concerns and a Proposition,‖ Concrete Int.: Design
& Construction, American Concrete Institute, Materials Journal, 92(1), pp.
4857; 1995.
[12]. Barr, B., Gettu, R., AlOraimi, S.K.A., and Bryars, L.S., ―Toughness
Measurementsthe Need to Think Again,‖ Cement and Concrete Composites,
18, pp. 281297; 1996.
[13]. Gopalaratman, V.S., et al, ―Fracture Toughness of Fiber Reinforced Concrete‖,
ACI Materials Journal, JulyAugust 1991, pp. 339353, and Johnston, C.D.,
Discussion of above paper, ACI Materials Journal, pp. 304309; MayJune
1992.
18
[14]. ASTM C 1609/C 1609M – 05, Standard Test Method for Flexural
Performance of FiberReinforced Concrete (Using Beam With ThirdPoint
Loading), ASTM International, PA, United States.
[15]. ASTM C 139998, ―Test Method for Obtaining Average ResidualStrength of
FiberReinforced Concrete,‖ Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 04.02.
Japan Society of Civil Engineers; 2004.
[16]. Standard SF4 Method of Test for Flexural Strength and Flexural Toughness
of Fiber Reinforced Concrete, Japan Society of Civil Engineers; pp. 5866;
1984.
[17]. Banthia, N. and Mindess, S., Toughness Characterization of Fiber Reinforced
Concrete: Which Standard to Use? ASTM, J. of Testing and Evaluation, 32(2),
pp. 138139; 2004.
[18]. Banthia, N., Mindess, S., Bentur, A. and Pigeon, M., Expt. Mech. 29 (2): pp.
6369; 1989.
[19]. Gupta, P. et al., Journal of Materials in Civil Engrg., ASCE, 12 (1) 8190;
2000.
[20]. Bindiganavile, V. and Banthia, N., Generating Dynamic Crack Growth
Resistance Curves for Fiber Reinforced Concrete, Experimental Mechanics
in press. 2004.
[21]. Bindiganavile, V and Banthia, N., Polymer and Steel Fiber Reinforced
Cementitious Composites under Impact Loading, Part 2: Flexural
Toughness, American Concrete Institute, Materials Journal, Vol. 98(1): pp.
1724; 2001.
[22]. Kaadi, G.W., MS Thesis, The University of Illinois, Chicago, (1983).
[23]. Banthia, N., Impact and Blast Protection with Fiber Reinforced Concrete,
Conference Proceedings  BEFIB, Veronna, Italy, RILEM, 39, pp. 3144;
2004.
[24]. Armelin, H. and Banthia, N., ACI Mat. J., 94(1): pp. 1831; 1997.
[25]. Bentur, A., et al. 2005. Comprehensive Approach for the Design of
Concrete for Durability and Long Term Performance of Structures.
ConMat05 Mindess Symposium Proc., University of British Columbia (Ed.
Banthia, Bentur and Shah), 10 pp.
[26]. Banthia, N. and Bhargava, A., 2007. American Concrete Institute, Materials
Journal, 104(1), pp. 303309.
[27]. Bhargava, A. and Banthia, N. 2008. RILEM, Materials and Structures, 41:
363372.
[28]. Edvardsen, C., 1999. ACI Materials Journal, 96(4): 448454.
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[29]. Tuutti, K., 1982. Corrosion of steel in concrete. Swedish Cement and
Concrete Research Institute, Stockholm, Sweden. CBI Research Report no.
4.82.
[30]. Hedegaard, S.E. and Hansen, T.C., 1992. Materials and Structures, 25: 381
387.
[31]. Hansen, T.C., Jensen, J., Johannesson, T. 1986. Cement and Concrete
Research, 16(5): 782784.
[32]. Garboczi, J., Cement and Concrete Research, 20 (4) (1990) 590601.TITLE
[33]. Crank J., ―Mathematics of diffusion‖, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1956.
[34]. Newman, A.B. 1970. American Institute of Chemical Engineers, Vol. 27
pages.
[35]. Bertolini, L., Elsener, B., Pedeferri, P., and Polder, R., WILEYVCH Verlag
GmbH and Co. kGaA, Weinheim (2004).
20
TABLES
Table 1. Properties of Fibers used as Reinforcement in Concrete
Fiber type Tensile
strength
(MPa)
Tensile
modulus
(GPa)
Tensile
strain (%)
(maxmin)
Fiber
diameter
(um)
Alkali
stability,
(relative)
Asbestos 6003600 69150 0.30.1 0.0230 excellent
Carbon 5904800 28520 21 718 excellent
Aramid 2700 62130 43 1112 good
Polypropylene 200700 0.59.8 1510 10150 excellent
Polyamide 7001000 3.96.0 1510 1050 
Polyester 8001300 up to 15 208 1050 
Rayon 4501100 up to 11 157 1050 fair
Polyvinyl
Alcohol
8001500 2940 106 14600 good
Polyacrylonitrile 8501000 1718 9 19 good
Polyethylene 400 24 400100 40 excellent
Polyethylene
pulp (oriented)
   120 excellent
High Density
Polyethylene
2585 117 2.2 38 excellent
Carbon steel 3000 200 21 5085 excellent
Stainless steel 3000 200 21 5085 excellent
AR Glass 1700 72 2 1220 good
21
Table 2. Description of Test Methods
Standards ASTM C 160908 JSCE SF4 ASTM C 139998
Test
Specimen
Reloading
Test
Description
A beam specimen is quasistatically loaded at its thirdpoints to
failure and the resulting load vs. net center point deflection is
plotted for further analysis.
A stable narrow crack is first created in the specimen by applying a
flexural load in series with a steel plate under controlled conditions.
The plate is then removed, and the specimen is reloaded in flexure to
obtain the postcrack load vs. net displacement curve.
Typical
Curve
Net Deflection, mm
L
o
a
d
,
N
First Crack
o
A
B C D
E
F G H
δ 3δ 5.5δ 10.5δ
I J
δtb = L/150
Net Deflection, mm
L
o
a
d
,
N
Initial Loading Curve
Reloading Curve (Precracked Beam)
P
0.5
P
0.75
P
1.0
P
1.25
Analysis
P
x,y
= Load at displacement
y for a x mm section
f
150,0.75
(MPa): Residual
strength at P
150,0.75
f
150,3.0
(MPa): Residual
strength at P
150,3.0
Toughness
150,3.0
(J): The
energy to a net deflection of
1⁄150 of the span (3.0 mm
for a 150 mm specimen)
Flexural Toughness (T
b
) = Area OAEJ
Flexural Toughness Factor (FT)
FT =
2
tb
b
bd x
L x T
o
MOR = Modulus of Rupture
b = Breadth of the Beam
d = Depth of the Beam
Average Residual Strength
ARS = ((P
0.5
+P
0.75
+P
1.0
+P
1.25
)/4) x L/bd
2
Initial Loading
100 (%) 2 Re x
MOR
FT
=
22
Table 3. Computed Values of Chloride Ion Diffusion Coefficient
Fiber
Volume
Fraction
V
f
Applied
Stress
Level
Normalized
water
permeability
coefficient
K
normalized
x10

10
(m/s)
F
S
Chloride
ion
diffusion
coefficient
Dx10
13
(m
2
/s)
0.0%
0.0f
u
1.66 1 1 12.24
0.3f
u
103 1 0.62 9.64
0.5f
u
2.30 1 1.38 14.43
0.1%
0.0f
u
0.95 0.57 1 9.27
0.3f
u
0.53 0.57 0.57 6.85
0.5f
u
0.71 0.57 0.76 7.95
0.3%
0.0f
u
0.60 0.36 1 7.37
0.3f
u
0.32 0.36 0.53 5.40
0.5f
u
0.45 0.36 0.75 6.38
0.5%
0.0f
u
0.30 0.18 1 5.21
0.3f
u
0.10 0.18 0.33 3.02
0.5f
u
0.18 0.18 0.62 3.97
23
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
0.0% 0.1% 0.2% 0.3% 0.4%
Volume Fraction (%)
A
v
e
r
a
g
e
C
r
a
c
k
W
i
d
t
h
(
m
m
)
F1 F2
F3 F4
F5 F6
F7
FIGURES
Fig. 1. (Left) Plastic Shrinkage Crack Control Efficiency with
Increasing Fiber Volume Fraction from Top to Bottom and (Right)
Maximum Crack Width for Various Fibers (F1F7).
Fig. 2. Fiber Reinforcement Before and After the Creation of
a MacroCrack (Left) and Crack Bridging by Fibers (Right).
Micro crack
Formation
Macro crack
Formation
o
c
c
peak
A
B
A
A
B
A
24
Fig. 3. (Left) A CFRC Composite in Tension and (Right) StressStrain
Curves Showing StrainHardening at High Fiber Volume Fractions.
Fig. 4. (Left) A Fiber PullOut Test and (Right) BondSlip PullOut
Curves for Various Deformed Fibers. (Notice fiber fracture in an
excessively deformed fiber.)
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
0.3
0.35
0 5 10 15
Slip (mm)
L
o
a
d
(
k
N
)
Undeformed
Deformed Fiber (PullOut)
Excessively Deformed Fiber (Fracture)
25
Fig. 5. ShearLag in a Bonded
Fiber with Inelastic Mechanisms
.
Fig. 6. RCurve Representation of
Fracture in FRC.
Fig. 8. RCurves Generated from CDCB Tests
Shown in Figure 7
Fig. 7. A CDCB Before and
After Fracture.
26
Fig. 9. Impact Resistance of Steel FRC and Polypropylene FRC. (Note
the increase in brittleness in SFRC at high rates of loading.)
Fig. 10. Impact Response of SFRC Beams.
(Notice brittleness at high strainrates.)
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
200 500 750 1000
Drop Height (mm)
T
o
u
g
h
n
e
s
s
(
N
m
)
Steel Fiber
Polypropylene
Fiber
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
Deflection (mm)
L
o
a
d
(
k
N
)
Low StrainRate Impact
High StrainRate Impact
QuasiStatic
27
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
deflection (mm)
l
o
a
d
(
k
N
)
Experimental
Analytical
Experimental Response Analytical Response
Peak Load
(kN)
38 34
JSCE
Toughness
Factor (MPa)
6.30 7.05
Fig. 11. Schematic View of Forces and Stresses Acting on the
Cracked Section of an SFRC Beam.
Fig. 12. Model Predictions under Impact Loading. (Note that
predicted response is monotonic, but predicts both peak load and
toughness.)
0
c
0
d
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
s
f
i
.
.
f
3
f
2
f
1
ƒ
i
= f(w
i
, o
i
, l
i
)
o
c
u
n
c
r
a
c
k
e
d
s
e
c
t
i
o
n
w
i
1
2
3
i
s
t
r
a
i
n
s
28
Fig. 13. Effect of Crack Width on Permeability [1].
Fig. 14. The Effect of Crack Width on Corrosion Potential;
a Potential below –280mV Indicates Corrosion Initiation
and below –400mV Indicates Active Corrosion.
29
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
Stress Level ( f u )
N
o
r
m
a
l
i
z
e
d
P
e
r
m
e
a
b
i
l
i
t
y
C
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t
x
1
0

1
0
(
m
/
s
)
0.0% Fiber
0.1% Fiber
0.3% Fiber
0.5% Fiber
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
0 0.2 0.4 0.6
Stress Level (f
u
)
D
u
r
a
b
i
l
i
t
y
F
a
c
t
o
r
,
D 0.0% Fiber
0.1% Fiber
0.3% Fiber
0.5% Fiber
.
Fig. 15. Normalized Permeability Coefficients.
Fig. 16. Durability Factors. (Notice durability enhancements with
fibre reinforcement.)
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