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JUHU VERSOVA LINK ROAD, ANDHERI (W), MUMBAI 400 053

Date:- 12/10/2017

compare with simulated output using MATLAB simulation

THEORY: This is perhaps the most common type of all non linearity. All

practical systems, when driven by sufficiently large signals, exhibit the

phenomenon of saturation due to limitations of physical capabilities of their

components such as amplifiers have output proportional to input in a limited range

of output signals. When the input exceeds this range, the output tends to become

nearly constant this is known as saturation.

Certain approximate techniques exist which are capable of determining the

behaviour of a wider class of systems than is possible by phase plane method.

These techniques are known as describing function techniques

The describing function of a non-linear element is given by

𝑌

KN(X, 𝜔) = ( 1⁄𝑋) ∠ϕ1

Where,

X=Amplitude of the input sinusoid

Y1 =Amplitude of Fundamental harmonics component of the output

ϕ1 =phase shift of the fundamental harmonic component of the output with respect

to the input

simply required to find the fundamental harmonic component of its output for an

input x = X sin(𝜔t).

The fundamental component of the output can be written as:-

Manjara Charitable Trust’s

RAJIV GANDHI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

JUHU VERSOVA LINK ROAD, ANDHERI (W), MUMBAI 400 053

1 2π

B1 = ∫0 y cos(𝜔t) d(𝜔t)

π

1 2π

A1= ∫0 ysin(𝜔t) d(𝜔t)

π

The amplitude and phase angle or the fundamental components of the output are

given by:

Y1 = √𝐴1 2 + 𝐵1 2

𝐵1

ϕ1 = tan−1 ( )

𝐴1

Manjara Charitable Trust’s

RAJIV GANDHI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

JUHU VERSOVA LINK ROAD, ANDHERI (W), MUMBAI 400 053

y= Kx ;0 to α

= Ks ; α to π/2

=- Ks ;π/2 to π-α

= Kx ;π-α to π+α

=Ks ;π+α to 3π/2

=-Ks ;3π/2 to 2π-α

=Kx ;2π-α to 2π

1 2𝜋

A1= ∫0 y sin(𝜔t) d(𝜔t)

𝜋

4 𝛼 π/2

A1= [∫0 Kx sin(𝜔t) d(𝜔t) + ∫α Kx sin(𝜔t) d(𝜔t)]

𝜋

But x = s;

s = X sinα

𝑠

∴sin𝛼 = 𝑋

𝑠

∴ 𝛼 = sin−1

𝑋

4 𝛼 π/2

A1 = [𝐾𝑋 ∫0 sin2 (𝜔t)d(𝜔t) + KX sin𝛼 ∫α sin(𝜔t) d(𝜔t)]

𝜋

A1 = KX[∫0 (

𝜋 2

) 𝑑(𝜔𝑡) + 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝛼 ∫𝛼 𝑠𝑖𝑛(𝜔𝑡) 𝑑(𝜔𝑡)]

A1 = KX[∫0 ( − ) 𝑑(𝜔𝑡) + 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝛼 ∫𝛼 𝑠𝑖𝑛(𝜔𝑡) 𝑑(𝜔𝑡)]

𝜋 2 2

Manjara Charitable Trust’s

RAJIV GANDHI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

JUHU VERSOVA LINK ROAD, ANDHERI (W), MUMBAI 400 053

A1 = 𝐾𝑋 {[ (𝜔𝑡) − ] + sinα[−𝑐𝑜𝑠(𝜔𝑡)]𝛼 }

𝜋 2 2 2 0

A1= 𝐾𝑋 {[(𝜔𝑡) − ] + 2 sinα[−𝑐𝑜𝑠(𝜔𝑡)]𝛼 }

𝜋 2 0

2 sin(2𝛼) 𝜋

A1= 𝐾𝑋 {[𝛼 − + 2 sin α [− cos ( ) + cos(α)]}

𝜋 2 2

2 sin 2(𝛼)

A1= 𝐾𝑋 {𝛼 − ] + 2sinα cosα }

𝜋 2

2

A1= 𝐾𝑋{𝛼 + 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝛼 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛼}

𝜋

2 𝑠 𝑆 𝑠

A1= 𝐾𝑋 [sin−1 + cos sin−1 ]

𝜋 𝑋 𝑋 𝑋

2 𝑆 𝑆 𝑆 2

A1= 𝐾𝑋 [ sin−1 + √1 − [ 𝑆 ] ]

𝜋 𝑋 𝑋 𝑋 𝑋

2 𝑆 𝑆 𝑆 2

∴ Y1= 𝐾𝑋 [ sin−1 + √1 − [ 𝑆 ] ]

𝜋 𝑋 𝑋 𝑋 𝑋

For phase angle,

𝐵 0

ϕ1 = tan−1 ( 1 )=tan−1 ( )=0

𝐴 𝐴 1 1

2 𝑆 −1 𝑆 𝑆√ 𝑆 2

𝐾𝑋[ sin + 1−[ ] ]

𝜋 𝑋 𝑋 𝑋 𝑋

= ∠0

𝑋

Manjara Charitable Trust’s

RAJIV GANDHI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

JUHU VERSOVA LINK ROAD, ANDHERI (W), MUMBAI 400 053

2 𝑆 𝑆 𝑆 2

KN (X, 𝜔) = 𝐾 [ sin−1 + √1 − [ 𝑆 ] ] ∠0

𝜋 𝑋 𝑋 𝑋 𝑋

Suppose X=K=s=1

∴ KN (X, 𝜔) = 1∠0

Stimulated output:

Input Output Characteristics shown in left figure and only output of the

nonlinearity shown in right figure.

Manjara Charitable Trust’s

RAJIV GANDHI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

JUHU VERSOVA LINK ROAD, ANDHERI (W), MUMBAI 400 053

Conclusion:

Thus we have studied and derived the Describing function of relay with saturation.

The Input-output characteristics of relay and those observed on scope are the same.

If X=K=s=1 then the describing function given nonlinearity is ∴ KN (X, 𝜔) = 1∠0

Therefore, the nature of the given nonlinearity is trapezoidal in nature.

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