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# Manjara Charitable Trust’s

## RAJIV GANDHI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

JUHU VERSOVA LINK ROAD, ANDHERI (W), MUMBAI 400 053

## EXPERIMENT NUMBER -07

Date:- 12/10/2017

## AIM OF THE EXPERIMENT: Derive the describing function of Saturation and

compare with simulated output using MATLAB simulation

## EQUI PMENTS/COMPONENETS: Computer System, MATLAB

THEORY: This is perhaps the most common type of all non linearity. All
practical systems, when driven by sufficiently large signals, exhibit the
phenomenon of saturation due to limitations of physical capabilities of their
components such as amplifiers have output proportional to input in a limited range
of output signals. When the input exceeds this range, the output tends to become
nearly constant this is known as saturation.
Certain approximate techniques exist which are capable of determining the
behaviour of a wider class of systems than is possible by phase plane method.
These techniques are known as describing function techniques

## Derivation of Describing Functions:

The describing function of a non-linear element is given by

𝑌
KN(X, 𝜔) = ( 1⁄𝑋) ∠ϕ1

Where,
X=Amplitude of the input sinusoid
Y1 =Amplitude of Fundamental harmonics component of the output
ϕ1 =phase shift of the fundamental harmonic component of the output with respect
to the input

## Therefore for computing the describing function of a non-linear element, we are

simply required to find the fundamental harmonic component of its output for an
input x = X sin(𝜔t).
The fundamental component of the output can be written as:-

## y1= A1sin(𝜔t)+ B1cos(𝜔t)

Manjara Charitable Trust’s
RAJIV GANDHI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
JUHU VERSOVA LINK ROAD, ANDHERI (W), MUMBAI 400 053

## Where the coefficientsA1 and B1 of the Fourier series are:-

1 2π
B1 = ∫0 y cos(𝜔t) d(𝜔t)
π

1 2π
A1= ∫0 ysin(𝜔t) d(𝜔t)
π

The amplitude and phase angle or the fundamental components of the output are
given by:
Y1 = √𝐴1 2 + 𝐵1 2

𝐵1
ϕ1 = tan−1 ( )
𝐴1

## Input-output characteristics of saturation:

Manjara Charitable Trust’s
RAJIV GANDHI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
JUHU VERSOVA LINK ROAD, ANDHERI (W), MUMBAI 400 053

## Derivation of Describing Function of Relay with saturation:

y= Kx ;0 to α
= Ks ; α to π/2
=- Ks ;π/2 to π-α
= Kx ;π-α to π+α
=Ks ;π+α to 3π/2
=-Ks ;3π/2 to 2π-α
=Kx ;2π-α to 2π

1 2𝜋
A1= ∫0 y sin(𝜔t) d(𝜔t)
𝜋

## (for quarter wave fourier series)

4 𝛼 π/2
A1= [∫0 Kx sin(𝜔t) d(𝜔t) + ∫α Kx sin(𝜔t) d(𝜔t)]
𝜋

## But x = X sin(𝜔t) and 𝜔t = 𝛼

But x = s;
s = X sinα
𝑠
∴sin𝛼 = 𝑋

𝑠
∴ 𝛼 = sin−1
𝑋
4 𝛼 π/2
A1 = [𝐾𝑋 ∫0 sin2 (𝜔t)d(𝜔t) + KX sin𝛼 ∫α sin(𝜔t) d(𝜔t)]
𝜋

## 4 𝛼 1−𝑐𝑜𝑠 2(𝜔𝑡) 𝜋/2

A1 = KX[∫0 (
𝜋 2
) 𝑑(𝜔𝑡) + 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝛼 ∫𝛼 𝑠𝑖𝑛(𝜔𝑡) 𝑑(𝜔𝑡)]

## 4 𝛼 1 𝑐𝑜𝑠 2(𝜔𝑡) 𝜋/2

A1 = KX[∫0 ( − ) 𝑑(𝜔𝑡) + 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝛼 ∫𝛼 𝑠𝑖𝑛(𝜔𝑡) 𝑑(𝜔𝑡)]
𝜋 2 2
Manjara Charitable Trust’s
RAJIV GANDHI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
JUHU VERSOVA LINK ROAD, ANDHERI (W), MUMBAI 400 053

## 4 1 1 sin 2(𝜔𝑡) 𝛼 𝜋/2

A1 = 𝐾𝑋 {[ (𝜔𝑡) − ] + sinα[−𝑐𝑜𝑠(𝜔𝑡)]𝛼 }
𝜋 2 2 2 0

## 2 sin 2(𝜔𝑡) α 𝜋/2

A1= 𝐾𝑋 {[(𝜔𝑡) − ] + 2 sinα[−𝑐𝑜𝑠(𝜔𝑡)]𝛼 }
𝜋 2 0

2 sin(2𝛼) 𝜋
A1= 𝐾𝑋 {[𝛼 − + 2 sin α [− cos ( ) + cos(α)]}
𝜋 2 2

2 sin 2(𝛼)
A1= 𝐾𝑋 {𝛼 − ] + 2sinα cosα }
𝜋 2

## ∵ sin(2𝛼) = 2𝑠𝑖𝑛𝛼 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛼

2
A1= 𝐾𝑋{𝛼 + 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝛼 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛼}
𝜋

2 𝑠 𝑆 𝑠
A1= 𝐾𝑋 [sin−1 + cos sin−1 ]
𝜋 𝑋 𝑋 𝑋

2 𝑆 𝑆 𝑆 2
A1= 𝐾𝑋 [ sin−1 + √1 − [ 𝑆 ] ]
𝜋 𝑋 𝑋 𝑋 𝑋

## Now Y1 = √𝐴1 2 + 𝐵1 2 ∴ B1=0 (due to odd function)

2 𝑆 𝑆 𝑆 2
∴ Y1= 𝐾𝑋 [ sin−1 + √1 − [ 𝑆 ] ]
𝜋 𝑋 𝑋 𝑋 𝑋
For phase angle,
𝐵 0
ϕ1 = tan−1 ( 1 )=tan−1 ( )=0
𝐴 𝐴 1 1

## KN(X, 𝜔) =(𝑌1⁄𝑋) ∠ϕ1

2 𝑆 −1 𝑆 𝑆√ 𝑆 2
𝐾𝑋[ sin + 1−[ ] ]
𝜋 𝑋 𝑋 𝑋 𝑋
= ∠0
𝑋
Manjara Charitable Trust’s
RAJIV GANDHI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
JUHU VERSOVA LINK ROAD, ANDHERI (W), MUMBAI 400 053

2 𝑆 𝑆 𝑆 2
KN (X, 𝜔) = 𝐾 [ sin−1 + √1 − [ 𝑆 ] ] ∠0
𝜋 𝑋 𝑋 𝑋 𝑋

Suppose X=K=s=1

∴ KN (X, 𝜔) = 1∠0

## Simulated Block Diagram:-

Stimulated output:

Input Output Characteristics shown in left figure and only output of the
nonlinearity shown in right figure.
Manjara Charitable Trust’s
RAJIV GANDHI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
JUHU VERSOVA LINK ROAD, ANDHERI (W), MUMBAI 400 053

Conclusion:
Thus we have studied and derived the Describing function of relay with saturation.
The Input-output characteristics of relay and those observed on scope are the same.
If X=K=s=1 then the describing function given nonlinearity is ∴ KN (X, 𝜔) = 1∠0
Therefore, the nature of the given nonlinearity is trapezoidal in nature.