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• Check if the DE is separable ( or )

○ To solve, we integrate on both sides.

• If the DE is not separable, check if they're both

homogeneous of the same degree.

○ If they are, then making either substitution or will make

the DE separable.

• If the DE is not homogeneous of the same

degree, then check if it is exact ( ).

○ If it is, then solve knowing .

Find by solving , then find

(after finding ) by solving .

○ Another possibility is to solve knowing .

Find by solving , then find

(after finding

) by solving .

• If the DE is not exact, then check if we can make

it exact by multiplying the DE by an integrating factor .

○ If , then the integrating factor is .

Multiply the original DE by and check if it's exact, then solve.

○ If , then the integrating factor is .

Multiply the original DE by and check if it's exact, then solve.

• If a DE can be written in the form , it is called first-

order linear.

○ Its general solution is , where

.

• If a DE can be written in the form , where is a

real constant, it is a nonlinear Bernoulli equation. If or , it is

linear.

○ Let , then ; it is

linear in .

linear in .

• To find the solutions of , we have to solve the

characteristic equation .

○ If are real distinct roots, then the general solution is

.

○ If is a complex conjugate pair, then the general

solution is .

○ If are real repeated roots, then the general solution is

.

• To find the solutions of a second-order homogeneous Euler-Cauchy

equation , we have to solve the

characteristic equation .

○ If are real, distinct roots, then the general solution is

.

○ If is a complex conjugate pair, then the general

solution is .

○ If are real repeated roots, then the general solution is

.

• For any th order linear homogeneous DE, find the characteristic

equation and solve for .

• If all roots are real and distinct , let ;

○ The general solution is

.

• If all roots are real and repeated;

○ is a real, repeated root, we'd put and in

the general solution.

○ If is a real, triple root, we'd put ,

and in the general solution.

○ If is a real, root of multiplicity ,

we'd put , , , …, in the

general solution.

• If all the roots are complex;

are complex conjugates, we'd put and

Cheat sheet Page 2

○ are complex conjugates, we'd put and

in the general solution.

○ If and , where

(i.e. distinct conjugate pair), we'd put ,

, and in the

general solution.

○ If i.e. a repeated conjugate pair,

we'd put , ,

and in the general solution.

• A third-order homogeneous Euler-Cauchy equation has the form

.

○ To solve it, we need to first solve the charactaristic equation

. The general

solution is then .

○ If any root is repeated, we multiply them by as many times as

needed (once for the second repeated root and twice for the third).

• If the DE is nonhomogeneous, then it has the form

finite number of independent derivatives (so polynomials with

positive integer powers of , , and exponentials only;

any power of that is not positive or an integer, every logarithmic

functions and everything else is not okay), then we can (and should)

use the method of undetermined coefficients.

First, find , which is the general solution of the

corresponding homogeneous equation.

Then, we make a guess for based on .

If this is in You put this in

A polynomial of degree

An exponential

or

or

or

multiplication rule and multiply the whole part by as many

times as needed.

We then differentiate and plug those back in the original

We then differentiate and plug those back in the original

nonhomogeneous DE, solve for our variables and finally we can

say what the general solution is.

○ If neither of these are true, then we have to use the variation of

parameters method.

First, solve the corresponding homogeneous DE to find .

Then we have to solve and

for and .

The particular solution is and

finally the general solution is .

A third-order nonhomogeneous DE has the form

, and to solve it

using variation of parameters we need to solve

and

.

A fourth-order nonhomogeneous DE has the form

, and to

solve it using variation of parameters we need to solve

,

and .

• A system of DEs has the form . If , the system is

homogeneous. To solve a homogeneous system, we need to solve

.

Let's consider the cases when the system is homogeneous.

○ If are real distinct roots, then the general solution is

.

For each , solve for and find any nonzero

solution for . We can then say what the general solution is.

○ We will not consider the case where .

○ If is a repeated, real eigenvalue, then the general

solution is , where satisfies

.

A nonhomogeneous system of DEs has the form , where

• A nonhomogeneous system of DEs has the form , where

. The general solution has the form ,

where is the general solution of the corresponding homogeneous

system and is any particular solution of the

nonhomogeneous system.

○ To find , we simply solve the corresponding homogeneous

system .

○ Then we make a guess for based on , differentiate our guess

and plug everything in . After that we solve for every

variable and finally we sum to find our general

solution .

The method we use to find will depend on the components

of ; we will try to use the method of undetermined coefficients

but we might have to use variation of parameters.

• Consider a function defined for . Its Laplace transform is

○

○

Because of this one, partial fractions can be necessary to solving

an inverse Laplace transform, .

○

○

○ And many more ( , , ,

, , , and

), all of which will be on the exam's formula sheet.

• To solve an initial value problem using Laplace transforms, start by

Cheat sheet Page 5

• To solve an initial value problem using Laplace transforms, start by

finding the Laplace transform of each term. Then, solve for and find

its inverse Laplace transform. Most of the time partial fractions will be

needed.

• The first shifting theorem says that and the

second shifting theorem says that .

• To solve an initial value problem with the unit step function, you do like

you did before; find the Laplace transform of everything, solve for

and find its inverse Laplace transform.

• To solve an initial value problem with the Dirac delta function, everything

is the same but you have to know that .

• It can be useful to know that

• The convolution of two functions and is

○

○

○ For the in , it's usually easier to put exponentials

first. If there's no exponentials it is easier to put a trigonometric

function, and if there's only polynomials it's easier to put the one of

the smaller degree.

• Won't be on the exam.

Numerical Methods

August 5, 2015 8:02 PM

• Fixed-point iteration

○ Find your (usually done by solving for the

lowest-degree ).

○ Check that on your interval.

○ Then choose an that's close to a root, and then

plug in your , and keep repeating until the

first decimals are the same.

• Newton's method

○

○ We have to know this formula by heart.

• For an iterative scheme for finding root ,

the order of the method is the lowest-ordered derivative

of that is not zero at .

• To find a polynomial that passes through data

points, we find

error is

where is in .

• All formulas ( , and )

Cheat sheet Page 7

• All formulas ( , and )

will be on the exam's formula sheet.

• Consider 3 equally spaced data points

, where

. It can be shown that

○

○

• We can estimate the area under a curve using different

ways.

○ The midpoint rule:

○ Simpson's rule:

sheet.

○ Finally, we can use the Gaussian quadrature to

estimate a definite integral. First we must convert

and .

Therefore becomes

Therefore becomes

table that will be on the exam's formula sheet.

• There are different methods to approximate points of a

function, given its derivative and a point on the graph.

○ Euler's method:

○ Improved Euler's method:

○ Fourth-order Runge-Katta method:

○ Only the improved Euler's method and the fourth-

order Runge-Katta method formulas are on the

exam's formula sheet; we have to know how to do

Euler's method.

Formula sheet

August 5, 2015 9:01 PM

Cheat sheet Page 11

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