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# Prestressed Modal Analysis Using Finite Element Package ANSYS

**R. Bedri and M.O. Al-Nais
**

College of Technology at Hail, P.O. Box. 1690 Hail, Saudi Arabia Tel: +966 531 7705 ext 240 Fax: +966 531 7704 r bedri@yahoo.com Abstract. It is customary to perform modal analysis on mechanical systems without due regards to their stress state. This approach is of course well accepted in general but can prove inadequate when dealing with cases like spinning blade turbines or stretched strings, to name but these two examples. It is believed that the stress stiﬀening can change the response frequencies of a system which impacts both modal and transient dynamic responses of the system. This is explained by the fact that the stress state would inﬂuence the values of the stiﬀness matrix. Some other examples can be inspired directly from our daily life, i.e., nay guitar player or pianist would explain that tuning of his playing instrument is intimately related to the amount of tension put on its cords. It is also expected that the same bridge would have diﬀerent dynamic responses at night and day in places where daily temperature ﬂuctuations are severe. These issues are unfortunately no suﬃciently well addressed in vibration textbooks when not totally ignored. In this contribution, it is intended to investigate the eﬀect of prestress on the vibration behavior of simple structures using ﬁnite element package ANSYS. This is achieved by ﬁrst performing a structural analysis on a loaded structure then make us of the resulting stress ﬁeld to proceed on a modal analysis. Keywords: Pre-stress, Modal analysis, Vibrations, Finite elements, ANSYS.

1

Scope

In this investigation, we are concerned by the eﬀect of pressure loads on the dynamic response of shell structures. A modal analysis is ﬁrst undertaken to ascertain for the eigen-solutions for an unloaded annulus shell using a commercial ﬁnite element package ANSYS ([1]). In the second phase, a structural analysis is performed on the shell. Different pressure loads are applied and the resulting stress and strain ﬁelds are determined.

Z. Li et al. (Eds.): NAA 2004, LNCS 3401, pp. 171–178, 2005. c Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005

172 R. amenable to ﬁnite element ¯ treatment. For the 3-D elasticity problem. it is convenient and customary to recast (1) in terms of the displacement ﬁeld u.σ + f = ρ ∂2u ∂t2 (1) where σ represents the second order stress tensor.) stands for the dot product. Bedri and M.O. 2 Theory The equation of motion ([3]) for a body is given in tensorial notation by ∇. these ﬁelds are then used as pre-stress and new modal analyses are performed on the pre-loaded shell. For boundary-value problems of the ﬁrst kind. Furthermore. we know that the generalized Hookes law relates the nine components of stress to the nine components of strain by the linear relation: σij = cijkl ekl (3) where ekl are the inﬁnitesimal strain components. this equation becomes an elliptic boundary problem. We can recall that the it is possible to ﬁnd a weak form or a Galerkin form ([4]) i. f the body force vector. v) = (f. L(u. for an isotropic material ([3]) (3) simpliﬁes to σij = 2µeij + λδij ekk (4) where µ and λ are the so called Lame constants. boundary conditions.j + fi = ρi. ρ the density and u the displacement ﬁeld. Al-Nais In the third phase.. v) instead of Lu = f (6) where Lu = f is the generalization of the diﬀerential equation and L is a linear operator and (. σij are the Cauchy stress components and cijkl are the material parameters. The details on geometry. Expressed in indicial notation (1) can be recast as σji. and loading conditions are depicted in the procedure section. u (5) (λ + µ)grad(divu) + µ∇2 u + f = ρ¨ These equations are the so called Navier equations of motion ([3]).tt (2) From the theory of elasticity. The ﬁnite element solution: the diﬀerential equation is discretized into a series of ﬁnite element equations that form a system of algebraic equations to be solved: [K]{u} = {F } .e.

0}. Element type chosen: ANSYS shell 63 see ﬁg.2 Static Analysis Static type analysis is now selected. Ten diﬀerent sets of pressure loads are being applied to the annulus on its outer boundary i.003m Elastic properties: Youngs modulus of elasticity: 193 GPa Poissons ratio:0. modal analysis type is ﬁrst chosen with Lanczos ([9]) extraction and expansion method. The mode shapes are also included in the appendix. 0. Details can be seen on . 0. A corresponding ﬁnite element model is obtained by meshing the geometric model using 60 elements.Prestressed Modal Analysis Using Finite Element Package ANSYS 173 where [K] is the stiﬀness matrix. 0.1 Modal Analysis: Stress Free Modal Analysis In the solution processor of ANSYS..(3) in appendix for ample description. These equations are solved in ANSYS ([1]) either by the method of Frontal solver or by the method of Conjugate gradient solver.29 Material density: 8030 kg/m3 Constraints: mixed type boundary conditions For r = r1 . 0. The eigen solutions obtained are analyzed and presented in the general postprocessor.5m and external radius r2 = 0. 3 Procedure In the preprocessor of ANSYS ([1]) geometric modelling of our eigenvalue problem (modal analysis) and then of our boundary value problem (static analysis) is being deﬁned: an annulus with internal radius r1 = 0. Modal analysis consists in solving an associated eigenvalue problem in the form [k] − ω 2 [M ] {u} = {0} ¯ (7) where [K] is the stiﬀness matrix and [M ] is the consistent mass matrix that is obtained by [M ] = v ρ[N ]T [N ]dv (8) [N ] being the shape functions matrix. Thickness:0. the stiﬀness matrix [K] is being corrected to take into account the stress ﬁeld. For the prestressed modal analysis. r = r2 . i.e. The ﬁrst ﬁve modes of vibration are tabulated in tables 1 and 2. {u} is the nodal displacement vector and {F } is the applied load vector. 3. 3. the six translations and rotations are being set to zero.e.8m. u = ¯ {0.

. some further calculations are done and presented in tables 3 and 4 in the appendix. 4 Results The results of the diﬀerent analyses i. 5. Prestressing seems to impact the dynamic behavior of the structure. For each loading case. 6. it is evident that the frequencies are impacted by preloading.174 R.1. 5 Comments on Results 5. are all summarized and displayed in tabular form see tables 1 and 2 in the appendix. Al-Nais tables 1 and 2. Tensile prestress acts as a stiﬀener and enhances the dynamic characteristics of the structure resulting in frequency increase.3 Modal Analysis with Prestress Eﬀect Once the stress ﬁeld is being established from the above static analysis. modal analysis of the stress free annulus the static analysis and then the modal analysis of the preloaded structure. . Whereas compressive prestress has a converse eﬀect on the structure by reducing its frequencies. A closer look at these curves discloses that there seems to be a linear correlation between the prestress level and the percent frequency increase or decrease for each mode of vibration. Plots of prestress level versus percent increase or decrease in frequencies are plotted respectively in ﬁgures 1 and 2.3.2. Bedri and M. The eﬀect of such preloading seems to be more apparent on the ﬁrst modes than on the higher ones. To ascertain the eﬀect of the prestress level on the modes of vibration. 6 Conclusions Three pieces of conclusions can be inferred from this study: 6.2.O.e. it is applied as prestress to the shell structure through the activation of this option in the subsequent modal analysis. Tensile preloading produces an increase in frequency whereas compressive preloading results in a decrease in frequency. 6. The plotted curves of ﬁgures 1 and 2 are here to corroborate these conclusions. Prestress produces no eﬀect on the mode shapes of vibration of the shell structure. 5. The resulting stress ﬁeld is then applied when it comes to performing subsequently modal analysis on the annulus.3.4. By examining the results presented in tables 1 and 2.1. The mode shapes of vibration of the structure are not sensitive to preloading. prestress eﬀect is being activated in the analysis option of the program. 5. This procedure is reproduced for the twenty diﬀerent preloading cases. 3.

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103 64.641 2.610 2.656 2.633 2.593 2.634 2.774 2.790 2.285 2.839 Pressure Prestress in N/m 103 2.901 105 2.598 2.602 2. Al-Nais Appendix Table 1.805 2.852 2.606 2.450 2.105 2.656 2.870 2.652 2.105 3.843 2.840 2.695 2.838 2.665 2.602 2. Bedri and M.103 16.618 2.791 2.602 2.655 2.752 2.571 2.642 2.633 2.396 2.585 2.798 2.977 3.636 2.600 2.690 2.502 2.103 4.789 2.794 2.634 2.103 4. % Frequency increase versus Prestress .103 8.103 Frequency in kHz 2.523 Fig.782 2.758 2.788 2.657 2.626 2.792 2.587 2.837 2.821 2.876 2.654 2.672 2.105 2.103 Frequency in kHz 2.604 2.790 2.935 2.726 2.885 2.115 Table 2.625 2.556 2.570 2.594 2.603 2.786 2.841 2.618 2.807 2.823 2.649 2.105 3.O.065 3.632 2.658 2.103 8.103 64.630 2.103 16. 1.316 2.855 2.176 R.601 2.775 105 2.635 2.664 2.660 2.835 2.847 2.844 2.688 2.648 2.839 Tensile Prestress in N/m 103 2.904 2.729 2.821 2.664 2.638 2.718 2. The ﬁrst ﬁve modes against the tensile prestress levels Mode 0 1 2 3 4 5 2.338 2.698 2.539 2.789 2.831 2.932 3.739 2.634 2. The ﬁrst ﬁve modes against the compressive prestress levels Mode 0 1 2 3 4 5 2.428 2.027 2.474 2.103 32.533 2.103 32.

151 0.222 0.141 0.383 0.622 10.072 0.038 0.152 0.036 0.183 12.105 3.103 % increase in frequency 0.287 0.035 0.973 11.381 7.076 0.573 1.304 0.103 64.103 32.326 11.103 8.078 6.722 177 1 2 3 4 5 Table 4.073 11.143 0.191 2.538 1.584 3.070 0.282 0.154 0.077 0.103 64.191 2.154 0.105 3.177 2. % Frequency Decrease versus Pressure Level .038 0.038 0.304 0.254 105 2.563 1.Prestressed Modal Analysis Using Finite Element Package ANSYS Table 3.294 0. The percent frequency decrease against prestress levels Mode Pressure Prestress in N/m 103 2.702 6.756 7.250 10.765 3.221 12.563 1.307 0.843 3.092 2.405 3.127 2.103 4.565 1.036 0.287 0.282 0.689 3.103 16.131 1 2 3 4 5 Fig.105 3.348 7.307 0.607 1.075 0.038 0.917 7.075 0.602 1.077 0.035 0.187 7.103 8.038 0. 2.038 0.205 2.834 3.103 16.143 0.301 0.099 7.070 0.103 4.316 0.522 7.215 2.301 0.530 10.111 2.569 1.152 0.607 3.576 1.421 0.103 % decrease in frequency 0.103 32.391 9.821 7.105 3.141 0.430 0.076 0.615 1.167 2.072 0.184 0.151 0. The percent frequency increase against prestress levels Mode Tensile Prestress in N/m 103 2.147 2.614 3.372 0.857 9.184 105 2.

Bedri and M. 3 Fig.O. Al-Nais Fig.178 R. 4 .