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Prepared by Maria Asuncion

5 of 14
Fourth critical thinking activity (p. 89)
•  How should I have handled the situation?
•  What can I learn from this situation?
•  Should I talk with Mr. Liang about my feelings?
•  What should I say to Mr. Albertson?

Send your document to or drag it to your
Google Drive folder.
Chapter 6: Business Documents
•  Basic types of written messages:

•  Emails

•  Memoranda (memos)

•  Letters

•  Reports
Planning ahead (p. 92)
•  Who needs to receive the communication?
•  What is the objective of the communication?
•  What information is needed before writing the
•  When will the information be provided or
•  Where should the information be sent?
•  Why is the communication being written?
Determine the objective
•  What do you hope to accomplish?

•  Is it to inform the reader?

•  Is it to request an action or information?

•  Is it to persuade the reader to take action or

accept an idea?
•  Or is it simply to promote goodwill?
Adjust to the reader (p. 93)
•  Your communication will be more effective when
you adjust (or change) the message for the
•  Consider the reader’s needs, wants, and interests
as they relate to the message
•  Then state your message in a way that addresses
their needs or interests
•  Try asking the next slide’s questions so you can
identify the reader’s needs and/or wants
Adjust to the reader (p. 93)
•  What are the ages, genders, backgrounds, and

biases of the readers?

•  Do the readers have any knowledge or

experience related to the message topic?

•  Will the readers consider the message to be

positive, neutral, or negative news?

Adjust to the reader (p. 93)
•  Remember you approach?

•  The you approach involves the use of empathy

•  Empathy: mentally entering into the feeling or

spirit of a person

•  It’s important to be genuine, honest and empathic

•  Let’s take a look at examples from

page 93
Examples of “you” approach
Example 1
We have decided to approve the loan application
for a mortgage on the home at 234 Dollarton

Example 2
Your loan application for a mortgage on your new
home at 234 Dollarton Highway has been
Composing (p. 93)
•  A complete business message typically has an
opening, one or more developmental (or body)
paragraphs and a closing
•  The opening paragraph identifies the subject of
the message
•  The developmental (or body) paragraphs supply
supporting details
•  The closing paragraph ends a message; the
closing could summarize the points of the
message, ask the reader to take an action, and/or
try to build goodwill
Organizing the message (p. 93)
•  Recall the differences between direct and indirect
•  The direct approach:

•  Begins with the reason of why you’re writing

•  Do you sell an all-in-one printer, scanner,

telephone and copier?
Direct approach (p. 93)
•  Continue with whatever explanation is necessary so
the reader will understand the message
•  If so, please provide me with the capabilities of your
product and the price.
•  Close with a thank you for an action that has been
taken, or end with a request of an action to be
taken by a specific date
•  I need the information by January 15; please
respond using the address given in the letterhead.
Thank you for your assistance.
Direct approach (p. 93)
•  If you’re still not sure if you’re using the direct

approach properly, try using the checklist

•  On page 93, Figure 6-2 shows the checklist that will

help you make sure you’re using the direct

Indirect approach (p. 93-94)
•  Using an indirect approach is very useful for when
you have to decline or refuse a request, or share
bad news
•  The indirect approach helps the recipient accept
the decision and understand your concern
•  It leaves the recipient with a positive impression
when writing indirect message
Indirect approach
•  Begin with an opening statement that is pleasant
but neutral
•  Your plan to build a fund for a new arts centre in
the community is commendable. I hope you are
able to meet your goal.
•  Review the circumstances and give the negative
Indirect approach
•  Every year CanAsian contributes several
thousand dollars to important causes. However,
even though your proposal is a worthy one, we
have already expended this year’s budget. If you
are sill in need of our help next year, please let us
know. We will be happy to consider a proposal
from you.
Indirect approach
•  Close the message on a pleasant and positive note
•  You can have this publication in your office every
month for only $48 per year. That is a very small
amount to pay for lowering your frustration level
and making your job more rewarding. Fill in the
information on the enclosed card, and return it by
January. Your early return will guarantee you one
free month of the subscription. We look forward to
counting you as one of our many satisfied
Indirect message (p. 94-95)
•  If you’re still not sure how to really write in an

indirect way, use page 94, Figure 6-3 to help

guide you

•  Let’s take a look at Figure 6-4 on page 95

Editing (p. 94)
•  Editing: reviewing and revising a message to
improve its form and content
•  You must be clear, concise, complete, courteous,
and correct
•  Conciseness: expressing only necessary
information in as a few words as possible
•  You say what you need to say without giving
irrelevant information
•  Figure 6-5 on page 96
Editing (p. 94)
•  A business document is complete when it gives

the reader ALL the information needed

•  You can ask yourself the “W” questions from p. 92

•  See examples from Figure 6-6 from page 97 to

help you give specific (or precise) answers

Editing (p. 97)
•  Lastly, it’s important to stay courteous and

positive, as well as use correct grammar

•  Using correct grammar and appropriate format

requires careful and thorough proofreading

•  Proofreading, which is similar to editing, takes

usually a few minutes, instead of many hours

Proofreading tips (p. 98)
•  Let’s take a look at the long list of tips on page 98

•  It’s also important to use an appropriate tone

•  Tone: the manner of expression in writing (Figure

6-7, Figure 6-8a/b on pages 99-100)

Effective paragraphs (p. 98)
•  Unity: when all sentences clarify, relate to, or help

support the main idea

•  Topic sentence: the sentence that contains the

main idea(s)

•  Coherence: when sentences are related to each

other in content, in grammar, and in word choice

Coherence example (p. 101)
•  The anthropologist Elena Padilla describes life in

a squalid (filthy, shabby) district of New York by

telling how much people know about each other—
who is to be trusted and who not, who is defiant
of the law and who upholds it, who is competent
and well and informed, and who is inept and
Parallel structure (p. 101)
•  Parallelism: helps achieve coherence in a
•  The position is prestigious, challenging, and also
the money isn’t bad.
•  The position offers prestige, challenge, and money.
•  The horoscope informs me that I will do well, be
happy and everybody will approach me more.
•  The horoscope informs me that I’ll be well, happy
and approachable.
Appropriate reading level (p. 101)
•  Lastly, readability: ease of reading the message

•  So now that we reviewed how to write messages,

we can double-check its effectiveness (does it

work?) with Figure 6-10 on page 101
Types of written messages (p. 102)
•  The types of messages we’re familiar with
•  Emails (a lot of tips on pages 102-103)

•  Instant messaging (IM) [p. 104, Figure 6-12]

•  Memoranda (memos) [p. 105, Figure 6-13]

•  Reports

•  Letters
Letters (p. 105-106)
•  Self-Check B on page 106 tests whether or not

you can rewrite some sentences effectively.

1. Your kind letter of October 8 was received today.

2. I wish to thank you for your recent order.

Letters (p. 105-106)
3. As per my letter of November 5, the modular
(designed) furniture delivered to use that day is

4. Please send us the information at your earliest

Letters (p. 105-106)
5. The error I made was unfortunate.

6. Your claim that we made an error in your bill is

Letters (p. 105-106)
7. A preponderance (high number) of
businesspeople was consulted on this esoteric
(small) matter.

8. People’s propensity (tendency) to consume

goods is insatiable (cannot be satisfied).
Letters (p. 105-106)
9. You will receive the merchandise without any
more delay.

10. You will not be sorry if you buy one of our

washing machines.
•  Today, I will be handing out the assignments

•  Please take your time completing them

•  Make use of your resources

•  I hope you get as high a mark as you can as

This Thursday
•  I will be handing out group presentation topics

•  You will choose your group members

•  If you’re absent on Thursday, you will be put in a

random group

•  We will be playing bingo again to determine who

will go first