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DICTIONARY OF
LAW
FOURTH EDITION

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DICTIONARY OF
LAW
FOURTH EDITION

P.H. Collin

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A BLOOMSBURY REFERENCE BOOK

www.bloomsbury.com/reference

Originally published by Peter Collin Publishing


as English Law Dictionary

First published 1986


Second edition published 1992
Third edition published 2000, 2001
Fourth edition published 2004

Bloomsbury Publishing Plc


38 Soho Square, London W1D 3HB

Copyright © P.H. Collin 1986, 1992, 2000


This edition copyright © Bloomsbury Publishing Plc 2004

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may


be reproduced in any form or by any means without the
prior written permission of the publishers.

British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data


A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
ISBN 0 7475 6636 4
eISBN-13: 978-1-4081-0211-4
Text Production and Proofreading
Katy McAdam, Heather Bateman, Emma Harris

All papers used by Bloomsbury Publishing are natural, recyclable


products made from wood grown in well-managed forests.
The manufacturing processes conform to the
environmental regulations of the country of origin.

Text processing and computer typesetting by Bloomsbury


Printed and bound in Italy by Legoprint

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Preface
This dictionary provides the user with the main vocabulary currently
being used in British and American law. The areas covered include
criminal, civil, commercial and international law, as well as interactions
with the police and legal advisers, and the procedures of the courts and
prisons. Common words used in reading or writing reports, articles or
guidelines are also included.

The dictionary is designed for anyone who needs to check the meaning or
pronunciation of legal terms, but especially for those who need some
knowledge of legal terms in their work but who may not be legal
professionals, or for those for whom English is an additional language.
Each headword is explained in a clear, straightforward way.
Pronunciations, uncommon plurals and uncommon verb forms are
provided.

Many people have helped or advised on the compilation and checking of


the dictionary in its various editions. In particular, thanks are due to Coral
Hill, Senior Lecturer at the College of Law of England and Wales, for her
helpful comments and advice on this fourth edition.

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Pronunciation
The following symbols have been used to show the pronunciation of the main
words in the dictionary.

Stress is indicated by a main stress mark (  ) and a secondary stress mark (  ) .


Note that these are only guides, as the stress of the word changes according to its
position in the sentence.

Vowels Consonants
 back b buck
ɑ harm d dead
ɒ stop ð other
a type d jump
aυ how f fare
aə hire  gold
aυə hour h head
ɔ course j yellow
ɔ annoy k cab
e head l leave
eə fair m mix
e make n nil
eυ go ŋ sing
 word p print
i keep r rest
i happy s save
ə about ʃ shop
 fit t take
ə near tʃ change
u annual θ theft
u pool v value
υ book w work
υə tour x loch
' shut  measure
z zone

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Law.fm Page 1 Friday, June 11, 2004 2:08 PM

A
force 쑗 The bank manager was abducted
A.B.A.

A.B.A. abbreviation US American Bar


Association at gunpoint. 쑗 The robbers abducted the
abandon /əbndən/ verb 1. to stop
abandon

|
heiress and held her to ransom.
doing something 쑗 The company has de- COMMENT: The Child Abduction Act
1984 provides for specific offences to
cided to abandon the project. 쑗 We have cover the abduction of a child either by
abandoned the idea of taking the family a person connected with the child or
to court. 왍 to abandon an action to stop by other persons. Abduction of an
pursuing a legal action 왍 to abandon a adult may result in prosecutions for
legal right or claim to accept that a right kidnapping and/or false imprisonment.
abduction /bd kʃən/ noun the no-
abduction

or claim cannot be legally enforced 2. to |

leave someone or something without tifiable offence of taking someone away


help 쑗 He abandoned his family and against their will, usually by force
went abroad. 쑗 The crew had to abandon abductor /bd ktə/ noun a person
abductor

the sinking ship. who takes someone away against their


/əbndənmənt/ will
abandonment

abandonment |

abeyance /əbeəns/ noun 1. 왍 in


abeyance

noun 1. the act of giving something up |

voluntarily such as the right to a property abeyance not being used or enforced at
2. the act of giving up either the whole or present 쑗 This law is in abeyance. 왍 to
part of a claim put forward during civil fall into abeyance to stop being used or
litigation 3. the act of a parent or guardi- enforced 쑗 The practice was common but
an leaving a child on their own in cir- has fallen into abeyance. 2. a situation
cumstances covered by the Children and where there is no owner of a piece of
Young Persons Act 1933 land
abate /əbet/ verb 1. to remove or stop ABH abbreviation actual bodily harm
abate ABH

a nuisance 2. to reduce a legacy 3. to be abide by /əbad ba/ verb to accept a


abide by

reduced 4. (of a legacy) to be reduced rule or follow a custom 쑗 He promised to


because there is not enough money in the abide by the decision of the court. 쑗 She
estate to pay it in full did not abide by the terms of the agree-
abatement /əbetmənt/ noun 1. the
abatement

|
ment. 왍 to abide by a promise to carry
legal right to remove or stop a nuisance out a promise that has been made
ab initio /b nʃiəυ/ phrase a Latin
ab initio

once a reasonable period of notice has |

been given to the wrongdoer 2. the re- phrase meaning ‘from the beginning’
duction of a legacy when the deceased abjuration /bdυəreʃ(ə)n/ noun
abjuration

person has not left enough money to pay the act of taking back a statement made
it in full 3. the reduction or removal of a on oath
debt when a person has failed to leave abjure /əbdυə/ verb 1. to make a
abjure

enough money to cover a legacy in full. 쒁 public promise not to do something 2.


tax abatement US to swear not to bear allegiance to an-
ABC

ABC abbreviation Acceptable Behav- other country


iour Contract abode /əbəυd/ noun the place where
abode

abduct /bd kt/ verb to take some- someone lives. 쒁 right of abode 왍 of no
abduct

one away against their will, usually by fixed abode with no permanent address

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abolish 2
abolish /əbɒlʃ/ verb to cancel or re- (NOTE: Examples are the freedoms of
abolish

move something such as a law or rule 쑗 thought, conscience, and religion and
The Chancellor of the Exchequer refused the prohibitions on torture.)
to ask Parliament to abolish the tax on absolute title /bsəlut tat(ə)l/
absolute title

alcohol. 쑗 The Senate voted to abolish noun land registered with the Land Reg-
the death penalty. istry, where the owner has a guaranteed
abolition /bəlʃ(ə)n/ noun the act
abolition

|
title to the land (NOTE: Absolute title also
of abolishing something 쑗 campaigning exists to leasehold land, giving the pro-
for the abolition of the death penalty prietor a guaranteed valid lease.)
abortion / əbɔʃ(ə)n/ noun the ending
abortion

absolutism /bsəlutz(ə)m/ noun


absolutism
|
|

of a pregnancy before its natural term the political theory that any legitimate
(NOTE: Illegal abortion is a notifiable of- government should have absolute power
fence.)
absolutist /bsəlutst/ adjective 1.
absolutist

abrogate /brəet/ verb to end


abrogate
|

something such as a law or treaty believing in absolutism 2. referring to a


political system where the government
abrogation /brəeʃ(ə)n/ noun an
abrogation

|
has absolute power 쐽 noun a person who
act of ending something such as a law or believes in absolutism
treaty
abstain /əbsten/ verb to refrain from
abstain

abscond /əbskɒnd/ verb 1. to leave


abscond
|
|

somewhere suddenly and without per- doing something, especially voting


abstention /əbstenʃən/ noun 1. the
abstention

mission 쑗 He was charged with abscond- |

ing from lawful custody. 2. not to return act of refraining from doing something,
to the court after being released on bail 3. especially voting 쑗 The motion was car-
to escape from prison ried by 200 votes to 150, with 60 absten-
absent /bsənt/ adjective not present tions. 2. US a situation where a federal
absent

when you expected to be at something court may refuse to hear a case and pass-
such as a meeting or hearing, or your es it to a state court which then becomes
place of work competent to decide on the federal con-
absentee /bsənti/ noun a person
absentee

|
stitutional issues raised
abstract /bstrkt/ noun a short
abstract

who is not present at something such as


court proceedings even though they are summary of a report or document 쑗 to
expected to be there make an abstract of the deeds of a prop-
absolute discharge /bsəlut erty 쐽 verb to make a summary
absolute discharge

dstʃɑd/ noun the release of a con- abstract of title /bstrkt əv


abstract of title

victed person without any punishment tat(ə)l/ noun a summary of the details
absolute majority /bsəlut mə
absolute majority

| of the ownership of a property which has


dɒrti/ noun a majority over all the not been registered
others counted together abuse noun /əbjus/ 1. the use of
abuse

absolute monopoly /bsəlut mə


|
absolute monopoly

|
something in a way in which it was not
nɒpəli/ noun a situation where only one intended to be used 2. rude or insulting
producer or supplier produces or sup- language 쑗 The prisoner shouted abuse
plies something at the judge. 3. very bad treatment of a
absolute privilege /bsəlut
absolute privilege

person, usually physical or sexual 쑗 child


prvld/ noun a rule which protects a abuse 쑗 sexual abuse of children 4. a
person from being sued for defamation harmful or illegal practice 쐽 verb /ə |

in specific circumstances such as when a bjuz/ 1. to use something wrongly 왍 to


judge or lawyer makes a statement dur- abuse one’s authority to use authority
ing judicial proceedings, or when an MP in an illegal or harmful way 2. to say
speaks in the House of Commons rude words about someone 쑗 He abused
absolute right /bsəlut rat/ noun
absolute right

the police before being taken to the cells.


in the European Convention on Human 3. to treat someone very badly, usually
Rights, a right that under no circum- physically or sexually 쑗 He had abused
stances may legally be interfered with small children.

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3 accomplice
abuse of power /əbjus əv paυə/ or of a parent or grandparent to see a
abuse of power

noun the use of legal powers in an illegal child regularly, where the child is in the
or harmful way care of someone else 4. 왍 right of access
abuse of process /əbjuz əv prəυ
abuse of process

| |
to a solicitor in the EU, the right of any-
ses/ noun the use of a legal process one who is in police custody to see a so-
without proper justification or for mali- licitor in private to ask advice
accession /əkseʃ(ə)n/ noun 1. the
accession

cious reasons |

abut /əb t/, abut on /əb t ɒn/ verb act of becoming a member of something
abut

| |

(of a piece of land) to touch another by signing a formal agreement 2. the act
property (NOTE: abutting – abutted) of taking up an official position 왍 acces-
abuttal /əb t(ə)l/ noun the boundaries
abuttal

|
sion to the throne becoming King or
of a piece of land in relation to land that Queen
access order /kses ɔdə/ noun
access order

is adjoining
ACAS /eks/ abbreviation Advisory
ACAS
formerly, a court order allowing a parent
Conciliation and Arbitration Service to see a child where the child is in the
ACC care of someone else, such as the other
ACC abbreviation Assistant Chief Con- parent in the case of a divorced couple
stable (NOTE: Access orders have been re-
acceptable /əkseptəb(ə)l/ adjective
acceptable

|
placed by contact orders.)
good enough to be accepted, although
accessory /əksesəri/ noun a person
accessory

not particularly good 쑗 The offer is not


|

who helps or advises someone who com-


acceptable to both parties.
mits a crime 왍 accessory after the fact
Acceptable Behaviour Contract
Acceptable Behaviour Contract

formerly, a person who helps a criminal


/əkseptəb(ə)l b hevjə kɒntrkt/
| |
after a crime had been committed 왍 ac-
noun a formal written agreement in writ- cessory before the fact a person who
ten form made between an individual and helps a criminal before a crime is com-
either parent or guardian or another party mitted
that the individual will not act in an anti-
accident /ksd(ə)nt/ noun some-
accident

social manner in future. Abbreviation


ABC. 쒁 Antisocial Behaviour Order thing unpleasant which happens sudden-
(NOTE: ABCs normally last for a period ly, often as the result of a mistake, such
of 6 months.) as the crash of a vehicle or plane or other
event resulting in injury or death or dam-
acceptance /əkseptəns/ noun 1. one
acceptance

|
age to something
of the main conditions of a contract,
accidental /ksdent(ə)l/ adjective
accidental

where one party agrees to what is pro- |

posed by the other party 왍 acceptance of happening as an accident, or without be-


an offer an agreement to accept an offer ing planned 쑗 a case of accidental death
accident insurance /ksd(ə)nt n
accident insurance

and therefore to enter into a contract 2. |

the act of signing a bill of exchange to ʃυərəns/ noun insurance which pays
show that you agree to pay it money if an accident takes place
acceptor /əkseptə/, accepter noun accident policy /ksd(ə)nt pɒlsi/
acceptor
accident policy

somebody who accepts an offer noun an insurance policy which pays


access /kses/ noun 1. the right of money if an accident takes place
access

the owner of a piece of land to use a pub- accommodation /əkɒmədeʃ(ə)n/


accommodation

| |

lic road which is next to the land 쑗 He noun a place to live or somewhere to stay
complained that he was being denied ac- for a short time (NOTE: In British English,
cess to the main road. 2. 왍 to have access accommodation has no plural.)
to something to be able to obtain or
accommodation address / əkɒmə
accommodation address

reach something 왍 to gain access to | |

something to reach or to get hold of deʃ(ə)n ədres/ noun an address used


|

something 쑗 Access to the courts should for receiving messages that is not the ad-
be open to all citizens. 쑗 The burglar dress of the company’s offices
accomplice /ək mpls/ noun some-
accomplice

gained access through the window. 3. the |

right of a child to see a parent regularly, body who helps another to commit a

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accordance 4
crime or who commits a crime with an- accountable /əkaυntəb(ə)l/ adjec-
accountable

other person tive being responsible for what takes


accordance /əkɔd(ə)ns/ noun 왍 in place and needing to be able to explain
accordance

accordance with in a way that agrees why it has happened 쑗 If money is lost,
with something that has been suggested the person at the cash desk is held ac-
or decided 쑗 In accordance with your in- countable. 쑗 The group leader will be
structions we have deposited the money held accountable for the actions of the
in your current account. 쑗 I am submit- group.
ting the claim for damages in accord- account of profit /əkaυnt əv
account of profit

ance with the advice of our legal advis- prɒft/ noun in copyright law, an as-
ers. sessment showing how much profit has
accord and satisfaction /əkɔd ən been made on the sales of goods which
accord and satisfaction

stsfkʃən/ noun 1. the payment by a


| infringe a copyright or patent, because
debtor of a debt or part of a debt 2. the the plaintiff claims the profit made by the
performing by a debtor of some act or defendant
service which is accepted by the creditor /əkaυnts
accounts payable

accounts payable |

in full settlement, so that the debtor is no peəb(ə)l/ noun money owed to credi-
longer liable under the contract tors
accordingly /əkɔdŋli/ adverb in
accordingly

accounts receivable / əkaυnts r


accounts receivable
|
| |

agreement with what has been decided 쑗 sivəb(ə)l/ noun money owed by debt-
We have received your letter and have al- ors
tered the contract accordingly. accredited /əkredtd/ adjective (of
accredited

according to /əkɔdŋ tu/ preposi-


according to

|
an agent) appointed by a company to act
tion 1. as someone says or writes 쑗 Ac- on its behalf (NOTE: A person is accred-
cording to the witness, the accused car- ited to an organisation.)
ried the body on the back seat of his car. accusation /kjuzeʃ(ə)n/ noun
accusation

쑗 The payments were made according to


the act of saying that someone has com-
the maintenance order. 2. in agreement mitted a crime
with a rule or system 3. in relation to

accusatorial procedure

accusatorial procedure
account /əkaυnt/ noun 1. a record of
account |

kjuzətɔriəl prəsidə/ noun a pro- |

money paid or owed 쑗 please send me cedure in countries using common law
your account or a detailed or an itemised
procedures, where the parties to a case
account 왍 action for an account court have to find the evidence themselves.
action to establish how much money is
Compare inquisitorial procedure. 쒁
owed by one party to another 2. an ar- burden of proof
rangement which a customer has with a
accuse /əkjuz/ verb 1. to say that
accuse

shop or supplier to buy goods and pay for |

them at a later date, usually the end of the someone has committed a crime 쑗 She
month 3. a customer who does a large was accused of stealing £25 from her
amount of business with a firm and has a boss. 쑗 He was accused of murder. 쑗 Of
credit account with that firm 4. a notice what has she been accused? or What has
or attention 왍 to take account of the age she been accused of? (NOTE: You accuse
of the accused, to take the accused’s someone of a crime.) 2. to charge some-
age into account when passing sen- one with a crime
accused /əkjuzd/ noun 왍 the ac-
accused

tence to pass a (lighter) sentence because |

the accused is very old or very young 쐽 cused the person or persons charged
plural noun accounts a detailed record with a crime 쑗 All the accused pleaded
of a company’s financial affairs 쐽 verb 왍 not guilty. 쑗 The police brought the ac-
to account for to explain and record a cused, a young man, into the court.
money deal 쑗 to account for a loss or a acknowledge /əknɒld/ verb 1. to
acknowledge

discrepancy accept that something is true 2. to admit


/əkaυntəblti/
accountability

accountability | | that a debt is owing 3. to confirm that a


noun the fact of being responsible for letter has been received 왍 to acknowl-
something edge service to confirm that a legal doc-

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5 actual loss
ument such as a claim form has been re- action to begin a legal case, e.g. to in-
ceived struct a solicitor or to sue someone 2.
acknowledged and agreed /ək something that is done, or the doing of
acknowledged and agreed

nɒldd ən ərid/ phrase words writ-


|
something 쑗 action to prevent the infor-
ten on an agreement to show that it has mation becoming public 왍 to take action
been read and approved to do something 쑗 They should have tak-
acknowledgement of service /ək
acknowledgement of service

|
en immediate action to prevent a similar
nɒldmənt əv s$vs/ noun a docu- accident happening.
actionable /kʃənəb(ə)l/ adjective
actionable

ment whereby a defendant confirms that


a claim form or other legal document has referring to writing, speech or an act
been received and that he or she intends which could provide the grounds for
to contest the claim bringing a legal case against someone 왍
acquiescence /kwies(ə)ns/ noun
acquiescence

|
torts which are actionable per se torts
consent which is either given directly or which are in themselves sufficient
is implied (NOTE: There is a distinction grounds for bringing an action without
between mere knowledge of a situation the need to prove that damage has been
and positive consent to it. The latter is suffered
actionable per se /kʃənəb(ə)l p$
actionable per se

required in order to constitute acquies-


cence.) sa/ adjective being in itself sufficient
acquit /əkwt/ verb to set a person free
acquit

|
grounds for bringing an action
active partner /ktv pɑtnə/ noun
active partner

because he or she has been found not


guilty 쑗 He was acquitted of the crime. 쑗 a partner who works in a partnership
The court acquitted two of the accused. activist /ktvst/ noun a person who
activist

(NOTE: acquitting – acquitted. Note works actively for a political party, usu-
also that you acquit someone of a ally a person who is in disagreement with
crime.) the main policies of the party or whose
acquittal /əkwt(ə)l/ noun the act of
acquittal

| views are more extreme than those of the


acquitting someone of a crime 쑗 After his mainstream of the party 쑗 The meeting
acquittal he left the court smiling. was disrupted by an argument between
COMMENT: There is no appeal against the chairman and left-wing activists. 쑗
an acquittal, and a person who has Party activists have urged the central
been acquitted of a crime cannot be committee to adopt a more radical ap-
charged with the same crime again. proach to the problems of unemploy-
act /kt/ noun a statute which has been
act

ment.
approved by a law-making body (NOTE:
act of God /kt əv ɒd/ noun a nat-
act of God

Before an Act becomes law, it is pre-


sented to Parliament in the form of a
ural disaster which you do not expect to
Bill. See notes at bill.) happen, and which cannot be avoided,
e.g. a storm or a flood. 쒁 force majeure
acte clair /kt kleə/ noun (in the
acte clair

(NOTE: Acts of God are usually not cov-


EU) French legal term meaning that a le- ered by an insurance policy.)
gal question is clear and there can be no
Act of Parliament /kt əv
Act of Parliament

doubt about it
pɑləmənt/ noun a decision which has
action /kʃən/ noun 1. a proceeding
action

been approved by Parliament and so be-


heard in the civil court allowing an indi- comes law
vidual to pursue a legal right 왍 action in
actual bodily harm /ktʃuəl
actual bodily harm

personam a court case in which one par-


ty claims that the other should do some bɒdli hɑm/ noun the offence of caus-
act or should pay damages 왍 action in ing injury to an individual by attacking
rem a court case in which one party them. The injury does not have to be se-
claims property or goods in the posses- rious or permanent but it must be more
sion of the other 왍 action in tort a court than just a scratch. Abbreviation ABH
actual loss /ktʃuəl lɒs/ noun real
actual loss

case brought by a claimant who alleges


he or she has suffered damage or harm loss or damage which can be shown to
caused by the defendant 왍 to take legal have been suffered

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actual notice 6
actual notice /ktʃuəl nəυts/ dress itself to problems of international
actual notice

noun real knowledge which someone trade.


has of something address list /ədres lst/ noun a list of
address list

actual possession /ktʃuəl pə names and addresses of people and com-


actual possession

zeʃ(ə)n/ noun the situation of occupy- panies


adduce /ədjus/ verb to offer some-
adduce

ing and controlling land and buildings |

actual total loss /ktʃuəl təυt(ə)l


actual total loss
thing as a reason or proof 왍 to adduce
lɒs/ noun a loss where the item insured evidence to bring evidence before a
has been destroyed or damaged beyond court
adeem /ədim/ verb to remove a lega-
adeem

repair and can no longer be used for its |

intended purpose cy from a will because the item men-


actual value /ktʃuəl vlju/ noun
actual value
tioned no longer exists, e.g. in the case
the real value of something if sold on the when the person who made the will sold
open market the item before they died)
ademption /ədempʃ(ə)n/ noun the
ademption

actuarial /ktʃueəriəl/ adjective


actuarial
|

calculated by an actuary 쑗 The premiums act of removing a legacy from a will, be-
are worked out according to actuarial cause the item concerned no longer ex-
calculations. ists
ad hoc /d hɒk/ phrase a Latin
ad hoc

actuary /ktʃuəri/ noun a person em-


actuary

ployed by an insurance company to cal- phrase meaning ‘for this particular pur-
culate premiums pose’ 왍 an ad hoc committee a commit-
tee set up to study a particular problem. 쒁
actus reus /ktəs reəs/ phrase a
actus reus

standing
Latin phrase meaning ‘guilty act’: an act ad idem /d adem/ phrase a Latin
ad idem

which is forbidden by the criminal law, phrase meaning ‘in agreement’


one of the two elements of a crime. Com-
adjective law /dktv lɔ/ noun an
adjective law

pare mens rea. 쒁 crime


area of law which deals with practices
addicted /ədktd/ adjective unable
addicted

|
and procedures in the courts
to stop doing something 왍 addicted to
adjoin /ədɔn/ verb (of a property) to
adjoin

alcohol or drugs being unable to live |

without taking alcohol or drugs regularly touch another property 쑗 The developers
acquired the old post office and two ad-
address /ədres/ noun 1. the details of
address

|
joining properties. 쑗 The fire spread to
number, street and town where an office the adjoining property.
is or where a person lives 왍 address for
adjoining /ədɔnŋ/ adjective next
adjoining

service an address where court docu- |

ments such as pleadings can be sent to a to and touching something else 쑗 adjoin-
party in a case 2. a formal speech 쑗 In his ing properties
adjourn /əd$n/ verb 1. to stop a
adjourn

address to the meeting, the mayor spoke |

of the problems facing the town. 왍 ad- meeting for a period 쑗 to adjourn a meet-
dress of thanks a formal speech, thank- ing 쑗 The meeting adjourned at midday.
ing someone for doing something, e.g. 왍 to adjourn sine die to adjourn without
thanking a VIP for opening a new build- saying when the next meeting will be 쑗
ing, thanking the Queen for reading the The hearing was adjourned sine die. 2.
Queen’s Speech 쐽 verb 1. to write the de- to put off a legal hearing to a later date 쑗
tails of an address on an envelope 쑗 an The chairman adjourned the tribunal un-
incorrectly addressed package 2. to til three o’clock. 쑗 The appeal was ad-
speak to someone 쑗 The defendant asked journed for affidavits to be obtained.
adjournment /əd$nmənt/ noun 1.
adjournment

permission to address the court. 쑗 The |

chairman addressed the meeting. 3. to an act of adjourning 쑗 The adjournment


speak about a particular issue 쑗 He then lasted two hours. 쑗 The defendant has
addressed the question of the late arrival applied for an adjournment. 왍 adjourn-
of notification. 왍 to address oneself to a ment sine die adjournment without fix-
problem to deal with a particular prob- ing a date for the next meeting (used in
lem 쑗 The government will have to ad- the US Congress to end a session) 2. the

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7 admissible
period during which a meeting has been by an administrator that he or she will
adjourned pay the state twice the value of the estate
adjudicate /ədudket/ verb to give being administered, if it is not adminis-
adjudicate

a judgment between two parties in law 쑗 tered in accordance with the law
to adjudicate a claim 쑗 to adjudicate in a administration order /ədmn
administration order

| |

dispute 쑗 Magistrates may be paid ex- streʃ(ə)n ɔdə/ noun an order by a


penses when adjudicating. 왍 he was ad- court, appointing someone to administer
judicated bankrupt he was declared le- the estate of someone who is not able to
gally bankrupt meet the obligations of a court order
adjudication /ədudkeʃ(ə)n/
adjudication

administrative /ədmnstrətv/ ad-


administrative
| |
|

noun the act of giving a judgment or of jective referring to administration


deciding a legal problem
administrative law /ədmnstrətv
administrative law

/ədud
|

adjudication order
adjudication order

| |
lɔ/ noun law relating to how govern-
keʃ(ə)n ɔdə/ noun an order by a ment organisations affect the lives and
court making someone bankrupt property of individuals
adjudication tribunal /ədud
adjudication tribunal

/əd
administrative tribunal
| |

administrative tribunal
keʃ(ə)n trabjun(ə)l/ noun a group
|

mnstrətv trabjun(ə)l/ noun a tri-


|

which adjudicates in industrial disputes


|

bunal which decides in cases where gov-


adjudicator /ədudketə/ noun
adjudicator

|
ernment regulations affect and harm the
somebody who gives a decision on a lives and property of individuals
problem 쑗 an adjudicator in an industri-
administrator /ədmnstretə/ noun
administrator

al dispute |

1. somebody who arranges the work of


adjust /əd st/ verb to change some-
adjust

other employees in a business so that the


thing to fit new conditions, especially to business functions well 2. a person ap-
calculate and settle an insurance claim pointed by a court to represent a person
adjuster /əd stə/, adjustor noun
adjuster

|
who has died without making a will or
somebody who calculates losses for an without naming executors, and who is
insurance company recognised in law as able to manage the
adjustment /əd stmənt/ noun 1.
adjustment

| estate
an act of adjusting 2. a slight change administratrix /ədmnstrətrks/
administratrix

adjustor /əd stə/ noun same as ad-


adjustor

|
noun a woman appointed by a court to
juster administer the estate of a person who has
ad litem /d litəm/ phrase a Latin
ad litem

died
phrase meaning ‘referring to the case at Admiralty /dm(ə)rəlti/ noun the
Admiralty

law’ British government office which is in


administer /ədmnstə/ verb 1. to be
administer

|
charge of the Navy
responsible for providing, organising or Admiralty Court /dm(ə)rəlti kɔt/
Admiralty Court

managing something 왍 to administer noun a court, part of the Queen’s Bench


justice to provide justice 왍 to adminis- Division, which decides in disputes in-
ter an oath to make someone swear an volving ships
oath 2. to give someone a medicine, drug
Admiralty law /dm(ə)rəlti lɔw/
Admiralty law

or medical treatment 쑗 She was accused


of administering a poison to the old lady. noun law relating to ships and sailors,
administration /ədmnstreʃ(ə)n/
administration

| |
and actions at sea
admissibility /ədmsəblti/ noun
admissibility

noun the organisation, control or man- | |

agement of something such as of the af- the fact of being admissible 쑗 The court
fairs of someone who has died, e.g. pay- will decide on the admissibility of the ev-
ment of liabilities, collection of assets or idence.
distributing property to the rightful peo- admissible /ədmsəb(ə)l/ adjective
admissible

ple shown in the will 왍 the administra- referring to evidence which a court will
tion of justice providing justice allow to be used 쑗 The documents were
administration bond /ədmn
administration bond

| | not considered relevant to the case and


streʃ(ə)n bɒnd/ noun an oath sworn were therefore not admissible.

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admission 8
admission /ədmʃ(ə)n/ noun 1. per- adoptive / ədɒptv/ adjective result-
admission adoptive

| |

mission for someone to go in 쑗 free ad- ing from the process of adoption, or from
mission on Sundays 쑗 There is a £1 ad- choice 쑗 his adoptive country
mission charge. 쑗 Admission is free on adoptive child /ədɒptv tʃald/
adoptive child

presentation of this card. 2. making a noun a child who has been adopted
statement that you agree that some facts adoptive parent /ədɒptv peərənt/
adoptive parent

are correct, saying that something really noun a person who has adopted a child.
happened 3. (in civil cases) a statement Compare biological parent (NOTE: If a
by a defendant that a claim or part of a child’s parents divorce, or if one parent
claim by the claimant is true 쑗 When a dies, the child may be adopted by a
party has made an admission in writing, step-father or step-mother.)
the other party can apply for judgment ADR noun same as alternative dis-
ADR

on that admission. pute resolution


admission charge /ədmʃ(ə)n adult /d lt, əd lt/ noun a person
admission charge
adult

| |

tʃɑd/ noun the price to be paid before who is eighteen years old or older
going into an exhibition, etc. adulteration /əd ltəreʃ(ə)n/ noun
adulteration

| |

admit /ədmt/ verb 1. to allow some- the addition of material to food for sale,
admit

one to go in 쑗 Children are not admitted which makes it dangerous to eat or drink
adulterous /əd lt(ə)rəs/ adjective
adulterous

to the bank. 쑗 Old age pensioners are ad- |

mitted at half price. 2. to allow someone referring to adultery 쑗 He had an adul-


to practise as a solicitor 쑗 She was admit- terous relationship with Miss X.
ted in 1989. 3. to allow evidence to be adultery /əd lt(ə)ri/ noun sexual in-
adultery

used in court 쑗 The court agreed to admit tercourse by consent between a married
the photographs as evidence. 4. to agree person and someone of the opposite sex
that an allegation is correct 쑗 She admit- who is not that person’s spouse 쑗 His
ted having stolen the car. 쑗 He admitted wife accused him of committing adultery
to being in the house when the murder with Miss X.
took place. (NOTE: admitted – admit- ad valorem /d vəlɔrəm/ phrase a
ad valorem

ting. Note also that you admit to some- Latin phrase meaning ‘according to val-
thing, or admit having done some- ue’
thing.) 5. to say that something really ad valorem duty /d vəlɔrəm
ad valorem duty

happened 쑗 He admitted his mistake or djuti/ noun a tax calculated according


his liability. to the value of the goods taxed
adopt /ədɒpt / verb 1. to become the advance /ədvɑns/ noun 왍 in ad-
adopt
advance

| |

legal parent of a child who was born to vance before something happens 쑗 to
other parents 2. to accept something so pay in advance 쑗 freight payable in ad-
that it becomes law 쑗 to adopt a resolu- vance 쐽 adjective early 쑗 advance book-
tion 쑗 The proposals were adopted unan- ing 쑗 advance payment 쑗 You must give
imously. seven days’ advance notice of withdraw-
adoption /ədɒpʃən/ noun 1. the act of
adoption

|
als from the account.
advancement /ədvɑnsmənt/ noun
advancement

becoming the legal parent of a child |

which is not your own 2. the act of agree- money or goods given by a parent to a
ing to something so that it becomes legal child which the child would inherit in
쑗 He moved the adoption of the resolu- any case if the parent died
advantage /ədvɑntd/ noun some-
advantage

tion. |

thing useful which may help you to be


adoption order /ədɒpʃən ɔdə/
adoption order

successful 왍 to learn something to your


|

noun an order by a court which legally


advantage to hear news which is helpful
transfers the rights of the natural parents to you, especially to hear that you have
to the adoptive parents been left a legacy 왍 obtaining a pecuni-
adoption proceedings /ədɒpʃən
adoption proceedings

| ary advantage by deception the offence


prəsidŋz/ plural noun court action to
| of deceiving someone so as to derive a fi-
adopt someone nancial benefit

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9 Advocate General
adversarial /dv$seəriəl/ adjec- not be done 쑗 The bank manager advised
adversarial

tive based on people opposing each other against closing the account. 쑗 Our law-
adversarial procedure /dv$
adversarial procedure

|
yers have advised against suing the land-
seəriəl pɒltks/ noun same as accu- lord.
advisement /ədvazmənt/ noun 왍 to
advisement

satorial procedure |

adversary /dvəs(ə)ri/ noun an op-


adversary
take something under advisement to
ponent in a court case 쐽 adjective 왍 ad- consider something in order to make a
versary procedure same as accusato- judgment
adviser /ədvazə/, advisor noun
adviser

rial procedure |

adverse /dv$s/ adjective contrary,


adverse
somebody who suggests what should be
which goes against one party done 쑗 He is consulting the company’s
legal adviser.
adverse outcome /dv$s
adverse outcome

advisory /ədvaz(ə)ri/ adjective as an


advisory

aυtk m/ noun a result which was unex- |

pected and unwanted adviser 쑗 She is acting in an advisory ca-


pacity.
adverse party /dv$s pɑt/ noun
adverse party

advisory board /ədvaz(ə)ri bɔd/


advisory board

the opponent in a court case |

noun a group of advisers


adverse possession /dv$s pə
adverse possession

Advisory Conciliation and Arbi-


| Advisory Conciliation and Arbitration Service

zeʃ(ə)n/ noun an occupation of proper-


ty by squatters or others that is contrary
tration Service /ədvaz(ə)ri kən | |

to the rights of the real owner slieʃ(ə)n ən ɑbtreʃ(ə)n s$vs/


| |

noun a government body which assists in


adverse witness /dv$s wtnəs/
adverse witness

furthering industrial relations and set-


noun a witness called by one party in a tling industrial and employment dis-
court case whose evidence goes unex- putes. Abbreviation ACAS
pectedly against that party. Such a wit- advocacy /dvəkəsi/ noun 1. the
advocacy

ness can then be cross-examined as if the


skill of pleading a case orally before a
evidence were being given for the other court 쑗 his advocacy of the right of these
party in the case.
illegal immigrants to remain in the coun-
advert /dv$t/ verb to refer to 쑗 This
advert

try 2. support for a cause


case was not adverted to in Smith v. advocate noun /əbjus/ 1. a person,
advocate

Jones Machines Ltd. usually a barrister or solicitor, with right


advice /ədvas/ noun an opinion as to
advice

|
of audience (i.e. the right to speak in
what action should be taken 왍 as per ad- open court) as the representative of a par-
vice according to what is written on an ty in a case 쑗 Fast track trial costs in-
advice note 왍 counsel’s advice the opin- clude the cost of a party’s advocate in
ion of a barrister about a case 쑗 we sent preparing the case and appearing in
the documents to the police on the advice court. (NOTE: Solicitors who take addi-
of the solicitor or we took the solicitor’s tional exams may qualify as solicitor-
advice and sent the documents to the po- advocates and have the same rights of
lice 왍 to take legal advice to ask a law- audience as barristers.) 2. US a legal
yer to advise about a problem in law practitioner 3. a barrister or solicitor who
advice note /ədvas nəυt/ noun a
advice note

| may argue a case for their client during


written notice to a customer giving de- legal proceedings. Both barristers and
tails of goods ordered and shipped but solicitors can acquire rights of audience
not yet delivered (i.e. the right to speak in open court), but
advise /ədvaz/ verb 1. to give a pro- a solicitor’s right of audience is limited
advise

fessional legal opinion on something to the magistrates and county courts. 쐽


such as the strengths and weaknesses of verb /dvəket/ to suggest a course of
a case 2. to suggest to someone what action
Advocate General / dvəkət
Advocate General

should be done 쑗 We are advised to take


the shipping company to court. 쑗 The so- den(ə)rəl/ noun 1. one of the two Law
licitor advised us to send the documents Officers for Scotland (NOTE: The posi-
to the police. 왍 to advise against some- tion of the Advocates General is equal
thing to suggest that something should to that of the fifteen judges in the Euro-

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advowson 10
pean Court of Justice; their role is to person making it 3. a statement by an MP
give careful advice on legal matters.) 2. of his or her allegiance to the Queen
one of eight independent members form- when not wishing to take the Oath of Al-
ing part of the European Court of Justice legiance on religious or other grounds
together with 15 judges, who summaris- affirmative action /əf$mətv
affirmative action

es and presents a case to the judges to as- kʃən/ noun US a policy of positive
sist them in coming to a decision (NOTE: discrimination to help groups in society
The plural is Advocates General.) who have a disadvantage (NOTE: The
advowson /ədvaυz(ə)n/ noun the
advowson

| British equivalent is equal opportuni-


right to nominate a person to be a parish ty.)
priest affirmative easement /əf$mətv
affirmative easement

affair /əfeə/ noun 1. something which izmənt/ noun US an easement where


affair

is relevant to one person or group of peo- the servient owner allows the dominant
ple only 쑗 Are you involved in the copy- owner to do something
right affair? 쑗 It’s an affair for the po- affix /əfks/ verb to attach something
affix

lice. 2. a sexual relationship where one such as a signature to a document


party or both parties are married to some-
affray /əfre/ noun the offence of in-
affray

one else 왍 to have an affair with some- |

one to commit adultery 쐽 plural noun af- tentionally acting in a threatening way
fairs situations or activities relating to towards someone in public
public or private life 쑗 His affairs were so COMMENT: A person is guilty of affray if
he uses or threatens to use unlawful
difficult to understand that the lawyers violence towards another, and his con-
had to ask accountants for advice. duct is such that a reasonable person
affidavit /fdevt/ noun a written
affidavit

| who happened to be present might


statement which is signed and sworn be- fear for his safety.
AFO abbreviation assault on a federal
AFO

fore a solicitor, judge, JP, commissioner


for oaths or other official and which can officer
then be used as evidence in court hear- aforementioned /əfɔmenʃənd/ ad-
aforementioned

ings jective having been mentioned earlier 쑗


affiliation order /əflieʃ(ə)n ɔdə /
affiliation order

| | the aforementioned company


noun formerly, a court order which made aforesaid /əfɔsed/ adjective said
aforesaid

the father of an illegitimate child contrib- earlier 왍 as aforesaid as was stated earli-
ute towards the cost of the child’s up- er
bringing (NOTE: It is now replaced by
aforethought /əfɔθɔt/ adjective 왍
aforethought

the provisions of the Family Law Re- |

form Act 1987.) with malice aforethought with the in-


tention of committing a crime, especially
affiliation proceedings /əfli
affiliation proceedings

| |
murder
eʃ(ə)n prəsidŋz/ plural noun for-
a fortiori /e fɔtiɔra/ phrase a
| a fortiori

merly, the proceedings needed to order |

the father of an illegitimate child to pro- Latin phrase meaning ‘for a stronger rea-
vide for the child’s maintenance (NOTE: son’ 쑗 If the witness was present at the
They are now replaced by the provi- scene of the crime, then a fortiori he must
sions in the Family Law Reform Act have heard the shot.
after the event /ɑftə ðə vent/ ad-
after the event

1987.) |

affirm /əf$m/ verb 1. to state that you


affirm

|
jective 왍 after the event insurance pol-
will tell the truth, though without swear- icy a policy to cover the recovery of costs
ing an oath 2. to confirm that something in case of failure in a case where a condi-
is correct tional fee arrangement is applied
age / ed/ noun the number of years
age

affirmation /fəmeʃ(ə)n/ noun 1. a


affirmation

statement in court that you will tell the someone has lived. 쒁 age of consent,
truth, though without swearing an oath age of criminal responsibility
age discrimination /ed dskrm
age discrimination

(NOTE: It is similar to an affidavit, but is |

not sworn on oath.) 2. a written state- neʃ(ə)n/ noun US the unfair treatment
ment which is affirmed as true by the of people because of their age

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11 aiding and abetting


age limit /ed lmt/ noun the top weapon, which makes a crime more seri-
age limit

age at which you are permitted to do ous


something aggrieved /ərivd/ adjective injured
aggrieved

agency /edənsi/ noun 1. an ar- or harmed by the actions of a defendant


agency

rangement where one person or company 쑗 the aggrieved party


acts on behalf of another person in con- AGM abbreviation Annual General
AGM

tractual matters 쑗 They signed an agency Meeting


agreement or an agency contract. 2. the agree /əri/ verb 1. to approve or ac-
agree

office or job of representing another cept something 쑗 The figures were


company in an area 3. a branch of gov- agreed between the two parties. 쑗 Terms
ernment 쑗 the Atomic Energy Agency 쑗 a of the contract are still to be agreed. 2. 왍
counter-intelligence agency to agree to do something to say that you
agent /edənt/ noun 1. somebody will do something 왍 to agree with some-
agent

who represents a company or another one to say that your opinions are the
person in matters relating to contracts 2. same as someone else’s 왍 to agree with
the person in charge of an agency 쑗 ad- something to be the same as something
vertising agent 쑗 estate agent 쑗 travel else 쑗 The witness’ statement does not
agent 3. somebody who works for a gov- agree with that of the accused.
ernment agency, especially in secret agreed /ərid / adjective having been
agreed

agent provocateur /ɒn prə


agent provocateur

| accepted by everyone 쑗 an agreed


vɒkət$r/ noun a person who provokes
| amount 쑗 on agreed terms or on terms
others to commit a crime, often by taking which have been agreed upon
part in it personally, in order to find out agreed price /ərid pras/ noun the
agreed price

who is not reliable or in order to have his price which has been accepted by both
or her victim arrested the buyer and seller
age of consent /ed əv kənsent/ agreement /ərimənt/ noun 1. a
age of consent
agreement
|
|

noun the age at which a girl can legally contract between two people or groups
consent to sexual intercourse. The age of where one party makes an offer, and the
consent is 16. other party accepts it 쑗 written agree-
age of criminal responsibility ment 쑗 unwritten or oral agreement 쑗 to
age of criminal responsibility

/ed əv krmn(ə)l rspɒnsblti/


| | break an agreement 쑗 to reach an agree-
noun the age at which a person is consid- ment or to come to an agreement on pric-
ered to be capable of committing a crime es or salaries 쑗 an international agree-
aggravated /rəvetd/ adjective
aggravated
ment on trade 쑗 collective wage agree-
made worse ment 쑗 an agency agreement 쑗 a
marketing agreement 쒁 gentleman’s
aggravated assault /rəvetd ə
aggravated assault

agreement 왍 agreement in principle


|

sɒlt/ noun assault causing serious inju-


agreement with the basic conditions of a
ry or carried out in connection with an-
proposal 2. a document setting out the
other serious crime
contractual terms agreed between two
aggravated burglary /rəvetd
aggravated burglary

parties, 쑗 to witness an agreement 쑗 to


b$ləri/ noun burglary where guns or draw up or to draft an agreement 쑗 Both
other offensive weapons are carried or companies signed the agreement.
used aid /ed/ noun help 왍 to pray in aid to
aid

aggravated damages /rəvetd


aggravated damages

rely on something when pleading a case


dmdz/ plural noun damages 쑗 I pray in aid the Statute of Frauds in
awarded by a court against a defendant support of the defendant’s case 쐽 verb to
who has behaved maliciously or wilfully help 왍 to aid and abet to help and en-
aggravating circumstances
aggravating circumstances

courage someone to commit a crime


/rəvetŋ s$kəmstnsz/ noun aiding and abetting /edŋ ənd ə
aiding and abetting

circumstances which make a crime betŋ/ noun the act of helping and en-
worse couraging someone to commit a crime
aggravation /rəveʃ(ə)n/ noun
aggravation

| such as driving a car to help a criminal


an action, especially the carrying of a escape from the scene of a crime or keep-

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air rage 12
ing watch while a crime is committed. 쒁 by a husband to his wife while their di-
accessory vorce case is being prepared. 쒁 palimony
air rage /eə red/ noun a violent at- allegation /ləeʃ(ə)n/ noun a
air rage allegation

tack by a passenger on a member of the statement, usually given in evidence, that


crew of an aircraft, caused by drink, something has happened or is true
tiredness or annoyance at something allege /əled/ verb to state, usually in
allege

a. k. a. abbreviation also known as


a. k. a.

giving evidence, that something has hap-


al. 쏡 et al.
al.

pened or is true 쑗 The prosecution al-


aleatory /lietəri/ adjective 1. not leged that the accused was in the house
aleatory

certain 2. carrying a risk when the crime was committed.


/lietəri allegiance /əlid(ə)ns/ noun obedi-
allegiance

aleatory contract
aleatory contract

kɒntrkt/ noun an agreement such as a ence to the State or the Crown. 쒁 oath of
wager where what is done by one party allegiance
depends on something happening which All England Law Reports /ɔl
All England Law Reports

is not certain to happen ŋlənd lɔ rpɔts/ plural noun reports


|

alia 쏡 et al., inter alia


alia

of cases in the higher courts. Abbrevia-


alias /eliəs/ noun a name which you tion All E.R.
alias

use to hide your real name 쑗 The confi- allocate /ləket/ verb to share
allocate

dence trickster used several aliases. 쐽 something between several people, or


adverb using the name of 쑗 John Smith, decide officially how something is to be
alias Reginald Jones divided between different possibilities 왍
alibi /lba/ noun a plea that a person to allocate a case to a track (of a court)
alibi

charged with a crime was somewhere to decide which track a case should fol-
else when the crime was committed low 쑗 The court may allocate a case to a
alien /eliən/ noun a person who is not track of a higher financial value.
alien

allocation /ləkeʃ(ə)n/ noun 1. the


allocation

a citizen of a country (NOTE: In the UK, |

an alien is a person who is not a UK cit- division of a sum of money in various


izen, not a citizen of a Commonwealth ways 쑗 allocation of funds to research
country and not a citizen of the Repub- into crime 2. the act of deciding which of
lic of Ireland.) three systems of processing (small
alien absconder /eliən əbskɒndə/ claims, fast track or multi-track) a case
alien absconder

noun an illegal foreign visitor to the should follow, depending on the mone-
United States who has been told to leave tary value of the claim 쑗 The allocation
the country but has not done so of a case to a particular track has impli-
alienation / eliəneʃ(ə)n/ noun the
alienation

|
cations for the speed with which the case
transfer of property, usually land, to will be processed.
allocation hearing /ləkeʃ(ə)n
allocation hearing

someone else |

alienation
alienation of affection

of affection hərŋ/ noun a court hearing to consider


/eliəneʃ(ə)n əv əfekʃən/ noun US |
statements from the parties to a case and
the loss of affection by one of the part- decide which system of processing
ners in a marriage for the other (small claims, fast track or multi-track) a
alieni juris /eliena durs/ phrase
alieni juris

|
case should follow when an allocation
a Latin phrase meaning ‘of another’s questionnaire has not been submitted
allocation questionnaire /lə
allocation questionnaire

right’: a person such as a minor who has |

a right under the authority of a guardian. keʃ(ə)n kwestʃəneə/ noun a form to


Compare sui generis be filled in by each party to a claim, to
alimony / lməni/ noun the money
alimony
give the court enough information to al-
that a court orders a husband to pay reg- low it to allocate the case to one of three
ularly to his separated or divorced wife systems of processing (small claims, fast
(NOTE: It can occasionally be applied to track or multi-track)
allocatur /lɒketuə/ phrase a Lat-
allocatur

a wife who is ordered to support her di- |

vorced husband.) 왍 alimony pending in word meaning ‘it is allowed’: a court


suit, alimony pendente lite money paid document confirming the amount of

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13 amends
costs to be paid by one party to another ambassador /mbsədə/ noun
ambassador

after a court action somebody who is the highest level of


allocution /ləkjuʃ(ə)n/ noun US a diplomat representing his or her country
allocution

request by the judge to a person who has in another country 쑗 our ambassador in
been found guilty, asking if they wants to France 쑗 She is the wife of the Spanish
say anything on their own behalf before Ambassador. 쑗 The government has re-
sentence is passed called its ambassador for consultations.
ambassadorial /mbsədɔriəl/
ambassadorial

allow /əlaυ/ verb 1. to say that some-


allow
|
|

one can do something 쑗 The law does not adjective referring to an ambassador
ambassadress /mbsədres/
ambassadress

allow you to drive on the wrong side of |

the road. 쑗 Begging is not allowed in the noun an ambassador’s wife


station. 쑗 Visitors are not allowed into Amber alert /mbə əl$t/ noun a
Amber alert

the prisoners’ cells. 2. to give someone system of bulletins issued by police to


time or a privilege 쑗 The court adjourned the media, and in the USA sometimes
to allow the prosecution time to find the also on electronic road signs, seeking in-
missing witness. 쑗 You are allowed thirty formation leading to the rapid return of a
days to pay the fine. 3. to approve or ac- kidnapped child
cept something legally 쑗 to allow a claim ambiguity /mbjuti/ noun 1.
ambiguity

or an appeal 4. 왍 allow for to consider


|

the fact of being unclear because it can


something when making a decision
be understood in different ways 2. some-
about something else 쑗 In coming to our thing which is unclear because it can be
conclusion, we allowed for his poor
understood in different ways. 쒁 latent
knowledge of the language. ambiguity
allowable /əlaυəb(ə)l/ adjective le-
allowable

ambiguous /mbjuəs/ adjective


ambiguous
|
|

gally accepted meaning two or more things and there-


allowable expenses /əlaυəb(ə)l k
allowable expenses

| |
fore possibly misleading 쑗 The wording
spensz/ plural noun expenses which of the clause is ambiguous and needs
can be claimed against tax clarification.
all-points bulletin /ɔl pɔints ambulatory /mbjulet(ə)ri/ adjec-
all-points bulletin ambulatory

bυlətn/ noun an urgent message tive (of a will) only taking effect after the
broadcast to all police in an area death of the person who made it
alteram / ɔltərəm/ 쏡 audi alteram
alteram

COMMENT: Writing a will does not bind


partem you to do what you say you are going
to do in it. If in your will you leave your
alteration /ɔltə reʃ(ə)n/ noun a
alteration

|
car to your son, and then sell the car
change made to a legal document such as before you die, your son has no claim
a will, which usually has the effect of on the will for the value of the car.
making it invalid amend /əmend/ verb to change some-
amend

alternative /ɔlt$nətv/ noun some- thing 쑗 Please amend your copy of the
alternative

thing which takes the place of something contract accordingly.


amendment /əmen(d)mənt/ noun 1.
amendment

else 쑗 They argued that they had offered |

a similar car as an alternative. 왍 plead- a change made in a document 쑗 to pro-


ing in the alternative, alternative pose an amendment to the draft agree-
pleading US the practice of making two ment 쑗 to make amendments to a con-
or more pleadings which are mutually tract 2. a change made to a statement of
exclusive. 쒁 service by an alternative case, which in civil law can be done be-
method 쐽 adjective able to take the fore the details of a claim are served 3. a
place of something else 쑗 an alternative change proposed to a Bill which is being
solution to the problem discussed in Parliament
alternative dispute resolution /ɔl amends / əmendz/ plural noun 왍 to
alternative dispute resolution amends

| |

t$nətv dspjut rezəluʃ(ə)n/ noun


| make amends to do something to com-
any of various methods which can be pensate for damage or harm done 왍 offer
used to settle a dispute without going to of amends an offer by a libeller to write
trial. Abbreviation ADR an apology

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American Bar Association 14


American Bar Association /ə of property rights ordered by a court for
American Bar Association

merkən bɑ əsəυsieʃ(ə)n/ noun US


|
a spouse or child in divorce proceedings
an association of lawyers practising in animus /nməs/ noun intention
animus

the USA. Abbreviation ABA animus cancellandi /nməs


animus cancellandi

amicus curiae /əmakəs kjυəria/ knsəlnda/ noun the intention to


amicus curiae

| |

phrase a Latin phrase meaning ‘friend of cancel


the court’: a lawyer who does not repre- animus furandi /nməs fjυə
animus furandi

sent a party in a case but who is called rnda/ noun the intention to steal
upon to address the court to help clear up
animus manendi /nməs mn
animus manendi

a difficult legal point or to explain some- |

thing which is in the public interest nenda/ noun the intention to stay in a
place
amnesty /mnəsti/ noun a pardon,
amnesty

animus revocandi /nməs revə


animus revocandi

often for political crimes, given to sever- |

al people at the same time 쐽 verb to grant knda/ noun the intention to revoke a
convicted persons a pardon 쑗 They were will
amnestied by the president. COMMENT: With all these terms, when
the phrase is ‘with the intention of’, an-
anarchic /ənɑkk/, anarchical /ə
anarchic

| |
imo is used: e.g. animo revocandi
nɑkkl/ adjective with no law or order ‘with the intention of revoking a will’.
쑗 the anarchic state of the country dis-
annexation /nekseʃ(ə)n/ noun
annexation

tricts after the coup the act of annexing a territory


anarchism /nəkz(ə)m/ noun the
anarchism
annexe

annexe, annex noun a document add-


belief that there should be no govern- ed or attached to a contract 쐽 verb 1. to
ment or control of people by the state attach a document to something 2. to
anarchist /nəkst/ noun somebody
anarchist

take possession of a territory which be-


who believes in anarchism longs to another state and attach it to
COMMENT: Anarchism flourished in the your country, so taking full sovereignty
latter part of the 19th and early part of over the territory 쑗 The island was an-
the 20th century. Anarchists believe nexed by the neighbouring republic. 쑗
that there should be no government, The war was caused by a dispute over
no army, no civil service, no courts, no
laws, and that people should be free to the annexing of a strip of land.
annual /njuəl/ adjective for one year
annual

live without anyone to rule them.


anarchy /nəki/ noun absence of law
anarchy
왍 on an annual basis each year
Annual General Meeting /njuəl
Annual General Meeting

and order, because a government has lost


control or because there is no govern- den(ə)rəl mitŋ/ noun a meeting of
ment 쑗 When the president was assassi- the shareholders of a company which
nated, the country fell into anarchy. takes place once a year to approve the ac-
ancestor /nsestə/ noun a person counts. Abbreviation AGM
ancestor

annually /njuəli/ adverb each year


annually

living many years ago from whom some-


one is descended 왍 common ancestor a 쑗 The figures are revised annually.
person from whom two or more people annual return /njuəl rt$n/ noun
annual return

are descended 쑗 Mr Smith and the Queen a form to be completed by each company
have a common ancestor in King once a year, giving details of the direc-
Charles II tors and the financial state of the compa-
ancient lights /enʃənt lats/ plural
ancient lights

ny
noun a claim by the owner of a property annuitant /ənjutənt/ noun some-
annuitant

that he or she has the right to enjoy light body who receives an annuity
in his windows and not have it blocked
annuity /ənjuti/ noun money paid
annuity

by a neighbour’s buildings |

each year to a person, usually as the re-


ancillary /nsləri/ adjective giving
ancillary

|
sult of an investment 쑗 to buy or to take
help or support out an annuity 쑗 He has a government
ancillary relief /nsləri rlif/
ancillary relief

| | annuity or an annuity from the govern-


noun financial provision or adjustment ment.

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15 any other business


annul /ən l/ verb 1. to stop something You are answerable to someone for an
annul

having any legal effect 쑗 The contract action.)


was annulled by the court. 2. to declare ante /nti/ Latin adverb meaning
ante

that something never existed or that ‘which has taken place earlier’ or ‘be-
something never had legal effect 쑗 Their fore’
marriage has been annulled. (NOTE: [all antecedents /ntsid(ə)nts/ plural
antecedents

senses] annulling – annulled)


noun details of the background of a con-
annullable /ən ləb(ə)l/ adjective
annullable

|
victed person given to a court before sen-
able to be cancelled tence is passed
annulling /ən lŋ/ adjective cancel-
annulling

antedate /ntdet/ verb to put an


antedate

|
|

ling 쑗 annulling clause 쐽 noun the act of earlier date on a document 쑗 The invoice
cancelling 쑗 the annulling of a contract was antedated to January 1st.
annulment /ən lmənt/ noun the act
annulment

anti- /nti/ prefix against 쑗 an anti-


anti-
|

of cancelling drug campaign 쑗 the anti-terrorist squad


annulment of adjudication /ə
annulment of adjudication

anticipatory /ntspət(ə)ri/ adjec-


anticipatory
|

n lmənt əv ədudkeʃ(ə)n/ noun


|

| |
tive done before it is due
the cancelling of an order making some-
/n
anticipatory breach

one bankrupt anticipatory breach |

tspət(ə)ri britʃ/ noun a refusal by a


annulment of marriage / ən lmənt
annulment of marriage

|
party to a contract to perform his or her
əv mrd/ noun the act of ending a obligations under the contract at a time
marriage by saying that it was never val- before they were due to be performed
id
antisocial behaviour /ntisəυʃ(ə)l
antisocial behaviour

annum /nəm/ 쏡 per annum


annum

bhevjə/ noun bad or unpleasant be-


|

answer /ɑnsə/ noun 1. a spoken or


answer

haviour in public
written reply 쑗 my letter got no answer or Antisocial Behaviour Order

Antisocial Behaviour Order


there was no answer to my letter 쑗 I am /ntisəυʃ(ə)l bhevjə ɔdə/ noun an
|

writing in answer to your letter of Octo- order that can be applied for by the police
ber 6th. 쑗 I tried to phone his office but against any individual over the age of 10
there was no answer. 2. a formal reply to years old who is causing someone dis-
an allegation made in court, especially a tress, harm or harassment, in order to re-
defence made by a respondent to a di- strict their behaviour. Abbreviation AS-
vorce petition 쐽 verb 1. to speak or write BO. 쒁 Acceptable Behaviour Con-
after someone has spoken or written to tract (NOTE: ASBOs are a provision of
you 왍 to answer a letter to write a letter the Crime and Disorder Act 1998.)
in reply to a letter which you have re-
anti-trust /nti tr st/ adjective at-
anti-trust

ceived 왍 to answer the telephone to lift


the telephone when it rings and listen to tacking monopolies and encouraging
what the caller is saying 2. to reply for- competition 쑗 anti-trust laws or legisla-
mally to an allegation made in court 왍 to tion
Anton Piller order /ntɒn plər
Anton Piller order

answer charges to plead guilty or not


guilty to a charge 왍 the judge ruled ɔdə/ noun in a civil case, an order by a
there was no case to answer the judge court allowing a party to inspect and re-
ruled that the prosecution or the claimant move a defendant’s documents, especial-
had not shown that the accused or the de- ly where the defendant might destroy ev-
fendant had done anything wrong idence (NOTE: So called after the case
answerable /ɑns(ə)rəb(ə)l/ adjec-
answerable
of Anton Piller K.G. v. Manufacturing
tive being responsible for one’s actions Processes Ltd. Since the introduction
and having to explain why actions have of the new Civil Procedure Rules in
been taken 쑗 He is answerable to the Po- April 1999, this term has been replaced
lice Commissioner for the conduct of the by search order.)
any other business /eni  ðə
any other business

officers in his force. 쑗 She refused to be


held answerable for the consequences of bzns/ noun an item at the end of an
the police committee’s decision. (NOTE: agenda, where any matter not already on

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apology 16
the agenda can be raised. Abbreviation appearance /əpərəns/ noun the act
appearance

AOB of coming to court to defend or prosecute


apology /əpɒlədi/ noun a defence
apology

|
a case 왍 to enter an appearance to reg-
made to an action of defamation where ister with a court that a defendant intends
the defendant argues that the offending to defend an action
appellant /əpelənt/ noun a person
appellant

statement was either made innocently or |

unintentionally (NOTE: Even if an apolo- who goes to a higher court to ask it to


gy is not accepted, the offer in itself will change a decision or a sentence imposed
always be capable of reducing the by a lower court
amount of compensation awarded to appellate /əpelət/ adjective referring
appellate

the plaintiff.) to appeal


a posteriori /e pɒsteriɔri/ phrase
a posteriori

appellate committee / əpelət kə


appellate committee
|
| |

a Latin phrase meaning ‘from what has mti/ noun the upper house of the Brit-
been concluded afterwards’ 왍 a posteri- ish Parliament, which is responsible for
ori argument an argument based on ob- analysing legislation and hearing cases
servation which have been referred to it by lower
apparent /əprənt/ adjective easily
apparent

|
courts
visible, or obvious 왍 apparent defect a appellate court /əpelət kɔt/ noun 쏡
appellate court

defect which can be easily seen Court of Appeal


appeal /əpil/ noun 1. the act of asking jurisdiction /əpelət
appeal
appellate jurisdiction

|
appellate |

a higher court to change a decision of a dυərsdkʃ(ə)n/ noun the power of a


|

lower court 쑗 the appeal from the court judge to hear appeals from a previous de-
order or the appeal against the planning cision made by a lower court 쑗 If the ECJ
decision will be heard next month 쑗 He tries to decide if a national court’s deci-
lost his appeal for damages against the sion to refer a case to it is correct, then
company. 왍 to win a case on appeal to the ECJ is exercising a form of appellate
lose a case in the first court, but to have jurisdiction.
the decision changed by an appeal court appendix /əpendks/ noun an addi-
appendix

왍 appeal against conviction the act of


|

tional piece of text at the end of a docu-


asking a higher court to change the deci- ment 쑗 The markets covered by the agen-
sion of a lower court that a person is cy agreement are listed in the Appendix.
guilty 왍 appeal against sentence the act 쑗 See Appendix B for the clear-up rates
of asking a higher court to reduce a sen- of notifiable offences. (NOTE: The plural
tence imposed by a lower court 2. the act is appendices.)
of asking a government department to
applicant /plkənt/ noun 1. some-
applicant

change a decision 쐽 verb to ask a govern-


ment department to change its decision body who applies for something 쑗 an ap-
or a high law court to change a sentence plicant for a job or a job applicant 쑗
쑗 The company appealed against the de-
There were thousands of applicants for
cision of the planning officers. 쑗 He has shares in the new company. 2. somebody
appealed to the Supreme Court. (NOTE: who applies for a court order
application / plkeʃ(ə)n/ noun 1.
application

You appeal to a court or against a de- |

cision, an appeal is heard and either al- the act or process of asking for some-
lowed or dismissed.) thing, usually in writing 쑗 application
Appeal Court /əpil kɔt/ noun
Appeal Court

| 쏡
for shares 쑗 shares payable on applica-
Court of Appeal tion 쑗 application for a job or job appli-
cation 2. the act of asking the Court to
appear /əpə/ verb 1. to seem
appear

| 쑗 The make an order 쑗 His application for an


witness appeared to have difficulty in re- injunction was refused. 쑗 Solicitors act-
membering what had happened. 2. (of a ing for the wife made an application for
party in a case) to come to court 3. (of a a maintenance order.
barrister or solicitor ) to come to court to COMMENT: Applications can now be
represent a client 쑗 Mr A. Clark QC is dealt with by telephone (a ‘telephone
appearing on behalf of the defendant. hearing’); urgent applications can be

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17 appurtenances
made without making an application apportion /əpɔʃ(ə)n/ verb to share
apportion

notice. out something such as property, rights or


application form /plkeʃ(ə)n
application form

| liabilities in appropriate proportions 쑗


fɔm/ noun a form to be filled in when Costs are apportioned according to
applying 쑗 to fill in an application form planned revenue.
for a job or a job application form apportionment

apportionment /əpɔʃ(ə)nmənt/ |

application notice /pl)keʃ(ə)n


application notice

noun the act of sharing out such as prop-


nəυts/ noun a document by which an erty, rights or liabilities in appropriate
applicant applies for a court order. The proportions
notice must state what type of order is appraise /əprez/ verb to make an es-
appraise

being sought and the reasons for seeking timate of the value of something
it. (NOTE: The phrase applications
appraiser /əprezə/ noun somebody
appraiser

made without notice being served |

on the other party is now used instead


who appraises something
/prhend/
apprehend

of ex parte applications.) apprehend verb |

(formal) 1. to understand 쑗 I apprehend


apply / əpla/ verb 1. to ask for some-
apply

that you say your client has a reference.


thing, usually in writing 쑗 to apply for a 2. to arrest and take into police custody 쑗
job 쑗 to apply for shares 쑗 to apply in The suspect was apprehended at the
writing 쑗 to apply in person 쑗 My client scene of the crime.
wishes to apply for Legal Aid. 쑗 He ap-
/ prhenʃ(ə)n/
apprehension

plied for judicial review or for compen- apprehension |

sation or for an adjournment. 왍 to apply noun the act of arresting someone


to the Court to ask the court to make an (formal)
appropriate adjective /əprəυpriət/
appropriate

order 쑗 he applied to the Court for an in- |

junction 2. to affect or be relevant to suitable for a particular purpose 쑗 Is a


something or someone 쑗 This clause ap- fine an appropriate punishment for sex
plies only to deals outside the EU. 쑗 The offences? 쐽 verb /əprəυpriet/ 1. to |

legal precedent applies to cases where take control of something illegally 2. to


the parents of the child are divorced. take something for a particular use, e.g.
appoint /əpɔnt/ verb to choose
appoint

|
taking funds from an estate to pay lega-
someone for a job 쑗 to appoint James cies to beneficiaries
/əprəυprieʃ(ə)n/
appropriation

Smith to the post of manager 쑗 The gov- appropriation | |

ernment has appointed a QC to head the noun the allocation of money for a par-
inquiry. 쑗 The court appointed a receiv- ticular purpose such as distributing parts
er. (NOTE: You appoint a person to a job of an estate to beneficiaries
or to do a job.) approval /əpruv(ə)l/ noun 1. permis-
approval

appointee /əpɔnti/ noun somebody sion to do something given by someone


appointee

who is appointed to a job with authority 쑗 to submit a budget for


approval 2. 왍 on approval a sale where
appointment /əpɔntmənt / noun 1.
appointment

the buyer pays for goods only if they are


|

an arrangement to meet someone 쑗 to


satisfactory
make or to fix an appointment for two
approve /əpruv/ verb to agree to
approve

o’clock 쑗 to make an appointment with |

someone for two o’clock 쑗 He was late something officially 쑗 to approve the
for his appointment. 쑗 She had to cancel terms of a contract 쑗 The proposal was
her appointment. 2. the act of appointing approved by the board. 쑗 The motion was
someone or being appointed to a job 왍 on approved by the committee. 왍 to approve
his appointment as magistrate when he of to think something is good
was made a magistrate 3. a job 왍 legal approved school /əpruvd skul/
approved school

appointments vacant list in a newspa- noun formerly, a school for young delin-
per of legal jobs which are vacant quents
appointments book /əpɔntmənts appurtenances /əp$rtnənsz/ plu-
appointments book appurtenances

| |

bυk/ noun a desk diary in which ap- ral noun land or buildings attached to or
pointments are noted belonging to a property

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appurtenant 18
appurtenant /əp$rtnənt/ adjective ment 쑗 They got into an argument with
appurtenant

relevant to the judge over the relevance of the docu-


a priori /e praɔri/ phrase a Latin
a priori

|
ments to the case. 쑗 He sacked his solic-
phrase meaning ‘from the first’: using itor after an argument over costs. 2. a
logic and reason to draw conclusions speech giving reasons for something 쑗
from what is already known 왍 a priori The judge found the defence arguments
argument reasoning based on ideas or difficult to follow. 쑗 Counsel presented
assumptions, not on real examples the argument for the prosecution. 쑗 The
Court of Appeal was concerned that the
arbitrate /ɑbtret/ verb (usually
arbitrate

judge at first instance had delivered


used in building, shipping or employ- judgment without proper argument.
ment disputes) to settle a dispute be- (NOTE: can be used without the)
tween parties by referring it to an arbitra-
arise /əraz/ verb to happen as a result
arise

tor instead of going to court 쑗 to arbi- |

trate in a dispute of something 쑗 The situation has arisen


because neither party is capable of pay-
arbitration /ɑbtreʃ(ə)n/ noun the
arbitration

|
ing the costs of the case. 쑗 The problem
settling of a dispute by an outside person arises from the difficulty in understand-
or persons agreed on by both sides 쑗 to ing the regulations.
submit a dispute to arbitration 쑗 to refer
armed neutrality /ɑmd nju
armed neutrality

a question to arbitration 쑗 to take a dis- |

pute to arbitration 쑗 to go to arbitration trləti/ noun the condition of a country


which is neutral during a war, but main-
arbitration agreement /ɑb
arbitration agreement

|
tains armed forces to defend itself
treʃ(ə)n ərimənt/ noun an agree-
|

armourer /ɑmərə/ noun a criminal


armourer

ment by two parties to submit a dispute


who supplies guns to other criminals
to arbitration (slang)
arbitration award / ɑbtreʃ(ə)n ə
arbitration award

arm’s length /ɑmz leŋθ/ noun 왍 at


arm’s length
| |

wɔd/ noun a ruling given by an arbitra- arm’s length not closely connected 왍 to
tor deal with someone at arm’s length to
arbitration board /ɑbtreʃ(ə)n
arbitration board

|
deal as if there were no connection be-
bɔd/ noun a group which arbitrates tween the parties, e.g. when a company
arbitration clause /ɑbtreʃ(ə)n
arbitration clause

| buys a service from one of its own sub-


klɔz/ noun a written term in a contract, sidiaries 쑗 The directors were required to
usually a commercial contracts, requir- deal with the receiver at arm’s length.
ing anyone who is party to the contract to arraign /əren/ verb to make an ac-
arraign

agree to refer any contractual disputes to cused person appear in the court and read
arbitration the indictment to him or her
arbitrator /ɑbtretə/ noun a person arraignment /ərenmənt/ noun the
arbitrator
arraignment

not concerned with a dispute who is cho- act of reading of an indictment to the ac-
sen by both sides to try to settle it 쑗 an in- cused and hearing his or her plea
dustrial arbitrator 쑗 to accept or to reject arrangement /ərendmənt/ noun
arrangement

the arbitrator’s ruling 1. a way in which something is organised


argue /ɑju/ verb 1. to discuss
argue

쑗 The company secretary is making all


something about which there is disagree- the arrangements for the AGM. 2. the
ment 쑗 They argued over or about the settling of a financial dispute, especially
price. 쑗 Counsel spent hours arguing by proposing a plan for repaying credi-
about the precise meaning of the clause. tors 쑗 to come to an arrangement with
2. to give reasons for something 쑗 Pros- the creditors
ecuting counsel argued that the accused arrears /ərəz/ plural noun money
arrears

should be given exemplary sentences. 쑗 which has not been paid at the time when
The police solicitor argued against it was due 쑗 to allow the payments to fall
granting bail. (NOTE: You argue with into arrears 왍 in arrears owing money
someone about or over something.) which should have been paid earlier 쑗
argument /ɑjυmənt/ noun 1. the
argument

The payments are six months in arrears.


discussion of something without agree- 쑗 He is six weeks in arrears with his rent.

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19 ASBO
arrest / ərest/ noun an act of taking cles of incorporation US document
arrest

and keeping someone in custody legally, which regulates the way in which a com-
so that he or she can be questioned and pany’s affairs are managed 4. 왍 to serve
perhaps charged with a crime 왍 a war- articles to work as an articled clerk in a
rant is out for his arrest a magistrate solicitor’s office
has signed a warrant, giving the police Article 81 /ɑtk(ə)l eti w n/ noun
Article 81

the power to arrest someone for a crime a provision contained in the Treaty of
왍 under arrest kept and held by the po- Rome designed to prevent agreements
lice 쑗 Six of the gang are in the police that aim to or effectively restrict, prevent
station under arrest. 쐽 verb 1. to hold or manipulate competition in the Euro-
someone legally so as to keep him or her pean Union (NOTE: Formerly known as
in custody and charge them with a crime Article 85.)
쑗 Two of the strikers were arrested. 쑗 The
Article 82 /ɑtk(ə)l eti tu/ noun a
Article 82

constable stopped the car and arrested


the driver. 2. to seize a ship or its cargo provision contained in the Treaty of
3. to stop something from continuing Rome designed to prevent businesses
abusing their position of dominance
arrestable offence /ərestəbl ə
arrestable offence

| |
within the European Union
fens/ noun a crime for which someone
articled clerk /ɑtk(ə)ld klɑk/
articled clerk

can be arrested without a warrant, usual-


ly an offence which carries a penalty of noun formerly, a trainee who is bound by
at least five years’ imprisonment a contract to work in a solicitor’s office
for some years to learn the law (NOTE:
arrest of judgment /ərest əv
arrest of judgment

|
Now called trainee solicitor.)
d dmənt/ noun a situation where a
articles /ɑtk(ə)lz/ noun formerly,
articles

judgment is held back because there ap-


pears to be an error in the documentation the period during which someone is
working in a solicitor’s office to learn the
arrest warrant / ərest wɒrənt/ noun
arrest warrant

|
law (NOTE: Now called traineeship.)
a warrant signed by a magistrate which
articles of association /ɑtk(ə)lz
articles of association

gives the police the power to arrest some-


one for a crime. 쒁 citizen’s arrest əv əsəυsieʃ(ə)n/ noun a document
| |

COMMENT: Any citizen may arrest a which regulates the way in which a com-
person who is committing a serious of- pany’s affairs such as the appointment of
fence, though members of the police directors or rights of shareholders are
force have wider powers, in particular managed. Also called articles of incor-
the power to arrest persons on suspi- poration
cion of a serious crime or in cases articles of impeachment

where an arrest warrant has been articles of impeachment


granted. Generally a policeman is not /ɑtk(ə)lz əv mpitʃmənt/ noun US |

entitled to arrest someone without a a statement of the grounds on which a


warrant if the person does not know or public official is to be impeached
is not told the reason for his arrest. articles of incorporation

arson /ɑs(ə)n/ noun the notifiable of-


arson
articles of incorporation
/ɑtk(ə)lz əv nkɔpəreʃ(ə)n/ noun
fence of setting fire to a building 쑗 He
| |

same as articles of association


was charged with arson. 쑗 During the
articles of partnership /ɑtk(ə)lz
articles of partnership

riot there were ten cases of looting and


two of arson. 쑗 The police who are inves- əv pɑtnəʃp/ noun a document which
tigating the fire suspect arson. 왍 an ar- sets up the legal conditions of a partner-
son attack on a house setting fire to a ship 쑗 She is a director appointed under
house the articles of the company. 쑗 This proce-
arsonist /ɑs(ə)nst/ noun somebody
arsonist
dure is not allowed under the articles of
who commits arson association of the company.
/ɑtfʃ(ə)l
artificial person

article /ɑtk(ə)l/ noun 1. a product or


article
artificial person
thing for sale 쑗 a black market in import- p$s(ə)n/ noun a body such as a compa-
ed articles of clothing 2. a section of a le- ny which is regarded as a person in law
ASBO

gal agreement 쑗 See article 8 of the con- ASBO abbreviation Antisocial Behav-
tract. 3. 왍 articles of association, arti- iour Order

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ascendant 20
ascendant /əsendənt/ noun the par- assaulter /əsɔltə/ noun 1. a member
ascendant assaulter

| |

ent or grandparent of a person (NOTE: of a police hostage rescue team 2. some-


The opposite, the children or grandchil- one who attacks another person physical-
dren of a person, are descendants.) ly or verbally in a violent way
ask /ɑsk/ verb 1. to put a question to assay /se, əse/ noun a test of a
ask assay

someone 쑗 Prosecuting counsel asked precious metal such as gold or silver to


the accused to explain why the can of see if it is of the right quality
petrol was in his car. 2. to tell someone assay mark /se mɑk/ noun a
assay mark

to do something 쑗 The police officers mark put on gold or silver items to show
asked the marchers to go home. 쑗 She that the metal is of correct quality. Also
asked her secretary to fetch a file from called hallmark
the managing director’s office. 쑗 The
assemble /əsemb(ə)l/ verb 1. to
assemble

customs officials asked him to open his |

case. 쑗 The judge asked the witness to come together or to gather 쑗 The crowd
write the name on a piece of paper. 3. 왍 assembled in front of the police station.
to ask for something to say that you 2. to put something together from vari-
want or need something 쑗 He asked for ous parts 쑗 The police are still assem-
the file on 1992 debtors. 쑗 Counsel asked bling all the evidence.
assembly /əsembl/ noun the action
assembly

for more time to consult with his col- |

leagues. 쑗 There is a man on the phone of people meeting together in a group. 쒁


asking for Mr Smith. 왍 to ask for bail to freedom of assembly, unlawful as-
be granted to ask a court to allow a pris- sembly
oner to be remanded on bail assemblyman /əsemblimən / noun a
assemblyman

assassin /əssn / noun someone


assassin

| member of an assembly
who murders a well-known person Assembly of the European Community

Assembly of the European Com-


assassinate /əssnet/ verb to munity /əsembli əv θə jυərəpiən kə
assassinate

| |
|

murder a well-known person mjunti/ noun the European Parlia-


ment
/ əssneʃ(ə)n/
assassination

assassination | |

assent /əsent/ noun 1. agreement to


assent

noun the murder of a well-known person |

or approval of something 2. notification


assault /əsɔlt/ verb the crime or tort
assault

by a personal representative that part of


of acting in such a way that someone is
an estate is not needed for the adminis-
afraid he or she will be attacked and hurt tration of the estate and can be passed to
쑗 She was assaulted by two muggers. 쒁
the beneficiary named in the will (NOTE:
battery 쐽 noun the offence of acting in- The assent can be given verbally or in
tentionally to make someone afraid that writing and applies to personal property
they will be attacked and hurt 쑗 He was and real estate.) 쐽 verb to agree to
sent to prison for assault. 쑗 The number
something 쑗 The executor assented to the
of cases of assault or the number of as- vesting of the property to the beneficiary.
saults on policemen is increasing. (NOTE:
assent procedure /əsent prə
assent procedure

As a crime or tort, assault has no plural. | |

When it has a plural it means ‘cases of sidə/ noun a procedure by which the
assault’.) approval of the European Parliament is
COMMENT: Assault should be distin- necessary before legislation can be put
guished from battery, in that assault is into law
the threat of violence, whereas battery assess /əses/ verb to calculate the
assess

is actual violence. However, because value of something, especially for tax or


the two are so closely connected, the
term ‘assault’ is frequently used as a insurance purposes 쑗 to assess damages
general term for violence to a person. at £1,000 쑗 to assess a property for the
‘Aggravated assault’ is assault caus- purposes of insurance
ing serious injury or carried out in con-
assessment /əsesmənt/ noun a cal-
assessment

nection with another serious crime.


|

The term ‘common assault’ is fre- culation of value 쑗 assessment of damag-


quently used for any assault which is es 쑗 assessment of property 쑗 tax assess-
not an aggravated assault. ment

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21 assured shorthold tenancy


assessment of costs / əsesmənt assisted person /əsstd p$s(ə)n/
assessment of costs assisted person

| |

əv kɒsts/ noun an assessment of the noun somebody who is receiving Legal


costs of a legal action by the costs judge Aid
(NOTE: Since the introduction of the new Assizes, Assize Courts plural noun
Assizes

Civil Procedure Rules in April 1999, this formerly, the Crown Court
term has replaced taxation of costs.) associate / əsəυsiet/ adjective
associate

assessor / əsesə/ noun an expert who


assessor

|
joined together with something 쐽 noun
helps the court when a case requires spe- somebody who works in the same busi-
cialised technical knowledge ness as someone 쑗 In his testimony he
asset /set/ noun something which
asset

named six associates. 쐽 verb to mix with


belongs to company or person and which or to meet people 왍 she associated with
has a specific value 쑗 He has an excess of criminals she was frequently in the com-
assets over liabilities. 쑗 Her assets are pany of criminals
only £640 as against liabilities of associate company /əsəυsiət
associate company

£24,000. k mp(ə)ni/ noun a company which is


asset value /set vlju/ noun the partly owned or controlled by another
asset value

value of a company calculated by adding associated /əsəυsietd/ adjective


associated

together all its assets joined to or controlled by 쑗 Smith Ltd


assign /əsan/ verb 1. to give or trans- and its associated company, Jones
assign

fer something 쑗 to assign a right to Brothers.


someone 쑗 to assign shares to someone 쑗 associate director /əsəυsiət da
associate director

| |

to assign a debt to someone 2. to give rektə/ noun a director who attends


someone a piece of work to do 쑗 He was board meetings, but does not have the
assigned the job of checking the numbers full powers of a director
of stolen cars. 쑗 Three detectives have associated person /əsəυsietd
associated person

been assigned to the case. 쐽 noun same p$s(ə)n/ noun a concept widened by
as assignee the Family Law Act 1996, allowing any
assignee /sani/ noun somebody
assignee

| person who falls under this category the


who receives something which has been right to apply for a protection order. 쒁
assigned non-molestation order, occupation
assignment /əsanmənt/ noun 1. the order
assignment

legal transfer of a property or of a right 쑗 /əsəυsiət


Associate Justice

Associate Justice |

assignment of a patent or of a copyright d sts/ noun US a member of the Su-


쑗 assignment of a lease 2. a document by preme Court who is not the Chief Justice
which something is assigned 3. a partic- associate of the Crown Office /ə
associate of the Crown Office

ular task to be completed 쑗 We have put səυsiet əv ð kraυn ɒfs/ noun an of-
six constables on that particular assign- ficial who is responsible for the clerical
ment. and administrative work of a court
assignor /sanɔ/ noun somebody
assignor

association /əsəυsieʃ(ə)n/ noun 1.


association
|
| |

who assigns something to someone a group of people or of companies with


assigns /əsanz/ plural noun people
assigns

| the same interest 쑗 trade association 쑗


to whom property has been assigned 왍 employers’ association 2. (in prison) the
his heirs and assigns people who have time when prisoners can move about and
inherited property and have had it trans- meet other prisoners
ferred to them assure /əʃυə/ verb to have an agree-
assure

assist /əsst/ verb to help 쑗 The ac-


assist

| ment with an insurance company that in


cused had to be assisted into the dock. 쑗 return for regular payment, the company
She has been assisting us with our in- will pay compensation for injury or loss
quiries. of life 왍 the assured the person whose
Assistant Chief Constable /ə interests are assured, who is entitled to
Assistant Chief Constable

sst(ə)nt tʃif k nstəb(ə)l/ noun a the benefit in an insurance policy


assured shorthold tenancy /ə
assured shorthold tenancy

rank in the police force below Chief |

Constable ʃυəd ʃɔthəυld tenənsi/ noun a ten-

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Law.fm Page 22 Friday, June 11, 2004 2:08 PM

assured tenancy 22
ancy allowing a landlord to bypass the ary to pay money which is owed to the
usual grounds for regaining possession courts
of an assured tenancy. The Housing Act attachment of earnings order /ə
attachment of earnings order

1996 states that from the 28th February ttʃmənt əv $nŋz ɔdə/ noun a
1997, a landlord will no longer be re- court order to make an employer pay part
quired to give notice to the tenant and as of an employee’s salary to the court to
of this date all new tenancies will auto- pay off debts
matically be classified as assured short-
attack /ətk/ verb 1. to try to hurt or
attack

hold tenancies unless otherwise speci- |

fied in the contract. harm someone 쑗 The security guard was


attacked by three men carrying guns. 2.
assured tenancy /əʃυəd tenənsi/
assured tenancy

|
to criticise 쑗 The newspaper attacked the
noun in England and Wales, a lease un- government for not spending enough
der the Housing Act 1988 that gives a money on the police. 쐽 noun 1. the act of
tenant limited security of tenure and al- trying to hurt or harm someone 쑗 There
lows a landlord a specific means of ter- has been an increase in attacks on police
minating a lease or in terrorist attacks on planes. 2. criti-
assurer /əʃυərə/, assuror noun a
assurer

| cism 쑗 The newspaper published an at-


company which provides insurance tack on the government. ( NOTE: You at-
COMMENT: assure and assurance are tack someone, but make an attack on
used in Britain for insurance policies someone.)
relating to something which will cer-
attacker /ətkə/ noun somebody who
attacker

tainly happen (such as death or the |

end of a given period of time); for other attacks 쑗 She recognised her attacker
types of policy use insure and insur- and gave his description to the police.
ance.
attempt /ətempt/ noun 1. an act of
attempt

asylum /əsaləm/ noun refuge in a


asylum

|
trying to do something 쑗 The company
country granted to a person who is sub- made an attempt to break into the Amer-
ject to extradition by a foreign govern- ican market. 쑗 The takeover attempt was
ment 왍 to ask for political asylum to ask turned down by the board. 쑗 All his at-
to be allowed to remain in a foreign tempts to get a job have failed. 2. an act
country because it would be dangerous of trying to do something illegal (NOTE:
to return to the home country for political Attempt is a crime even if the attempted
reasons offence has not been committed.)
at issue /ət ʃu/ 쏡 issue
at issue

attempted murder /ətemptd


attempted murder

at large /ət lɑd/ adjective not in m$də/ noun the notifiable offence of
at large

prison 쑗 Three prisoners escaped – two trying to murder someone


were recaptured, but one is still at large. attend /ətend/ verb to be present at 쑗
attend

attach /əttʃ/ verb 1. to fasten some-


attach

| The witnesses were summoned to attend


thing to something else 쑗 I am attaching the trial.
a copy of my previous letter. 쑗 Attached attendance /ətendəns/ noun the fact
attendance

is a copy of my letter of June 24th. 2. to of being present


arrest a person or take property
attendance centre /ətendəns
attendance centre

attaché /ətʃe/ noun a person who


attaché |

|
sentə/ noun a place where a young per-
does specialised work in an embassy son may be sent by a court to take part in
abroad 쑗 a military attaché 쑗 The gov- various activities or do hard work as a
ernment ordered the commercial attaché punishment. This applies to people be-
to return home. tween the ages of 17 and 21 and is on the
attachment /əttʃmənt/ noun a
attachment

| condition that they have not had a custo-


court order preventing a debtor’s proper- dial sentence before.
ty from being sold until debts are paid attest /ətest/ verb to sign a document
attest

attachment of earnings /ə
attachment of earnings

| such as a will in the presence of a witness


ttʃmənt əv $nŋz/ noun a legal who also signs the document to confirm
power to take money from a person’s sal- that the signature is genuine

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23 authorised dealer
attestation /testeʃ(ə)n/ noun the thorities, ensures that money is spent le-
attestation

act of signing a document such as a will gally and wisely, and checks for possible
in the presence of a witness to show that fraud and corruption
the signature is genuine auditor / ɔdtə/ noun somebody who
auditor

attestation clause /testeʃ(ə)n audits 쑗 The AGM appoints the compa-


attestation clause

klɔz/ noun a clause showing that the ny’s auditors.


signature of the person signing a legal audit trail /ɔdt trel/ noun a record
audit trail

document has been witnessed (NOTE: in the form of computer or printed docu-
The attestation clause is usually writ- ments that shows how something hap-
ten: ‘signed sealed and delivered by … pened
in the presence of …’.) autarchy /ɔtɑki/ noun a situation
autarchy

attorn /ətɔn/ verb to transfer


attorn

| where a state rules itself without outside


attorney /ət$ni/ noun 1. somebody interference and has full power over its
attorney

who is legally allowed to act on behalf of own affairs


someone else 2. US a lawyer autarky /ɔtɑki/ noun a situation
autarky

attorney-at-law /ət$ni ət lɔ/ noun where a state is self-sufficient and can


attorney-at-law

formerly, a barrister provide for all its needs without outside


Attorney-General

Attorney-General /ət$ni |
help
den(ə)rəl/ noun 1. in the UK, one of authenticate /ɔθentket/ verb to
authenticate

| |

the Law Officers, a Member of Parlia- show that something is true


ment, who prosecutes for the Crown in authenticity /ɔθentsti/ noun the
authenticity

some court cases, advises government state of being genuine 쑗 The police are
departments on legal problems and de- checking the authenticity of the letter. 쑗
cides if major criminal offences should An electronic signature confirms the au-
be tried 2. in a US state or in the federal thenticity of the text.
government, the head of legal affairs authorisation
authorisation

/ɔθərazeʃ(ə)n/,
|

(NOTE: In the US Federal Government, authorization noun 1. official permis-


the Attorney-General is in charge of the sion or power to do something 쑗 Do you
Justice Department.) have authorisation for this expenditure?
attributable /ətrbjυtəb(ə)l/ adjec-
attributable

| 쑗 He has no authorisation to act on our


tive being able to be attributed behalf. 2. a document showing that
attribute /ətrbjut/ verb to suggest someone has official permission to do
attribute

that something came from a source 쑗 re- something 쑗 He showed the bank his au-
marks attributed to the Chief Constable thorisation to inspect the contents of the
audi alteram partem /aυdi
audi alteram partem
safe.
authorise /ɔθəraz/, authorize
authorise

lterəm pɑtəm/ phrase a Latin |

phrase meaning ‘hear the other side’: a /ɔθəraz/ verb 1. to give official per-
rule in natural justice that everyone has mission for something to be done 쑗 to
the right to speak in his or her own de- authorise payment of £10,000 2. to give
fence and to have the case against them someone the authority to do something 쑗
explained clearly to authorise someone to act on your be-
audit /ɔdt/ noun 1. an examination of
audit
half
authorised /ɔθərazd/, authorized
authorised

the books and accounts of a company 쑗


to carry out an annual audit 2. a careful adjective permitted
authorised capital /ɔθərazd
authorised capital

review of the effectiveness of something


쑗 an audit of safety procedures 쐽 verb 1. kpt(ə)l/ noun the amount of capital
to examine the books and accounts of a which a company is allowed to have, ac-
company 쑗 to audit the accounts 쑗 The cording to its memorandum of associa-
books have not yet been audited. 2. to re- tion
view something carefully authorised
authorised dealer

dealer /ɔθərazd
Audit Commission /ɔdt kə dilə/ noun a person or company such as
Audit Commission

mʃ(ə)n/ noun an independent body a bank which is allowed to buy and sell
which examines the accounts of local au- foreign currency

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Law.fm Page 24 Friday, June 11, 2004 2:08 PM

authoritarian 24
authoritarian /ɔθɒrteəriən/ ad- cused person has already been convicted
authoritarian

| |

jective acting because of having power of the crime with which he or she is now
authoritarianism
authoritarianism

/ ɔθɒr | |
charged
teəriən[[ðʃç]]z(ə)m/ noun a theory available /əveləb(ə)l/ adjective able
available

that a regime must rule its people strictly to be used 쑗 The right of self-defence is
in order to be efficient only available against unlawful attack.
authoritarian regime /ɔ aver /əv$/ verb to make a statement or
authoritarian regime aver

| |

θɒrteəriən reim/ noun a govern-


|
an allegation in pleadings ( NOTE: aver-
ment which rules its people strictly and ring – averred)
does not allow anyone to oppose its deci- average /v(ə)rd/ noun 1. a
average

sions number calculated by adding together


authoritative /ɔθɒrtətv/ adjective
authoritative

|
several figures and dividing by the
1. having the force of law 쑗 Courts in number of figures added 쑗 sales average
Member States cannot give authoritative or average of sales 쑗 The average for the
rulings on how Community law should last three months or the last three
be interpreted. 2. based on the best relia- months’ average. 왍 on average in gener-
ble information 쑗 an authoritative opin- al 쑗 On average, £15 worth of goods are
ion on likely trends stolen every day. 2. the sharing of the
authority / ɔθɒrəti/ noun 1. official
authority

|
cost of damage or loss of a ship between
power given to someone to do something the insurers and the owners 쐽 adjective
쑗 He has no authority to act on our be- 1. calculated by adding together several
half. 쑗 She was acting on the authority of figures and dividing by the number of
the court. 쑗 On whose authority was the figures added 쑗 the average cost of ex-
charge brought? 2. 왍 the authorities the penses per employee 쑗 the average fig-
government, police or official organisa- ures for the last three months 쑗 the aver-
tions with legal powers to control things age increase in prices 2. ordinary or typ-
automatism /ɔtɒmətz(ə)m/ noun a
automatism

| ical 쑗 The company’s performance has


defence to a criminal charge whereby the been only average. 쑗 He is an average
accused states he or she acted involuntar- worker. 왍 above or below average more
ily or less than is usual or typical 쐽 verb to
autonomous /ɔtɒnəməs/ adjective produce as an average figure 쑗 Price in-
autonomous

governing itself 쑗 an autonomous re- creases have averaged 10% per annum.
gional government 쑗 Days lost through sickness have aver-

autonomy /ɔtɒnəmi/ noun self-gov- aged twenty-two over the last four years.
autonomy

average adjuster /v(ə)rd ə


average adjuster

ernment, or freedom from outside con- |

trol 쑗 The separatists are demanding full d stə/ noun somebody who calculates
autonomy for their state. 쑗 The govern- how much is due to the insured when he
ment has granted the region a limited au- or she makes a claim under his or her
tonomy. policy
autopsy /ɔtɒpsi/ noun an examina- average adjustment /v(ə)rd ə
autopsy average adjustment

tion of a dead person to see what was the d stmənt/ noun a calculation of the
cause of death share of cost of damage or loss of a ship
autrefois acquit /əυtrəfw əki/
autrefois acquit
average income per capita
|
average income per capita
phrase a French phrase meaning ‘previ- /v(ə)rd nk m pə kptə/ noun
ously acquitted’: a plea that an accused the average income of one person
person has already been acquitted of the averment /əv$mənt/ noun a state-
averment

crime with which he or she is charged ment or allegation made in pleadings


COMMENT: There is no appeal against
avoid /əvɔd/ verb 1. to try not to do
avoid

an acquittal, and a person who has |

been acquitted of a crime cannot be something 쑗 The company is trying to


charged with the same crime again. avoid bankruptcy. 쑗 My aim is to avoid
autrefois convict /əυtrəfw kɒn
autrefois convict

| paying too much tax. 쑗 We want to avoid


vkt/ phrase a French phrase meaning direct competition with Smith Ltd. 왍 to
‘previously convicted’: a plea that an ac- avoid creditors to make sure that credi-

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25 AWOL
tors cannot find you so as not to pay them industrial tribunal 쑗 The arbitrator’s
2. to make something void 쑗 to avoid a award was set aside on appeal. 쐽 verb to
contract 3. to quash a sentence decide the amount of money to be given
avoidance /əvɔd(ə)ns/ noun 1. a to someone 쑗 to award someone a salary
avoidance

plan or deliberate policy to avoid some- increase 쑗 to award damages 쑗 The


thing or someone 쑗 avoidance of an judge awarded costs to the defendant. 왍
agreement or of a contract 2. a confes- to award a contract to a company to
sion to a charge, but suggesting it should decide that a company will have the con-
be cancelled tract to do work for you
award /əwɔd/ noun a decision which AWOL / ewɒl/ abbreviation absent
award AWOL

settles a dispute 쑗 an award made by an without leave

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B
backdate /bkdet/ verb to put an baggage check /bd tʃek/ noun
backdate baggage check

earlier date on a cheque or an invoice 쑗 an examination of passengers’ baggage


Backdate your invoice to April 1st. 쑗 The to see if it contains bombs
pay increase is backdated to January 1st. bail /bel/ noun 1. the release of an ar-
bail

background /bkraυnd/ noun 1. rested person from custody after pay-


background

the previous experience, cultural back- ment has been made to a court on condi-
ground or family connections that some- tion that the person will return to face tri-
one has 쑗 The accused is from a good al 쑗 to stand bail of £3,000 for someone
background. 쑗 Can you tell us something (NOTE: The US term is pretrial re-
of the girl’s family background? 2. gen- lease.) 2. payment made to a court to re-
eral facts about a situation including rel- lease an arrested person 쑗 He was grant-
evant information about what happened ed bail on his own recognizance of
in the past 쑗 He explained the back- £1,000. 쑗 The police opposed bail on the
ground to the claim. 쑗 The court asked grounds that the accused might try to
for details of the background to the case. leave the country. (NOTE: The US term is
쑗 I know the contractual situation as it pretrial release.) 왍 he was remanded
stands now, but can you fill in the back- on bail of £3,000 he was released on
ground details? payment of £3,000 as a guarantee that he
would return to the court to face trial 왍 to
back interest /bk ntrəst/ noun
back interest

jump bail not to appear in court after


interest which has not yet been paid having been released on bail 쐽 verb 왍 to
back orders /bk ɔdəz/ noun or-
back orders

bail someone out to pay a debt on behalf


ders received in the past and not yet sup- of someone 쑗 She paid £3,000 to bail
plied him out.
back pay /bk pe/ noun salary bail bandit /bel bndt/ noun an
back pay bail bandit

which has not been paid accused person who commits a crime
back payment /bk pemənt/ noun
back payment
while on bail awaiting trial for another
the payment of money which is owed offence, or who fails to appear in court
on the date agreed
back rent /bk rent/ noun rent which
back rent

bail bond /bel bɒnd/ noun a signed


bail bond

has not been paid


document which is given to the court as
backsheet /bkʃit/ noun the last
backsheet

security for payment of a judgment


sheet of paper in a legal document which, bail bondsperson
bail bondsperson

/bel
when folded, becomes the outside sheet bɒndzp$s(ə)n/ noun someone who
and carries the endorsement provides bail money or acts as surety for
back taxes /bk tksz/ plural
back taxes

an accused person
noun taxes which have not been paid bailee /beli/ noun somebody who
bailee

back wages /bk wedz/ plural


back wages

receives property by way of bailment


noun wages which have not been paid to
Bailey

Bailey 쏡 Old Bailey


a worker bailiff /belf/ noun 1. a person em-
bailiff

bad debt /bd det/ noun money


bad debt

ployed by the court whose responsibility


owed which will never be paid back is to see that documents such as sum-

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27 bankruptcy
monses are served and that court orders /bŋk
bank borrowings

bank borrowings
are obeyed 쑗 The court ordered the bail- bɒrəυŋz/ plural noun loans made by
iffs to seize his property because he had banks
not paid his fine. (NOTE: The US equiva- bank charter /bŋk tʃɑtə/ noun an
bank charter

lent is a marshal.) 2. US the deputy to a official government document allowing


sheriff the establishment of a bank
bailment /belmənt/ noun a transfer
bailment

bank draft /bŋk drɑft/ noun a


bank draft

of goods by one person (the bailor) to an- cheque payable by a bank


other (the bailee) who then holds them
banker’s order /bŋkəz ɔdə/
banker’s order

until they have to be returned to the bail-


noun an order written by a customer ask-
or. The process is that of leaving a coat in
ing a bank to make a regular payment to
a cloakroom or at the cleaner’s.
someone else
bailor /belɔ/ noun somebody who
bailor

bank loan /bŋk ləυn/ noun money


bank loan
|

transfers property by way of bailment lent by a bank


Bakke decision /bki ds(ə)n/
Bakke decision

bank mandate /bŋk mndet/


bank mandate
|

noun a US Supreme Court ruling that noun a written order allowing someone
made the reservation of a specific to sign cheques on behalf of a company
number of places for students from mi-
bank note /bŋk nəυt/, banknote
bank note

nority groups unlawful because it pre- noun a piece of printed paper money
vented applicants not from those groups (NOTE: The US term is bill.)
from competing for the reserved places
bank reserves /bŋk r z$vz/ plu-
bank reserves

balance /bləns/ noun 왍 balance of


balance |

ral noun cash and securities held by a


mind mental state bank to cover deposits
ballot-rigging /blət rŋ/ noun
ballot-rigging

bankrupt /bŋkr pt/ adjective de-


bankrupt

an illegal attempt to manipulate the votes clared by a court not capable of paying
in an election so that a specific candidate debts 쑗 a bankrupt property developer 쑗
or party wins He was adjudicated or declared bank-
ban /bn/ noun an order which forbids rupt. 쑗 He went bankrupt after two years
ban

someone from doing something or which in business. 쐽 noun someone who has
makes an activity illegal 쑗 a government been declared by a court to be not capa-
ban on the sale of weapons 쑗 a ban on ble of paying debts and whose affairs
the copying of computer software 왍 to have been put into the hands of a trustee
쐽 verb to make someone become bank-
impose a ban on smoking to make an
order which forbids smoking 왍 to lift the rupt 쑗 The recession bankrupted my fa-
ban on smoking to allow people to ther.
smoke 쐽 verb to forbid something or COMMENT: A bankrupt cannot serve as
make it illegal 쑗 The government has a Member of Parliament, a Justice of
the Peace, a director of a limited com-
banned the sale of alcohol. 쑗 The sale of pany, and cannot sign a contract or
pirated records has been banned. borrow money.
bank /bŋk/ noun a business which bankruptcy /bŋkr ptsi/ noun the
bank bankruptcy

holds money for its clients, lends money state of being bankrupt 쑗 The recession
at interest, and trades generally in money has caused thousands of bankruptcies.
쐽 verb to deposit money into a bank or to (NOTE: The term bankruptcy is applied
have an account with a bank to individuals or partners, but not to
companies. For companies, the term to
/bŋkəb(ə)l
bankable paper

bankable paper
use is ‘insolvency’.) 왍 adjudication of
pepə/ noun a document which a bank
bankruptcy, declaration of bankrupt-
will accept as security for a loan
cy legal order making someone bankrupt
bank account /bŋk əkaυnt/ noun
bank account

| 앳 to file a petition in bankruptcy 1. to


an arrangement which you make with a apply to the Court to be made bankrupt
bank to keep your money safely until you 2. to ask for someone else to be made
want it bankrupt

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Bankruptcy Court 28
Bankruptcy Court /bŋkr ptsi reach an agreement that everyone is hap-
Bankruptcy Court

kɔt/ noun a court which deals with py with. 쒁 plea bargaining


bankruptcies bargaining position /bɑnŋ pə
bargaining position

bankruptcy notice /bŋkr ptsi zʃ(ə)n/ noun a statement of position by


bankruptcy notice

nəυts/ noun a notice warning someone one group during negotiations


that they face bankruptcy if they fail to bargaining power /bɑnŋ paυə/
bargaining power

pay money which they owe noun the relative strength of one person
bankruptcy petition /bŋkr ptsi
bankruptcy petition

or group when several people or groups


pətʃ(ə)n/ noun an application to a
| are discussing prices, wages or contracts
court asking for an order making some- baron /brən/ noun a prisoner who
baron

one bankrupt has power over other prisoners because


bankruptcy proceedings
bankruptcy proceedings

he or she runs various rackets in a prison


/bŋkr ptsi prəsidŋz/ plural noun a
|
(slang)
court case to make someone bankrupt barratry /brətri/ noun 1. a criminal
barratry

bank transfer /bŋk trnsf$/


bank transfer

offence by which the master or crew of a


noun the movement of money from a ship damage the ship 2. US an offence of
bank account to an account in another starting a lawsuit with no grounds for do-
country ing so
banning order /bnŋ ɔdə/ noun a
banning order

barrister /brstə/ noun especially in


barrister

court order to stop someone from going England and Wales, a lawyer who can
to a specific place (NOTE: banning – plead or argue a case in one of the higher
banned) courts
banns /bnz/ plural noun a declara-
banns

COMMENT: In England and Wales, a


tion in church that a couple intend to get barrister is a member of one of the
married 쑗 to publish the banns of mar- Inns of Court; he or she has passed
riage between Anne Smith and John examinations and spent one year in
Jones pupillage before being called to the
bar. Barristers have right of audience
bar /bɑ/ noun the set of rails in a court
bar

in all courts in England and Wales, that


behind which the lawyers and public is to say they have the right to speak in
stand or sit 왍 to be called to the bar to court, but they do not have that right
pass examinations and fulfil specific re- exclusively. Note also that barristers
quirements to become a barrister 왍 pris- were formerly instructed only by solici-
tors and never by members of the pub-
oner at the bar a prisoner being tried in lic.; now they can take instruction from
court 쐽 verb to forbid something, or professional people such as account-
make something illegal 쑗 He was barred ants. Barristers are now allowed to ad-
from attending the meeting. 쑗 The police vertise their services. A barrister or a
commissioner barred the use of firearms. group of barristers is referred to as
앳 the Bar 1. the profession of barrister 2.
‘counsel’.
base /bes/ noun 1. the lowest or first
base

all barristers or lawyers


Bar Council /bɑ kaυns(ə)l/ noun
Bar Council
position 2. the place where a company
the ruling body of English and Welsh has its main office or factory, or the place
barristers where a businessperson has their office 쑗
The company has its base in London and
bareboat charter /beəbəυt tʃɑtə /
bareboat charter

branches in all European countries. 쑗 He


noun a charter of a ship where the owner has an office in Madrid which he uses as
provides only the ship and not the crew, a base while he is travelling in Southern
fuel or insurance Europe. 쐽 verb 1. to start to calculate or
bargain /bɑn/ noun an agreement
bargain

to negotiate from a position 쑗 We based


between two people or groups to do our calculations on last year’s turnover.
something 쐽 verb to discuss something 2. to set up a company or a person in a
with someone in order to make an im- place 쑗 a London-based sales executive 쑗
provement for yourself The European manager is based in our
bargaining /bɑnŋ/ noun the act
bargaining

London office. 쑗 Our foreign branch is


of discussing something in order too based in the Bahamas.

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29 bench warrant
base costs /bes kɒsts/ noun the battery /bt(ə)ri/ noun the crime or
base costs battery

general costs of a case which apply be- tort of using force against another per-
fore any percentage increase is assessed son. Compare assault
based on /best ɒn / noun calculating
based on

beak /bik/ noun a magistrate (slang)


beak

from
bear /beə/ verb 1. (of costs) to pay 쑗
bear

base year /bes jə/ noun the first


base year

The company bore the legal costs of both


year of an index, against which later parties. 2. 왍 to bear on to refer to or have
years’ changes are measured an effect on 쑗 The decision of the court
basic award /besk əwɔd/ noun a
basic award

|
bears on future cases where immigration
minimum award, which is the first stage procedures are disputed.
of assessing compensation
bearing /beərŋ/ noun an influence or
bearing

basic rate tax /besk ret tks/


basic rate tax

effect 왍 to have a bearing on to refer to


noun the lowest rate of income tax or have an effect on 쑗 The decision of the
basics /besks/ plural noun simple
basics

court has a bearing on future cases


and important facts 왍 to get back to ba- where immigration procedures are dis-
sics to start discussing the basic facts puted.
again
beat /bit/ noun an area which a police-
beat

basis /bess/ noun 1. a point or


basis

man patrols regularly 왍 the constable on


number from which calculations are the beat the ordinary policeman on foot
made 쑗 We have calculated the turnover patrol 쐽 verb 왍 to beat a ban to do some-
on the basis of a 6% price increase. 2. thing which is going to be forbidden by
the general facts on which something is doing it rapidly before the ban is en-
based 쑗 We have three people working on forced
a freelance basis. 왍 on a short-term,
Beddoe order /bedəυ ɔdə/ noun a
Beddoe order

long-term basis for a short or long peri-


od 쑗 He has been appointed on a short- court order allowing a trustee to bring or
term basis. defend an action and to recover any re-
sulting costs from the trust property
bastard /bɑstəd/ noun an illegiti-
bastard

behalf /bhɑf/ noun 왍 on behalf of


behalf

mate child, born to an unmarried mother |

(NOTE: The child now has some rights acting for someone or a company 쑗 solic-
to the property of its parents.) itors acting on behalf of the American
baton /btɒn/ noun a large stick used
baton
company 쑗 I am writing on behalf of the
by the police for defence and to hit peo- minority shareholders. 쑗 She is acting on
ple with 쑗 The crowd was stopped by a my behalf.
belli

row of policemen carrying batons. belli 쏡 casus belli


baton charge /btɒn tʃɑd/ noun bellman / belmən/ noun a criminal
baton charge bellman

a charge by police using batons against a who specialises in stopping burglar


mob alarms and other security devices (slang)
baton round /btɒn raυnd/ noun a
baton round

bench /bentʃ/ noun a place where


bench

thick bullet made of plastic fired from a judges or magistrates sit in court 왍 to be
special gun, used by the police only in up before the bench to be in a magis-
self-defence. Also called plastic bullet trates’ court, accused of a crime 왍 he is
batter /btə/ verb to hit someone or
batter

on the bench he is a magistrate


something hard 쑗 The dead man had Bencher /bentʃə/ noun one of the
Bencher

been battered to death with a hammer. 쑗


senior members of an Inn of Court
Police were battering on the door of the
bench of magistrates /bentʃ əv
bench of magistrates

flat.
battered /btəd/ adjective frequently
battered
mdstrets/ noun a group of magis-
|

beaten as a punishment or act of cruelty trates in an area


왍 battered child, battered wife a child bench warrant /bentʃ wɒrənt/
bench warrant

who is frequently beaten by one of its noun a warrant issued by a court for the
parents, or a wife who is frequently beat- arrest of an accused person who has not
en by her husband appeared to answer charges

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benefactor 30
benefactor /benfktə/ noun some- bequest /bkwest/ noun money or
benefactor bequest

body who gives property or money to property, but not freehold land, given to
others, especially in a will someone in a will 쑗 He made several be-
beneficial interest /benfʃ(ə)l
beneficial interest
quests to his staff.
ntrəst/ noun the interest of the benefi- COMMENT: Freehold land given in a
will is a devise.
ciary of a property, shares or trust, which
Berne Convention /b$n kən
Berne Convention

allows someone to occupy or receive rent |

from a property, while the property is venʃ(ə)n/ noun an international agree-


owned by a trustee ment on the regulations governing copy-
right, signed in Berne in 1886. 쒁 copy-
beneficial occupier /benfʃ(ə)l
beneficial occupier

right
ɒkjυpaə/ noun somebody who occu- COMMENT: Under the Berne Conven-
pies a property but does not own it tion, any book which is copyrighted in
owner /benfʃ(ə)l
beneficial owner

beneficial a country which has signed the con-


əυnə/ noun the true or ultimate owner vention is automatically copyrighted in
whose interest may be concealed by a the other countries. Some countries
(notably the USA) did not sign the
nominee Convention, and the UCC (Universal
beneficial use /benfʃ(ə)l jus/
beneficial use

| Copyright Convention) was signed in


noun the right to use, occupy or receive Geneva in 1952, under the auspices of
rent from a property which is owned by a the United Nations, to try to bring to-
gether all countries under a uniform
trustee copyright agreement.
beneficiary / benfʃəri/ noun 1.
beneficiary

best evidence rule /best


best evidence rule
|

somebody who is left property in a will 쑗 evd(ə)ns rul/ noun the rule that the
The main beneficiaries of the will are the best evidence possible should be pro-
deceased’s family. 2. somebody whose duced, so an original document is pre-
property is administered by a trustee ferred to a copy
COMMENT: In a trust, the trustee is the bestiality /bestilti/ noun buggery
bestiality

legal owner of the property, while the with an animal


beneficiary is the equitable owner who
betray /btre/ verb to give away a se-
betray

receives the real benefit of the trust. |

benefit /benft/ noun 1. money or ad-


benefit
cret 쑗 He betrayed the secret to the ene-
vantage gained from something 쑗 The es- my. 왍 to betray your country, a friend
tate was left to the benefit of the owner’s to give away your country’s or your
grandsons. 2. payment which is made to friend’s secrets to an enemy
betrayal /btreəl/ noun an act of be-
betrayal

someone under a national or private in- |

surance scheme 쑗 She receives £52 a traying someone or something


betrayal of trust /btreəl əv tr st/
betrayal of trust

week as unemployment benefit. 쑗 The |

sickness benefit is paid monthly. 쑗 The noun an act against someone who trusts
insurance office sends out benefit you
cheques each week. 쐽 verb 왍 to benefit betting duty /betŋ djuti/ noun a
betting duty

from, by something to be improved by tax levied on the activity of placing bets


something, to gain more money because on horse and dog races, etc.
of something BFP abbreviation US bona fide pur-
BFP

Benjamin order /bendəmn ɔdə/


Benjamin order

chaser
noun an order from a court to a personal bi- /ba/ prefix twice
bi-

representative, which directs how some- bias /baəs/ noun unfairly different
bias

one’s estate should be distributed treatment of a person or group as com-


bent /bent/ adjective corrupt, stolen or
bent

pared with others 왍 likelihood of bias a


illegal (slang) 왍 bent copper a corrupt possibility that bias will occur because of
policeman 왍 bent job an illegal deal a connection between a member of the
bequeath /bkwið/ verb to leave court and a party in the case
bequeath

biased /baəst/ adjective unfairly fa-


biased

property, but not freehold land, to some-


one in a will 쑗 He bequeathed his shares vouring a person or group as compared
to his daughter. with others

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31 bills payable
bigamist /bəmst/ noun somebody through these stages first in the House
bigamist

who is married to two people at the same of Commons and then in the House of
Lords. When all the stages have been
time passed the Bill is given the Royal As-
bigamous /bəməs/ adjective refer-
bigamous

sent and becomes law as an Act of


ring to bigamy 쑗 They went through a Parliament. In the USA, a Bill is intro-
bigamous marriage ceremony. duced either in the House or in the
Senate, is referred to an appropriate
bigamy /bəmi/ noun the notifiable
bigamy

committee with public hearings, then


offence of going through a ceremony of to general debate in the full House.
marriage to someone when you are still The Bill is debated section by section
married to someone else. Compare mo- and after being passed by both House
nogamy, polygamy and Senate is engrossed and sent to
the President as a joint resolution for
bilateral /balt(ə)rəl/ adjective (of
bilateral

|
signature or veto.
an agreement) between two parties or
bill of attainder /bl əv ətendə/
bill of attainder

countries 쑗 The minister signed a bilater- |

noun formerly, a way of punishing a per-


al trade agreement.
son legally without holding a trial, by
bilateral contract /balt(ə)rəl kən
bilateral contract

| |
passing a law to convict and sentence
trkt/ noun a contract where the two him
parties each have duties to the other
bill of exchange /bl əv ks
bill of exchange

bilateral discharge /baltər(ə)l


bilateral discharge |

tʃend/ noun a document ordering the


dstʃɑd/ noun an agreement by two person to whom it is directed to pay a
parties to bring a contract to an end by re-
person money on demand or at a speci-
leasing each other from their existing ob- fied date
ligations
bill of health /bl əv helθ/ noun a
bill of health

bilaterally /baltər(ə)li/ adverb be-


bilaterally

tween two parties or countries 쑗 The document given to the master of a ship
agreement was reached bilaterally. showing that the ship is free of disease
bill of indictment /bl əv n
bill of indictment

bilking /bakŋ/ noun the offence of


bilking
|

removing goods without paying for datmənt/ noun US 1. a draft of an in-


them, or of refusing to pay a bill dictment which is examined by the court,
bill /bl/ noun 1. a written list of charges
bill
and when signed becomes an indictment
2. a list of charges given to a grand jury,
to be paid 쑗 The salesman wrote out the
bill. 쑗 Does the bill include VAT? 쑗 The asking them to indict the accused
bill of lading /bl əv ledŋ/ noun a
bill of lading

bill is made out to Smith Ltd. 쑗 The build-


er sent in his bill. 쑗 He left the country list of goods being shipped, which the
without paying his bills. 왍 to foot the bill shipper gives to the person sending the
to pay the costs 2. a list of charges in a goods to show that they have been loaded
restaurant 쑗 Can I have the bill please? 쑗 Bill of Rights /bl əv rats/ noun US
Bill of Rights

The bill comes to £20 including service. those sections (i.e. the first ten amend-
쑗 Does the bill include service? 쑗 The
ments) of the constitution of the United
waiter has added 10% to the bill for States which refer to the rights and priv-
service. 3. a written paper promising to ileges of an individual
pay money 4. US a piece of paper money
bill of sale /bl əv sel/ noun 1. a
bill of sale

5. a draft of a new law to be discussed by


a legislature 쑗 The house is discussing document which the seller gives to the
the Noise Prevention Bill. 쑗 The Finance buyer to show that the sale has taken
Bill had its second reading yesterday. 쐽 place 2. a document given to a lender by
verb to present a bill to someone so that a borrower to show that the lender owns
it can be paid 쑗 The builders billed him the property as security for the loan
bills for collection /blz fə kə
bills for collection

for the repairs to his neighbour’s house. |

COMMENT: In the UK, a Bill passes lekʃən/ noun bills where payment is
through the following stages in Parlia- due
ment: First Reading, Second Read-
bills payable /blz peəb(ə)l/ noun
bills payable

ing, Committee Stage, Report Stage


and Third Reading. The Bill goes bills which a debtor will have to pay

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bind 32
bind /band/ verb to make someone black /blk/ adjective 왍 to pay black
bind black

obey a rule or keep a promise 쑗 The com- market prices to pay high prices to get
pany is bound by its articles of associa- items which are not easily available
tion. 쑗 He does not consider himself black economy /blk kɒnəmi/
black economy

bound by the agreement which was noun the system by which work is paid
signed by his predecessor. 쑗 High Court for in cash or goods and not declared to
judges are bound by the decisions of the the tax authorities
House of Lords. black letter law /blk letə lɔ/
black letter law

binder /bandə/ noun US a temporary


binder

noun emphasis on the fundamental prin-


acknowledgement of a contract of insur- ciples of law, as opposed to discussion of
ance sent before the insurance policy is possible changes to the legal system to
issued (NOTE: The British English term make it more perfect (informal)
is cover note.) black list /blk lst/ noun a list of
black list

binding /bandŋ/ adjective having


binding
goods, people or companies which have
the ability to force someone to do some- been blacked
blacklist /blklst/ verb to put goods,
blacklist

thing 쑗 This document is legally binding


or it is a legally binding document. 왍 the people or a company on a black list 쑗 His
agreement is binding on all parties all firm was blacklisted by the government.
parties signing it must do what is agreed blackmail / blkmel/ noun the noti-
blackmail

binding precedent

binding precedent / bandŋ fiable offence of getting money from


presd(ə)nt/ noun a decision of a high- someone by threatening to make public
er court which has to be followed by a information which he or she does not
judge in a lower court want revealed or by threatening violence
쑗 He was charged with blackmail. 쑗 They
bind over /band əυvə/ verb 1. to
bind over

got £25,000 from the managing director


make someone promise to behave well by blackmail. 쑗 She was sent to prison
and not commit another offence, or to re- for blackmail. 쐽 verb to threaten some-
turn to court at a later date to face charges one that you will make public informa-
쑗 He was bound over (to keep the peace tion which he or she does not want re-
or to be of good behaviour) for six vealed or to threaten an act of violence
months. 2. US to order a defendant to be unless he or she pays you money 쑗 He
kept in custody while a criminal case is was blackmailed by his former secretary.
being prepared blackmailer /blkmelə/ noun
blackmailer

bind-over order /band əυvə ɔdə/


bind-over order

somebody who blackmails someone


noun a court order which binds someone black market /blk mɑkt/ noun
black market

over 쑗 The applicant sought judicial re- the illegal buying and selling goods that
view to quash the bind-over order. are not easily available or in order to
biological parent /baəlɒdk(ə)l avoid taxes 쑗 There is a lucrative black
biological parent

peərəmt/ noun the mother or father to market in spare parts for cars. 쑗 You can
whom a child is born. Compare adop- buy gold coins on the black market. 쑗
tive parent, stepparent, foster parent They lived well on black-market goods.
black marketeer /blk mɑkətiə/
black marketeer

birth /b$θ/ noun the occasion of being


birth
|

born, or the social position relating to the noun somebody who sells goods on the
circumstances of it. 쒁 concealment of black market
blag /bl/ noun a robbery by an armed
blag

birth 왍 by birth according to where or to


what family someone was born 쑗 He’s gang (slang)
English by birth. 왍 date and place of blanche 쏡 carte blanche
blanche

birth the day of the year when someone blank /blŋk/ adjective with nothing
blank

was born and the town where he or she written 쐽 noun a space on a form which
was born has to be completed 쑗 Fill in the blanks
birth certificate /b$θ sətfkət/ in block capitals.
birth certificate

blank cheque /blŋk tʃek/ noun a


blank cheque

noun a document giving details of a per-


son’s date and place of birth cheque with the amount of money and

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33 bogus caller
the payee left blank, but signed by the Blue Book /blu bυk/ noun an offi-
Blue Book

drawer cial report of a Royal Commission,


blanket agreement /blŋkt ə bound in blue covers
blanket agreement

rimənt/ noun an agreement which blue laws /blu lɔz/ plural noun US
blue laws

covers many different items laws relating to what can or cannot be


blanket insurance policy

blanket insurance policy done on a Sunday


/blŋkt nʃυərəns pɒlsi/ noun a blue sky laws /blu ska lɔz/ plu-
blue sky laws

policy covering several items ral noun US state laws to protect inves-
tors against fraudulent traders in securi-
blaspheme /blsfim/ verb to ridi-
blaspheme

ties
|

cule or deny God or the Christian reli-


board meeting /bɔd mitŋ/ noun
board meeting

gion
a meeting of the directors of a company
blasphemy /blsfəmi/ noun former-
blasphemy

board of directors /bɔd əv da


board of directors

ly, the crime of ridiculing or denying |

God or the Christian religion in a scan- rektəz/ noun a group of directors elect-
dalous way ed by the shareholders to run a company
쑗 The bank has two representatives on
block /blɒk/ noun 1. a series of items
block

the board. 쑗 He sits on the board as a


grouped together 쑗 He bought a block of representative of the bank. 쑗 Two direc-
6,000 shares. 2. a series of buildings tors were removed from the board at the
forming a square with streets on all sides AGM.
3. a building in a prison 쑗 a cell block 쑗 board of visitors /bɔd əv vztəs/
board of visitors

a hospital block 쐽 verb to stop something noun in the UK, a group of people ap-
taking place 쑗 He used his casting vote to pointed by the Home Secretary to visit
block the motion. 쑗 The planning com- and inspect the conditions in prisons
mittee blocked the plan to build a motor-
bobby /bɒbi/ noun a policeman
bobby

way through the middle of the town.


(informal)
blocked currency /blɒkt k rənsi/
blocked currency

bodily /bɒdli/ adjective affecting


bodily

noun a currency which cannot be taken


someone’s body 쑗 Fortunately no bodily
out of a country because of exchange
controls harm had been caused. 쐽 adverb 1. in a
way that has an effect on the body 쑗 The
/blɒk 
block exemption

block exemption |
police lifted the protester bodily and re-
zempʃ(ə)n/ noun an exemption granted moved him from the street. 2. in person 쑗
to a large business or group of businesses She had not been bodily present when the
exempting them from some obligations fight had started.
under competition law body /bɒdi/ noun 1. the whole of a
body

blood relationship /bl d r


blood relationship

| person or animal 2. an organisation or


leʃ(ə)nʃp/ noun a relationship be- group of people who work together 쑗
tween people who have a common an- Parliament is an elected body. 쑗 The gov-
cestor erning body of the university has to ap-
blood sample / bl d sɑmpəl/ noun
blood sample
prove the plan to give the President a
a small amount of blood taken from honorary degree. 3. a large group or
someone for a blood test in order to es- amount 쑗 a body of evidence 왍 body of
tablish something such as the alcohol opinion a group of people who have the
content of the blood same view about something 쑗 there is a
considerable body of opinion which be-
blood test /bl d test/ noun a test to
blood test

lieves that capital punishment should be


establish the paternity of a child reintroduced
blotter /blɒtə / noun US a book in
blotter

bodyguard /bɒdiɑd/ noun some-


bodyguard

which arrests are recorded at a police sta- body who protects someone 쑗 The minis-
tion ter was followed by his three body-
blue bag /blu b/ noun the blue guards.
blue bag

bogus caller /bəυəs kɔlə/ noun


bogus caller

bag in which a junior barrister carries his


or her gown. 쒁 red bag someone who claims to be an official in

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boilerplate 34
order to be allowed to enter a home in or- book /bυk/ noun 왍 to bring someone
book

der to steal from it to book to find a suspect and charge him


boilerplate /bɔləplet/ noun US a
boilerplate

with a crime 왍 to throw the book at


standard form of agreement or contract someone to charge someone with every
with blank spaces to be filled in possible crime (informal ) 쑗 If ever we get
the gang in the police station, we’ll
bomb hoax /bɒm həυks/ noun the
bomb hoax

throw the book at them. 쐽 verb 1. to order


act of placing an imitation bomb in a or to reserve something 쑗 to book a room
public place or making a phone call to re- in a hotel or a table at a restaurant or a
port a bomb which does not exist ticket on a plane 쑗 I booked a table for
bona fide purchaser /bəυnə fadi
bona fide purchaser

7.45. 쑗 He booked a ticket through to


p$tʃəsə/ noun a purchaser who buys Cairo. 왍 to book someone into a hotel,
something in good faith onto a flight to order a room or a plane
bona fides /bəυnə fadiz/, bona ticket for someone 2. to charge someone
bona fides

fide /bəυnə fadi/ phrase a Latin with a crime (informal) 쑗 He was booked
phrase meaning ‘good faith’ or ‘in good for driving on the wrong side of the road.
faith’ 쑗 He acted bona fide. 쑗 The re- book value /bυk vlju/ noun the
book value

spondent was not acting bona fides. 왍 a value of a company’s assets as shown in
bona fide offer an offer which is made the company accounts
honestly, which can be trusted boot camp /but kmp/ noun US a
boot camp

bona vacantia /bəυnə vəkntiə/


bona vacantia

| camp providing a form of treatment for


noun property with no owner, or which young offenders where they are subject-
does not have an obvious owner, and ed to harsh discipline for a short period
which usually passes to the Crown, as in bootleg /butle/ adjective (of
bootleg

the case of the estate of a person without alcohol ) illegally produced and sold
living relatives dying without having
bootlegger /butleə/ noun some-
bootlegger

made a will
body who makes or supplies illicit alco-
bond /bɒnd/ noun 1. a contract docu-
bond

hol
ment promising to repay money bor-
bootlegging /butleŋ/ noun 1. the
bootlegging

rowed by a company or by the govern-


ment 쑗 government bonds or treasury production of illicit alcohol 2. the pro-
bonds 2. a contract document promising duction of illegal records or tapes from
to repay money borrowed by a person 3. live concerts
borrow /bɒrəυ/ verb 1. to take money
borrow

a signed legal document which binds one


or more parties to do or not to do some- from someone for a time, possibly pay-
thing 왍 goods (held) in bond goods held ing interest for it, and repaying it at the
by the customs until duty has been paid 왍 end of the period 쑗 He borrowed £1,000
entry of goods under bond bringing from the bank. 쑗 The company had to
goods into a country in bond 왍 to take borrow heavily to repay its debts. 쑗 They
goods out of bond to pay duty on goods borrowed £25,000 against the security of
so that they can be released by the cus- the factory. 2. to steal (slang)
toms borrower /bɒrəυə/ noun somebody
borrower

bonded /bɒndd/ adjective held in


bonded

who borrows 쑗 Borrowers from the bank


bond pay 12% interest.
bonded goods /bɒndd υdz/ plural borrowing /bɒrəυŋ/ noun the action
bonded goods borrowing

noun goods which are held by the cus- of borrowing money 쑗 The new factory
toms under a bond until duty has been was financed by bank borrowing.
paid borrowing power /bɒrəυŋ paυə/
borrowing power

bondholder /bɒndhəυldə/ noun


bondholder

noun the amount of money which a com-


somebody who holds government bonds pany can borrow
bondsman /bɒndzmən/, bondsper- borrowings /bɒrəυŋz/ plural noun
bondsman borrowings

son noun somebody who has stood money borrowed 쑗 The company’s bor-
surety for another person rowings have doubled.

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35 break
borstal /bɔst(ə)l/ noun formerly, a part or separate section of a area of
borstal

centre where a young offender was sent knowledge or study such as the law 쑗 The
for training after committing a crime Law of Contract and the Law of Tort are
which would normally be punishable by branches of civil law. 4. 쏡 Special
a prison sentence (NOTE: Now replaced Branch
by Young Offender Institutions.) branded goods /brndd υdz/
branded goods

boss /bɒs/ noun the head of a Mafia plural noun goods sold under brand
boss

family or other criminal gang names


bottomry /bɒtəmri/ noun the mort- brand name /brnd nem/ noun the
bottomry brand name

gage of a ship or cargo name of a particular make of product


bottomry bond /bɒtəmri bɒnd/ breach /britʃ/ noun 1. failure to carry
bottomry bond breach

noun a bond which secures a ship or car- out the terms of an agreement 쑗 They al-
go against a loan leged that a breach of international obli-
bounce /baυns/ verb to be returned to
bounce
gations had been committed. 왍 in breach
the person who has tried to cash it, be- of failing to do something which was
cause there is not enough money in the agreed, not acting according to 쑗 We are
payer’s account to pay it (informal) 쑗 He in breach of Community law. 쑗 The de-
paid for the car with a cheque that fendant is in breach of his statutory duty.
bounced. 2. failure to obey the law 쑗 The soldier
bound /baυnd/ 쏡 duty bound
bound
was charged with a serious breach of dis-
cipline.
boundary /baυnd(ə)ri/, boundary
boundary

COMMENT: Anyone can arrest a per-


line /baυnd(ə)ri lan/ noun a line son who is committing a breach of
marking the edge of a piece of land peace; a policeman can arrest some-
owned by someone 쑗 The boundary dis- one who is committing a breach of the
pute dragged through the courts for peace without charging him.
breach of confidence /britʃ əv
breach of confidence

years.
Boundary
Boundary Commission

Commission kɒnfd(ə)ns/ noun the release of confi-


/baυnd(ə)ri kəmʃ(ə)n/ noun a com-
|
dential information without permission
breach of contract /britʃ əv
breach of contract

mittee which examines the area and pop-


ulation of constituencies for the House of kɒntrkt/ noun an act of breaking the
Commons and recommends changes to terms of a contract 왍 the company is in
ensure that each Member of Parliament breach of contract the company has
represents approximately the same failed to carry out what was agreed in the
number of people contract
bounty /baυnti/ noun a payment breach of promise /britʃ əv
bounty breach of promise

made by government to someone who prɒms/ noun formerly, a complaint in


has saved lives or found treasure court that someone had promised to mar-
box /bɒks/ noun 쏡 witness box ry the claimant and then had not done so
box

breach of the peace /britʃ əv ðə


breach of the peace

box file /bɒks fal/ noun a cardboard


box file

box for holding documents pis/ noun the act of creating a distur-
bracelets /bresləts/ plural noun
bracelets
bance which is likely to annoy or fright-
handcuffs (slang) en people
breach of trust /britʃ əv tr st/
breach of trust

branch / brɑntʃ/ noun 1. a local office


branch

of a bank or large business 쑗 The bank or noun a failure on the part of a trustee to
the store has branches in most towns in act properly in regard to a trust
breach of warranty /britʃ əv
breach of warranty

the south of the country. 쑗 The insurance


company has closed its branches in wɒrənti/ noun a failure to supply goods
South America. 쑗 He is the manager of which not meet the standards of the war-
our local branch of Lloyds bank. 쑗 We ranty applied to them
break /brek/ noun a short space of
break

have decided to open a branch office in


Chicago. 쑗 The manager of our branch time when you can rest 쑗 The court ad-
in Lagos or of our Lagos branch. 2. a lo- journed for a ten-minute break. 쐽 verb 1.
cal shop of a large chain of shops 3. a 왍 to break the law to do something

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breakages 36
which is against the law 쑗 If you hit a po- things 쑗 He was charged with breaking
liceman you will be breaking the law. 쑗 and entering. 쒁 housebreaking
He is breaking the law by parking on the break into /brek ntə/ verb to go
break into

pavement. 쑗 The company broke section into a building by force to steal things 쑗
26 of the Companies Act. 2. 쑗 The com- Their house was broken into while they
pany has broken the contract or the were on holiday. 쑗 Looters broke into the
agreement. 왍 to break a contract to fail supermarket.
to carry out the duties of a contract 쑗 The break off /brek ɒf/ verb to stop 쑗 We
break off

company has broken the contract or the broke off the discussion at midnight. 쑗
agreement. 왍 to break an engagement Management broke off negotiations with
to do something not to do what has been the union.
agreed
break up /brek  p/ verb 1. to split
break up

breakages /brekdz/ plural noun


breakages

something large into small sections 쑗


items that have been broken 쑗 Customers The company was broken up and sepa-
are expected to pay for breakages. rate divisions sold off. 2. to come to an
break down /brek daυn/ verb 1. to
break down

end, or make something come to an end


stop working because of mechanical fail- 쑗 The meeting broke up at 12.30. 쑗 The
ure 쑗 The two-way radio has broken police broke up the protest meeting.
down. 쑗 What do you do when your breathalyse /breθəlaz/ verb to test
breathalyse

squad car breaks down? 2. to stop 쑗 ne- someone’s breath using a breathalyser
gotiations broke down after six hours 쑗
breathalyser /breθəlazə/ noun a
breathalyser

Their marriage broke down and they sep-


arated. 3. to show all the items in a total device for testing the amount of alcohol
list 쑗 We broke the crime figures down a person has drunk by testing his or her
into crimes against the person and breath
breath test /breθ test/ noun a test
breath test

crimes against property. 쑗 Can you break


down this invoice into spare parts and la- where a person’s breath is sampled to es-
bour? tablish the amount of alcohol he or she
breakdown /brekdaυn/ noun 1. an
breakdown

|
has drunk
bribe /brab/ noun money offered cor-
bribe

occasion of stopping work because of


mechanical failure 쑗 We cannot commu- ruptly to someone to get him to do some-
nicate with our squad car because of the thing to help you 쑗 The police sergeant
breakdown of the radio link. 2. a situa- was dismissed for taking bribes. 쐽 verb
tion in which something such as discus- to give someone a bribe 쑗 He bribed the
sions or negotiations fail or begin to fail police sergeant to get the charges
쑗 a breakdown in talks 3. 왍 irretrievable dropped.
breakdown of a marriage situation bribery /brab(ə)ri/ noun the crime of
bribery

where the two spouses can no longer live giving someone a bribe 쑗 Bribery in the
together, where the marriage cannot be security warehouse is impossible to
saved and therefore divorce proceedings stamp out.
can be started 4. the process of showing bridewell / brawel/ noun the cells in
bridewell

details item by item 쑗 Give me a break- a police station (slang)


down of the latest clear-up figures.
brief /brif/ noun 1. details of a client’s
brief

break in /brek n/ verb to go into a


break in

case, prepared by a solicitor and given to


building by force in order to steal 쑗 Bur- the barrister who is going to argue the
glars broke in through a window at the case in court 2. a lawyer or barrister
back of the house. (slang) 쐽 verb to explain something to
break-in /brek n/ noun the crime of
break-in

someone in detail 쑗 The superintendent


breaking into a house (informal ) 쑗 There briefed the press on the progress of the
have been three break-ins in our street in investigation. 왍 to brief a barrister to
one week. give a barrister all the details of the case
breaking and entering /brekŋ which he or she will argue in court
breaking and entering

ənd entərŋ/ noun the crime of going briefing /brifŋ/ noun an occasion
briefing

into a building by force and stealing when someone is given details about

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37 business
something that is going to happen 쑗 All bunco /b ŋkəυ/ noun a dishonest act
bunco

the detectives on the case attended a of cheating someone out of money, usu-
briefing given by the commander. ally at cards (slang)
bring forward /brŋ fɔwəd/ verb to bundle /b nd(ə)l/ noun 쏡 trial bundle
bring forward bundle

make earlier 쑗 to bring forward the date burden of proof /b$d(ə)n əv


burden of proof

of repayment 쑗 The date of the hearing pruf/ noun the duty to prove that some-
has been brought forward to March. thing which has been alleged in court is
bring in /brŋ n/ verb to decide a ver-
bring in
true 왍 to discharge a burden of proof to
dict 쑗 The jury brought in a verdict of not prove something which has been alleged
guilty. in court 왍 the burden of proof is on the
prosecution the prosecution must prove
bring up / brŋ  p/ verb to refer to
bring up

that what it alleges is true


something for the first time 쑗 The chair- bureau /bjυərəυ/ noun an office
bureau

man brought up the question of corrup- which specialises in particular work


tion in the police force.
burglar /b$lə/ noun a person who
burglar

brothel /brɒθ(ə)l/ noun a house where


brothel

steals or tries to steal goods from proper-


sexual intercourse is offered for money ty, or who enters property intending to
bug /b / noun a small device which commit a crime
bug

can record conversations secretly and burglar alarm /b$lər əlɑm/ noun
burglar alarm

send them to a secret radio receiver 쑗 The a bell which is set to ring when someone
cleaners planted a bug under the law- tries to break into a house or shop 쑗 As he
yer’s desk. Also called bugging device, put his hand through the window he set
surveillance device 쐽 verb to place a off the burglar alarm.
secret device in a place so that conversa- burglarise, burglarize verb US to
burglarise

tions can be heard and recorded secretly steal goods from property (informal)
쑗 The agents bugged the President’s of-
burglary /b$ləri/ noun the crime of
burglary

fice. going into a building at night, usually by


buggery /b əri/ noun a notifiable
buggery

force, and stealing things 쑗 He was


offence of sexual intercourse with ani- charged with burglary. 쑗 There has been
mals, or rectal intercourse with man or a series of burglaries in our street.
woman burgle /b$(ə)l/ verb to steal goods
burgle

bugging device /b ŋ dvas/ from property 쑗 The school was burgled
bugging device

noun same as bug 쑗 Police found a bug- when the caretaker was on holiday.
burn /b$n/ verb to destroy by fire 쑗
burn

ging device under the lawyer’s desk.


building permit /bldŋ p$mt/
building permit
The chief accountant burned the docu-
noun an official document which allows ments before the police arrived. (NOTE:
burning – burned or burnt)
someone to build on a piece of land
burn down /b$n daυn/ verb to de-
burn down

Bullock order /bυlək ɔdə/ noun in


Bullock order

stroy completely in a fire


civil proceedings where the claimant has
business /bzns/ noun 1. the work
business

succeeded in establishing a claim against


one defendant but has failed in relation to of buying or selling 왍 on business on
commercial work 2. a commercial com-
the second defendant, an order that re-
pany 쑗 He owns a small car repair busi-
quires the claimant to pay the successful
ness. 쑗 She runs a business from her
defendant’s costs but allows the money
home. 쑗 He set up in business as an in-
which will come from the unsuccessful surance broker. 3. something that has to
defendant to be included be discussed or dealt with 쑗 The main
bumping /b mpŋ/ noun 1. a series
bumping

business of the meeting was finished by 3


of movements of staff between jobs p.m. 왍 any other business an item at the
which results in the final person in the end of an agenda, where any matter can
chain being made redundant 2. US a sit- be raised. Abbreviation AOB 왍 move the
uation where a senior employee takes the business forward go on to the next item
place of a junior employee on the agenda

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business call 38
business call /bzns kɔl/ noun a of buildings and land used for the pur-
business call

visit to talk to someone on business pose of carrying out a business activity


business day /bzns de/ noun any business transaction /bzns trn
business day business transaction

day except Saturdays, Sundays or bank zkʃən/ noun the activity or an act of
holidays buying or selling something
business expenses /bzns k
business expenses

bust /b st/ verb to catch and punish


bust
|

spensz/ plural noun money spent on someone for doing something that is ille-
running a business, not on stock or assets gal
business hours /bzns aυəz/ plu-
business hours

bylaw /balɔ/, byelaw, by-law, bye-


bylaw

ral noun the period, usually between 9


a.m. and 5–6 p.m., when a business is law noun 1. a rule governing an aspect of
staffed and open to the public the internal running of a corporation,
business letter /bzns letə/ noun a
business letter
club or association such as number of
letter which deals with business matters meetings or election of officers 2. a rule
or law made by a local authority or pub-
business name /bzns nem/ noun
business name

lic body and not by central government 쑗


the name under which a firm or company
The bylaws forbid playing ball in the
trades
public gardens. 쑗 According to the local
business practices /bzns
business practices

bylaws, noise must be limited in the town


prktsz/ plural noun ways of manag- centre.
ing or working in business, industry or
COMMENT: Bylaws must be made by
trade bodies which have been authorized by
business premises /bzns
business premises

Parliament before they can become le-


premsz/ plural noun a building or set gally effective.

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C
© the copyright symbol ed to call in the CID to help in the mur-
COMMENT: The symbol adopted by the der hunt. 2. to ask for plans to be sent to
Universal Copyright Convention in Ge- the ministry for examination 쑗 The min-
neva in 1952. Publications bearing the ister has called in the plans for the new
symbol are automatically covered by supermarket.
the convention. The copyright line in a
camera /km(ə)rə/ 쏡 in camera
camera

book should give the © followed by the


name of the copyright holder and the campaign /kmpen/ noun a
campaign

date. planned method of working 쑗 The gov-


CAB abbreviation Citizens’ Advice Bu-
CAB

ernment has launched a campaign


reau against drunken drivers. 쐽 verb to try to
cadaver /kədvə/ noun US a dead
cadaver

| change something by writing about it, or-


human body (NOTE: The British term is ganising protest meetings or lobbying
corpse.) Members of Parliament 쑗 They are cam-
cadet /kədet/ noun a trainee police of- paigning for the abolition of the death
cadet

ficer 쑗 He has entered the police cadet penalty or they are campaigning against
college. 쑗 She joined the police force as the death penalty. 쑗 She is campaigning
a cadet. for the re-introduction of the death pen-
calendar /klndə/ noun a book or
calendar
alty. 쑗 He is campaigning for a revision
set of sheets of paper showing all the of the Official Secrets Act.
campaigner /kmpenə/ noun a
campaigner

days and months in a year 쑗 a desk cal- |

endar person who is working actively to sup-


calendar month /klndə m nθ/
calendar month
port an issue or organisation 쑗 He is an
noun a whole month as on a calendar, experienced political campaigner. 쑗 She
from the 1st to the 28th, 30th or 31st is a campaigner for women’s rights.
cancel /knsəl/ verb 1. to stop some-
cancel

calendar year /klndə jə/ noun


calendar year

one year from the 1st January to 31st De- thing which has been agreed or planned
쑗 to cancel an appointment or a meeting
cember
쑗 to cancel a contract 2. 왍 to cancel a
call /kɔl/ noun 1. a conversation on the
call

cheque to stop payment of a cheque


telephone 2. a demand for repayment of which you have signed
a loan by a lender 3. a demand by a com-
cancellandi 쏡 animus cancellandi
cancellandi

pany to pay for shares 4. the admission


cancellation /knsəleʃ(ə)n/ noun
cancellation

of a barrister to the bar 5. a particular |

number of years a barrister has practised the act of stopping something which has
at the bar 왍 he is ten years’ call he has been agreed or planned 쑗 cancellation of
been practising for ten years 6. a visit 쑗 an appointment 쑗 cancellation of an
The doctor makes six calls a day. 쐽 verb agreement
cancellation clause /knsə
cancellation clause

1. to telephone to someone 쑗 I shall call |

you at your office tomorrow. 2. to admit leʃ(ə)n klɔz/ noun a clause in a con-
someone to the bar to practise as a barris- tract which states the terms on which the
ter 쑗 He was called (to the bar) in 1989. contract may be cancelled
call in /kɔl n/ verb 1. to ask someone candidacy /knddəsi/, candida-
call in candidacy

to come to help 쑗 The local police decid- ture /knddətʃə/ noun the state of be-

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candidate 40
ing a candidate 쑗 The Senator has an- capital allowance /kpt(əl ə
capital allowance

nounced his candidacy for the Presiden- laυəns/ noun a variable tax reduction
tial election. resulting from the expenditure on items
candidate /knddet/ noun 1.
candidate
such as plant and machinery used in con-
somebody who applies for a job 쑗 There nection with the business
capital assets / kpt(ə)l sets/
capital assets

are six candidates for the post of security


guard. 쑗 We interviewed ten candidates plural noun property or machinery
for the job. 2. somebody who puts them- which a company owns and uses in its
selves forward for election 쑗 Which can- business
capital crime /kpt(ə)l kram/
capital crime

didate are you voting for?


canon law /knən lɔ/ noun law ap-
canon law
noun a crime for which the punishment
plied by the Anglican and Roman Catho- is death (NOTE: In the UK the only capi-
lic churches to priests (NOTE: Formerly it tal crime is now treason.)
capital expenditure /kpt(ə)l k
capital expenditure

was also applied to other members of |

the church in cases of marriage, legiti- spendtʃə/ noun 1. money spent on as-
macy and personal property.) sets such as property or machinery 2. the
major costs of a council or central gov-
capacity /kəpsti/ noun 1. the
capacity

|
ernment, such as schools, roads, hospi-
amount of something which can be pro- tals, etc.
duced or contained 2. the amount of
capital gains /kpt(ə)l enz/ plu-
capital gains

space that exists somewhere 3. ability 쑗


ral noun money made by selling a fixed
He has a particular capacity for hard
work. 4. the ability to enter into a legally asset or by selling shares at a profit
capital gains tax /kpt(ə)l enz
capital gains tax

binding agreement, which is one of the


essential elements of a contract 왍 person tks/ noun the tax payable where an as-
of full age and capacity person who is set has increased in value during the pe-
over eighteen years of age and of sound riod of ownership. Abbreviation CGT
capital goods /kpt(ə)l υdz/ plu-
capital goods

mind, and therefore able to enter into a


contract 5. a role or job 왍 in his capacity ral noun machinery, buildings and raw
as chairman acting as chairman 왍 materials which are used in the produc-
speaking in an official capacity speak- tion of goods
capital letters /kpt(ə)l letəz/ plu-
capital letters

ing officially
capax

capax 쏡 doli capax ral noun letters written as A, B, C, D,


etc., and not as a, b, c, d, etc. 쑗 Write your
capias /kpis/ phrase a Latin word
capias

name in block capitals at the top of the


meaning ‘that you take’: used in phrases form.
to indicate that several writs have been capital levy /kpt(ə)l levi/ noun a
capital levy

issued together tax on the value of a person’s property


capias ad respondendum

capias ad respondendum and possessions


/kpis d respɒndendəm/ noun a
|
capital loss /kpt(ə)l lɒs/ noun a
capital loss

writ for the arrest of a defendant and an loss made by selling assets
order to attend court capital punishment /kpt(ə)l
capital punishment

capita /kptə/ 쏡 per capita p nʃmən(ə)t/ noun punishment of a


capita

capital /kpt(ə)l/ noun 1. the money,


capital
criminal by execution
capital transfer tax /kpt(ə)l
capital transfer tax

property and assets used in a business 왍


to make political capital out of some- trnsf$ tks/ noun a tax paid on the
thing to use something to give you an ad- transfer of capital or assets from one per-
vantage in politics 쑗 The Opposition son to another. Abbreviation CTT
Capitol /kpt(ə)l/ noun US the
Capitol

made a lot of capital out of the Minister’s


mistake on TV. 쒁 expenditure 2. a town building in Washington, D.C. where the
or city where the government of a prov- US Senate and House of Representatives
ince or country is situated 쑗 London is meet
Capitol Hill /kpt(ə)l hl/ noun US
Capitol Hill

the capital of England and Washington is


the capital of the USA. the hill on which the Capitol building

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41 case management conference


stands, together with other important carry /kri/ verb 1. to take from one
carry

government buildings place to another 쑗 The train was carrying


caption / kpʃən/ noun a formal a consignment of cars. 왍 carrying offen-
caption

heading for an indictment, affidavit or sive weapons the offence of holding a


other court document, giving details weapon or something such as a bottle
such as the names of the parties, the court which could be used as a weapon 2. to
which is hearing the case, and relevant vote to approve 왍 the motion was car-
reference numbers ried the motion was accepted after a vote
card file /kɑd fal/ noun information 3. to be punishable by 쑗 The offence car-
card file

kept in alphabetical order on small cards ries a maximum sentence of two years’
card holder /kɑd həυldə/ noun a
card holder
imprisonment.
carte blanche /kɑt blɑntʃ/
carte blanche

frame which protects a card or a message


card sharper /kɑd ʃɑpə/ noun phrase permission given by someone to
card sharper

somebody who makes a living by cheat- another person, allowing him or her to
ing at cards act in any way necessary to achieve
care /keə/ noun 1. the act of looking af-
care
something 쑗 He has carte blanche to act
ter someone 쑗 The children were put in on behalf of the company or the company
the care of the social services depart- has given him carte blanche to act on its
ment. 2. the activity of making sure that behalf.
case /kes/ noun 1. a possible crime
case

someone is not harmed


care and control /keə ən kəntrəυl/ and its investigation by the police 쑗 We
care and control

noun responsibility for day-to-day deci- have three detectives working on the
sions relating to the welfare of a child case. 쑗 The police are treating the case
careless /keələs/ adjective without
careless
as murder or are treating it as a murder
paying attention to other people 왍 care- case. 쑗 We had six cases of looting dur-
less driving driving without due care and ing the night. 2. 왍 the case is being
attention 왍 causing death by careless heard next week the case is coming to
driving the offence committed by an in- court 3. a set of arguments or facts put
dividual who is unfit to drive as a result forward by one side in legal proceedings
쑗 Defence counsel put his case. 쑗 There
drink or drugs, causing the death of an-
other person is a strong case against the accused. 왍
the case rests all the arguments for one
care order /keə ɔdə/ noun a court
care order

side have been put forward 왍 no case to


order placing a child under the care of a answer submission by the defence (after
local authority, granted when the child is the prosecution has put its case) that the
suffering or likely to suffer significant case should be dismissed 쐽 verb 왍 to
harm if it continues to remain under its case a joint to look at a building careful-
parents care ly before deciding how to break into it
care proceedings /keə prəsidŋz/
care proceedings

|
(slang)
plural noun court proceedings to deter- COMMENT: A case is referred to by the
mine whether a child should be made the names of the parties, the date and the
subject of a care order. 쒁 care order reference source where details of it
car insurance /kɑr nʃυərəns/ can be found: Smith v. Jones 1985 2
car insurance

noun insuring a car, the driver and pas- W.L.R. 250 This shows that the case
involved Smith as plaintiff and Jones
sengers in case of accident as defendant, it was heard in 1985,
carriageway /krdwe/ noun a
carriageway

and is reported in the second volume


public way where people have a right to of the Weekly Law Reports for that
go in vehicles year on page 250.
case law /kes lɔ/ noun law estab-
case law

carrier /kriə/ noun a person or com-


carrier

pany which takes goods from one place lished by precedents, that is by the deci-
to another sions of courts in earlier similar cases
carrier’s lien /kriəz liən/ noun the
case management conference

case management conference


carrier’s lien

right of a carrier to hold goods until he or /kes mndmənt kɒnf(ə)rəns/


she has been paid for carrying them noun a court hearing fixed when a case is

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case stated 42
allocated to the fast track, when the par- casual work /kuəl w$k/ noun
casual work

ties involved and their legal representa- work where people are hired for a short
tives are asked about their preparations period
for the case and the court decides on mat- casus belli /kɑzəs beli/ phrase a
casus belli

ters such as the disclosure of documents Latin phrase meaning ‘case for war’: a
and expert evidence reason which is used to justify a declara-
case stated /kes stetd/ noun a
case stated

tion of war
statement of the facts of a case which has category /kt(ə)ri/ noun a type of
category

been heard in a lower court such as a item 쑗 The theft comes into the category
Magistrates’ Court, drawn up so that a of petty crime.
higher court such as the High Court can
category A prisoner /kt(ə)ri e
category A prisoner

decide on an appeal 쑗 She appealed by prz(ə)nə/ noun a prisoner who is re-


way of case stated. 쑗 The Appeal Court
garded as a danger to the public and must
dismissed the appeal by way of case stat-
be closely guarded to prevent escape
ed.
category B prisoner /kt(ə)ri
category B prisoner

case summary /kes s məri/ noun


case summary

bi prz(ə)nə/ noun a prisoner who is


a short document of not more than 500 less dangerous than a category A prison-
words prepared by a claimant to help the er but who still has to be guarded careful-
court understand what the case is about ly to prevent escape
cash items /kʃ atəmz/ plural
cash items

category C prisoner /kt(ə)ri


category C prisoner

noun goods sold for cash si prz(ə)nə/ noun a prisoner who is
cash offer /kʃ ɒfə/ noun an offer to
cash offer

not likely to try to escape, but who can-


pay in cash not be kept in an open prison
cash on delivery /kʃ ɒn d category D prisoner /kt(ə)ri
cash on delivery category D prisoner

lv(ə)ri/ noun payment in cash when the di prz(ə)nə/ noun a reliable prisoner
goods are delivered who can be kept in an open prison
cash reserves /kʃ rz$vz/ plural
cash reserves

causa 쏡 donatio mortis causa


causa

noun a company’s reserves in cash de- cause /kɔz/ noun 1. something which
cause

posits or bills kept in case of urgent need makes something happen 왍 to show
cash settlement /kʃ set(ə)lmənt/
cash settlement

cause to appear before a court to show


noun the payment of an invoice in cash, why an order nisi should not be made ab-
not by cheque solute 쑗 The judgment debtor was given
cash terms /kʃ t$mz/ plural noun
cash terms
fourteen days in which to show cause
lower terms which apply if the customer why the charging order should not be
pays cash made absolute. 2. legal proceedings 쐽
verb to make something happen 쑗 The
cash transaction /kʃ trn
cash transaction

recession caused hundreds of bankrupt-


zkʃən/ noun a transaction paid for in cies.
cash
cause list /kɔz lst/ noun a list of
cause list

cast /kɑst/ verb 왍 to cast a vote to vote


cast

cases which are to be heard by a court


쑗 The number of votes cast in the election
cause of action /kɔz əv kʃən/
cause of action

was 125,458.
noun the reasons that entitle someone to
casting vote /kɑstŋ vəυt/ noun a
casting vote

start legal proceedings


vote used by the chair in a case where the
caution /kɔʃ(ə)n/ noun 1. a warning
caution

votes for and against a proposal are equal


쑗 The chairman has a casting vote. 쑗 He
from a police officer, telling someone not
used his casting vote to block the motion. to repeat a minor crime 쑗 The boys were
(NOTE: casting – cast – has cast) let off with a caution. 2. a warning by a
police officer to someone who is to be
casual /kuəl/ adjective not perma-
casual

charged with a crime that what he or she


nent or not regular 쑗 a casual employee says may be used as evidence in a trial 쑗
casual labour /kuəl lebə/ noun
casual labour

He typed his confession under caution.


people who are hired to work for a short 3. a document lodged at the Land Regis-
period try to prevent land or property being sold

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43 certificate of judgment
without notice to the cautioner (NOTE: In not considered right to do so 쑗 All press
senses 2 and 3 caution can be used reports are censored by the government.
without the or a: to lodge caution.) 쐽 쑗 The news of the riots was censored. 쑗
verb 1. to warn someone that what he or The TV report has been censored and
she has done is wrong and should not be only parts of it can be shown.
repeated 쑗 The policeman cautioned the censorship /sensəʃp/ noun the act
censorship

boys after he caught them stealing fruit. of censoring 쑗 TV reporters complained


2. to warn someone who is to be charged of government censorship. 쑗 The govern-
with a crime that what he or she says may ment has imposed strict press censorship
be used as evidence in a trial 쑗 The ac- or censorship of the press.
cused was arrested by the detectives and
censure /senʃə/ noun a criticism 쐽
censure

cautioned.
verb to criticise
cautioner /kɔʃ(ə)nə/ noun some-
cautioner

Central Criminal Court /sentrəl


Central Criminal Court

body who lodges caution at the Land


Registry krmn(ə)l kɔt/ noun the Crown Court
in central London. Also called Old Bai-
caveat /kvit/ noun a warning 왍 to
caveat

ley
enter a caveat to warn legally that you
government /sentrəl
central government

have an interest in a case or a grant of central


probate, and that no steps can be taken  v(ə)nmənt/ noun the main organisa-
without notice to you tion dealing with the affairs of the whole
caveat emptor /kvit emptɔ/
caveat emptor
country
central office /sentrəl ɒfs/ noun
central office

phrase ‘let the buyer beware’: used to


show that the buyer is personally respon- the main office which controls all small-
sible for checking that what he or she er offices
buys is in good order centre /sentə/ noun an office or build-
centre

caveator /kvitə/ noun somebody


caveator

ing where people can go for information


who warns the court not to give probate and advice. 쒁 Legal Aid Centre ( NOTE:
without asking his or her consent The US spelling is center.)
CB abbreviation confined to barracks certificate /sətfkət/ noun an offi-
CB certificate

CC abbreviation Chief Constable cial document which shows that some-


CC

CCR abbreviation County Court Rules


CCR
thing is true
certificated bankrupt /sətfketd
certificated bankrupt

CD abbreviation certificate of deposit


CD
|

CDS abbreviation Criminal Defence


CDS
bŋkr pt/ noun a bankrupt who has
Service been discharged from bankruptcy with a
certificate to show that he or she was not
cease and desist order /sis ən d
cease and desist order

|
at fault
zst ɔdə/ noun US a court order tell-
certificate of approval /sətfkət
certificate of approval

ing someone to stop doing something |

əv əpruv(ə)l/ noun a document show-


cell /sel/ noun a small room in a prison
cell |

or police station where a criminal can be ing that an item has been officially ap-
proved
kept locked up 쑗 She was put in a small
certificate of deposit / sətfkət əv
certificate of deposit

cell for the night. 쑗 He shares a cell with |

two other prisoners. dpɒzt/ noun a document from a bank


|

cellmate /selmet/ noun somebody


cellmate
showing that money has been deposited.
who shares a prison cell with someone Abbreviation CD
certificate of incorporation /sə
certificate of incorporation

else |

censor /sensə/ noun an official whose


censor
tfkət əv nkɔpə reʃ(ə)n/ noun a
| |

job is to say whether books, films or TV certificate issued by the Registrar of


programmes, etc., are acceptable and can Companies showing that a company has
be published or shown to the public 쑗 been officially incorporated and the date
The film was cut or was banned or was at which it came into existence
certificate of judgment /sətfkət
certificate of judgment

passed by the censor. 쐽 verb to say that a |

book, film or TV programme, etc., can- əv d dmənt/ noun an official docu-
not be shown or published because it is ment showing the decision of a court

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certificate of origin 44
certificate of origin /sətfkət əv to speak to the chairman and not directly
certificate of origin

ɒrdn/ noun a document showing to the rest of the people at the meeting 왍
where goods were made or produced to ask a question through the chair to
certificate of registration / sə ask someone a question directly, by
certificate of registration

tfkət əv redstreʃ(ə)n/ noun a


|
speaking to him or her through the chair-
document showing that an item has been man 쑗 May I ask the councillor through
registered the chair why he did not declare his in-
certificate of registry / sətfkət əv
certificate of registry

|
terest in the matter? 쐽 verb to preside
redstri/ noun a document showing over a meeting 쑗 The meeting was
that a ship has been officially registered chaired by Mrs Smith.
chairman /tʃeəmən/ noun 1. a person
chairman

certificate of service / sətfkət əv


certificate of service

s$vs/ noun a certificate by which a who is in charge of a meeting and holds


court proves that a document was sent the casting vote 쑗 chairman of the mag-
and is deemed to have been served istrates or of the bench 쑗 Mr Howard was
certified accountant /s$tfad ə
certified accountant chairman or acted as chairman. 왍 Mr
Chairman, Madam Chairman way of
|

kaυntənt/ noun an accountant who has


passed the professional examinations speaking to the chairman 2. a person
who presides over meetings of a Com-
and is a member of the Chartered Asso-
mittee of the House of Commons or of a
ciation of Certified Accountants
local council 3. somebody who presides
certified cheque /s$tfad tʃek /
certified cheque

over the board meetings of a company 쑗


noun a cheque which a bank says is good the chairman of the board or the compa-
and will be paid out of money put aside ny chairman
from the bank account chairman and managing director

chairman and managing director


certified copy /s$tfad kɒpi/
certified copy

/tʃeəmən ən mndŋ darektə/ |

noun a document which is certified as noun a managing director who is also


being exactly the same in content as the chairman of the board of directors
original chairman of the justices

certify /s$tfa/ verb to make an offi-


certify chairman of the justices
/tʃeəmən əv ð d stss / noun the
|

cial declaration in writing 쑗 I certify that


this is a true copy. 쑗 The document is cer- chief magistrate in a magistrates’ court
chairmanship /tʃeəmənʃp/ noun
chairmanship

tified as a true copy.


certiorari /s$tiərɑri/ phrase a Lat-
certiorari

|
the role of being a chairman 왍 the com-
in word meaning ‘to be informed’ mittee met under the chairmanship of
Mr Jones Mr Jones chaired the meeting
cessate grant /seset rɑnt/ noun
cessate grant

of the committee
a special grant of probate made because
chairperson /tʃeəp$s(ə)n/ noun a
chairperson

of the incapacity of an executor, or a


grant made to renew a grant which has person who is in charge of a meeting and
expired holds the casting vote
cesser /sesə/ noun (of a mortgage, chairwoman /tʃeəwυmən/ noun a
chairwoman
cesser

charter, etc.) the ending woman who is in charge of a meeting and


cession /seʃ(ə)n/ noun the act of giv-
cession
holds the casting vote
challenge /tʃlnd/ noun the act of
challenge

ing up property to someone, especially a


creditor objecting to a decision and asking for it
CFI abbreviation Court of First Instance
CFI
to be set aside 쐽 verb to refuse to accept
CGT abbreviation capital gains tax
CGT
a juror or piece of evidence 쑗 to chal-
lenge a sentence passed by magistrates
chair /tʃeə/ noun the role of chairper-
chair

by appeal to the Crown Court


son presiding over a meeting 쑗 to be in
challenge for cause /tʃlnd fə
challenge for cause

the chair 쑗 She was voted into the chair.


쑗 She is Chair of the Finance Committee. kɔz/ noun US an objection to a pro-
쑗 This can be done by Chair’s action and posed juror, stating the reasons for the
confirmed later. 왍 Mr Jones took the objection
challenge without cause

chair Mr Jones presided over the meet- challenge without cause


ing 왍 to address the chair in a meeting, /tʃlnd wðaυt kɔz/ noun US an
|

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45 charge
objection to a proposed juror, not stating channel /tʃn(ə)l/ noun the way in
channel

the reasons for the objection which information or goods are passed
chamber /tʃembə/ noun a room from one place to another 왍 to go
chamber

where a committee or legislature meets 쑗 through the official channels to deal


The meeting will be held in the council with government officials, especially
chamber. when making a request 왍 to open up
chambers /tʃembəz/ plural noun 1.
chambers
new channels of communication to find
the offices of a group of barristers who new ways of communicating with some-
work together and share the same staff one
chapter /tʃptə/ noun 1. an official
chapter

(NOTE: actually called ‘a set of cham-


bers’) 2. the office of a judge 왍 the judge term for an Act of Parliament 2. US a
heard the case in chambers in private section of an Act of Congress
rooms, without the public being present Chapter 7 /tʃptə sevən/ noun US
Chapter 7

and not in open court a section of the US Bankruptcy Reform


champerty /tʃmpəti/ noun former- Act 1978 which sets out the rules for the
champerty

ly, financial help given to a person start- liquidation of an incorporated company


ing a proceedings against a party, where Chapter 11 /tʃptə ten/ noun US a
Chapter 11

the person giving help has a share in the section of the US Bankruptcy Reform
damages to be recovered Act 1978, which allows a corporation to
Chancellor /tʃɑns(ə)lə/ noun 1. 쏡 be protected from demands made by its
Chancellor

Lord Chancellor 2. US a judge who creditors for a period of time, while it is


presides over a court of equity reorganised with a view to paying its
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster

Chancellor of the Duchy of Lan- debts. The officers of the corporation


caster /tʃɑnsələ əv ði d tʃi/ noun will negotiate with its creditors as to the
a member of the British government with best way of reorganising the business.
Chapter 13 /tʃptə θ$rtin/ noun
Chapter 13

no specific responsibilities |

Chancellor of the Exchequer


Chancellor of the Exchequer
US a section of the Bankruptcy Reform
/tʃɑnsələr əv ði kstʃekə/ noun the|
Act 1978 which allows a business to con-
chief finance minister in the British gov- tinue trading and to pay off its creditors
ernment by regular monthly payments over a pe-
riod of time
Chancery Bar /tʃɑnsəri bɑ/ noun
Chancery Bar

character /krktə/ noun the general


character

the group of barristers who specialise in


the Chancery Division qualities of a person which make him or
her different from others 왍 he is a man of
Chancery business /tʃɑnsəri
Chancery business

good character he is an honest, hard-


bzns/ noun the range of legal cases re- working or decent man 왍 to give some-
lating to the sale of land, mortgages, one a character reference to say that
trusts, estates, bankruptcies, partner- someone has good qualities 왍 to intro-
ships, patents and copyrights, probate, duce character evidence to produce
and cases involving companies witnesses to say that a person is of good
Chancery Court /tʃɑnsəri kɔt/
Chancery Court

or bad character
noun formerly, the court presided over
charge /tʃɑd/ noun 1. money which
charge

by the Lord Chancellor, which estab- must be paid as the price of a service 쑗 to
lished case law or equity make no charge for delivery 쑗 to make a
Chancery Division /tʃɑnsəri d
Chancery Division

|
small charge for rental 쑗 There is no
v(ə)n/ noun one of the three divisions charge for service or no charge is made
of the High Court, dealing with matters for service. 2. 왍 charge on land, charge
such as wills, partnerships and compa- over property a mortgage or liability on
nies, taxation and bankruptcies a property which has been used as secu-
change of use /tʃend əv jus/ rity for a loan 왍 charge by way of legal
change of use

noun an order allowing a property to be mortgage a way of borrowing money on


used in a different way, e.g. a house to be the security of a property, where the
used as a business office, or a shop to be mortgagor signs a deed which gives the
used as a factory mortgagee an interest in the property 3.

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chargeable 46
an official statement in a court accusing charter /tʃɑtə/ noun 1. a document
charter

someone of having committed a crime 쑗 from the Crown establishing a town, a


He appeared in court on a charge of em- corporation, a university or a company 2.
bezzling or on an embezzlement charge. the hire of transport for a special purpose
쑗 The clerk of the court read out the 왍 on charter to hired by 쑗 a boat on
charges. 왍 to answer charges to plead charter to Mr Smith
guilty or not guilty to a charge 왍 the chartered /tʃɑtəd/ adjective 1. (of a
chartered

charges against him were withdrawn, company) set up by royal charter and not
dropped the prosecution decided not to registered as a company 2. 왍 chartered
continue with the trial 왍 to press charges ship, bus, plane ship or bus or plane
against someone to say formally that which has been hired for a special pur-
someone has committed a crime 쑗 He pose
was very angry when his neighbour’s son
Chartered Accountant /tʃɑtəd ə
Chartered Accountant

set fire to his car, but decided not to press |

charges. 4. a set of instructions given by kaυntənt/ noun an accountant who has


a judge to a jury, summing up the evi- passed the professional examinations
dence and giving advice on the points of and is a member of the Institute of Char-
law which have to be considered 쐽 verb tered Accountants
charterer / tʃɑtərə/ noun a person
charterer

1. to ask someone to pay for services 쑗 to


charge £5 for delivery 쑗 How much does who hires a ship, plane or train for a spe-
he charge? 왍 he charges £9 an hour he cial purpose
asks to be paid £9 for an hour’s work 2. chartering /tʃɑtərŋ/ noun the act of
chartering

(in a court) to accuse someone formally hiring a ship, plane or train for a special
of having committed a crime 쑗 He was purpose
charged with embezzling his clients’
charterparty /tʃɑtəpɑti/ noun a
charterparty

money. 쑗 They were charged with mur-


der. (NOTE: You charge someone with a contract where the owner of a ship char-
crime.) ters it to someone for carrying goods
/tʃt(ə)l
chattel mortgage

chattel mortgage
chargeable /tʃɑdəb(ə)l/ adjective
chargeable

mɔd/ noun US a mortgage using


being able to be charged
personal property as security
chargee /tʃɑdi/ noun somebody
chargee

/tʃt(ə)lz
chattels personal
|
chattels personal
who holds a charge over a property p$s(ə)n(ə)l/ noun any property that is
charge sheet /tʃɑd ʃit/ noun a
charge sheet

not real property


document listing the charges which a chattels real /tʃt(ə)lz rəl/ noun
chattels real

magistrate will hear, listing the charges leaseholds


against the accused together with details
cheap labour /tʃip lebə/ noun
cheap labour

of the crime committed


workers who do not earn much money
charging order /tʃɑdŋ ɔdə/
charging order

cheap money /tʃip m ni/ noun


cheap money

noun a court order made in favour of a


money which can be borrowed at a low
judgment creditor granting them a
rate of interest
charge over a debtor’s property
check /tʃek/ noun 1. a sudden stop 왍 to
check

trust /tʃrtəb(ə)l
charitable trust

charitable put a check on the sale of firearms to


tr st/, charitable corporation US stop some firearms being sold 2. an in-
/tʃrtəb(ə)l kɔpəreʃ(ə)n/ noun a
|

vestigation or examination 쑗 a routine


trust which benefits the public as a check of the fire equipment 쑗 The audi-
whole, by promoting education or reli- tors carried out checks on the petty cash
gion, helping the poor or doing other book. 쐽 verb 1. to stop or delay some-
useful work thing 쑗 to check the entry of contraband
Charity Commissioners /tʃrt
Charity Commissioners

into the country 2. to examine or to in-


kəmʃ(ə)nəz/ plural noun a UK body
| vestigate 쑗 to check that an invoice is
which governs charities and sees that correct 쑗 to check and sign for goods 왍
they follow the law and use their funds he checked the computer printout
for the purposes intended against the invoices he examined the

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47 chose
printout and the invoices to see if the fig- ing on a child, and a child cannot own
ures were the same land, cannot make a will, cannot vote,
cannot drive a car (under the age of
check sample /tʃek sɑmp(ə)l/
check sample

seventeen). A child cannot marry be-


noun a sample to be used to see if a con- fore the age of sixteen, and can only
signment is acceptable marry between the ages of 16 and 18
cheque /tʃek/, check US /tʃek/ noun with written permission of his or her
cheque

1. an order to a bank to pay money from parents. A child who is less than ten
years old is not considered capable of
your account to the person whose name committing a crime; a child between
is written on it 2. 왍 to endorse a cheque ten and fourteen years of age may be
to sign a cheque on the back to make it considered capable of committing a
payable to someone else 왍 to make out a crime if there is evidence of malice or
cheque to someone to write out a cheque knowledge, and so children of these
to someone 왍 to pay by cheque to pay by ages can in certain circumstances be
convicted. In criminal law the term
writing a cheque, and not by using cash ‘child’ is used for children between the
or a credit card 왍 to pay a cheque into ages of 10 and 14; for children be-
your account to deposit a cheque 왍 to tween 14 and 17, the term ‘young per-
bounce a cheque to refuse to pay a son’ is used; all children are termed ‘ju-
cheque because there is not enough mon- veniles’.
ey in the account to pay it (informal ) 왍 child benefit /tʃald benft/ noun
child benefit

the bank referred the cheque to draw- money paid by the state to the person
er the bank returned the cheque to person who is responsible for a child under 16
who wrote it because there was not years of age, or 19 if the child is in full-
enough money in the account to pay it 왍 time education
to sign a cheque to sign on the front of a child destruction /tʃald d
child destruction

cheque to show that you authorise the str kʃən/ noun the notifiable offence
bank to pay the money from your ac- of killing an unborn child capable of be-
count 왍 to stop a cheque to ask a bank ing born alive
not to pay a cheque which you have writ-
child in care /tʃald n keə/ noun a
child in care

ten
cheque account /tʃek əkaυnt/
cheque account

|
child who is the subject of a care order
noun a bank account which allows the and is therefore in the care of the local
customer to write cheques social services department
child stealing /tʃald stilŋ/ noun
child stealing

chief /tʃif/ adjective 왍 in chief in per-


chief

son US the notifiable offence of taking away


Chief
Chief Constable

Constable /tʃif
a child from its parents or guardian
child support /tʃald səpɔt/ noun
child support

k nstəb(ə)l/ noun the person in charge |

of a police force US money paid as part of a divorce set-


Chief Inspector /tʃif nspektə/
Chief Inspector

|
tlement, to help maintain a child of di-
noun a rank in the police force above In- vorced parents
Child Support Agency /tʃald sə
Child Support Agency

spector or Superintendent |

Chief Inspector of Prisons /tʃif


Chief Inspector of Prisons
pɔt edənsi/ noun an agency of the
nspektə əv przənz/ noun a govern-
|
Department for Work and Pensions, cre-
ment official who is the head of the In- ated by the Child Support Act 1991,
spectorate of Prisons, and whose job is to which has responsibility for the assess-
inspect prisons to see that they are being ment, review, collection and enforce-
run correctly and efficiently ment of maintenance for children, which
Chief Justice /tʃif d sts/ noun
Chief Justice
was previously supervised by the courts.
1. US a senior judge in a court 2. the pre- Abbreviation CSA
chose /tʃəυz/ French word meaning
chose

siding justice of the US Supreme Court


child /tʃald/ noun a person under the
child
‘item’ or ‘thing’ 왍 chose in action a per-
age of 18 sonal right which can be enforced or
COMMENT: In Great Britain a child claimed as if it were property (such as a
does not have full legal status until the patent, copyright, debt or cheque) 왍
age of eighteen. A contract is not bind- chose in possession a physical thing

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Christmas Day 48
which can be owned such as a piece of Act may be cited as the Electronic Com-
furniture munications Act 1999.
Christmas Day /krsməs de/ noun citizen /stz(ə)n/ noun 1. somebody
Christmas Day citizen

25th December, one of the four quarter who lives in a city 2. somebody who has
days when rent is payable on land the nationality of a specific country 쑗 He
CID

CID abbreviation Criminal Investigation is a French citizen by birth.


department Citizens’ Advice Bureau /stzənz
Citizens’ Advice Bureau

circuit /s$kt/ noun one of six divi- ədvas bjυərəυ/ noun an office where
circuit

sions of England and Wales for legal pur- people can go to get free advice on legal
poses 쑗 He is a judge on the Welsh Cir- and administrative problems. Abbrevia-
cuit. tion CAB
COMMENT: The six circuits are: North- citizen’s arrest /stz(ə)nz ərest/
citizen’s arrest

ern, North-Eastern, Midland and Ox- noun a right of a private person to arrest
ford, Wales and Chester, South-East-
ern, and Western. without a warrant someone suspected of
committing a crime
circuit judge /s$kt d d/ noun a
circuit judge

Citizen’s Charter /stzənz tʃɑtə/


Citizen’s Charter

judge in the Crown Court or a County


Court noun a promise by the government that
circular letter /s$kjυlə letə/ noun
circular letter
people must be fairly dealt with, in par-
a letter sent to many people ticular by government departments and
state-controlled bodies
circulation /s$kjυleʃ(ə)n/ noun 왍
circulation

citizenship /stz(ə)nʃp/ noun the


| citizenship

to put money into circulation to issue


new notes to business and the public right of being a citizen of a country 쑗 The
Treaty has established European citizen-
circumstances /s$kəmstnsz/
circumstances

ship for everyone who is a citizen of the


plural noun the situation as it is when Member State of the EU.
something happens 쑗 The police inspec-
COMMENT: A person has British citi-
tor described the circumstances leading zenship if he is born in the UK and his
to the riot. 쒁 extenuating circumstanc- father or mother is a British citizen, or
es if his father or mother has settled in the
circumstantial /s$kəmstnʃ(ə)l/ UK, or if he is adopted in the UK by a
circumstantial

adjective allowing someone to infer facts British citizen; British citizenship can
also be granted to wives of British citi-
circumstantial evidence
circumstantial evidence

zens.
/s$kəmstnʃ(ə)l evd(ə)ns/ noun civic /svk/ adjective referring to a
civic

evidence which suggests that something city or the official business of running a
must have happened, but does not give city 쑗 Their civic pride showed in the
firm proof of it beautiful gardens to be found every-
citation /sateʃ(ə)n/ noun 1. an offi-
citation

|
where in the city.
cial request asking someone to appear in civic centre /svk sentə/ noun the
civic centre

court (NOTE: used mainly in the Scottish main offices of a city council
and American courts) 2. the quoting of
/svk
civic dignitaries

a legal case, authority or precedent 3. a civic dignitaries


set of words used in giving someone an dnt(ə)riz/ plural noun the mayor and
award or honour, explaining why the other senior officials of a city or town
award is being made civil /sv(ə)l/ adjective 1. referring to
civil

citation clause /sateʃ(ə)n klɔz/ the rights and duties of private persons or
citation clause

noun a clause in a Bill which gives the corporate bodies, as opposed to criminal,
short title by which it should be known military or ecclesiastical bodies 2. refer-
when it becomes an Act ring to the public in general
cite /sat/ verb 1. to summon someone civil action /sv(ə)l kʃən/ noun a
cite civil action

to appear in court 2. to refer to something court case brought by a person or a com-


쑗 The judge cited several previous cases pany (the claimant) against someone
in his summing up. 3. to refer to an Act who is alleged to have done them wrong
of Parliament using the short title 쑗 This (the defendant)

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49 claim form
civil court /sv(ə)l kɔt/ noun a court where the claimant claims damages for
civil court

where civil actions are heard disease or physical or mental disable-


civil disobedience /sv(ə)l dsə
civil disobedience

|
ment 3. a statement that someone has a
bidiəns/ noun US the activity of diso- right to property held by another person
beying the orders of the civil authorities 4. a request for money that you believe
such as the police as an act of protest 쑗 you should have 쑗 an insurance claim 쑗
The group planned a campaign of civil a wage claim 5. 왍 no claims bonus re-
disobedience as a protest against restric- duction of premiums to be paid because
tions on immigrants. no claims have been made against the in-
civil disorder /sv(ə)l dsɔdə/
civil disorder surance policy 왍 to put in a claim to ask
the insurance company officially to pay
|

noun US riots or fighting in public plac-


es for damage or loss 쑗 She put in a claim
for repairs to the car. 왍 to settle a claim
civilian /səvliən/ adjective referring
civilian

|
to agree to pay what is asked for 쐽 verb
to people who are not in the armed forces 1. to state a grievance in court 2. to ask
쑗 Civilian rule was restored after several
for money 쑗 He claimed £100,000 dam-
years of military dictatorship. 쑗 The mil- ages against the cleaning firm. 쑗 She
itary leaders called general elections claimed for repairs to the car against her
and gave way to a democratically elect- insurance. 3. to say that you have a right
ed civilian government. 쐽 noun someone to property held by someone else 쑗 He is
who is not a member of the armed forces claiming possession of the house. 쑗 No
쑗 The head of the military junta has ap-
one claimed the umbrella found in my of-
pointed several civilians to the Cabinet. fice. 4. to state that something is a fact 쑗
civil law /sv(ə)l lɔ/ noun laws relat-
civil law

He claims he never received the goods. 쑗


ing to people’s rights and to agreements She claims that the shares are her prop-
between individuals. Compare criminal erty. 5. to attack someone in prison
law (slang) 6. to arrest someone (slang)
civil liberties /sv(ə)l lbətiz/ plural
civil liberties

claimant /klemənt/ noun 1. a person


claimant

noun freedom for people to work or who claims something 2. somebody who
write or speak as they want, providing makes a claim against someone in the
they keep within the law civil courts. Compare defendant ( NOTE:
Civil List /sv(ə)l lst/ noun money
Civil List

Since the introduction of the new Civil


appropriated from the Consolidated Procedure Rules in April 1999, this
Fund for paying the Royal Family and term has replaced plaintiff.)
their expenses
claim back /klem bk/ verb to ask
claim back

Civil Procedure Rules /sv(ə)l prə


Civil Procedure Rules

|
for money to be paid back
sidə rulz/ plural noun rules setting
claim form /klem fɔm/ noun 1. a
claim form

out how civil cases are to be brought to


court and heard. Abbreviation CPR form which has to be completed when
making an insurance claim 쑗 He filled in
civil rights /sv(ə)l rats/ plural
civil rights

the claim form and sent it to the insur-


noun rights and privileges of each indi-
ance company. 2. a form issued by a
vidual according to the law
court when requested by a claimant, con-
civil strife /sv(ə)l straf/ noun trou-
civil strife

taining the particulars of claim and a


ble occurring when groups of people statement of value. 쒁 Production Cen-
fight each other, usually over matters of tre (NOTE: Since the introduction of the
principle new Civil Procedure Rules in April
Civil Trial Centre /sv(ə)l traəl
Civil Trial Centre

1999, this term has replaced the writ of


sentə/ noun a court which deals with summons.)
multi-track claims COMMENT: The claim form must be
CJ abbreviation Chief Justice
CJ

served on the defendant within four


months of being issued. If a claim form
claim /klem/ noun 1. an assertion of a
claim

has been issued but not served, the


legal right 2. a document used in the defendant can ask for it to be served,
County Court to start a legal action 왍 and if the claimant does not do so, the
claim for personal injuries a claim claim may be dismissed.

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class 50
class /klɑs/ verb to put something into clawback /klɔbk/ noun 1. money
class clawback

a category 쑗 The magazine was classed taken back 2. the loss of tax relief previ-
as an obscene publication. ously granted
COMMENT: In the UK the population is clean hands /klin hnds/ plural
clean hands

classified into social classes for statis- noun 왍 the plaintiff or claimant must
tical purposes. These are: Class A:
higher managers, administrators and have clean hands the claimant cannot
professionals; Class B: intermediate claim successfully if his or her motives
managers, administrators and profes- or actions are dishonest, or if his or her
sionals; Class C1: supervisors, cleri- own obligations to the defendant have
cal workers and junior managers; not been discharged
Class C2: skilled manual workers;
clear /klə/ adjective 1. easily under-
clear

Class D: semi-skilled or unskilled


manual workers; Class E: pensioners, stood 쑗 He made it clear that he wanted
casual workers, long-term unem- the manager to resign. 쑗 There was no
ployed. clear evidence or clear proof that he was
class action /klɑs kʃən/ noun US
class action

in the house at the time of the murder. 2.


a legal action brought on behalf of a 왍 to have a clear title to something to
group of people have a right to something with no limita-
Class A drug /klɑs e dr / noun a
Class A drug
tions or charges 3. 왍 three clear days a
strong and dangerous drug such as co- period of time, calculated without in-
caine, heroin, crack, or LSD cluding the first day when the period
Class B drug /klɑs bi dr / noun
Class B drug
starts and the last day when it finishes,
a drug such as the amphetamines, canna- that includes three full days 쑗 Allow
bis or codeine three clear days for the cheque to be paid
into your account. 쐽 verb 1. 왍 to clear
Class C drug /klɑs si dr / noun
Class C drug

goods through the customs to have all


a drug which is related to the ampheta- documentation passed by the customs so
mines, e.g. benzphetamine that goods can leave the country 2. 왍 to
Class F charge /klɑs ef tʃɑd/
Class F charge

clear 10%, $5,000 on the deal to make


noun a charge on a property registered 10% or $5,000 clear profit 왍 we cleared
by a spouse who is not the owner, claim- only our expenses the sales revenue paid
ing a right to live in the property only for the costs and expenses without
class gift /klɑs ft/ noun US a gift making any profit 3. 왍 to clear a cheque
class gift

to a defined group of people to pass a cheque through the banking


classified information /klsfad system, so that the money is transferred
classified information

nfəmeʃ(ə)n/ | noun information from the payer’s account to another ac-


which is secret and can be told only to count 쑗 The cheque took ten days to clear
specified people or the bank took ten days to clear the
classify /klsfa/ verb 1. to put into
classify
cheque. 4. 왍 to clear someone of charg-
groups or categories 2. to make informa- es to find that someone is not guilty of
tion secret the charges against him or her 쑗 He was
cleared of all charges or he was cleared
clause /klɔz/ noun a section of a con-
clause

on all counts. 5. 왍 to clear a debt to pay


tract or of a constitution 쑗 There are ten all of a debt
clauses in the contract. 쑗 According to
clearance certificate /klərəns sə
clearance certificate

clause six, payment will not be due until |

next year. tfkət/ noun a document which shows


that goods have been passed by customs
claw back /klɔ bk/ verb 1. to take
claw back

clearing /klərŋ/ noun 1. 왍 clearing


clearing

back money which has been allocated 쑗


Income tax claws back 25% of pensions of goods through the customs the pass-
paid out by the government. 2. (of the In- ing of goods through customs 2. 왍 clear-
land Revenue) to take back tax relief ing of a debt the payment of all of a debt
clearing bank /klərŋ bŋk/ noun a
clearing bank

which was previously granted 쑗 Of the


£1m allocated to the development of the bank which clears cheques by transfer-
system, the government clawed back ring money from the payer’s account to
£100,000 in taxes. another account

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51 closing time
clearing house /klərŋ haυs/ noun client /klaənt/ noun 1. a person who
clearing house client

a central office where clearing banks ex- pays for a service carried out by a profes-
change cheques sional person such as an accountant or a
clear profit /klə prɒft/ noun the
clear profit
solicitor 2. somebody who is represented
profit made after all expenses have been by a lawyer 쑗 The solicitor paid the fine
paid 쑗 We made $6,000 clear profit on on behalf of his client.
clientele /kliɒntel/ noun all the cli-
clientele

the sale. |

clear up /klər  p/ verb to discover


clear up
ents of a business such as a shop, restau-
who has committed a crime and arrest rant or hotel
close /kləυz/ adjective 왍 close to very
close

them 쑗 Half the crimes committed are


never cleared up. near, almost 쑗 The company was close to
COMMENT: Clear up can be divided bankruptcy. 쑗 We are close to solving the
into two categories: primary clear up, crime. 쐽 verb 왍 to close the accounts to
when a crime is solved by arresting the come to the end of an accounting period
suspect, and secondary clear up, and make up the profit and loss account
where a person charged with one 앳 to close an account 1. to stop sup-
crime then confesses to another which plying a customer on credit 2. to take all
had not previously been solved.
the money out of a bank account and stop
clear-up rate /klə p ret/ noun the
clear-up rate

the account
number of crimes solved, as a percentage close company /kləυs k mp(ə)ni/,
close company

of all crimes committed close corporation US /kləυz kɔpə |

clemency /klemənsi/ noun pardon or


clemency

reʃ(ə)n/, closed corporation /kləυzd


mercy 쑗 As an act of clemency, the pres- kɔpəreʃ(ə)n/ noun a privately owned
|

ident granted an amnesty to all political company where the public may own a
prisoners. small number of shares
clerical /klerk(ə)l/ adjective related close down /kləυz daυn/ verb to
clerical
close down

to the type of work done in an office shut a shop or factory for a long period or
clerical error /klerk(ə)l erə/ noun a for ever 쑗 The company is closing down
clerical error

mistake made in an office its London office.


closed session /kləυzd seʃ(ə)n/
closed session

clerical staff /klerk(ə)l stɑf/ noun


clerical staff

the staff of an office noun a meeting which is not open to the


public or to journalists 쑗 The town coun-
clerical work /klerk(ə)l w$k/ noun
clerical work

cil met in closed session to discuss staff


paperwork done in an office problems in the Education Department.
clerical worker /klerk(ə)l w$kə/
clerical worker

쑗 The public gallery was cleared when


noun somebody who works in an office the meeting went into closed session.
clerk /klɑk/ noun somebody who close protection officer /kləυs
clerk close protection officer

works in an office 쑗 accounts clerk 쑗 prətekʃ(ə)n ɒfsə/ noun someone


|

sales clerk 쑗 wages clerk who is employed to protect a celebrity or


clerk of works /klɑk əv w$ks/
clerk of works
public figure from attack
closing /kləυzŋ/ adjective coming at
closing

noun an official who superintends the


construction of a building the end of something
clerkship /kl$kʃp/ noun US the / kləυsŋ
closing speeches
clerkship

closing speeches
time when a student lawyer is working in spitʃəz/ plural noun final speeches for
the office of a lawyer before being admit- and against a motion in a debate, or for
ted to the bar (NOTE: The British term is prosecution and defence at the end of a
traineeship.) trial
closing stock /kləυzŋ stɒk/ noun
closing stock

click-wrap agreement /klk rp ə


click-wrap agreement

rimənt/ noun a contract entered into the value of stock at the end of an ac-
when purchasing an item on the Internet, counting period
closing time /kləυzŋ tam/ noun
closing time

where no paper documentation exists


and the agreement to purchase is made the time when a shop or office stops
by clicking on the appropriate button work

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closure 52
closure /kləυə/ noun 1. the act of code of practice /kəυd əv
closure code of practice

closing 2. (in the House of Commons) prkts/ noun 1. rules to be followed


the ending of a debate when applying a law 쑗 the Code of Prac-
COMMENT: When an MP wishes to end tice on Picketing has been issued by the
the debate on a motion, he says ‘I Secretary of State 2. a set of rules drawn
move that the question be now put’ up by an association which the members
and the Speaker immediately puts the must follow in their work
motion to the vote.
codicil /kəυdsl/ noun a document
codicil

closure motion /kləoə məυʃ(ə)n/


closure motion

executed in the same way as a will, mak-


noun a proposal to end a debate ing additions or changes to an existing
CLS

CLS abbreviation Community Legal will


Service codification /kəυdfkeʃ(ə)n/ noun
codification

clue /klu/ noun something which helps 1. the act of bringing all laws together
clue

someone solve a crime 쑗 The police have into a formal legal code 2. the act of
searched the room for clues. 쑗 The police bringing together all statutes and case
have several clues to the identity of the law relating to a specific issue, to make a
murdered. single Act of Parliament. 쒁 consolida-
Co

Co abbreviation company 쑗 J. Smith & tion


codify / kəυdfa/ verb to put different
codify

Co Ltd
co- /kəυ/ prefix working or acting to-
co-
laws together to form a code
coding /kəυdŋ/ noun the act of
coding

gether
c/o putting a code on something to identify
c/o abbreviation care of or classify it 쑗 the coding of invoices
co-creditor /kəυ kredtə/ noun
co-creditor

co-director /kəυ darektə/ noun a


co-director

somebody who is a creditor of the same person who is a director of the same
company as you are company as another person
c.o.d.

c.o.d. abbreviation US cash on delivery coercion /kəυ$ʃ(ə)n/ noun the use


coercion

code /kəυd/ noun 1. an official set of of force to make someone commit a


code

laws or regulations. 쒁 Highway Code, crime or do some act


penal code 2. the set of laws of a coun- cohabit /kəυhbt/ verb (of a man
cohabit

try 왍 the Louisiana Code US the laws of and a woman) to live together as hus-
the state of Louisiana 3. a set of semi-of- band and wife
ficial rules 4. a system of signs, numbers cohabitant /kəυhbtənt/ noun
cohabitant

or letters which mean something 쑗 The same as cohabiter


spy sent his message in code. 쐽 verb to cohabitation
cohabitation

/kəυhbteʃ(ə)n/ | |

write a message using secret signs 쑗 We noun the practice of living together as
received coded instructions from our husband and wife whether legally mar-
agent in New York. ried or not
co-decision procedure /kəυ d
co-decision procedure

cohabiter / kəυhbtə/, cohabitee


cohabiter
|

s(ə)n prəsidə/ noun (in the EU) a


|

|
/kəυhbti/ noun a person who lives
| |

procedure by which the Commission with another as husband or wife but is


sends proposed legislation to both the not legally married
Council of the European Union and the
co-heir /kəυ eə/ noun somebody who
co-heir

European Parliament for approval


is an heir with others
co-defendant /kəυ dfendənt/
co-defendant

co-insurance /kəυ nʃυərəns/


co-insurance
|

noun somebody who appears in a case noun insurance where the risk is shared
with another defendant among several insurers
Code Napoleon /kəυd nəpəυliən/
Code Napoleon

collaborative divorce /kə


collaborative divorce
|
|

noun the civil laws of France, introduced lb(ə)rətv dvɔs/ noun a divorce of
|

by Napoleon which the terms are agreed by both


code of conduct /kəυd əv
code of conduct

spouses and their solicitors before pre-


kɒnd kt/ noun a set of rules of behav- senting the final agreement to a judge
iour by which a group of people work without a trial

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53 commercial lawyer
collateral /kəlt(ə)rəl/ noun security collusion /kəlu(ə)n/ noun illicit co-
collateral collusion

| |

used to provide a guarantee for a loan 쑗 operation between people in order to


collateral security 쐽 adjective providing cheat another party or to defraud another
security for a loan party of a right 쑗 He was suspected of
collateral contract / kəlt(ə)rəl collusion with the owner of the property.
collateral contract

kɒntrkt/ noun a contract which in- 왍 to act in collusion with to co-operate


duces a person to enter into a more im- with someone in a way that is not al-
portant contract lowed in order to cheat or defraud anoth-
collateral issue /kəlt(ə)rəl ʃu/
collateral issue

|
er party 쑗 They had acted in collusion
noun an issue which arises from a plea in with a former employee.
collusive action /kəlusv kʃən/
collusive action

a criminal court |

collation /kəleʃ(ə)n/ noun the com-


collation

|
noun an action which is taken in collu-
parison of a copy with the original to see sion with another party
comity /kɒmti/ noun US the custom
comity

if it is perfect
collect /kəlekt/ verb 1. to make some-
collect

|
by which courts in one state defer to the
one pay money which is owed 왍 to col- jurisdiction of courts in other states or to
lect a debt to go and make someone pay federal courts
comity of nations /kɒmti əv
comity of nations

a debt 2. to take goods away from a place


쑗 We have to collect the stock from the neʃ(ə)nz/ noun the custom whereby
warehouse. 쑗 Can you collect my letters the courts of one country acknowledge
from the typing pool? 왍 letters are col- and apply the laws of another country
command /kəmɑnd/ noun an order
command

lected twice a day the post office em- |

ployees take them from the letter box to 왍 by Royal Command by order of the
the post office so that they can be sent off Queen or King
collection /kəlekʃən/ noun 1. the ac- commander /kəmɑndə/ noun a
collection commander

| |

tivity of making someone pay money high rank in the Metropolitan Police
which is owed 2. the act of fetching force, equivalent to Assistant Chief Con-
goods 쑗 The stock is in the warehouse stable
awaiting collection. 왍 to hand some- commencement
commencement

/kəmensmənt/ |

thing in for collection to leave some- noun the beginning 왍 commencement


thing for someone to come and collect 3. of proceedings the start of proceedings
the taking of letters from a letter box or in a County Court 왍 date of commence-
mail room to the post office to be sent off ment the date when an Act of Parliament
쑗 There are six collections a day from the takes effect
letter box. comment /kɒment/ noun a remark
comment

collection charges /kəlekʃən


collection charges

|
giving a spoken or written opinion 쑗 The
tʃɑdz/ plural noun charges which judge made a comment on the evidence
have to be paid for collecting something presented by the defence. 쑗 The newspa-
collections /kəlekʃənz/ plural noun
collections

| per has some short comments about the


money which has been collected trial.
collective /kəlektv/ adjective work- commentary /kɒmənt(ə)ri/ noun 1.
collective commentary

ing together a textbook which comments on the law


collective ownership /kəlektv 2. brief notes which comment on the
collective ownership

əυnəʃp/ noun ownership of a business main points of a judgment


Commercial Court /kəm$ʃ(ə)l
Commercial Court

by the employees who work in it |

collective responsibility /kə


collective responsibility

|
kɔt/ noun a court in the Queen’s Bench
lektv rspɒnsblti/ noun a doctrine
| |
Division which hears cases relating to
that all members of a group are responsi- business disputes
commercial law /kəm$ʃ(ə)l lɔ/
commercial law

ble together for the actions of that group |

collector /kəlektə/ noun somebody noun law regarding the conduct of busi-
collector

who makes people pay money which is nesses


commercial lawyer /kəm$ʃ(ə)l
commercial lawyer

owed 쑗 collector of taxes or tax collector |

쑗 debt collector lɔjə/ noun US someone who specialis-

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commercial premises 54
es in company law or who advises com- the Member States. The larger Mem-
panies on legal problems ber States (France, Germany, Italy,
Spain and the UK) have two Commis-
commercial premises /kəm$ʃ(ə)l
commercial premises

|
sioners each and the other smaller
premisz/ plural noun same as busi- countries appoint one each. Each
ness premises Commissioner is appointed for a five-
commission /kəmʃ(ə)n/ noun 1. a year renewable term, and all the ap-
commission

group of people officially appointed to pointments end together, so the Com-


mission is either changed or renewed
examine or be in charge of something 쑗 every five years. Member States can-
The government has appointed a com- not dismiss the Commission, but can
mission of inquiry to look into the prob- refuse to renew the term of appoint-
lems of prison overcrowding. 쑗 He is the ment. The European Parliament can
chairman of the government commission force the entire Commission to resign,
on football violence. 쒁 Law Commis- but cannot dismiss an individual Com-
missioner. The European Court of Jus-
sion, Royal Commission 2. a request tice can force a Commissioner to retire
to someone such as an artist or architect on grounds of misconduct. The Com-
to do a piece of work for which they will mission is headed by the President of
be paid 3. a payment, usually a percent- the European Commission, with two
age of turnover, made to an agent 쑗 She Vice-Presidents. The Commissioners
has an agent’s commission of 15% of are not supposed to be the represent-
atives of their respective governments
sales. 4. an official position of being an but must take the interests of the Com-
officer in the army 5. the act of commit- munity as a whole into account. Each
ting a crime commissioner has his or her own pri-
commission agent /kəmʃ(ə)n vate office or Cabinet, headed by a
commission agent

edənt/ noun an agent who is paid by Chef de Cabinet. The Commission has
23 departments called Directorates
commission, not by fee General, each headed by a Director-
commissioner /kəmʃ(ə)nə/ noun a
commissioner

| General, the Directorates General are


person who has an official commission subdivided into Directorates, and
commissioner for oaths /kə
commissioner for oaths
these are subdivided into Divisions.
Each Directorate General is responsi-
|

mʃ(ə)nə fər əυðs/ noun a solicitor ble to one of the Commissioners. The
appointed by the Lord Chancellor to ad- Commission represents all the Mem-
minister affidavits which may be used in ber States in negotiations with other
court parties, for example in trade negotia-
commissioner of police /kə
commissioner of police
tions with the USA. The Commission
proposes laws for the European Com-
|

mʃ(ə)nər əv pəlis/ noun the highest|


munity, and the Council of Ministers
rank in a police force makes decisions accordingly. The
Commissioners of Inland Reve- Commission can make proposals re-
Commissioners of Inland Revenue

nue /kəmʃ(ə)nəz əv nlənd |


garding some legal matters and some
revənju/ noun the Board of Inland matters concerning the internal securi-
ty of Member States, but its main role
Revenue is that of a watchdog, seeing that trea-
Commission for Racial Equality
Commission for Racial Equality

ty obligations are carried out by Mem-


/kəmʃ(ə)n fə reʃ(ə)l  kwɒlti/ noun
| |
ber States.
in the UK, an official committee set up to commit /kəmt/ verb 1. to send some-
commit

deal with issues relating to equal treat- one to prison or to a court 쑗 He was com-
ment of ethnic groups. Abbreviation mitted for trial in the Central Criminal
CRE Court. 쑗 The magistrates committed her
Commission of the European
Commission of the European Community

for trial at the Crown Court. 2. to carry


Community noun the main executive out a crime 쑗 The gang committed six
body of the EC, one of the four bodies robberies before they were caught.
which form the basis of the European (NOTE: committing – committed)
Community, made up of members from commitment /kəmtmənt/ noun an
commitment

each state order for sending someone to prison


COMMENT: The Commission is formed
commitments /kəmtmənts/ plural
commitments

of 20 members or Commissioners who |

are appointed by the governments of noun things which have to be done 왍 fi-

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55 common ownership
nancial commitments debts which have committee of the whole House of Com-
to be paid 왍 to honour your commit- mons which examines a Supply Bill
ments to do what you are obliged to do Committee Stage /kəmti sted/
Committee Stage

committal /kəmt(ə)l/ noun the act of


committal

| noun one of the stages in the discussion


sending someone to a court or to prison 왍 of a Bill, where each clause is examined
committal for trial the act of sending in detail 쑗 The Bill is at Committee Stage
someone to be tried in a higher court fol- and will not become law for several
lowing committal proceedings in a mag- months.
istrates’ court 왍 committal for sentence common /kɒmən/ adjective 1. which
common

the act of sending someone who has been


happens very often 쑗 Putting the headed
convicted in a magistrates court to be paper into the photocopier upside down
sentenced in a higher court is a common mistake. 쑗 Being caught by
committal order /kəmt(ə)l ɔdə/
committal order

|
the customs is very common these days.
noun an order sending someone to pris- 2. referring to or belonging to several
on for a contempt of court offence such different people or to everyone 3. 왍 in
as perjury common together or jointly. 쒁 tenancy
/kə in common
committal proceedings

committal proceedings |

mt(ə)l prəsidŋz/ plural noun the |


common ancestor

common ancestor /kɒmən


preliminary hearing of a case in a magis- nsestə/ noun a person from whom
trates’ court, to decide if it is serious two or more people are descended
enough to be tried before a jury in a high-
common assault /kɒmən əsɔlt/
common assault

er court |

noun the crime or tort of acting in such a


committal warrant /kəmt(ə)l
committal warrant

|
way that another person is afraid he or
wɒrənt/ noun an order sending some- she will be attacked and hurt
one to serve a prison sentence
common carrier /kɒmən kriə/
common carrier

committee /kəmti/ noun 1. an offi-


committee

|
noun a firm which carries goods or pas-
cial group of people who organise or sengers, which cannot usually refuse to
plan for a larger group 쑗 to be a member do so, and which can be used by anyone
of a committee or to sit on a committee 쑗
common land /kɒmən lnd/ noun
common land

He was elected to the Finance Commit-


tee 쑗 The new plans have to be approved an area of land to which the public has
by the committee members. 쑗 She is at- access for walking
tending a committee meeting. 쑗 He is the common law /kɒmən lɔ/ noun 1. a
common law

chairman of the Planning Committee. 쑗 law established on the basis of decisions


She is the secretary of the Housing Com- by the courts, rather than by statute 2. a
mittee. 왍 to chair a committee to be the general system of laws which formerly
chairman of a committee 2. a section of were the only laws existing in England,
a legislature which considers bills passed but which in some cases have been su-
to it by the main chamber 3. a person to perseded by statute (NOTE: You say at
whom something such as the charge of common law when referring to some-
someone who is incapable of looking af- thing happening according to the princi-
ter himself or herself is officially given ples of common law.)
Committee of Privileges /kəmti
Committee of Privileges

common-law /kɒmən lɔ/ adjective


common-law

əv prvldz/ noun a special commit- according to the old unwritten system of


tee of the House of Commons which ex- law 왍 common-law marriage situation
amines cases of breach of privilege where two people live together as hus-
band and wife without being married 왍
Committee of the Parliamentary Commission

Committee of the Parliamentary


Commission /kəmti əv ðə pɑlə | | common-law spouse, wife somebody
ment(ə)ri kəmʃ(ə)n/ noun a commit- | who has lived or is living with another as
tee which examines reports by the Om- husband or wife, although they have not
budsman been legally married
ownership /kɒmən
Committee of Ways and Means common ownership

Committee of Ways and Means common


/kəmti əv wez ən minz/ noun a
| əυnəʃp/ noun ownership of a company

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common position 56
or of a property by a group of people who government department. 2. an official
each own a part message 쑗 We have had a communica-
common position /kɒmən pə tion from the local tax inspector.
common position

zʃ(ə)n/ noun a position taken by the communications /kəmjun


communications

| |

Council of the European Union on pro- keʃ(ə)nz/ plural noun the ways people
posed legislation, which is then passed to use to give information or express their
the European Parliament for approval. It thoughts and feelings to each other 쑗 Af-
can be adopted or rejected by the Parlia- ter the flood all communications with the
ment, and the Parliament may propose outside world were broken.
changes to the proposed common posi- community /kəmjunti/ noun 1. a
community

tion. group of people living or working in the


common pricing /kɒmən prasŋ / same place 왍 the local business commu-
common pricing

noun the illegal fixing of prices by sever- nity the business people living and work-
al businesses so that they all charge the ing in the area 2. same as European
same price Community 왍 the Community finance
Commons /kɒmənz/ plural noun
Commons
ministers the finance ministers of all the
same as House of Commons 쑗 The countries of the European Community
Community act /kəmjunti kt/
Community act

Commons voted against the Bill. 쑗 The |

majority of the Commons are in favour of noun a legal act of the European Union
law reform. which has the force of law
common seal /kɒmən sil/ noun a community charge /kəmjunti
community charge
common seal
|

metal stamp which every company must tʃɑd/ noun a local tax levied on each
possess, used to stamp documents with eligible taxpayer. Also known as poll
the name of the company to show they tax
have been approved officially 쑗 to attach community home /kəmjunti
community home

the company’s seal to a document həυm/ noun a house which belongs to a


Common Serjeant /kɒmən local authority, where children in care
Common Serjeant

sɑdənt/ noun a senior barrister who can live


Community Legal Service /kə
Community Legal Service

sits as a judge in the City of London and |

acts as adviser to the City of London mjunəti li(ə)l s$vs/ noun a sys-
Corporation tem that consolidates previous features
commorientes /kəυmɒrientiz/ of the legal aid scheme, which it replaced
commorientes

| |

plural noun people who die at the same in April 2000, in a re-structured form,
time, e.g. a husband and wife who both outlining strict financial criteria for eligi-
die in the same accident bility. It is administered by the Legal
COMMENT: In such cases, the law as- Services Commission who ensure that
sumes that the younger person has public funds are made available to those
died after the older one; this rule also individuals in need of it most. Legal as-
applies to testators and beneficiaries sistance is broken down into six differing
who die at the same time. levels of assistance: (1) legal help (2)
commune /kɒmjun/ noun a group
commune

help at court; (3) investigative help; (4)


of people who live and work together, full representation (5) support funding;
and share their possessions (6) specific directions.
communicate /kəmjunket/ verb /kə
communicate

Community legislation
Community legislation

| | |

to pass information to someone 쑗 The mjunti ledsleʃ(ə)n/, Community


|

members of the jury must not communi- law noun 1. regulations or directives is-
cate with the witnesses. sued by the EC Council of Ministers or
/kəmjun the EC Commission 2. laws created by
communication

communication | |

keʃ(ə)n/ noun 1. the passing of infor- the European Community which are
mation between different people 왍 to en- binding on Member States and their citi-
ter into communication with someone zens
community policing /kəmjunti
community policing

to start discussing something with some- |

one, usually in writing 쑗 We have entered pəlisŋ/ noun a way of policing a sec-
|

into communication with the relevant tion of a town, where the members of the

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57 compellability
local community and the local police so is a legal entity separate from its indi-
force act together to prevent crime and vidual members 왍 a tractor or aircraft
disorder, with policemen on foot patrol or chocolate company a company
rather than in patrol cars which makes tractors or aircraft or choc-
community property /kəmjunti
community property

|
olate 왍 a company of good standing a
prɒpəti/ noun in the USA, Canada, very reputable company 왍 to put a com-
France and many other countries, a situ- pany into liquidation to close a compa-
ation where a husband and wife jointly ny by selling its assets to pay its creditors
own any property which they acquire 왍 to set up a company to start a compa-
during the course of their marriage. ny legally 3. 왍 companies’ register, reg-
Compare separate property ister of companies list of companies
community service / kəmjunti
community service

|
showing details of their directors and
s$vs/ noun work that someone has to registered addresses 4. an organisation in
do in their spare time as punishment for the City of London which does mainly
some offences instead of going to prison charitable work and is derived from one
of the former trade associations 쑗 the
community service order /kə
community service order

|
Drapers’ Company 쑗 the Grocers’ Com-
mjunti s$vs ɔdə/ noun a punish- pany
ment where a convicted person is sen-
company director /k mp(ə)ni da
company director

tenced to do unpaid work in the local |

community. Abbreviation CSO rektə/ noun a person appointed by the


shareholders to run a company
community support officer /kə
community support officer

company flat /k mp(ə)ni flt/


| company flat

mjunti səpɔt ɒfsə/ noun 쏡 Police


|

Community Support Officer noun a flat owned by a company and


used by members of staff from time to
commutation /kɒmjυteʃ(ə)n/
commutation

|
time (NOTE: The US term is apart-
noun the reduction of a punishment to ment.)
one that is less severe
company law /k mp(ə)ni lɔ/ noun
company law

commute /kəmjut/ verb 1. to travel


commute

|
law relating to the way companies may
to work from home each day 쑗 He com- operate
mutes from the country to his office in the
company member /k mp(ə)ni
company member

centre of town. 2. to change a right into


cash 3. to reduce a harsh sentence to a membə/ noun a shareholder in a com-
lesser one 쑗 The death sentence was pany
company promoter /k mp(ə)ni
company promoter

commuted to life imprisonment.


compact /kɒmpkt/ noun an agree-
compact
prəməυtə/ noun a person who organis-
|

ment es the setting up of a new company


company rules /k mp(ə)ni rulz/,
company rules

Companies Act /k mp(ə)niz kt/


Companies Act

noun in the UK, an Act which states the company rules and regulations
legal limits within which a company may /k mp(ə)ni rulz ən rejυleʃ(ə)nz/
|

do business plural noun the general way of working


in a company
Companies House /k mpəniz
Companies House

company secretary /k mp(ə)ni


company secretary

haυs/ noun in the UK, an office which


keeps details of incorporated companies sekrt(ə)ri/ noun somebody who is re-
sponsible for a company’s legal and fi-
companies’ register /k mpəniz
companies’ register

nancial affairs
redstə/ noun a list of companies
comparative law /kəmprətv lɔ/
comparative law

showing their directors and registered |

addresses, and statutory information kept noun a study which compares the legal
at Companies House for public inspec- systems of different countries
compel /kəmpel/ verb to force some-
compel

tion |

company /k mp(ə)ni/ noun 1. a


company
one to do something 쑗 The Act compels
group of people organised to buy, sell or all drivers to have adequate insurance.
provide a service 2. a group of people or- (NOTE: compelling – compelled)
/kəmpeləblti/
compellability

ganised to buy or sell or provide a service compellability | |

which has been legally incorporated, and noun the fact of being compellable

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compellable 58
compellable /kəmpeləb(ə)l/ adjec- competent /kɒmpt(ə)nt/ adjective
compellable competent

tive able to be forced to do something 쑗 1. able to do something 쑗 She is a com-


a compellable witness petent secretary or a competent manager.
2. efficient 3. legally able to do some-
compensate /kɒmpənset/ verb to
compensate

thing 쑗 Most people are competent to


pay for damage done 쑗 to compensate a give evidence. 왍 the court is not compe-
manager for loss of commission
tent to deal with this case the court is
compensation /kɒmpənseʃ(ə)n/
compensation

| not legally able to deal with the case


noun 1. payment made by someone to competition /kɒmpətʃ(ə)n/ noun
competition

cover the cost of damage or hardship the process of attempting to do better and
which he or she has caused 쑗 Unlimited be more successful than another compa-
compensation may be awarded in the ny
Crown Court. 왍 compensation for dam- competitor /kəmpettə/ noun a per-
competitor

age payment for damage done 왍 com-


|

son or company which competes 쑗 Two


pensation for loss of office payment to a
German firms are our main competitors.
director who is asked to leave a company 쑗 The contract of employment forbids
before his or her contract ends 왍 com- members of staff from leaving to go to
pensation for loss of earnings payment work for competitors.
to someone who has stopped earning
complainant /kəmplenənt/ noun
complainant

money or who is not able to earn money |

2. US a payment made to someone for somebody who makes a complaint or


work which has been done who starts proceedings against someone
complaint /kəmplent/ noun 1. a
complaint

compensation fund /kɒmpən


compensation fund
|

statement that you feel something is


seʃ(ə)n f nd/ noun a special fund set wrong 쑗 When making a complaint, al-
up by the Law Society to compensate cli- ways quote the reference number. 쑗 She
ents for loss suffered because of the ac- sent her letter of complaint to the manag-
tions of solicitors ing director. 왍 to make or lodge a com-
compensation order /kɒmpən
compensation order

| plaint against someone to write and


seʃ(ə)n ɔdə/ noun an order made by send an official complaint to someone’s
a criminal court which forces a criminal superior 2. a document signed to start
to pay compensation to his or her victim proceedings in a Magistrates’ Court 3. a
compensation package /kɒmpən
compensation package

|
statement of the case made by the claim-
seʃ(ə)n pkd/ noun the salary, pen- ant at the beginning of a civil action
complaints procedure /kəm
complaints procedure

sion and other benefits offered with a job |

compensatory damages plents prəsidə/ noun an agreed


compensatory damages
|

way of presenting complaints formally,


/kɒmpənset(ə)ri dmdz/ plural e.g. from an employee to the manage-
noun damages which compensate for
ment of a company
loss or harm suffered
complete /kəmplit/ adjective whole,
complete

compete /kəmpit/ verb 왍 to com-


compete |

|
with nothing missing 쑗 The order is com-
pete with someone or with a company plete and ready for sending. 쑗 The order
to try to do better than another person or should be delivered only if it is complete.
another company 쐽 verb 1. to finish 쑗 The factory complet-
competence /kɒmpt(ə)ns/, com- ed the order in two weeks. 쑗 How long
competence

petency /kɒmpt(ə)nsi/ noun 1. the will it take you to complete the job? 2. 왍
ability to do something effectively 2. the to complete a conveyance to convey a
fact of being able to give evidence (NOTE: property to a purchaser, when the pur-
Anyone is able to give evidence, except chaser pays the purchase price and the
the sovereign, persons who are mental- vendor hands over the signed convey-
ly ill, and spouses when the other ance and the deeds of the property
spouse is being prosecuted.) 3. 왍 the completion /kəmpliʃ(ə)n/ noun 1.
completion

case falls within the competence of the the act of finishing something 2. the last
court the court is legally able to deal stage in the sale of a property when the
with the case solicitors for the two parties meet, when

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59 computer language
the purchaser pays and the vendor passes compromise /kɒmprəmaz/ noun
compromise

the conveyance and the deeds to the pur- an agreement between two sides, where
chaser each side gives way a little in order to
completion date /kəmpliʃ(ə)n reach a settlement 쑗 After some discus-
completion date

det/ noun the date when something will sion a compromise solution was reached.
be finished 쐽 verb 1. to reach an agreement by giving
completion statement

completion statement /kəm |


way a little 쑗 He asked £15 for it, I of-
pliʃ(ə)n stetmənt/ noun a statement fered £7 and we compromised on £10. 2.
of account from a solicitor to a client to involve someone in something which
showing all the costs of the sale or pur- makes his or her reputation less good 쑗
chase of a property The minister was compromised in the
bribery case.
compliance /kəmplaəns/ noun
compliance

comptroller /kəntrəυlə/ noun the


| comptroller

willingness to do what is ordered 쑗 The |

documents have been drawn up in com- person in charge, especially referring to


pliance with the provisions of the Act. accounts
Comptroller and Auditor-General

compliant /kəmplaənt/ adjective


compliant
Comptroller and Auditor-Gener-
al /kəntrəυlə ən ɔdtə den(ə)rəl/
|

agreeing with something 왍 not compli- |

ant with not in agreement with 쑗 The noun an official whose duty is to exam-
settlement is not compliant with the ear- ine the accounts of ministries and gov-
lier order of the court. ernment departments and who heads the
National Audit Office
compliments slip /kɒmplmənts
compliments slip

compulsory /kəmp lsəri/ adjective


compulsory

slp/ noun a piece of paper with the |

name of a company printed on it, sent being forced or ordered


compulsory liquidation /kəm
compulsory liquidation

with documents, gifts, etc., instead of a |

letter p lsəri lkwdeʃ(ə)n/ noun liquida-


|

comply /kəmpla/ verb 왍 to comply


comply

|
tion which is ordered by a court
/kəm
compulsory purchase

with to obey 쑗 The company has com- compulsory purchase |

plied with the court order. 쑗 She refused p lsəri p$tʃs/ noun the buying of a
to comply with the injunction. property by the local council or the gov-
composition / kɒmpəzʃ(ə)n/ noun
composition

|
ernment even if the owner does not want
an agreement between a debtor and cred- to sell
compulsory purchase order /kəm
compulsory purchase order

itors to settle a debt immediately by re- |

paying only part of it p lsəri p$tʃs ɔdə/ noun an official


compos mentis /kɒmpɒs ments/
compos mentis
order from a local authority or from the
phrase a Latin phrase meaning ‘of sound government ordering an owner to sell his
mind’ or ‘sane’ or her property
compulsory winding up order

compound /kəmpaυnd/ verb 1. to


compound
compulsory winding up order
/kəmp lsəri wandŋ  p ɔdə/ noun
|

agree with creditors to settle a debt by |

paying part of what is owed 2. 왍 to com- an order from a court saying that a com-
pound an offence to agree (in return for pany must be wound up (stop trading)
computer error /kəmpjutər erə/
computer error

payment) not to prosecute someone who |

has committed an offence noun a mistake made by a computer


comprehensive /kɒmprhensv/ computer fraud /kəmpjutə frɔd/
comprehensive computer fraud

| |

adjective including everything noun fraud committed by using data


comprehensive insurance

comprehensive insurance stored on computer


/kɒmprhensv nʃυərəns / noun in- /kəmpjutəraz/,
computerise

| computerise |

surance which covers you against a large computerize verb to change from a
number of possible risks manual system to one using computers 쑗
comprehensive policy

comprehensive policy The police criminal records have been


/kɒmprhensv pɒlsi/ noun an insur- completely computerised.
computer language /kəmpjutə
computer language

ance policy which covers risks of any |

kind, with no exclusions lŋwd/ noun a system of signs, let-

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computer program 60
ters and words used to instruct a compu- concert party /kɒnsət pɑti / noun
concert party

ter an arrangement by which several people


computer program /kəmpjutə or companies act together in secret to
computer program

prəυrm/ noun a set of instructions to take over a company


a computer, telling it to do a particular concession /kənseʃ(ə)n/ noun 1.
concession

piece of work the right to use someone else’s property


computer time /kəmpjutə tam/
computer time

| for business purposes 2. the right to be


noun the time when a computer is being the only seller of a product in a place 쑗
used (paid for at an hourly rate) She runs a jewellery concession in a de-
con /kɒn/ noun 1. a trick done to try to
con
partment store. 3. an allowance 4. an act
get money from someone (informal ) 쑗 of accepting defeat
/kənseʃəneə/
concessionaire

Trying to get us to pay him for ten hours’ concessionaire | |

overtime was just a con. 2. same as con- noun somebody who has the right to be
vict (slang) 3. same as conviction the only seller of a product in a place
(slang) 쐽 verb to trick someone to try to conciliation /kənslieʃ(ə)n/ noun
conciliation

| |

get money (informal ) 쑗 They conned the the activity of bringing together the par-
bank into lending them £25,000 with no ties in a dispute so that the dispute can be
security. 쑗 He conned the finance compa- settled
ny out of £100,000. (NOTE: conning –
Conciliation Service /kənsli
Conciliation Service

conned. Note also you con someone | |

into doing something.) eʃ(ə)n s$vs/ noun same as Adviso-


ry Conciliation and Arbitration Serv-
conceal /kənsil/ verb to hide
conceal

| She쑗
ice
was accused of concealing information.
conclude /kənklud/ verb 1. to com-
conclude

쑗 The accused had a gun concealed un- |

der his coat. plete successfully 쑗 to conclude an


agreement with someone 2. to believe
concealment /kənsilmənt/ noun
concealment

from evidence 쑗 The police concluded


the act hiding something for criminal that the thief had got into the building
purposes 왍 concealment of assets the act through the main entrance.
of hiding assets so that creditors do not
conclusion /kənklu(ə)n/ noun 1.
conclusion

know they exist 왍 concealment of birth |

a notifiable offence of hiding the fact that an opinion which is reached after careful
a child has been born thought and examination of the evidence
쑗 The police have come to the conclusion
concede /kənsid/ verb to admit that
concede

or have reached the conclusion that the


|

an opposing party is right 쑗 Counsel con-


ceded that his client owed the money. 쑗 bomb was set off by radio control. 2. 왍
The witness conceded under questioning conclusion of fact US a statement of a
that he had never been near the house. 왍 decision by a judge, based on facts 왍
to concede defeat to admit that you have conclusion of law a statement of a deci-
lost sion by a judge, based on rules of law 3.
the final completion 쑗 the conclusion of
concern /kəns$n/ noun a business or
concern

|
the defence counsel’s address 왍 in con-
company 왍 his business is a going con- clusion finally, at the end 쑗 In conclu-
cern the company is working (and mak- sion, the judge thanked the jury for their
ing a profit) 왍 sold as a going concern long and patient service.
sold as an actively trading company 쐽
conclusive /kənklusv/ adjective
conclusive

verb to deal with, to be connected with 쑗 |

The court is not concerned with the value proving something 쑗 The fingerprints on
of the items stolen. 쑗 The report does not the gun were conclusive evidence that
concern itself with the impartiality of the the accused was guilty.
conclusively /kənklusvli/ adverb
conclusively

judge. 쑗 He has been asked to give evi- |

dence to the commission of inquiry con- in a way which proves a fact 쑗 The evi-
cerning the breakdown of law and order. dence of the eye witness proved conclu-
쑗 The contract was drawn up with the sively that the accused was in the town at
agreement of all parties concerned. the time the robbery was committed.

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61 conditional will
concordat /kənkɔdt/ noun agree- legal costs. 2. a general state 쑗 item sold
concordat

ment between the Roman Catholic in good condition 쑗 What was the condi-
Church and a government, which allows tion of the car when it was sold?
the Church specific rights and privileges conditional /kəndʃ(ə)n(ə)l/ adjec-
conditional

concur /kənk$/ verb to agree 쑗 Smith


concur

| tive only able to happen if something else


LJ dismissed the appeal, Jones and happens first 왍 to give a conditional ac-
White LJJ concurring. ceptance to accept, provided that specif-
concurrence /kənk rəns/ noun
concurrence

|
ic things happen or terms apply 왍 the of-
agreement between different people 쑗 In fer is conditional on the board’s ac-
concurrence with the other judges, Smith ceptance the offer will only go through
LJ dismissed the appeal. if the board accepts it 왍 he made a con-
concurrent /kənk rənt/ adjective
concurrent

|
ditional offer he offered to buy, provid-
taking place at the same time. 쒁 consec- ed that specific terms applied
/kən
conditional discharge

utive conditional discharge |

concurrently /kənk rəntli/ adverb


concurrently

|
dʃ(ə)n(ə)l dstʃɑd/ noun an act of
|

taking place at the same time 쑗 He was allowing an offender to be set free with-
sentenced to two periods of two years in out any immediate punishment on condi-
prison, the sentences to run concurrent- tion that he or she does not commit an of-
ly. 쒁 consecutively fence during the following period
concurrent power / kənk rənt conditional fee /kəndʃ(ə)n(ə)l fi/
concurrent power conditional fee

| |

paυə/ noun a power which is held con- noun a fee which is paid only if the case
currently by a Member State and by the is won. Also called contingent fee,
community, where the Member State can success fee
exercise the power up to the point at COMMENT: Conditional fee agree-
which the community exercises its ments originally covered a limited
rights. If the community acts, the power range of cases, but are now applied to
becomes exclusive to the community and insolvency, defamation, civil liberties,
the Member State can no longer act. intellectual property, employment and
many other areas of action. These
concurrent sentence /kənk rənt
concurrent sentence

|
agreements allow clients to agree with
sentəns/ noun a sentence which takes their lawyers that the lawyers will not
place at the same time as another 쑗 He receive all or part of the usual fees or
was given two concurrent jail sentences expenses if the case is lost; if the case
is won, on the other hand, the client
of six months. agrees to pay an extra fee in addition
condemn /kəndem/ verb 1. to sen-
condemn

| to the normal fee. Insurance policies


tence someone to be punished 쑗 The are available to people contemplating
prisoners were condemned to death. 2. to legal action to cover the costs of the
say that a dwelling is not fit for people to other party and the client’s own fees if
the case is lost.
live in
conditional fee agreement /kən
conditional fee agreement

condemnation /kɒndemneʃ(ə)n/
condemnation
|

dʃ(ə)n(ə)l fi ərimənt/ noun an


|

noun 1. the act of sentencing of someone |

to a particular severe punishment 2. the agreement between a client and their rep-
forfeit of a piece of property when it has resentation that the legal fees will only
been legally seized be paid if the case is successful. Also
known as no win no fee
condemned cell /kəndemd sel/
condemned cell

conditionally /kəndʃ(ə)n(ə)li/ ad-


conditionally

noun US a cell where a prisoner is kept |

who has been sentenced to death verb provided some things take place 왍
condition /kəndʃ(ə)n/ noun 1. a
condition

|
to accept an offer conditionally to ac-
term of a contract or duty which has to be cept provided some conditions are ful-
carried out as part of a contract, or some- filled
conditional will /kəndʃ(ə)n(ə)l
conditional will

thing which has to be agreed before a |

contract becomes valid 왍 on condition wl/ noun a will which takes effect when
that provided that 쑗 They were granted the person dies, but only if specific con-
the lease on condition that they paid the ditions apply

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condition precedent 62
condition precedent /kəndʃ(ə)n cretionary powers conferred on the tri-
condition precedent

presd(ə)nt/ noun a condition which bunal by statute 2. to discuss 쑗 The Chief


says that a right will not be granted until Constable conferred with the Superin-
something is done tendent in charge of the case.
conditions of employment /kən conference /kɒnf(ə)rəns/ noun a
conference
conditions of employment

dʃ(ə)nz əv mplɔmənt/ plural noun


| meeting of a group of people to discuss
the terms of a contract of employment, something 쑗 The Police Federation is
which must be supplied in writing to an holding its annual conference this week.
employee within two months of the start 쑗 The Labour Party Annual Conference
of employment was held in Brighton this year. 쑗 He pre-
conditions of sale /kəndʃ(ə)nz əv
conditions of sale

|
sented a motion to the conference. 쑗 The
sel/ plural noun a list of the terms such conference passed a motion in favour of
as discounts and credit terms under unilateral nuclear disarmament.
conference agenda /kɒnf(ə)rəns ə
conference agenda

which a sale takes place |

condition subsequent
condition subsequent

/kən |
dendə/ noun the business which is to
dʃ(ə)n s bskwənt/ noun a condition be discussed at a conference
conference papers /kɒnf(ə)rəns
conference papers

which says that a contract will be modi-


fied or annulled if something is not done pepəs/ plural noun copies of lectures
condominium /kɒndəmniəm/ given at a conference, printed and pub-
condominium

noun US a system of ownership, where a lished after the conference has ended
conference proceedings

person owns an individual apartment in a conference proceedings


building, together with a share of the /kɒnf(ə)rəns prəsidŋz/ plural noun
|

land and common parts such as stairs and written report of what has been discussed
roof at a conference
condonation /kɒndəneʃ(ə)n/ noun conference table /kɒnf(ə)rəns
condonation conference table

the forgiving by one spouse of an act, es- teb(ə)l/ noun a table around which
pecially adultery, of the other people sit to negotiate
condone /kəndəυn/ verb to fail to confess /kənfes/ verb to admit that
condone
confess

|
|

criticise bad or criminal behaviour 쑗 The you have committed a crime 쑗 After six
court cannot condone your treatment of hours’ questioning by the police the ac-
your children. cused man confessed.
conducive /kəndjusv/ adjective confession /kənfeʃ(ə)n/ noun 1. a
conducive
confession

|
|

likely to lead to or produce 쑗 The threat statement by a defendant that they have
of legal action is not conducive to an committed a crime 쑗 The police sergeant
easy solution to the dispute. asked him to sign his confession. 2. a
conduct /kənd kt/ noun a way of be- document in which you admit that you
conduct

having 쑗 She was arrested for disorderly have committed a crime 쑗 The accused
conduct in the street. 왍 conduct condu- typed his own confession statement. 쑗
cive to a breach of the peace a way of The confession was not admitted in
behaving, using rude or threatening lan- court, because the accused claimed it
guage in speech or writing, which seems had been extorted.
likely to cause a breach of the peace 쐽 confession and avoidance / kən
confession and avoidance

verb to carry out an activity 쑗 to conduct feʃ(ə)n ən əvɔd(ə)ns/ noun an ad-


|

discussions or negotiations 쑗 The chair- mission by a party of the allegations


man conducted the proceedings very effi- made against him or her, but at the same
ciently. time bringing forward new pleadings
confederation /kənfedəreʃ(ə)n/,
confederation

| | which make the allegations void


confederacy /kənfed(ə)rəsi/ noun a |
confidence /kɒnfd(ə)ns/ noun 1.
confidence

group of organisations working together feeling sure about something or having


for common aims 쑗 a loose confedera- trust in someone 쑗 The sales teams do
tion of local businesses not have much confidence in their man-
confer /kənf$/ verb 1. to give power
confer

| ager. 쑗 The board has total confidence in


or responsibility to someone 쑗 the dis- the managing director. 2. the ability to

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63 conformance
trust someone with a secret 왍 in confi- without being free to leave, especially as
dence in secret 쑗 I will show you the re- a punishment
port in confidence. confirm /kənf$m/ verb to say that
confirm

confidence trick /kɒnfd(ə)ns


confidence trick

something is certain or is correct 쑗 The


trk/, confidence game US Court of Appeal has confirmed the
/kɒnfd(ə)ns em/ noun a business judge’s decision. 쑗 His secretary phoned
deal where someone gains another per- to confirm the hotel room or the ticket or
son’s confidence and then tricks him or the agreement or the booking. 왍 to con-
her firm someone in a job to say that some-
confidence trickster /kɒnfd(ə)ns
confidence trickster

one is now permanently in a particular


trkstə/, confidence man US job
/kɒnfd(ə)ns mn/ noun somebody confiscate /kɒnfsket/ verb to take
confiscate

who carries out confidence tricks on peo- away private property into the possession
ple of the state 쑗 The court ordered the drugs
confidence vote / kɒnfd(ə)ns
confidence vote

to be confiscated.
vəυt/ noun a vote to show that a person confiscation /kɒnfskeʃ(ə)n/ noun
confiscation

or group is or is not trusted 쑗 He pro- the act of confiscating


posed a vote of confidence in the govern-
conflict noun /kɒnflkt/ disagreement
conflict

ment. 쑗 The chairman resigned after the


motion of no confidence was passed at 왍 to be in or come into conflict with to
the AGM. disagree with someone over something 쐽
verb /kənflkt/ not to agree 쑗 The evi-
confidential /kɒnfdenʃəl/ adjec-
confidential
|

tive secret between two persons or a


dence of the wife conflicts with that of
small group of people 쑗 the letter was her husband. 쑗 The UK legislation con-
marked ‘Private and Confidential’ flicts with the directives of the EC.
conflicting evidence /kɒnflktŋ
conflicting evidence
confidential information

confidential information
/kɒnfdenʃəl nfəmeʃ(ə)n/ noun in-
|
evd(ə)ns/ noun evidence from differ-
formation which is secret, and which ent witnesses which does not agree 쑗 The
must not be passed on to other people 쑗 jury has to decide who to believe among
He was accused of passing on confiden- a mass of conflicting evidence.
tial information. 쑗 The knowledge which conflict of interest /kɒnflkt əv
conflict of interest

an employee has of the working of the ntrəst/, conflict of interests


firm for which he works can be seen to be /kɒnflkt əv ntrəsts/ noun a situation
confidential information which he must where a person may profit personally
not pass on to another firm. from decisions which he or she takes in
confidentiality /kɒnfdenʃilti/
confidentiality

| their official capacity, or may not be able


noun an understanding between two or to act independently because of connec-
more parties that specified information tions with other people or organisations
remains secret conflict of laws /kɒnflkt əv lɔz/
conflict of laws

confidential report /kɒnfdenʃəl r


confidential report

| noun a section in a country’s statutes


pɔt/ noun a secret document which which deals with disputes between that
must not be shown to other than a few country’s laws and those of another
named persons country
confine /kənfan/ verb to keep a crim-
confine

conform /kənfɔm/ verb to act in ac-


conform

|
|

inal in a room or restricted area cordance with something 쑗 The proposed


confined to barracks /kənfand tə Bill conforms to the recommendations of
confined to barracks

brəks/ adjective (of a soldier) sen- the Royal Commission.


tenced to stay in the barracks for a set pe- conformance /kənfɔməns/ noun
conformance

riod of time and not to go outside. Abbre- behaviour in accordance with a rule 쑗 in
viation CB conformance with the directives of the
confinement / kənfanmənt/ noun
confinement

| Commission 쑗 He was criticised for non-


the situation of being kept in a place conformance with the regulations.

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conformity 64
conformity /kənfɔmti/ noun 왍 in tive sentences two or more sentences
conformity

conformity with agreeing with 쑗 He has which follow one after the other
acted in conformity with the regulations. consecutively /kəsekjυtvli/ ad-
consecutively

Congress /kɒŋres/ noun US the


Congress

verb following 쑗 He was sentenced to


elected federal legislative body in many two periods of two years in jail, the sen-
countries, especially in the USA where it tences to run consecutively. 쒁 concur-
is formed of the House of Representa- rently
tives and the Senate 쑗 The President is consensual /kənsensjυəl/ adjective
consensual

counting on a Democrat majority in happening by agreement


Congress. 쑗 He was first elected to Con-
consensual acts /kənsensjυəl
consensual acts

gress in 1988. 쑗 At a joint session of Con- |

gress, the President called for support kts/ plural noun sexual acts which
for his plan. (NOTE: often used without both parties agree should take place
consensus /kənsensəs/ noun gener-
consensus

the except when referring to a particu- |

lar legislature: The US Congress met in al agreement 쑗 There was a consensus


emergency session; The Republicans between all parties as to the next steps to
had a majority in both houses of the be taken. 쑗 In the absence of a consen-
1974 Congress.) sus, no decisions could be reached.
Congressional /kənreʃ(ə)n(ə)l/ consensus ad idem /kənsensəs
Congressional consensus ad idem

| |

adjective US referring to Congress 쑗 a d adem/ phrase a Latin phrase mean-


Congressional subcommittee ing ‘agreement to this same thing’: a real
conjugal /kɒndυ(ə)l/ adjective re- agreement to a contract by both parties
conjugal

consent /kənsent/ noun agreement


consent

ferring to marriage |

rights /kɒndυ(ə)l or permission that something should


conjugal rights

conjugal
rats/ plural noun rights of a husband happen 쑗 He borrowed the car without
and wife in relation to each other the owner’s consent. 왍 age of consent
conman /kɒnmn/ noun same as
conman
sixteen years old, when a girl can agree
confidence trickster (informal) to have sexual intercourse 쐽 verb to
agree that something should be done 쑗
connected persons /kənektd
connected persons

|
The judge consented to the request of the
p$s(ə)ns/ plural noun people who are prosecution counsel.
closely related to, or have a close busi-
/kənsent
consent judgment

ness association with, a company direc- consent judgment |

tor d dmənt/ noun an agreement of the


parties in a lawsuit to a judgment which
connection /kənekʃən/ noun some-
connection

then becomes the settlement


thing which joins one person or thing to
consent order /kənsent ɔdə/ noun
consent order

another 쑗 Is there a connection between |

the loss of the documents and the death a court order that someone must not do
of the lawyer? 왍 in connection with re- something without the agreement of an-
ferring to 쑗 the police want to interview other party
consequential /kɒnskwenʃəl/ ad-
consequential

the man in connection with burglaries |

committed last November jective following as a result of


connivance /kənavəns/ noun the
connivance
consequential damages

|
consequential damages
act of not reporting a crime that you /kɒnskwenʃəl dmdz/ plural
know is being or is about to be commit- noun damages suffered as a consequence
ted 쑗 With the connivance of the customs of using a piece of equipment, software,
officers, he managed to bring the goods etc., e.g. the stoppage of business activi-
into the country. ties because of computer or software
connive /kənav/ verb 왍 to connive at failure
connive

something to shut one’s eyes to wrong- consequent on /kɒnskwənt ɒn/,


consequent on

doing, to know that a crime is being com- upon / pɒn/ adjective following as a
|

mitted, but not to report it result of 쑗 The manufacturer is not liable


consecutive /kənsekjυtv/ adjec-
consecutive

| for injuries consequent on the use of this


tive following. 쒁 concurrent 왍 consecu- apparatus.

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65 constitution
consider /kənsdə/ verb 1. to think COMMENT: The goods remain the
consider

seriously about something 왍 to consider property of the consignor until the con-
signee sells them.
the terms of a contract to examine and
consistent /kənsstənt/ adjective
consistent

discuss if the terms are acceptable 왍 the |

judge asked the jury to consider their agreeing with and not contradicting
verdict he asked the jury to discuss the something 쑗 The sentence is consistent
evidence they had heard and decide if the with government policy on the treatment
accused was guilty or not 2. to believe 쑗 of young offenders.
consolidate /kənsɒldet/ verb 1. to
consolidate

He is considered to be one of the leading | |

divorce lawyers. 쑗 The law on libel is bring several Acts of Parliament together
considered too lenient. into one act 쑗 The judge ordered the ac-
tions to be consolidated. 2. to hear sever-
consideration /kənsdəreʃ(ə)n/
consideration

| |

al sets of proceedings together


noun 1. serious thought 쑗 We are giving
Consolidated Fund /kənsɒldetd
Consolidated Fund

consideration to moving the head office |

to Scotland. 왍 to take something into f nd/ noun a fund of money formed of


consideration to think about something all taxes and other government revenues.
쒁 Exchequer
when deciding what to do 쑗 Having tak-
consolidated shipment /kən
consolidated shipment

en the age of the accused into considera- |

tion, the court has decided to give him a sɒldetd ʃpmənt/ noun goods from
suspended sentence. 왍 to ask for other different companies grouped together
offences to be taken into consideration into a single shipment
Consolidating Act / kənsɒldetŋ
Consolidating Act

to confess to other offences after being |

accused or convicted of one offence, so kt/ noun an Act of Parliament which


that the sentence can cover all of them 쑗 brings together several previous Acts
The accused admitted six other offences, which relate to the same subject. 쒁 codi-
and asked for them to be taken into con- fication
sideration. 2. the price, in money, goods, consolidation /kənsɒldeʃ(ə)n/
consolidation

| |

or some other reward, paid by one person noun 1. the act of bringing together var-
in exchange for another person promis- ious Acts of Parliament which deal with
ing to do something, which is an essen- one subject into one single Act 2. a pro-
tial element in the formation of a contract cedure whereby several sets of proceed-
왍 for a small consideration for a small ings are heard together by the court
fee or payment consortium /kənsɔtiəm/ noun 1. a
consortium

consign /kənsan/ verb 왍 to consign


consign

| group of different companies which


goods to someone to send goods to work together on one project 2. the right
someone for him to use or to sell for you of a husband and wife to the love and
consignation

consignation /kɒnsaneʃ(ə)n/ |
support of the other
conspiracy /kənsprəsi/ noun a plan
conspiracy

noun the act of consigning |

made with another person or other peo-


consignee /kɒnsani/ noun some-
consignee

ple to commit a crime or tort (NOTE:


|

body who receives goods from someone Conspiracy to commit a crime is itself a
for his or her own use or to sell for the crime.)
person who sends them
conspire /kənspaə/ verb to agree
conspire

consignment /kənsanmənt/ noun


consignment |

|
with another person or other people to
the sending of goods to someone who commit a crime or tort
will hold them for you and sell them on constitute /kɒnsttjut/ verb to
constitute

your behalf 왍 goods on consignment


|

make or to form 쑗 The documents consti-


goods kept for another company to be tute primary evidence. 쑗 This Act consti-
sold on their behalf for a commission
tutes a major change in government pol-
consignment note /kənsanmənt
consignment note

|
icy. 쑗 Conduct tending to interfere with
nəυt/ noun a note saying that goods have the course of justice constitutes contempt
been sent of court.
consignor /kənsanə/ noun some- /kɒnsttjuʃ(ə)n/
consignor

constitution
constitution

| |

body who consigns goods to someone noun 1. the set of laws, usually written

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constitutional 66
down, under which a country is ruled 쑗 relations. 쑗 We had a constructive pro-
The freedom of the individual is guaran- posal from a shipping company in Italy.
teed by the country’s constitution. 쑗 The constructive dismissal

constructive dismissal /kən |

new president asked the assembly to str ktv dsms(ə)l/ noun a situation
|

draft a new constitution. 2. the written when a worker leaves his or her job vol-
rules of a society, association or club 쑗 untarily, but because of unreasonable
Under the society’s constitution, the pressure from the management
chairman is elected for a two-year peri-
constructive knowledge /kən
constructive knowledge

od. 쑗 Payments to officers of the associa- |

tion are not allowed by the constitution. str ktv nɒld/ noun knowledge of a
COMMENT: Most countries have written
fact or matter which the law says a per-
constitutions, usually drafted by law- son has available to them, whether or not
yers, which can be amended by an Act that person actually has it
of the country’s legislative body. The constructive notice /kənstr ktv
constructive notice

United States constitution was drawn nəυts/ noun knowledge which the law
up by Thomas Jefferson after the
country became independent, and has says a person has of something, whether
numerous amendments (the first ten or not the person actually has it, because
amendments being the Bill of Rights). the information is available if reasonable
Great Britain is unusual in that it has inquiry is made
no written constitution, and relies on
constructive total loss /kən
constructive total loss

precedent and the body of laws |

passed over the years to act as a safe- str ktv təυt(ə)l lɒs/ noun a loss
guard of the rights of the citizens and where the item insured has been thrown
the legality of government. away as it is likely to be irreplaceable
constitutional /kɒnsttjuʃ(ə)nəl/
constitutional

constructive trust /kənstr ktv


constructive trust
|
|

adjective 1. referring to a country’s con- tr st/ noun trust arising by reason of a


stitution 쑗 Censorship of the press is not person’s behaviour
constitutional. 2. according to a constitu-
construe /kənstru/ verb to interpret
construe

tion 쑗 The re-election of the chairman for |

a second term is not constitutional. 쒁 un- the meaning of words or of a document 쑗


constitutional The court construed the words to mean
that there was a contract between the
constitutional law /kɒnst
constitutional law

parties. 쑗 Written opinion is not admissi-


tjuʃ(ə)n(ə)l lɔ/ noun the set of laws ble as evidence for the purposes of con-
relating to government and its function struing a deed of settlement.
under which a country is ruled
consult /kəns lt/ verb to ask an ex-
consult

constitutional lawyer
constitutional lawyer |

/kɒnsttjuʃ(ə)n(ə)l lɔjə/ noun a pert for advice 쑗 He consulted his solici-


lawyer who specialises in drafting or in- tor about the letter.
consultancy / kəns ltənsi/ noun the
consultancy

terpreting constitutions |

constitutional
constitutional right

right /kɒnst |
act of giving specialist advice 쑗 a consul-
tjuʃ(ə)n(ə)l rat/ noun a right which is tancy firm 쑗 He offers a consultancy
guaranteed by the constitution of a coun- service.
consultant /kəns ltənt/ noun a spe-
consultant

try |

construction /kənstr kʃən/ noun cialist who gives advice 쑗 engineering


construction

an interpretation of the meaning of consultant 쑗 management consultant 쑗


words 왍 to put a construction on words tax consultant
to suggest a meaning for words which is consultation /kɒnsəlteʃ(ə)n/ noun
consultation

not immediately obvious 1. a meeting with someone who can give


construction company /kən specialist advice 2. a meeting between a
construction company

str kʃ(ə)n k mp(ə)ni/ noun a compa- client and a professional adviser such as
ny which specialises in building a solicitor or QC
constructive /kənstr ktv/ adjec- consultation document /kɒnsəl
constructive consultation document

| |

tive helping in the making of something teʃ(ə)n dɒkjυmənt/ noun a paper


쑗 She made some constructive sugges- which is issued by a government depart-
tions for improving employer-employee ment to people who are asked to com-

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67 context
ment and make suggestions for improve- someone else, such as the other parent in
ment the case of a divorced couple. Former
consultative /kəns ltətv/ adjective name access order
consultative

being asked to give advice 쑗 the report of contemnor /kəntemnə/ noun some-
contemnor

a consultative body 쑗 She is acting in a body who commits a contempt of court


consultative capacity. contempt /kəntempt/ noun the act of
contempt

consultative document /kən


consultative document

|
showing a lack of respect to a court or
s ltətv dɒkjυmənt/ noun same as Parliament 왍 to be in contempt to have
consultation document shown disrespect to a court, especially
consulting /kəns ltŋ/ adjective per- by disobeying a court order 왍 to purge
consulting

son who gives specialist advice 쑗 con- one’s contempt to apologise, to do


sulting engineer something to show that you are sorry for
consumer /kənsjumə/ noun a per-
consumer

|
the lack of respect shown
contempt of court /kəntempt əv
contempt of court

son or company which buys and uses |

goods and services 쑗 Gas consumers are kɔt/ noun the act of showing a lack of
protesting at the increase in prices. 쑗 The respect to a court, by bad behaviour in
factory is a heavy consumer of water. court or by refusing to carry out a court
consumer council /kənsjumə order 쑗 At common law, conduct tending
consumer council

kaυns(ə)l/ noun a group representing to interfere with the course of justice in


the interests of consumers particular legal proceedings constitutes
consumer
consumer credit

credit / kənsjumə |
criminal contempt.
kredt/ noun the provision of loans by content /kɒntent/ noun the subject
content

finance companies to help people buy matter of a letter or other document 왍 the
goods content of the letter the real meaning of
consumer goods /kənsjumə
consumer goods

|
the letter
υdz/ plural noun goods bought by the contentious /kəntenʃəs/ adjective,
contentious

general public and not by businesses noun (of legal business) where there is a
consumer legislation /kənsjumə
consumer legislation

|
dispute
ledsleʃ(ə)n/ noun law which gives contents /kɒntents/ plural noun
contents

rights to people who buy goods or who things contained in something 쑗 The con-
pay for services tents of the bottle poured out onto the
consumer protection / kənsjumə floor. 쑗 The customs officials inspected
consumer protection

prətekʃən/ noun the activity of protect-


|
the contents of the box. 왍 the contents of
ing consumers from unfair or illegal the envelope the things in the envelope
business practices contest /kəntest/ noun a situation in
contest

consummation /kɒnsəmeʃ(ə)n/ which people or groups try to gain an ad-


consummation

noun the act of having sexual intercourse vantage 쐽 verb 1. to argue that a decision
for the first time after the marriage cere- or a ruling is wrong 쑗 I wish to contest
mony the statement made by the witness. 2. to
contact /kɒntkt/ noun 1. a person
contact
compete to be successful in something
you know who can give you help such as such as an election
contested takeover /kəntestd
contested takeover

finding work or advice and information 쑗 |

He has many contacts in the city. 쑗 Who tekəυvə/ noun a takeover where the
is your contact in the Ministry? 2. the act directors of the company being bought
of getting in touch with someone 왍 I do not recommend the bid and try to fight
have lost contact with them I do not it
communicate with them any longer 왍 he context /kɒntekst/ noun 1. other
context

put me in contact with a good lawyer words which surround a word or phrase
he told me how to get in touch with a 쑗 The words can only be understood in
good lawyer the context of the phrase in which they
contact order /kɒntkt ɔdə/ noun occur. 왍 the words were quoted out of
contact order

a court order allowing a parent to see a context the words were quoted without
child where the child is in the care of the rest of the surrounding text, so as to

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contingency 68
give them a different meaning 2. the gen- for #10,000 worth of spare parts 왍 to put
eral situation in which something hap- work out to contract to decide that
pens 쑗 The action of the police has to be work should be done by another compa-
seen in the context of the riots against the ny on a contract, rather than employing
government. members of staff to do it 왍 to award a
contingency /kəntndənsi/ noun a contract to a company, to place a con-
contingency

possible state of emergency when deci- tract with a company to decide that a
sions will have to be taken quickly company shall have the contract to do
work for you 왍 to tender for a contract
contingency fund /kəntndənsi
contingency fund

to put forward an estimate of cost for


|

f nd/ noun money set aside in case it is


work to be carried out under contract 왍
needed urgently
the company is in breach of contract
contingency plan /kəntndənsi
contingency plan

|
the company has failed to do what was
pln/ noun a plan which will be put into agreed in the contract 3. an agreement to
action if something happens which is ex- kill someone for a payment (slang) 왍
pected to happen there is a contract out for him someone
/kən
contingent expenses

contingent expenses | has offered money for him to be killed 쐽


tndənt kspensz/ plural noun ex-
| verb to agree to do something on the ba-
penses which will be incurred only if sis of a contract 쑗 to contract to supply
something happens spare parts or to contract for the supply
contingent fee /kəntndənt fi/
contingent fee

|
of spare parts 왍 the supply of spare
noun US a fee paid to a legal practitioner parts was contracted out to Smith Ltd
which is a proportion of the damages re- Smith Ltd was given the contract for sup-
covered in the case plying spare parts 왍 to contract out of
an agreement to withdraw from an
contingent interest /kəntndənt
contingent interest

agreement with written permission of the


|

ntrəst/ noun US an interest in property


other party
which may or may not exist in the future
COMMENT: A contract is an agreement
contingent policy /kəntndənt
contingent policy

|
between two or more parties to create
pɒlsi/ noun a policy which pays out legal obligations between them. Some
only if something happens, e.g. if the contracts are made ‘under seal’, i.e.
person named in the policy dies before they are signed and sealed by the par-
the person who is to benefit from it ties; most contracts are made orally or
in writing. The essential elements of a
contingent remainder /kən
contingent remainder

|
contract are: (a) that an offer made by
tndənt rmendə/ noun a remainder
| one party should be accepted by the
which is contingent upon something other; (b) consideration; (c) the inten-
happening in the future tion to create legal relations. The
terms of a contract may be express or
contra /kɒntrə/ prefix against, oppo-
contra

implied. A breach of contract by one


site, or contrasting party entitles the other party to sue for
contract /kəntrkt/ noun 1. a legal
contract

|
damages or in some cases to seek
specific performance.
agreement between two or more parties 쑗
party /kəntrktŋ
contracting party

to draw up a contract 쑗 to draft a con- contracting |

tract 쑗 to sign a contract 왍 the contract pɑti/ noun the person or company that
is binding on both parties both parties signs a contract
signing the contract must do what is contract killer /kɒntrkt klə/
contract killer

agreed 왍 by private contract by private noun somebody who will kill someone if
legal agreement 왍 under contract bound paid to do so
by the terms of a contract 쑗 The firm is contract law /kɒntrkt lɔ/ noun
contract law

under contract to deliver the goods by law relating to agreements


November. 왍 to void a contract to make
contract note /kɒntrkt nəυt/
contract note

a contract invalid 2. 왍 contract for serv-


ices an agreement for the supply of a noun a note showing that shares have
service or goods 쑗 contract for the supply been bought or sold but not yet paid for
contract of employment

of spare parts 쑗 to enter into a contract contract of employment


to supply spare parts 쑗 to sign a contract /kɒntrkt əv mplɔmənt/, contract
|

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69 contributory causes
of service noun a contract between an that an ambiguity in a document is con-
employer and an employee showing all strued against the party who drafted it
the conditions of work contrary /kɒntrəri/ noun the opposite
contrary

contractor /kəntrktə/ noun a per-


contractor

| 쑗 Information suggests that the contrary


son who enters into a contract, especially is true. 왍 on the contrary used for em-
a person or company that does work ac- phasising an opposite statement 쑗 Coun-
cording to a written agreement sel was not annoyed with the witness –
contractual /kəntrktʃυəl/ adjec-
contractual

|
on the contrary, she praised him. 왍 quite
tive according to a contract 왍 to fulfil the contrary used for emphasising an
your contractual obligations to do what opposite statement 쑗 I don’t dislike his
you have agreed to do in a contract 왍 he manner of working -quite the contrary –
is under no contractual obligation to I think it’s very effective. 왍 to the contra-
buy he has signed no agreement to buy ry suggesting that the opposite is true or
contractual liability /kəntrktʃuəl
contractual liability

|
should happen 쑗 You should continue to
laəblti/ noun a legal responsibility
|
do it this way, unless you receive instruc-
for something as stated in a contract tions to the contrary.
contravene /kɒntrəvin/ verb to do
contravene

contractually /kəntrktjuəli/ ad-


contractually
|
|

verb according to a contract 쑗 The com- something that is not allowed by rules or
pany is contractually bound to pay his regulations 쑗 The workshop has contra-
expenses. vened the employment regulations. 쑗 The
fire department can close a restaurant if
contract under seal /kɒntrkt
contract under seal

it contravenes the safety regulations.


 ndə sil/ noun a contract which has
/kɒntrəvenʃən/
contravention

been signed and legally approved with contravention |

the seal of the company or the person en- noun the act of breaking a regulation 왍 in
tering into it. Compare simple contract contravention of contravening, going
contract work /kɒntrkt w$k/
contract work
against 쑗 The restaurant is in contraven-
noun work done according to a written tion of the safety regulations. 쑗 The man-
agreement agement of the cinema locked the fire ex-
its in contravention of the fire regula-
contradict /kɒntrədkt/ verb 1. to
contradict

|
tions.
say exactly the opposite of something 쑗
contribute /kəntrbjut/ verb 왍 to
contribute

The witness contradicted himself several |

times. 2. to disagree in various details contribute to to help something 쑗 The


with another statement, story or report, public response to the request for infor-
so that both cannot be true 쑗 The state- mation contributed to the capture of the
ment contradicts the report in the news- gang.
/kɒntrbjuʃ(ə)n/
contribution

papers. contribution |

contradiction /kɒntrədkʃən/ noun noun 1. money paid to add to a sum 2. (in


contradiction

a statement which contradicts 쑗 The wit- civil cases) the right of someone to get
ness’ evidence was a mass of contradic- money from a third party to cover the
tions. 쑗 There is a contradiction between amount which he or she personally has to
the Minister’s statement in the House of pay
contributor of capital /kən
contributor of capital

Commons and the reports published in |

the newspapers. trbjυtər əv kpt(ə)l/ noun some-


contradictory /kɒntrədkt(ə)ri/ body who contributes capital to a compa-
contradictory

adjective not agreeing 쑗 a mass of con- ny


tradictory evidence contributory /kəntrbjυt(ə)ri/ noun
contributory

contra entry /kɒntrə entri/ noun an a shareholder who is liable in respect of


contra entry

entry made in the opposite side of an ac- partly paid shares to a company being
count to make an earlier entry worthless, wound up
i.e. a debit against a credit /kən
contributory causes

contributory causes |

contra proferentem /kɒntrə prɒfə trbjυt(ə)ri kɔzz/ plural noun causes


contra proferentem

rentem/ phrase a Latin phrase meaning which help something to take place 쑗
‘against the one making the point’: rule The report listed bad community rela-

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contributory factor 70
tions as one of the contributory causes to control test /kəntrəυl test/ noun a
control test

the riot. test to decide if someone is an employee


contributory factor

contributory factor /kən |


or is self-employed, used for purposes of
trbjυt(ə)ri fktə/ noun something tax assessment
convene /kənvin/ verb to ask people
convene

which contributes to a result |

contributory negligence /kən


contributory negligence
to come together 쑗 to convene a meeting
of shareholders
|

trbjυt(ə)ri neldəns/ noun negli-


convenience /kənviniəns/ noun 왍
convenience

gence partly caused by the claimant and |

partly by the defendant, resulting in harm at your earliest convenience as soon as


done to the claimant you find it possible 왍 ship sailing under
a flag of convenience ship flying the flag
con trick /kɒn trk/ noun same as
con trick

of a country which may have no ships of


confidence trick (informal) its own but allows ships of other coun-
control /kəntrəυl/ noun the fact of
control

| tries to be registered in its ports


keeping someone or something in order convenor /kənvinə/ noun a person
convenor

or being able to direct them 쑗 The com- who calls other people together for a
pany is under the control of three share- meeting
holders. 쑗 The family lost control of its convention /kənvenʃən/ noun 1. a
convention

business. 왍 to gain control of a business way in which something is usually done,


to buy more than 50% of the shares so accepted as the normal way to do it 쑗 It
that you can direct the business 왍 to lose is the convention for American lawyers
control of a business to find that you to designate themselves ‘Esquire’. 2. a
have less than 50% of the shares in a meeting or series of meetings held to dis-
company, and so are not longer able to cuss and decide important matters 3. an
direct it 쐽 verb 1. to have the power to international treaty 쑗 the Geneva Con-
decide what should happen to someone vention on Human Rights 쑗 The three
or something 2. to make sure that some- countries are all signatories of the con-
thing is restricted or kept at the correct vention.
level 쑗 The government is fighting to conversion /kənv$ʃ(ə)n/ noun the
conversion

control inflation or to control the rise in tort of dealing with a person’s property in
the cost of living. a way which is not consistent with that
controlled /kəntrəυld/ adjective 1.
controlled

| person’s rights over it


limited by law 쑗 controlled chemicals 2. conversion of funds /kənv$ʃ(ə)n
conversion of funds

carried out in a way that will give accu- əv f ndz/ noun the use of money which
rate results and information 쑗 controlled does not belong to you for a purpose for
trials 3. able to show no emotion when which it is not supposed to be used
you are angry or upset 쑗 There were tears convert / kənv$t/ verb 1. to change
convert

in her eyes as she replied but her voice property into another form such as cash
was controlled. 2. 왍 to convert funds to one’s own use
controlled drug /kəntrəυld dr /,
controlled drug

| to use someone else’s money for yourself


controlled substance /kəntrəυld |
convey /kənve/ verb 1. to carry
convey

s bstəns/ noun a drug or other sub- goods from one place to another 2. 왍 to
stance which is restricted by law and of convey a property to a purchaser to
which possession may be an offence pass the ownership of the property to the
controlling /kəntrəυlŋ/ adjective 왍 purchaser
controlling

conveyance /kənveəns/ noun a le-


conveyance

to have a controlling interest in a com- |

pany to own more than 50% of the gal document which transfers the owner-
shares so that you can direct how the ship of land from the seller to the buyer
company is run conveyancer /kənveənsə/ noun
conveyancer

/kəntrəυl somebody who draws up a conveyance


control systems

control systems |

sstəmz/ plural noun systems used to conveyancing /kənveənsŋ/ noun


conveyancing

check that a computer system is working 1. drawing up the document which legal-
correctly ly transfers a property from a seller to a

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71 copy
buyer 2. law and procedure relating to are the owners and who share the profits
the purchase and sale of property 쑗 industrial co-operative 쑗 to set up a
convict /kənvkt/ noun somebody workers’ co-operative
convict

co-opt /kəυ ɒpt/ verb 왍 to co-opt


co-opt

who is kept in prison as a punishment for


a crime 쐽 verb 왍 to convict someone of someone onto a committee to ask some-
a crime to find that someone is guilty of one to join a committee without being
a crime 쑗 He was convicted of man- elected
slaughter and sent to prison. co-owner /kəυ əυnə/ noun some-
co-owner

convicted criminal /kənvktd


convicted criminal

| body who owns something jointly with


krmn(ə)l/ noun a criminal who has another person or persons 쑗 The two sis-
been found guilty and sentenced ters are co-owners of the property.
conviction /kənvkʃən/ noun 1. the co-ownership /kəυ əυnəʃp/ noun
conviction co-ownership

feeling of being sure that something is 1. an arrangement where two or more


true 쑗 It is his conviction that the claim- persons own a property 2. an arrange-
ant has brought the case maliciously. 2. ment where partners or employees have
a decision that a person accused of a shares in a company
crime is guilty 쑗 He has had ten convic- cop /kɒp/ noun 1. a policeman
cop

tions for burglary. 쒁 spent conviction. (informal) 2. an arrest (informal ) 왍 it’s a


Compare sentence fair cop you have caught me 쐽 verb 1. to
convict settlement /kənvkt
convict settlement

|
catch or arrest someone (slang) 2. to get
set(ə)lmənt/ noun US a prison camp or to receive something (slang) 왍 to cop
where convicts are sent a plea to plead guilty to a lesser charge
cooling off period /kulŋ ɒf and so hope the court will give a shorter
cooling off period

pəriəd/, cooling time US /kulŋ sentence to save the time of a full trial
tam/ noun 1. during an industrial dis- co-partner /kəυ pɑtnə/ noun some-
co-partner

pute, a period when negotiations have to body who is a partner in a business with
be carried on and no action can be taken another person
by either side 2. a period when a person co-partnership /kəυ pɑtnəʃp/
co-partnership

is allowed to think about something noun an arrangement where partners or


which he or she has agreed to buy on employees have shares in the company
hire-purchase and possibly return the
copper /kɒpə/ noun a policeman
copper

item
(informal)
co-operation procedure /kəυ ɒpə
co-operation procedure

copper-bottomed /kɒpə bɒtəmd/


| copper-bottomed

reʃ(ə)n prəsidə/ noun (in the EU) a


|

procedure introduced by the Single Eu- adjective (of a guarantee or promise)


ropean Act which gives the European able to be completely trusted
co-property /kəυ prɒpəti/ noun
co-property

Parliament a more important role than


before in considering European legisla- ownership of property by two or more
tion. 쒁 common position people together
co-proprietor /kəυ prəpraətə/
co-proprietor

COMMENT: Originally the co-operation |

procedure was restricted to measures noun somebody who owns a property


concerning the internal market (free with another person or several other peo-
movement of people within the union, ple
no discrimination on grounds of na-
copy /kɒp/ noun 1. a document which
copy

tionality, harmonisation of health and


safety in the workplace, etc.). It is now looks the same as another 2. anything
also used in connection with European which copies information in a document,
transport policy, training, environmen- by whatever means, including electronic
tal issues, etc. The co-operation pro-
cedure implies that at the end of a dis- copies, recordings, etc. 쑗 an illegal copy
cussion period the Council will adopt a 3. any document 쐽 verb 1. to make a sec-
common position which must then ond item which is like the first 쑗 He cop-
be approved by the European Parlia- ied the company report at night and took
ment. it home. 2. to make something which is
co-operative / kəυɒp(ə)rətv/ noun
co-operative

| similar to something else 쑗 She simply


a business run by a group of workers who copied the design from another fashion

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copyright 72
designer. 쑗 He is successful because he to reprint copyright material. The cop-
copies good ideas from other businesses. yright notice has to include the symbol
©, the name of the copyright holder
copyright /kɒpirat/ noun an author’s
copyright

and the date of the copyright (which is


legal right to publish his or her own work usually the date of first publication).
and not to have it copied, which lasts 50 The notice must be printed in the book
years after the author’s death under the and usually appears on the reverse of
the title page. A copyright notice is
Berne Convention, or a similar right of also printed on other forms of printed
an artist, film maker or musician 왍 work material such as posters.
which is out of copyright work by a Copyright Act /kɒpirat kt/ noun
Copyright Act

writer, etc., who has been dead for fifty an Act of Parliament such as the Copy-
years, and which anyone can publish 왍 right Acts 1911, 1956 or 1988 making
work still in copyright work by a living copyright legal and controlling the copy-
writer, or by a writer who has not been ing of copyright material
dead for fifty years 쐽 verb to confirm the
copyright deposit /kɒpirat d
copyright deposit

copyright of a written work by printing a |

copyright notice and publishing the work pɒzt/ noun the act of placing a copy of
쐽 adjective covered by the laws of copy-
a published work in a copyright library,
right 쑗 It is illegal to take copies of a cop- usually the main national library, which
yright work. is part of the formal process of copy-
righting printed material
COMMENT: Copyright exists in original
copyrighted /kɒpiratd/ adjective
copyrighted

written works, in works of art and


works of music; it covers films, broad- protected by a valid copyright
casts, recordings, etc.; it also covers copyright holder /kɒpirat
copyright holder

the layout of books, newspapers and həυldə/ noun somebody who owns the
magazines. Copyright only exists if the
work is created by a person who is copyright in a work
copyright law /kɒpirat lɔ/ noun
copyright law

qualified to hold a copyright, and is


published in a country which is quali- law dealing with the protection of copy-
fied to hold a copyright. There is no right
copyright in ideas, items of news, his-
copyright notice /kɒpirat nəυts/
copyright notice

torical events, items of information, or


in titles of artistic works. When a copy- noun a note in a book showing who owns
right is established, the owner of the the copyright and the date of ownership
copyright can copy his work himself, cordon /kɔd(ə)n/ noun 왍 a police
cordon

sell copies of it to the public, perform


his work or exhibit it in public, broad- cordon barriers and policemen put
cast his work, or adapt it in some way. round an area to prevent anyone getting
No other person has the right to do any near it 쐽 verb 왍 to cordon off to put bar-
of these things. Copyright lasts for 50 riers and policemen round (an area) so
years after the author’s death accord- that no one can get near it 쑗 The street
ing to the Berne Convention, and for was cordoned off after the bomb was dis-
25 years according to the Universal
Copyright Convention. In the USA,
covered.
co-respondent /kəυ rspɒndənt/
co-respondent

copyright is for 50 years after the |

death of an author for books published noun a party to divorce proceedings who
after January 1st, 1978. For books has committed adultery with another
published before that date, the original person (NOTE: Do not confuse with cor-
copyright was for 28 years after the
death of the author, and this can be ex-
respondent.)
coroner /kɒrənə/ noun a public offi-
coroner

tended for a further 28 year period up


to a maximum of 75 years. In 1995, the cial, either a doctor or a lawyer, who in-
European Union adopted a copyright vestigates sudden violent deaths
term of 70 years after the death of the
COMMENT: Coroners investigate
author. The copyright holder has the deaths which are violent or unexpect-
right to refuse or to grant permission to ed, deaths which may be murder or
copy copyright material, though under manslaughter, deaths of prisoners and
the Paris agreement of 1971, the orig- deaths involving the police.
inal publishers (representing the au-
coroner’s court /kɒrənəz kɔt/
coroner’s court

thor or copyright holder) must, under


certain circumstances, grant licences noun a court presided over by a coroner

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73 corruption
/kɒrənəz corpus legis /kɔpəs leds/ phrase
coroner’s inquest corpus legis

coroner’s inquest
nkwest/ noun an inquest carried out by a Latin phrase meaning ‘body of laws’:
a coroner into a death, or into a case of books containing Roman civil law
treasure trove /kə
correctional institution

correctional institution |

corporal punishment /kɔp(ə)rəl rekʃn(ə)l nsttjuʃ(ə)n/ noun US a


corporal punishment

p nʃmənt/ noun the physical punish- prison


ment of someone by beating him or her corrective /kərektv/ adjective treat-
corrective

corporate /kɔp(ə)rət/ adjective re- ing someone in such a way that he or she
corporate

ferring to a company improves their behaviour or attitude 쑗 He


was sent to the detention centre for cor-
corporate killing / kɔp(ə)rət klŋ/
corporate killing

rective training.
noun a proposed criminal offence under
/kɒrspɒndənt/
correspondent

which companies and similar organisa- correspondent |

tions would be held responsible for any noun 1. somebody who writes letters 2.
deaths occurring as a result of the com- a journalist who writes articles for a
pany’s negligence newspaper on specialist subjects 쑗 The
corporate manslaughter Times’ legal correspondent 왍 a court
corporate manslaughter correspondent journalist who reports on
/kɔp(ə)rət mnslɔtə/ noun the kill- the activities of a king or queen and the
ing of someone by a limited company, as royal family 왍 a lobby correspondent
in a fatal train accident where the railway journalist from a newspaper who is part
company is held responsible of the lobby which gets private briefings
corporate name /kɔp(ə)rət nem/
corporate name

from government ministers


noun the name of a large corporation corrigendum /kɒr endəm/ noun
corrigendum

corporate personality /kɔp(ə)rət


corporate personality

an item which has been corrected (NOTE:


p$sənlti/ noun the legal status of a
| The plural is corrigenda.)
company, so that it can be treated as a corroborate /kərɒbəret/ verb to
corroborate

person prove evidence which has already been


corporate planning /kɔp(ə)rət
corporate planning

given 쑗 The witness corroborated the ac-


plnŋ/ noun the activity of planning cused’s alibi, saying that at the time of
the future work of a whole company the murder she had seen him in Brighton.
profits /kɔp(ə)rət /kərɒbəreʃ(ə)n/
corroboration

corroboration
corporate profits

corporate | |

prɒfts/ noun the profits of a corpora- noun evidence which confirms and sup-
tion ports other evidence 쑗 The witness was
corporation /kɔpəreʃ(ə)n/ noun
corporation

|
unable to provide corroboration of what
1. a legal body such as a limited compa- he had told the police.
corroborative / kərɒbərətv/ adjec-
corroborative

ny or town council which has been incor- |

porated 2. US a company which is incor- tive adding support to something such as


porated in the United States 3. any large a statement or evidence 쑗 The letter pro-
company vides corroborative evidence, showing
that the accused did know that the victim
corporeal hereditaments /kɔ
corporeal hereditaments

lived alone.
|

pɔriəl herdtəmənts/ plural noun


corrupt /kər pt/ adjective willing to
| corrupt

rights of property which physically ex- |

ists, e.g. houses or furniture take bribes 쐽 verb 왍 to corrupt some-


one’s morals to make someone behave
corpse /kɔps/ noun the body of a dead
corpse

in a way which goes against the normal


person (NOTE: The US term is cadaver.) standard of behaviour
corpus /kɔpəs/ noun a body of laws.
corpus

corruption / kər pʃən/ noun dishon-


corruption

쒁habeas corpus (NOTE: The plural is est behaviour such as paying or accept-
corpora.) ing money or giving a favour to make
corpus delicti /kɔpəs dlkta/
corpus delicti

| sure that something is done 쑗 The gov-


phrase a Latin phrase meaning ‘the body ernment is keen to stamp out corruption
of the crime’: the real proof that a crime in the police force. 쑗 Bribery and corrup-
has been committed tion are difficult to control.

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corruptly 74
corruptly /kər ptli/ adverb in a cor- up a bill of costs for assessment by the
corruptly

rupt way 쑗 He corruptly offered the offic- costs judge


costs judge /kɒsts d d/ noun an
costs judge

er money to get the charges dropped.


Cosa Nostra /kəυzə nɒstrə/ noun
Cosa Nostra
official of the Supreme Court who as-
same as Mafia sesses the costs of a court action (NOTE:
Since the introduction of the new Civil
cosponsor /kəυspɒnsə/ noun
cosponsor

|
Procedure Rules in April 1999, this
somebody who sponsors something with term has in some cases replaced Tax-
someone else 쑗 the three cosponsors of ing Master.)
the bill
costs order /kɒsts ɔdə/ noun a
costs order

cost /kɒst/ noun 1. the amount of mon-


cost

court order requiring someone to pay


ey which has to be paid for something 쑗 costs
Computer costs are falling each year. 쑗 coterminous /kəυt$mnəs/ adjec-
coterminous

We cannot afford the cost of two tele- tive referring to two things which end at
phone lines. 왍 to cover costs to produce the same time 쑗 The leases are cotermin-
enough money in sales to pay for the ous.
costs of production 2. 왍 to pay costs to
council /kaυnsəl/ noun 1. an official
council

pay the costs of a court case 쐽 verb 1. to


have a price 쑗 How much does the ma- group chosen to run something or to ad-
chine cost? 쑗 Rent of the room will cost vise on a problem 2. same as Privy
£50 a day. 2. 왍 to cost something to cal- Council
Council of Ministers /kaυns(ə)l əv
Council of Ministers

culate how much money will be needed


to make or do something mnstəz/ noun 쏡 Council of the Eu-
ropean Union
cost of living /kɒst əv lvŋ/ noun
cost of living

Council of the European Union

money which has to be paid for essential Council of the European Union
items such as food, accommodation or /kaυns(ə)l əv ðə jυərəpiən junjən/
heating noun one of the four bodies which form
the basis of the European Community
cost-of-living allowance /kɒst əv
cost-of-living allowance

(NOTE: not to be confused with the Eu-


lvŋ əlaυəns/ noun an addition to a
|
ropean Council. Formerly the Council
standard salary to cover increases in the of the European Union was called the
cost of living Council of Ministers and it is still
cost-of-living increase /kɒst əv
cost-of-living increase

sometimes called this.)


lvŋ nkris/ noun an increase in sala- COMMENT: The Council does not have
ry to allow it to keep up with the in- fixed members, but the Member
creased cost of living States are each represented by the
relevant government minister. The
cost-of-living index /kɒst əv lvŋ
cost-of-living index

Council is headed by a President, and


ndeks/ noun a way of measuring the the Presidency rotates among the
cost of living which is shown as a per- Member States in alphabetical order,
centage increase on the figure for the each serving for a six-month period. In
practice this means that each Member
previous year State can control the agenda of the
costs /kɒsts/ plural noun the expenses
costs

Council, and therefore that of the Eu-


involved in a court case, including the ropean Union, for a period of six
fees, expenses and charges levied by the months, and can try to get as many of
its proposals put into legislation as it
court itself, which can be awarded by the can during that period. When meeting
judge to the party which wins, so that the to discuss general matters the Council
losing side pays the expenses of both is formed of the foreign ministers of the
sides 쑗 The judge awarded costs to the Member States, but when it discusses
defendant. 쑗 Costs of the case will be specialised problems it is formed of
borne by the prosecution. 쑗 The court the relevant government ministers: so
when discussing agriculture, for exam-
awarded the claimant £2,000 in damag- ple, it is formed of the Agriculture Min-
es, with costs. isters of the Member States.
/kɒsts counsel /kaυnsəl/ noun a barrister or
costs draftsman

costs draftsman
counsel

drɑftsmən/ noun someone who draws barristers acting for one of the parties in

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75 County Court Rules


a legal action 쑗 defence counsel 쑗 prose- counterfeiting /kaυntəftŋ/ noun
counterfeiting

cution counsel 쑗 The claimant appeared the crime of making imitation money or
in court with his solicitor and two coun- other objects of value
sel. counter-intelligence /kaυntə n
counter-intelligence

counsellor /kaυnsələ/ noun 1. a teldəns/ noun an organisation of se-


counsellor

trained person who gives advice or help cret agents whose job is to work against
쑗 They went to see a marriage guidance the secret agents of another country 쑗
counsellor. 2. US a legal practitioner The offices were bugged by counter-in-
who advises a person in a case telligence agents.
counsel’s advice /kaυnsəlz əd countermand /kaυntəmɑnd/ verb
countermand
counsel’s advice

|
|

vas/ noun a barrister’s written advice 왍 to countermand an order to say that


about a case 쑗 We sent the documents to an order must not be carried out
counteroffer /kaυntərɒfə/ noun an
counteroffer

the police on the advice of the solicitor or |

we took the solicitor’s advice and sent offer made in reply to another offer
the documents to the police. counterpart /kaυntəpɑt/ noun 1. a
counterpart

counsel’s opinion /kaυnsəlz ə


counsel’s opinion

| copy of a lease 2. somebody who has a


pnjən/ noun same as counsel’s ad- similar job in another company 왍 John is
vice my counterpart in Smith’s he has a
count /kaυnt/ noun a separate charge
count
similar post at Smith’s as I have here
counter-promise /kaυntə prɒms/
counter-promise

against an accused person read out in


court in the indictment 쑗 He was found noun a promise made in reply to a prom-
guilty on all four counts. ise
countersign /kaυntəsan/ verb to
countersign

counter /kaυntə/ noun a long flat sur-


counter

face in a shop for displaying and selling sign a document which has already been
goods 왍 over the counter legally 왍 signed by someone else 쑗 The payment
goods sold over the counter retail sales has to be countersigned by the mortga-
of goods in shops 왍 under the counter gor.
counter to /kaυntə tə/ noun against,
counter to

illegally 왍 under-the-counter sales


black market sales 쐽 adjective, adverb opposite 쑗 The decision of the court runs
opposite, or with an opposite effect counter to the advice of the clerk to the
justices.
counter- /kaυntə/ prefix opposing
counter-

country of origin /k ntri əv


country of origin

counterclaim /kaυntəklam/ noun


counterclaim

ɒrdn/ noun a country where some-


1. in a court, a claim by a defendant one was born or from where someone
against whom a claimant is bringing a has come, or where goods were produced
claim. The counterclaim is included in 쑗 There is a space on the form for ’coun-
the same proceedings and statement of try of origin’.
case as the original claim. Also called
County Court /kaυnti kɔt/ noun
County Court

Part 20 claim 2. a claim for damages


made in reply to a previous claim 쑗 Jones one of the types of court in England and
claimed £25,000 in damages against Wales which hears local civil cases
Smith, and Smith entered a counterclaim COMMENT: There are about 270 Coun-
ty Courts in England and Wales.
of £50,000 for loss of office. 쐽 verb to put County Courts are presided over by ei-
in a counterclaim 쑗 Jones claimed ther district judges or circuit judges.
£25,000 in damages and Smith counter- They deal mainly with claims regard-
claimed £50,000 for loss of office. ing money, but also deal with family
matters, bankruptcies and claims con-
counterfeit /kaυntəft/ adjective
counterfeit

cerning land. A district judge will hear


(especially of money or objects of val- most civil cases up to a value of
ue) false or imitation 쑗 He was charged £50,000, and circuit judge will deal
with passing counterfeit notes in shops. 쑗 with more serious cases.
County Court Rules /kaυnti kɔt
County Court Rules

She was selling counterfeit Rolex watch-


es. 쐽 verb to make imitation money or rulz/ noun a book of procedural rules
other objects of value for County Courts. Abbreviation CCR

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coup 76
coup /ku/, coup d’état /ku det/ court case /kɔt kes/ noun same as
coup court case

noun a rapid change of government court action


which removes one government by force courthouse /kɔthaυs/ noun espe-
courthouse

and replaces it by another 쑗 After the cially US a building in which trials take
coup, groups of students attacked the po- place 쑗 There was police cordon round
lice stations. the courthouse.
COMMENT: A coup is usually carried
court-martial /kɔt mɑʃ(ə)l/ noun
court-martial

out by a small number of people, who


already have some power (such as 1. a court which tries someone serving in
army officers), while a revolution is a the armed forces for offences against
general uprising of a large number of military discipline 쑗 He was found guilty
ordinary people. A coup changes the by the court-martial and sentenced to
members of a government, but a revo- imprisonment. 2. the trial of someone
lution changes the whole social sys-
tem. serving in the armed forces by the armed
forces authorities 쑗 The court-martial
court /kɔt/ noun 1. a place where a tri-
court

was held in the army headquarters.


al is held 왍 to take someone to court to (NOTE: The plural is courts-martial.) 쐽
start legal proceedings against someone verb to try someone who is serving in the
왍 in court present during a trial 쑗 The de- armed forces (NOTE: court-martialled)
fendant was in court for three hours. 왍 in
Court of Appeal /kɔt əv əpil/,
Court of Appeal

open court in a courtroom with mem- |

bers of the public present 왍 a settlement Court of Appeals /kɔt əv/ noun a civil
was reached out of court, the two par- or criminal court to which a person may
ties reached an out-of-court settlement go to ask for an award or a sentence to be
the dispute was settled between the two changed. Also called Appeal Court
parties privately without continuing the COMMENT: In the majority of cases in
court case 2. 왍 Criminal Court, Civil English law, decisions of lower courts
and of the High Court can be appealed
Court a court where criminal or civil to the Court of Appeal. The Court of
cases are heard 3. the judges or magis- Appeal is divided into the Civil Division
trates in a court 쑗 The court will retire for and the Criminal Division. The Civil Di-
thirty minutes. vision hears appeals from the County
COMMENT: In England and Wales the Court and the High Court; the Criminal
main courts are: the Magistrates’ Division hears appeals from the Crown
Court: trying minor criminal offences Court. From the Court of Appeal, ap-
such as petty crime; adoption; affilia- peal lies to the House of Lords. When
tion; maintenance and domestic vio- the remedies available under English
lence; licensing; the County Court: law are exhausted, it is in some cases
most civil actions up to a value of possible to appeal to the European
£50,000; the High Court: most civil Court of Justice. For many countries,
claims where the value exceeds especially Commonwealth countries,
£50,000; the Crown Court: major appeals from the highest court of
crime; the Court of Appeal: appeals these countries may be heard by the
from lower courts, such as the High Privy Council.
court officer /kɔt ɒfsə/ noun a
court officer

Court; the House of Lords: the high-


est court of appeal in the country; the member of the staff of a court, especially
Privy Council: appeals on certain a County Court
matters from England and Wales, and
court of first instance /kɔt əv
court of first instance

appeals from certain Commonwealth


countries; the European Court of f$st nstəns/ noun a court where a
Justice: appeals where EU legislation case is heard first
is involved. Other courts include em- COMMENT: The CFI hears cases con-
ployment tribunals: employment dis- cerning the staff of the EU, cases con-
putes; courts-martial: military mat- cerning the coal and steel industries
ters. and cases regarding competition. The
court action /kɔt kʃən/ noun a
court action

court is formed of 15 judges, and its


civil case in a law court where a person judgements can be appealed to the
files a claim against another person ECJ.
Court of First Instance /kɔt əv
Court of First Instance

(NOTE: In general, action has now been


replaced by claim.) f$st nstəns/ noun a court set up under

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77 cover
the Single European Act, formed of 15 or contract 쑗 He signed a covenant
judges, whose judgments can be ap- against underletting the premises. 쐽 verb
pealed to the European Court of Justice. to agree to pay a sum of money each year
Abbreviation CFI by contract 쑗 to covenant to pay £10 per
COMMENT: The Court of First Instance annum to a charity
initially heard only cases concerning COMMENT: Examples of restrictive
the staff of the EU, cases concerning covenants could be a clause in a con-
the coal and steel industries and cases tract of employment which prevents
regarding competition. As a result of the employee from going to work for a
provisions of the Treaty of European competitor, or a clause in a contract for
Union, the CFI now has all of the Euro- the sale of a property which prevents
pean Court’s jurisdiction except for Ar- the purchaser from altering the build-
ticle 234 references and cases involv- ing. There is a tax advantage to the re-
ing infringement proceedings against cipient of covenanted money; a charity
Member States. pays no tax, so it can reclaim tax at the
Court of Justice of the European
Court of Justice of the European Communities

standard rate on the money covenant-


Communities noun 쏡 European ed to it.
covenant marriage /k vənənt
covenant marriage

Court of Justice
court of last resort /kɔt əv lɑst r
court of last resort

|
mrd/ noun in the USA, a form of
zɔt/ noun US the highest court from marriage contract with stricter than usual
which no appeals can be made conditions for couples wishing to marry
court of law /kɔt əv lɔ/ noun same
court of law
or get divorced, including counselling
as court 쑗 The law courts are in the cen- before marriage and a two-year separa-
tre of the town. 쑗 She works in the law tion before a divorce
covenant to repair /k vənənt tə r
covenant to repair

courts as an usher. |

Court of Protection /kɔt əv prə


Court of Protection

|
peə/ noun an agreement by a landlord
tekʃ(ə)n/ noun a court appointed to or tenant to keep a rented property in
protect the interests of people who are in- good repair
cover /k və/ noun 1. 왍 to operate
cover

capable of dealing with their own affairs,


such as patients who are mentally ill without adequate cover without being
Court of Session /kɔt əv seʃ(ə)n/
Court of Session
protected by insurance 왍 to ask for addi-
noun the highest civil court in Scotland tional cover to ask the insurance compa-
court order /kɔt ɔdə/ noun a legal
court order
ny to increase the amount for which you
order made by a court, telling someone are insured 2. 왍 to send something un-
to do or not to do something 쑗 The court der separate cover in a separate enve-
made an order for maintenance or made lope 왍 to send a document under plain
a maintenance order. 쑗 He refused to cover in an ordinary envelope with no
obey the court order and was sent to pris- company name printed on it 쐽 verb 1. to
on for contempt. include and deal with something 쑗 The
agreement covers all agencies. 쑗 The
court or tribunal /kɔt ɔ tra
court or tribunal

|
newspapers have covered the murder tri-
bjun(ə)l/ noun any body which has of- al. 쑗 The fraud case has been covered by
ficial status and which has the power to the consumer protection legislation. 2. 왍
give binding rulings on legal rights and to cover a risk to be protected by insur-
obligation, although it may not have the ance against a risk 왍 to be fully covered
actual title of ‘court’ (NOTE: The Deputy to have insurance against all risks 3. US
High Bailiff’s Court in the Isle of Man to purchase goods from another supplier
and the Dutch Appeals Committee for to replace those which have not been de-
General Medicine have each been held livered according to contract 4. to have
to be a ‘court or tribunal’ according to enough money to pay 왍 the damage was
European Union law.) covered by the insurance the insurance
courtroom /kɔtrum/ noun a room
courtroom

company paid for the damage 왍 to cover


where a judge presides over a trial a position to have enough money to pay
covenant /k vənənt/ noun an agree-
covenant

for a forward purchase 5. to ask for secu-


ment or undertaking to do something or rity against a loan which you are making
not to do something, contained in a deed 6. to earn enough money to pay for costs,

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coverage 78
expenses, etc. 쑗 We do not make enough buy goods without paying for them im-
sales to cover the expense of running the mediately
shop. 쑗 We hope to reach the point soon credit card holder /kredt kɑd
credit card holder

when sales will cover all costs. həυldə/ noun somebody who has a
coverage /k v(ə)rd/ noun 1. 쏡 credit card
coverage

press coverage 2. US protection guar- credit facilities /kredt fəsltiz/


credit facilities

anteed by insurance 쑗 Do you have cov- plural noun arrangement with a bank or
erage against fire damage? supplier to have credit so as to buy goods
covering letter /k vərŋ letə/, cov- credit limit /kredt lmt/ noun a
covering letter credit limit

ering note noun a letter or note sent fixed amount of money which is the most
with documents to say why you are send- a client can owe
ing them credit note /kredt nəυt/ noun a note
credit note

cover note /k və nəυt/ noun a letter showing that money is owed to a custom-
cover note

from an insurance company giving basic er


creditor /kredtə/ noun somebody
creditor

details of an insurance policy and con-


firming that the policy exists who is owed money. 쒁 secured credi-
covert /kəυvət, k vət/ adjective se-
covert
tor, unsecured creditor
creditors’ meeting /kredtəz
creditors’ meeting

cret
covert action /kəυvət kʃən/ noun
covert action
mitŋ/ noun a meeting of all persons to
an action which is carried out secretly whom a company in receivership owes
money
coverture /k vətʃυə/ noun (of a
coverture

credit rating /kredt retŋ/ noun


credit rating

woman) a state of being married


CPR
the amount which a credit agency feels a
CPR abbreviation Civil Procedure customer should be allowed to borrow
Rules credit transfer /kredt trnsf$/
credit transfer

CPS

CPS abbreviation Crown Prosecution noun the movement of money from one
Service account to another
cracksman /krksmən/ noun a crime /kram/ noun 1. an act which is
cracksman crime

criminal who specialises in breaking against the law and which is punishable
safes (slang) by law 쑗 There has been a 50% increase
credere /kredəri/ 쏡 del credere
credere
in crimes of violence. 2. illegal acts in
agent general 쑗 crime is on the increase 쑗
There has been an increase in violent
credit /kredt/ verb to note money re-
credit

crime.
ceived in an account
COMMENT: A crime is an illegal act
credit account /kredt əkaυnt/
credit account

| which may result in prosecution and


noun an account which a customer has punishment by the state if the accused
with a shop which allows them to buy is convicted. Generally, in order to be
goods and pay for them later convicted of a crime, the accused
must be shown to have committed an
credit agency /kredt edənsi/
credit agency

unlawful act (actus reus) with a crimi-


noun a company which reports on the nal state of mind (mens rea). The
ability of customers to pay their debts main types of crime are: 1. crimes
and shows whether they should be al- against the person: murder; man-
slaughter; assault, battery, wounding;
lowed credit grievous bodily harm; abduction; 2.
credit balance /kredt bləns/
credit balance

crimes against property: theft; rob-


noun the balance on an account showing bery; burglary; obtaining property or
that more money is owed or has been services or pecuniary advantage by
deception; blackmail; handling stolen
paid by someone than is due or has been goods; going equipped to steal; crimi-
received by them nal damage; possessing something
credit bank /kredt bŋk/ noun a
credit bank

with intent to damage or destroy prop-


bank which lends money erty; forgery; 3. sexual offences:
rape; buggery; bigamy; indecency; 4.
credit card /kredt kɑd/ noun a
credit card

political offences: treason; terrorism;


plastic card which allows the owner to sedition; breach of the Official Secrets

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79 criminal responsibility
Act; 5. offences against justice: as- above a specific sum to other identified
sisting an offender; conspiracy; perju- parties
ry; contempt of court; perverting the
criminal court /krmn(ə)l kɔt/
criminal court

course of justice; 6. public order of-


fences: obstruction of the police; un- noun a court such as a Crown Court
lawful assembly; obscenity; possess- which deals with criminal cases
ing weapons; misuse of drugs; breach criminal damage /krmn(ə)l
criminal damage

of the peace; 7. road traffic offences: dmd/ noun the notifiable offence of
careless or reckless driving; drunken
driving; driving without a licence or in- causing serious damage
Criminal Defence Service
Criminal Defence Service

surance. Most minor crime is tried be-


fore the Magistrates’ Courts; more se- /krmn(ə)l dfens s$vs/ noun the |

rious crime is tried at the Crown Court British government service which pro-
which has greater powers to sentence vides legal advice and assistance in each
offenders. Most crimes are prosecuted
by the police or the Crown Prosecu- community to people with very little
tors, though private prosecutions money who are suspected of criminal of-
brought by individuals are possible. fences or are facing criminal proceed-
crime rate /kram ret/ noun the
crime rate
ings. Abbreviation CDS
number of crimes committed in a specif- COMMENT: The service replaces part
ic period, shown as a percentage of the of the Legal Aid scheme (the Commu-
nity Legal Service deals with civil and
total population family cases).
crime scene /kram sin / noun the
crime scene

Criminal Injuries Compensation


Criminal Injuries Compensation Board

place where a crime has been committed Board /krmn(ə)l ndəriz


crime scene tape /kram sin tep/ kɒmpənseʃ(ə)n bɔd/ noun a com-
crime scene tape

noun tape that is used to cordon off an mittee which administers the awarding
area and warn people of a crime scene of compensation to victims of crime
(NOTE: The British term is incident Criminal Investigation depart-
Criminal Investigation department

tape.) ment /krmn(ə)l nvesteʃ(ə)n d | | |

crime wave /kram wev/ noun a pɑtmənt/ noun a section of the British
crime wave

sudden increase in crime police which investigates serious crimes.


criminal /krmn(ə)l/ adjective 1. ille-
criminal
Abbreviation CID
criminal law /krmn(ə)l lɔ/ noun
criminal law

gal 쑗 Misappropriation of funds is a


criminal act. 2. referring to crime 왍 the law relating to acts committed against
criminal population all people who the laws of the land and which are pun-
have committed crimes 쐽 noun a person ishable by the state
who has committed a crime or who often criminal libel /krmn(ə)l lab(ə)l/
criminal libel

commits crimes 쑗 The police have con- noun a serious libel which might cause a
tacted known criminals to get leads on breach of the peace
the gangland murder. 왍 a hardened criminal negligence /krmn(ə)l
criminal negligence

criminal a person who has committed neldəns/ noun the offence of acting
many crimes recklessly with the result that harm is
criminal action / krmn(ə)l kʃən/
criminal action

done to other people


noun a case brought usually by the state criminal offence /krmn(ə)l ə
criminal offence

against someone who is charged with a fens/ noun an action which is against
crime the law
criminal bankruptcy /krmn(ə)l /krmn(ə)l
criminal bankruptcy

criminal record
criminal record

bŋkr ptsi/ noun bankruptcy of a rekɔd/ noun a note of previous crimes


criminal in the Crown Court as a result of for which someone has been convicted 쑗
crimes of which he or she has been con- The accused had no criminal record. 쑗
victed He has a criminal record going back to
criminal bankruptcy order

criminal bankruptcy order the time when he was still at school.


/krmn(ə)l bŋkr ptsi ɔdə/ noun criminal responsibility
criminal responsibility

an order made against someone who has /krmn(ə)l rspɒnsblti/ noun the | |

been convicted in the Crown Court of an fact of being responsible for a crime that
offence which has resulted in damage has been committed (NOTE: The age of

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criminology 80
criminal responsibility is ten years. Chil- name off his list. 쑗 You can cross him off
dren under ten years old cannot be our mailing list.
charged with a crime.) cross out /krɒs aυt/ verb to put a
cross out

criminology /krmnɒlədi/ noun


criminology

| line through something which has been


the academic study of crime written 쑗 She crossed out £250 and put in
criterion /kratəriən/ noun the £500.
criterion

standard by which something can be Crown /kraυn/ noun 왍 the Crown the
Crown

judged 쑗 Using the criterion of the ratio King or Queen as representing the State
of cases solved to cases reported, the po- 쑗 Mr Smith is appearing for the Crown.
lice force is becoming more efficient. 쑗 The Crown submitted that the maxi-
(NOTE: The plural is criteria.) mum sentence should be applied in this
criticise /krtsaz/, criticize verb to case. 쑗 The Crown case or the case for
criticise

say that someone or something is bad or the Crown was that the defendants were
wrong 쑗 The procedures were severely guilty of espionage.
criticised as being discriminatory. Crown copyright /kraυn kɒpirat/
Crown copyright

(NOTE: criticised – criticising) noun copyright in government publica-


criticism /krtsz(ə)m/ noun 1. a tions
criticism

comment 쑗 If you have any constructive Crown Court /kraυn kɔt/ noun a
Crown Court

criticisms to make, I shall be glad to hear court, above the level of the magistrates’
them. 2. an unfavourable comment or se- courts, which is based on the six circuits
ries of comments 쑗 There was a lot of in England and Wales and which hears
criticism of the proposed changes. 쑗 My criminal cases
detailed criticisms relate to section 3 of COMMENT: A Crown Court is formed of
the report. a circuit judge and jury, and hears ma-
crook /krυk/ noun a person who has jor criminal cases.
crook

Crown Lands /kraυn lɑndz/ plural


Crown Lands

committed a crime, especially a crime in-


volving deceit (slang) noun land or property belonging to the
cross /krɒs/ verb 왍 to cross a cheque King or Queen
cross

Crown privilege /kraυn prvld/


Crown privilege

to write two lines across a cheque to


show that it has to be paid into a bank noun the right of the Crown or the gov-
crossed cheque /krɒst tʃek/ noun ernment not to have to produce docu-
crossed cheque

a cheque with two lines across it showing ments to a court by reason of the interest
that it can only be deposited at a bank of the state
and not exchanged for cash
Crown Prosecution Service

Crown Prosecution Service


cross-examination /krɒs zm /kraυn prɒskjuʃ(ə)n s$vs/ noun
cross-examination

|
|

neʃ(ə)n/ noun the questioning of a wit- a government department, headed by the


ness called by the opposing side in a Director of Public Prosecutions, which is
case. Opposite evidence in chief responsible for the conduct of all crimi-
(NOTE: The opposite is evidence in nal cases instituted by the police in Eng-
chief.) land and Wales, except for those prose-
cross-examine /krɒs zmn/
cross-examine

|
cuted by the Serious Fraud Office. Ab-
verb to question witnesses called by the breviation CPS
/kraυn
Crown prosecutor

other side in a case, in the hope that you Crown prosecutor


can discredit or weaken their evidence prɒskjutə/ noun an official of the
cross holdings /krɒs həυldŋz/
cross holdings
Crown Prosecution Service who is re-
plural noun situation where two compa- sponsible for prosecuting criminals in
nies own shares in each other in order to one of 13 areas in England Wales
cruelty /kruəlti/ noun 1. behaviour
cruelty

stop each from being taken over 쑗 The


two companies have protected them- which causes pain or injury to a person
selves from takeover by a system of cross or animal 2. cruel behaviour towards a
holdings. spouse
cross off /krɒs ɒf/ verb to remove cryptographic /krptərfk/ ad-
cross off cryptographic

something from a list 쑗 He crossed my jective referring to cryptography

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81 customs barrier
cryptography /krptɒrəfi/ noun fice. Abbreviation CV (NOTE: The US
cryptography

the science of codes which allow ordi- term is résumé.)


nary text to be encrypted so that it cannot curtilage /k$tld/ noun land round
curtilage

be read without a key a house


cryptography support service
cryptography support service

establishment /k
custodial establishment

custodial |

/krptɒrəfi səpɔt s$vs/ noun a


|
stəυdiəl stblʃmənt/ noun a prison
|

service which helps senders or receivers or other institution where criminals are
of encrypted electronic messages to read kept
those messages custodial sentence /k stəυdiəl
custodial sentence

CS gas /si es s/ noun gas given


|
CS gas

sentəns/ noun a sentence which in-


off by solid crystals of C6H4(Cl)CH, volves sending someone to prison
used by police as a method of crowd con-
custodian /k stəυdiən/ noun some-
custodian

trol |

body who protects, guards or looks after


CSO abbreviation community service
CSO

something or someone
order
custody /k stədi/ noun 1. the condi-
custody

CTT

CTT abbreviation capital transfer tax tion of being kept in prison or in a cell 왍
culpability /k lpəblti/ noun the
culpability

|
in police custody held by the police, but
fact of being culpable not actually arrested, while helping the
culpable /k lpəb(ə)l/ adjective being police with their inquiries 쑗 The young
culpable

likely to attract blame men were kept in police custody over-


culpable homicide /k lpəb(ə)l
culpable homicide
night. 2. the legal right of a parent to
hɒmsad/ noun US murder or man- keep and bring up a child after a divorce
쑗 Custody of the children was awarded to
slaughter
the mother. 쑗 The court granted the
culpable negligence /k lpəb(ə)l
culpable negligence

mother custody of both children. 3. the


neldəns/ noun US negligence control and care of something by some-
which is so bad that it amounts to an of-
one 쑗 The files are in the custody of my
fence lawyer or in my lawyer’s custody.
culprit /k lprt/ noun somebody who
culprit

custom /k stəm/ noun 1. unwritten


custom

is responsible for a crime or for some-


rules which lay down how things are usu-
thing which has gone wrong
ally done and have been done for a long
curiam 쏡 per curiam
curiam

time 쑗 It is the custom that everyone


currency /k rəns/ noun money in
currency

stands up when the magistrates enter the


coins and notes which is used in a partic- courtroom. Also called customary law
ular country 왍 the customs of the trade general way
current account /k rənt əkaυnt/ of working in a trade 2. the use of a shop
current account

noun an ordinary account in a bank into by regular shoppers 왍 to lose someone’s


which money can be deposited and on custom to do something which makes a
which cheques can be drawn regular customer go to another shop
current assets /k rənt sets/ plu- customs /k stəmz/ plural noun 1.
customs
current assets

ral noun assets used by a company in its same as Customs and Excise 왍 to go
ordinary work, e.g. materials, finished through customs to pass through the
goods, cash area of a port or airport where customs
current liabilities /k rənt laə
current liabilities

|
officials examine goods 2. office of this
bltiz/ plural noun debts which a com- department at a port or airport
Customs and Excise /k stəmz ən
Customs and Excise

pany has to pay within the next account-


ing period eksaz/ noun a government department
curriculum vitae /kərkjυləm
curriculum vitae

|
which deals with VAT and with taxes on
vita/ noun a summary of a person’s imports and on taxable products such as
life story showing details of education alcohol produced in the country
customs barrier /k stəmz briə/
customs barrier

and work experience 쑗 Candidates


should send a letter of application with a noun the existence of customs duty in-
curriculum vitae to the administrative of- tended to prevent imports

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customs clearance 82
customs clearance /k stəmz customs union /k stəmz junjən/
customs clearance customs union

klərəns/ noun the act of clearing goods noun an agreement between several
through customs countries that goods can travel between
customs declaration /k stəmz them without paying duty, while goods
customs declaration

dekləreʃ(ə)n/ noun a statement de-


| from other countries have to pay special
claring goods brought into a country on duties
which customs duty may be paid cut in on /k t n ɒn/ verb 왍 to cut
cut in on

customs duty /k stəmz djuti/


customs duty

someone in on to offer someone part of


noun a tax on goods imported into a the profits of a deal
country
CV /si vi/ abbreviation curriculum
CV

customs examination /k stəmz


customs examination

vitae 쑗 Please apply in writing, enclos-


zmneʃ(ə)n/ noun the examination
|

ing a current CV.


of goods or baggage by customs officials
cyberlaw /sabəlɔ/ noun law dealing
cyberlaw

customs formalities /k stəmz fɔ


customs formalities

mltiz/ plural noun declaration of with use of the Internet, especially com-
goods by the shipper and examination of mercial law relating to commercial trans-
them by the customs actions, copyright law on information, or
customs officer /k stəmz ɒfsə/,
customs officer defamation law regarding statements
customs official noun somebody
made public
cy-près /si pre/ adjective, adverb
cy-près

working for the customs


customs seal /k stəmz sil/ noun a
customs seal
as near as possible
doctrine /si pre
cy-près doctrine

seal attached by customs officers to a box cy-près


to show that the contents have passed dɒktrn/ noun a rule that if a charity
through the customs cannot apply its funds to the purposes for
customs tariffs /k stəmz trfs/
customs tariffs

which they were intended, a court can


plural noun tax to be paid for importing apply the funds to a purpose which is as
or exporting goods close as possible to the original intention

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D
DA abbreviation US district attorney heard early it is not likely that the case
DA

dabs /dbz/ plural noun fingerprints


dabs
will be heard early 왍 in danger of being
(slang) easily able to happen 쑗 He is in danger to
being in contempt of court.
Dáil /dɔl/, Dáil Éireann /dɔl
Dáil

dangerous /dendərəs/ adjective


dangerous

eər(ə)n/ noun the lower house of the


parliament in the Republic of Ireland 쑗 being possibly harmful 왍 dangerous an-
The Foreign Minister reported on the imals animals, such as some breeds of
meeting to the Dáil. (NOTE: The mem- dog and some wild animals, which may
bers of the Dáil are called Teachta attack people and have to be kept under
Dala (TD).) strict conditions, or for which a licence
damage /dmd/ noun harm done to
damage
has to be held 왍 dangerous job a job
things 왍 to suffer damage to be harmed where employees may be killed or hurt 왍
왍 to cause damage to harm something 왍
dangerous weapon a device or weapon
causing criminal damage notifiable of- which can hurt someone
dangerous driving /dendərəs
dangerous driving

fence where serious damage is caused 쐽


verb to harm 쑗 The storm damaged the dravŋ/ noun formerly, an offence of
cargo. 쑗 Stock which has been damaged driving dangerously (NOTE: Now called
by water. 쑗 He alleged that the newspa- ‘reckless driving’.) 왍 causing death by
per article was damaging to the compa- dangerous driving the offence commit-
ny’s reputation. ted by a driver causing the death of an-
damaged /dmdd/ adjective hav-
damaged
other person
dark /dɑk/ adjective not being used for
dark

ing suffered damage or which has been


harmed hearings, trials, or other proceedings
damage feasant /dmd fizənt/ data protection /detə prətekʃən/
damage feasant data protection

noun a situation where the animals of noun protecting information such as


one person damage the property of an- records of individuals stored in a compu-
other person ter from being copied or used wrongly
damages / dmdz/ plural noun 1. (NOTE: data is usually singular: the data
damages

money claimed by a claimant from a de- is easily available)


fendant as compensation for harm done 쑗 date of commencement /det əv
date of commencement

to claim £1,000 in damages 2. money kəmensmənt/ noun the date when an


|

awarded by a court as compensation to a Act of Parliament takes effect


claimant 쑗 to be liable for or in damages
date stamp /det stmp/ noun a
date stamp

쑗 to pay £25,000 in damages 왍 to bring


an action for damages against some- stamp with rubber figures which can be
one to take someone to court and claim changed, used for marking the date on
damages documents
day training centre /de trenŋ
day training centre

danger /dendə/ noun 1. the possi-


danger

bility of being harmed or killed 쑗 There sentə/ noun a centre where young of-
is danger to the employees in using old fenders attend courses as a condition of
machinery. 2. likelihood or possibility 왍 being on probation
DC

there is no danger of the case being DC abbreviation detective constable

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DCC 84
debenture bond /dbentʃə bɒnd/
DCC debenture bond

DCC abbreviation Deputy Chief Con- |

stable noun a certificate showing that a deben-


dead /ded/ adjective 1. not alive 쑗 Six
dead
ture has been issued
debenture capital /dbentʃə
debenture capital

people were dead as a result of the acci- |

dent. 쑗 We inherited the house from my kpt(ə)l/ noun capital borrowed by a


dead grandfather. 2. not working company using its fixed assets as securi-
ty
dead account /ded əkaυnt/ noun
dead account

/dbentʃə
|

debenture holder
debenture holder

an account which is no longer used |

həυldə/ noun somebody who holds a


dead letter /ded letə/ noun US a
dead letter

debenture for money lent


regulation which is no longer valid 쑗 debenture issue /dbentʃə ʃu/
debenture issue

This law has become a dead letter.


noun borrowing money against the secu-
dead loss /ded lɒs/ noun US a com-
dead loss

rity of the company’s assets


plete loss 쑗 The car was written off as a debit /debt/ verb 왍 to debit an ac-
debit

dead loss. count to charge an account with a cost 쑗


dealings /dilŋz/ plural noun 왍 to
dealings

His account was debited with the sum of


have dealings with someone to do busi- £25.
ness with someone debit and credit /debt ən kredt/
debit and credit

death /deθ/ noun the act of dying or the noun the money that a company owes
death

state of being dead 왍 to put someone to and which it is entitled to receive


death to execute someone debit balance /debt bləns/ noun
debit balance

death benefit /deθ benft/ noun


death benefit
the balance in an account showing that
money paid to the family of someone more money is owed to or has been re-
who dies in an accident at work ceived by someone than is owed or has
been paid by them
death certificate /deθ sətfkət/
death certificate

debit note /debt nəυt/ noun a note


| debit note

noun an official certificate signed by a


doctor, stating that a person has died and showing that a customer owes money
debt /det/ noun money owed for goods
debt

giving details of the person


or services 쑗 The company stopped trad-
death grant /deθ rɑnt/ noun US a
death grant

ing with debts of over £1 million. 왍 to be


government grant to the family of a per- in debt to owe money 왍 to get into debt
son who has died, which is supposed to to start to borrow more money than you
contribute to the funeral expenses can pay back 왍 to be out of debt not to
death in service /deθ n s$vs/
death in service

owe money any more 왍 to pay back a


noun insurance benefit or pension paid debt to pay all the money owed 왍 to pay
when someone dies while employed by a off a debt to finish paying money owed
company 왍 to service a debt to pay interest on a
death penalty /deθ pen(ə)lti/ noun debt
death penalty

debt collection /det kəlekʃən/


debt collection

a sentence ordering a criminal to be exe- |

cuted noun the act of collecting money which


debate /dbet/ noun a discussion
debate

|
is owed
debt collection agency /det kə
debt collection agency

about a subject, especially a formal dis- |

cussion leading to a vote 쑗 The Bill lekʃən edənsi/ noun a company


passed its Second Reading after a short which collects debts for other companies
debate. 쑗 The debate continued until 3 for a commission
debt collector /det kəlektə/ noun
debt collector

a.m. 쐽 verb to discuss a subject, especial- |

ly in a formal way that leads to a vote somebody who collects debts


debenture /dbentʃə/ noun a docu- debt factor /det fktə/ noun a per-
debt factor
debenture

ment whereby a company acknowledges son who buys debts at a discount and en-
it owes a debt and gives the company’s forces them for himself, or a person who
assets as security 왍 debenture register, enforces debts for a commission
debtor /detə/ noun somebody who
debtor

register of debentures list of debenture


holders of a company owes money

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85 decontrol
decease / dsis/ noun death (formal ) /ds(ə)n
decease decision making

| decision making |

쑗 On his decease all his property will go mekŋ/ noun the act of coming to a de-
to his widow. cision 왍 the decision-making processes
deceased /dsist/ adjective (of peo- the ways in which decisions are reached
deceased

decisis

ple) recently dead 쑗 The deceased left all decisis 쏡 stare decisis
his property to his widow. 쑗 She inherited declaration /dekləreʃ(ə)n/ noun an
declaration

the estate of a deceased aunt. 쐽 noun a official statement


person who has died recently, or people declaration of association

who have died recently declaration of association


/dekləreʃ(ə)n əv əsəυsieʃ(ə)n/
deceit /dsit/ noun dishonest behav-
deceit | |

|
noun a statement in the articles of asso-
iour intended to trick someone into pay- ciation of a company, saying that the
ing money or doing something 쑗 He built members have agreed to form the com-
up a career based on lies and deceit over pany and buy shares in it
several years. declaration of compliance

declaration of compliance
deception /dsepʃən/ noun an act of
deception

|
/dekləreʃ(ə)n əv kəmplaəns/ noun |

tricking someone into believing or doing a declaration made by a person forming


something 쑗 He obtained her key by de- a limited company, that the requirements
ception. 왍 obtaining a pecuniary ad- of the Companies’ Act have been met
vantage by deception the offence of de- declaration of income

ceiving someone so as to derive a finan- declaration of income


cial benefit 왍 obtaining property by /dekləreʃ(ə)n əv nk m/ noun a
deception the offence of tricking some- statement declaring income to the tax of-
one into handing over possession of fice
/d
declaratory judgment

property declaratory judgment |

decide /dsad/ verb 1. to give a judg-


decide

|
klrət(ə)ri d dmənt/ noun a judg-
ment in a civil case 쑗 The judge decided ment where a court states what the legal
in favour of the claimant. 2. to make up position of the various parties is
declare /dkleə/ verb to make an offi-
declare

your mind to do something 쑗 We have de- |

cided to take our neighbours to court. 쑗 cial statement 쑗 to declare someone


The tribunal decided against awarding bankrupt 쑗 to declare a dividend of 10%
any damages. 왍 to declare goods to customs to state
decided case /dsadd kes/ noun
decided case
that you are importing goods which are
liable to duty 왍 to declare an interest to
|

a case where a court has made a decision


and that decision then becomes a prece- state in public that you own shares in a
dent company being investigated, that you are
decidendi related to someone who can benefit from
decidendi 쏡 ratio decidendi your contacts, etc.
deciding factor /dsadŋ fktə/
deciding factor

declared /dkleəd/ adjective having


declared
|
|

noun the most important factor which in- been made public or officially stated
fluences a decision
declared value /dkleəd vlju/
declared value

decision /ds(ə)n/ noun 1. a judg-


decision |

|
noun the value of goods entered on a
ment in a civil court 왍 the decision of the customs declaration
House of Lords is final there is no ap-
/diklsf
declassification

peal against a decision of the House of declassification | |

Lords 2. the process of deciding to do keʃ(ə)n/ noun the act of making some-
something 쑗 to come to a decision or to thing no longer secret
reach a decision 3. 왍 decisions (in the declassify /diklsfa/ verb to make
declassify

EU) legally binding acts of the European a secret document or piece of informa-
Community which apply to individual tion available to the public 쑗 The govern-
Member States of the EU or to groups of ment papers relating to the war have re-
people or individual citizens of those cently been declassified.
states decontrol /dikəntrəυl/ verb to stop
decontrol

decision maker /ds(ə)n mekə/ or remove controls from something 왍 to


decision maker

noun somebody who has to decide decontrol the price of petrol to stop

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decree 86
controlling the price of petrol so that a whereby the creditors accept an agreed
free market price can be reached sum in settlement of their claim rather
decree /dkri/ noun 1. an order made
decree

|
than make the debtor bankrupt
deed of assignment /did əv ə
deed of assignment

by a head of state or government which is |

not approved by a parliament 왍 to gov- sanmənt/ noun an agreement which


ern by decree to rule a country by issu- legally transfers a property from a debtor
ing orders without having them debated to a creditor
and voted in a parliament 2. an order deed of covenant /did əv
deed of covenant

made by a court 쐽 verb to make an order k vənənt/ noun an officially signed


쑗 The President decreed that June 1st agreement to do something such as to
(his birthday) should be a National Hol- pay someone a sum of money each year
iday. deed of partnership /did əv
deed of partnership

decree absolute / dkri bsəlut/


decree absolute

|
pɑtnəʃp/ noun an agreement which
noun an order from a court which ends a sets up a partnership
marriage finally deed of transfer /did əv trnsf$/
deed of transfer

decree nisi /dkri nasa/ noun an


decree nisi

|
noun an agreement which transfers the
order from a court which ends a marriage ownership of shares
subject to a decree absolute at a later deed poll /did pəυl/ noun a written
deed poll

time legal instrument to which there is only


decriminalise /dikrmnəlaz/, de-
decriminalise

|
one party, e.g. the validation of a change
criminalize verb to make the possession of name 왍 to change one’s name by
or use of something no longer a crime 쑗 deed poll to sign a legal document by
There are plans to decriminalise some which you change your name
soft drugs. deem /dim/ verb to believe or to con-
deem

decrypt /dikrpt/ verb to read an en-


decrypt

|
sider 쑗 The judge deemed it necessary to
crypted text by using a special key order the court to be cleared. 쑗 If no pay-
decryption /dikrpʃ(ə)n/ noun the ment is made, the party shall be deemed
decryption

action of reading encrypted text using a to have defaulted.


special key deeming provision / dimŋ prə
deeming provision

deducing title /ddjusŋ tat(ə)l/


deducing title

|
v(ə)n/ noun a service of documents
noun the act of a vendor proving a valid which is assumed to have taken place,
right to the property being sold e.g. if using first-class post, service is
deduction /dd kʃən/ noun 1. a con-
deduction

|
deemed to have taken place on the sec-
clusion which is reached by observing ond day after the documents were posted
de facto /de fktəυ/ phrase a Latin
de facto

something 쑗 By deduction, the detective


came to the conclusion that the dead per- phrase meaning taken as a matter of fact,
son had not been murdered. 2. the re- even though the legal status may not be
moval of money from a total, or money certain 쑗 He is the de facto owner of the
removed from a total 쑗 Net salary is sal- property. 쑗 The de facto government has
ary after deduction of tax and social se- been recognised.
curity contributions. 왍 deduction from de facto authority /de fktəυ ɔ
de facto authority

salary, salary deduction, deduction at θɒrti/ noun the authority or rule of a


source money which a company re- country by a group because it is actually
moves from a salary to give to the gov- ruling
ernment as tax, national insurance con- defalcation /diflkeʃ(ə)n/ noun
defalcation

tributions, fines etc. the illegal use of money by someone who


deed /did/ noun a legal document
deed

is not the owner but who has been trusted


which has been signed and delivered by to look after it
the person making it in the presence of defamation of character

defamation of character
two witnesses /defəmeʃ(ə)n əv krktə/ noun the
deed of arrangement /did əv ə
deed of arrangement

| act of injuring someone’s reputation by


rendmənt/ noun an agreement made maliciously saying or writing things
between a debtor and his or her creditors about him or her

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87 defendant
/d defence /dfens/ noun 1. the party in
defamatory statement defence

defamatory statement | |

fmət(ə)ri stetmənt/ noun an untrue a legal case that is being sued by the
statement which is capable of lowering claimant 2. the party in a criminal case
the reputation of the stated individual in that is being prosecuted 3. the legal team
the eyes of right-thinking people in the representing a party being sued or prose-
community cuted 4. the arguments used when fight-
defame /dfem/ verb to say or write
defame

|
ing a case 쑗 His defence was that he did
things about the character of someone so not know the property was stolen. 5. a
as to damage his or her reputation document or statement setting out a de-
fendant’s case 쑗 A defence must say
default /dfɔlt/ noun a failure to do
default

|
which parts of a claim are denied or ad-
something which is required by law, such mitted, and which must be proved by the
as a failure to carry out the terms of a claimant. 왍 to file a defence to state that
contract, especially a failure to pay back you wish to defend a case, and outline
a debt 왍 in default of payment if no pay- the reasons for doing so 6. the protection
ment is made 왍 to be in default not to do of someone or something against attack
or not to have done something which is (NOTE: [all senses] The US spelling is
required by law 왍 the company is in de- defense.)
fault the company has failed to carry out
defence before claim /dfens b
defence before claim

the terms of the contract 왍 by default be- | |

cause no one else will act 왍 he was elect- fɔ klem/ noun a defence that the de-
ed by default he was elected because all fendant offered the claimant the amount
the other candidates withdrew, because of money claimed before the claimant
there were no other candidates 쐽 verb to started proceedings against him or her.
fail to carry out the terms of a contract, Also called tender before claim
defence counsel /dfens kaυnsəl/
defence counsel

especially to fail to pay back a debt 왍 to |

default on payments not to make pay- noun a solicitor who represents the de-
ments which are due under the terms of a fendant or the accused
contract Defence Secretary /sekrətri əv
Defence Secretary

default action /dfɔlt kʃən/ noun stet fə dfens/ noun same as Secre-
default action

| |

a County Court action to get back money tary of State for Defence (NOTE: The
owed US spelling is Defense Secretary.)
/dfens
defence statement

defaulter /dfɒltə/ noun somebody defence statement


defaulter

|
|

who defaults stetmənt/ noun a document used in


criminal proceedings that sets out the ac-
/dfɔlt
default summons

default summons |

cused’s defence before going to trial


s mənz/ noun a County Court sum-
defence witness /dfens wtnəs/
defence witness

mons to someone to pay what is owed |

noun somebody who is called to court to


defeasance /dfiz(ə)ns/ noun in a
defeasance

give evidence which helps the case of the


collateral deed, a clause which says that defendant or of the accused
a contract, bond or recognisance will be
defend /dfend/ verb 1. to fight to pro-
defend

revoked if something happens or if some |

act is performed tect someone or something which is be-


ing attacked 쑗 The company is defending
defeat / dfit/ verb to revoke or render
defeat

|
itself against the takeover bid. 2. to
invalid an agreement, contract or bond speak on behalf of someone who has
defect /dfekt/ noun a fault 쐽 verb (of
defect

| been charged with a crime 쑗 He hired the


a spy, agent or government employee) best lawyers to defend him against the
to leave your country and go to work for tax authorities. 왍 to defend an action to
an enemy country appear in court to state your case when
defective /dfektv/ adjective 1. not
defective

|
accused of something
defendant /dfendənt/ noun 1.
defendant

working properly 쑗 The machine broke |

down because of a defective cooling sys- somebody who is sued in a civil case.
tem. 2. not legally valid 쑗 His title to the Compare claimant, plaintiff 2. some-
property is defective. body who is accused of a crime in a crim-

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defer 88
inal case (NOTE: usually called the ac- lic interest (NOTE: It is found in Article 3
cused) of the European Convention of Human
defer /df$/ verb to arrange a meeting Rights and was introduced into UK law
defer

or activity for a later date than originally by the Human Rights Act 1998.)
degree /dri/ noun 1. a level or
degree

planned 쑗 to defer judgment 쑗 The deci- |

sion has been deferred until the next measure of a relationship 2. US a system
meeting. (NOTE: deferring – deferred) for classifying murders
deferment /df$mənt/ noun the act
deferment

| COMMENT: In the US, the penalty for


of arranging a meeting or activity for a first degree murder can be death.
de jure /de dυəri/ phrase a Latin
de jure

later date than originally planned 쑗 de-


ferment of payment 쑗 deferment of a de- phrase meaning ‘as a matter of law’,
cision where the legal title is clear 쑗 He is the de
deferment of sentence /d
deferment of sentence

|
jure owner of the property. 쒁 de facto
f$mənt əv sentəns/ noun a decision del credere agent /del kredər
del credere agent

to delay sentencing a convicted criminal edənt/ noun an agent who receives a


for up to six months to assess their be- high commission because he or she guar-
haviour in that period antees payment by customers to his or
deferred /df$d/ adjective delayed her principal
deferred

delegate noun /delət/ somebody


delegate

until a later date


deferred creditor /df$d kredtə/ who is elected by others to put their case
deferred creditor

noun somebody who is owed money by at a meeting 쑗 The company sent a dele-
a bankrupt but who is paid only after all gate to the conference in Hong Kong 쐽
other creditors verb /deləet/ to pass authority or re-
|

deferred
deferred payment

payment /df$d |
sponsibility to someone else
pemənt/ noun payment for goods by delegated legislation /deləetd
delegated legislation

instalments over a long period ledsleʃ(ə)n/ noun 1. (in the UK)


|

deficiency /dfʃ(ə)nsi/ noun US the


deficiency

|
legislation which has the power of an Act
amount of tax owing by a taxpayer after of Parliament but which is passed by a
he or she has submitted a tax return minister to whom Parliament has dele-
which is too low gated its authority 2. (in the EU) legisla-
tion which is proposed by the Commis-
deforce /difɔs/ verb to take wrong-
deforce

sion and implemented by the Council of


fully and hold land which belongs to Ministers
someone else delegatus non potest delegare

delegatus non potest delegare


deforcement /difɔsmənt/ noun the
deforcement

|
/delɑtəs nɒn pɒtest delɑre/ | |

wrongful taking and holding of another phrase a Latin phrase meaning ‘the del-
person’s land egate cannot delegate to someone else’
defraud /dfrɔd/ verb to trick some-
defraud

deliberate adjective /dlb(ə)rət/


deliberate
|

one so as to obtain money illegally 쑗 He done on purpose 쑗 The police suggest


defrauded the Inland Revenue of thou-
that the letter was a deliberate attempt to
sands of pounds. (NOTE: You defraud encourage disorder. 쐽 verb /dlbəret/ |

someone of something.)
to consider or to discuss a problem 쑗 The
defray / dfre/ verb to provide money
defray

|
committee deliberated for several hours
to pay the cost of something 쑗 The com- before reaching a decision.
pany agreed to defray the costs of the
deliberations /dlbə reʃ(ə)nz/ plu-
deliberations

prosecution.
| |

ral noun discussions 쑗 The result of the


degrading treatment or punish-
degrading treatment or punishment

committee’s deliberations was passed to


ment /dredŋ tritmənt ɔ |
the newspapers.
p nʃmənt/ noun an absolute right pro- delicti

hibiting an individual from being sub-


delicti 쏡 corpus delicti
delicto 쏡 in flagrante delicto
delicto

jected to a feeling of fear, anguish and in-


delinquency /dlŋkwənsi/ noun the
delinquency

feriority which has the possible effect of |

humiliating the victim, as such treatment act of committing crime, usually minor
can never be justified as being in the pub- crime

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89 denial
delinquent /dlŋkwənt/ adjective 1. Latin phrase meaning ‘the law does not
delinquent

US (of a debt) overdue 2. (of behaviour ) deal with trivial things’


antisocial or criminal 쐽 noun someone, demise /dmaz/ noun 1. death 쑗 On
demise

especially a young person, who has acted his demise the estate passed to his
in an antisocial way or broken the law 왍 daughter. 2. the granting of property on a
a juvenile delinquent, a delinquent US lease
young criminal who commits minor demise charter /dmaz tʃɑtə/
demise charter

crimes, especially crimes against proper- noun the charter of a ship without the
ty crew
delivery / dlv(ə)ri/ noun 1. 왍 deliv-
delivery

demise of the Crown /dmaz əv


demise of the Crown
|
|

ery of goods transport of goods to a cus- ðə kraυn/ noun the death of a king or
tomer’s address 왍 to take delivery of queen
goods to accept goods when they are de- democracy /dmɒkrəsi/ noun 1. a
democracy

livered 2. goods being transferred from theory or system of government by freely


the possession of person to another 쑗 We elected representatives of the people 쑗
take in three deliveries a day. 쑗 There After the coup, democracy was replaced
were four items missing in the last deliv- by a military dictatorship. 2. the right to
ery. 3. the transfer of a bill of exchange fair government, free election of repre-
4. a formal act whereby a deed becomes
sentatives and equality in voting 3. a
effective 쑗 Deeds take effect only from country ruled in this way 쑗 The pact was
the time of delivery. welcomed by western democracies.
delivery note /dlv(ə)ri nəυt/ noun
delivery note

democratic /deməkrtk/ adjective


democratic
|
|

a list of goods being delivered which is 1. referring to a democracy 쑗 After the


given to the customer with the goods coup the democratic processes of gov-
delivery order /dlv(ə)ri ɔdə/
delivery order

| ernment were replaced by government by


noun an instruction for goods to be de- decree. 2. free and fair, reflecting the
livered given by the customer to the per- views of the majority 쑗 The resolution
son holding the goods was passed by a democratic vote of the
delivery up /dlv(ə)ri p/ noun the
delivery up

|
council. 쑗 The action of the leader is
action of delivering goods which have against the wishes of the party as ex-
been made in infringement of a copy- pressed in a democratic vote at the party
right or patent to the claimant, so that conference.
demonstrative legacy /d
demonstrative legacy

they can be destroyed (infringement of |

copyright) mɒnstrətv leəsi/ noun a gift in a


will which is ordered to be paid out of a
demagogue /deməɒ/ noun (usu-
demagogue

special account
ally as criticism) a leader who is able to
demur /dm$/ noun an objection 쑗
demur

get the support of the people by exciting |

their lowest feelings and prejudices Counsel made no demur to the proposal.
demagogy 쐽 verb 1. not to agree 쑗 Counsel stated
demagogy, demagoguery noun the that there was no case to answer, but the
activity of appealing to feelings such as judge demurred. 2. to make a formal ob-
fear, greed or hatred of the mass of the jection that the facts as alleged are not
people sufficient to warrant the civil action
demand bill /dmɑnd bl/ noun a
demand bill

| (NOTE: demurring – demurred)


bill of exchange which must be paid demurrage /dm rd/ noun money
demurrage

when payment is asked for paid to the owner of a cargo when a ship
demanding with menaces /d is delayed in a port
demanding with menaces

mɑndŋ wð menəss/ noun the of- demurrer /dm$rə/ noun in a civil
demurrer

fence of attempting to make someone action, a plea that although the facts of
give you something by threatening them the case are correct, they are not suffi-
with violence cient to warrant the action
de minimis non curat lex /de denial /dnaəl/ noun 1. the act of not
de minimis non curat lex denial

mnmis nɒn kjυərt leks/ phrase a allowing something 2. the act of stating

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denial of human rights 90


that you have not done something 쑗 In by someone else 쑗 He has to provide for
spite of his denials he was found guilty. his family and dependants out of a very
denial of human rights /dnaəl əv small salary. 2. a person who is a mem-
denial of human rights

hjumən rats/ noun the act of refusing ber of the family of someone who works
someone a generally accepted right in the European Union, even if not a EU
denial of justice /dnaəl əv
denial of justice

|
citizen
d sts/ noun a situation where justice COMMENT: For the purposes of EU
appears not to have been done law, dependants are classified as the
spouse of a EU citizen, the children
denial-of-service attack /dnaəl
denial-of-service attack

|
and parents of a EU citizen, the grand-
əv s$vs ətk/ noun an illegal at- | children and grandparents of a EU cit-
tempt to cause a computer system to izen (in the case of children and grand-
crash by sending it data from many children, they count as dependants up
sources simultaneously to the age of 21).
dependent /dpendənt/ adjective 1.
dependent

de novo /de nəυvəυ/ phrase a Latin


de novo
|

phrase meaning ‘starting again’ being supported financially by someone


else 쑗 Tax relief is allowed for dependent
deny /dna/ verb 1. not to allow some-
deny

relatives. 2. referring to a dependant


|

thing 쑗 She was denied the right to see


dependent rights /dpendənt
dependent rights

her lawyer. 2. to say that you have not |

done something 쑗 He denied being in the rats/ plural noun the rights of a depend-
house at the time of the murder. (NOTE: ant to enter a EU country along with a
You deny someone something or deny parent or other close relative
doing or having done something.) deponent / dpəυnənt/ noun some-
deponent

depart /dpɑt/ verb 왍 to depart from


depart

| body who makes a statement under oath,


normal practice to act in a different way by affirmation or by affidavit
from the normal practice deport /dpɔt/ verb to send someone
deport

Department of Justice /d


Department of Justice

|
away from a country permanently 쑗 The
pɑtmənt əv d sts/ noun US the illegal immigrants were deported.
department of the US government re-
deportation /dipɔteʃ(ə)n/ noun
deportation

sponsible for federal legal cases, headed |

by the Attorney-General the sending of someone away from a


country 쑗 The convicts were sentenced to
Department of Justice Canada
Department of Justice Canada

deportation.
/dpɑtmənt əv d sts knədə/
|

deportation order /dipɔteʃ(ə)n


deportation order

noun the Canadian government depart- |

ment that is responsible for developing ɔdə/ noun an official order to send
policies affecting the justice system and someone away from a country 쑗 The
providing legal services to the federal minister signed the deportation order.
government depose /dpəυz/ verb 1. to state under
depose

Department of State /dpɑtmənt


Department of State

| oath 2. to remove a monarch from the


əv səυʃ(ə)l stet/ noun 1. a major sec- throne
tion of the British government headed by deposit /dpɒzt/ noun 1. money
deposit

a Secretary of State 쑗 the Department of placed in a bank for safe keeping or to


Trade and Industry 2. a major section of earn interest 2. money given in advance
the US government headed by a Secre- so that the thing which you want to buy
tary 쑗 the Lord Chancellor’s Department will not be sold to someone else 쑗 to
departure /dpɑtʃə frəm/ noun 왍 a
departure

|
leave £10 as deposit 왍 to forfeit a depos-
departure from the usual practice dif- it to lose a deposit because you have de-
ferent from what usually happens 쑗 This cided not to buy the item 쐽 verb 1. to put
forms a departure from established prac- documents somewhere for safe keeping
tice. 쑗 Any departure from the terms and 쑗 We have deposited the deeds of the
conditions of the contract must be ad- house with the bank. 쑗 He deposited his
vised in writing. will with his solicitor. 2. to put money
dependant /dpendənt/ noun 1.
dependant

| into a bank account 쑗 to deposit £100 in


somebody who is supported financially a current account

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91 despatch
deposit account /dpɒzt əkaυnt/ thing 2. (in the EU) an action by which
deposit account

| |

noun a bank account which pays interest an EC directive is not applied


but on which notice has to be given to COMMENT: Derogations from the prin-
withdraw money ciple of equality of access to employ-
ment may be where the job can only
depositary /dpɒztəri/ noun US a
depositary

|
be done by someone of one particular
person or corporation that can place sex, such as a person modelling men’s
money or documents for safekeeping clothes.
with a depository (NOTE: Do not confuse derogation of responsibility

derogation of responsibility
with depository.) /derəeʃ(ə)n əv rspɒnsblti/ | |

deposition /depəzʃ(ə)n/ noun a


deposition

| noun the avoidance of doing something


written statement of evidence from a wit- that should be done
ness descendant /dsendənt/ noun (in
descendant

depositor /dpɒztə/ noun somebody


depositor

| the EU) a child or grandchild of a person


who deposits money in a bank (NOTE: The opposite, the parents or
depository /dpɒzt(ə)ri/ noun a per-
depository

|
grandparents of a person, are ascend-
son or company with whom money or ants.)
descent /dsent/ noun 1. family ties
descent

documents can be deposited (NOTE: Do |

not confuse with depositary.) of inheritance between parents and chil-


deprave /dprev/ verb to make
deprave

|
dren 왍 he is British by descent, he is of
someone’s character bad 쑗 Such TV pro- British descent one (or both) of his par-
grammes which may deprave the minds ents is British 2. 왍 by descent way of in-
of children who watch them. heriting property by an heir, where there
is no will
deputise /depjυtaz/, deputize verb
deputise

desegregate /diseret/ verb to


desegregate

왍 to deputise for someone to take the |

place of someone who is absent 왍 to dep- end a policy of segregation


desegregation /disereʃ(ə)n/
desegregation

utise someone to appoint someone as a |

deputy noun the ending of segregation


deputy /depjυti/ noun 1. somebody deselect /dis lekt/ verb to decide
deputy deselect

who takes the place of a higher official, that a person who had been selected by a
who assists a higher official 쑗 He acted political party as a candidate for a con-
as deputy for the chairman or he acted as stituency is no longer the candidate
the chairman’s deputy. 2. US somebody deselection /dislekʃ(ə)n/ noun
deselection

who acts for or assists a sheriff the act of deselecting 쑗 Some factions in
derelict / derlkt/ noun an abandoned
derelict

the local party have proposed the dese-


floating boat lection of the candidate.
dereliction of duty /derlkʃən əv desert /dz$t/ verb 1. to leave the
dereliction of duty desert

| |

djuti/ noun failure to do what you armed forces without permission 쑗 He


ought to do 쑗 She was found guilty of deserted and went to live in South Amer-
gross dereliction of duty. ica. 2. to leave a family or spouse 쑗 The
derivative action

derivative action /drvətv |


two children have been deserted by their
kʃən/ noun an action started by a father.
deserter /dz$tə/ noun somebody
deserter

shareholder or a group of shareholders |

which is derived from the company’s who has left the armed forces without
rights but which the company itself does permission
not want to proceed with desertion /dz$ʃ(ə)n/ noun 1. the act
desertion

derogate /derəet/ verb 왍 to dero-


derogate

of leaving the armed forces without per-


gate from something which has been mission 2. the act of leaving a spouse 쑗
agreed to act to prevent something He divorced his wife because of her de-
which has been agreed from being fully sertion.
implemented despatch /dsptʃ/ verb to send 쑗
despatch

derogation /derəeʃ(ə)n/ noun 1.


derogation

| The letters about the rates were des-


the act of avoiding or destroying some- patched yesterday. 쑗 The Defence Minis-

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despatch box 92
ter was despatched to take charge of the aged between 14 and 21 can be kept for
operation. corrective training, instead of being sent
despatch box /dsptʃ bɒks/ noun to prison, if they are convicted of crimes
despatch box

1. a red box in which government papers which would usually carry a sentence of
are sent to ministers 2. one of two boxes three months’ imprisonment or more
detention order /dtenʃən ɔdə/
detention order

on the centre table in the House of Com- |

mons at which a Minister or member of noun a court order asking for someone to
the Opposition Front Bench stands to be kept in detention
speak 왍 to be at the despatch box (of a determine /dt$mn/ verb 1. to con-
determine

minister ) to be speaking in parliament trol what will happen or what something


destruction /dstr kʃən/ noun the
destruction

| will be like 쑗 Their attitudes have been


action of killing someone, or of ending determined by their experiences. 2. to
the existence of something completely 쑗 discover something 쑗 We need to deter-
The destruction of the evidence in the fire mine what the long-term effects of this
at the police station made it difficult to decision might be.
prosecute. deterrence /dterəns/ noun the idea
deterrence

detain /dten/ verb to hold a person


detain

|
that the harsh punishment of one crimi-
so that he or she cannot leave 쑗 The sus- nal will deter other people from commit-
pects were detained by the police for ting crimes
questioning. deterrent /dterənt/ noun a punish-
deterrent

detainee /diteni/ noun somebody


detainee

|
ment which is strong enough to stop peo-
who has been detained ple from committing a crime 쑗 A long
detainer /dtenə/ noun the act of
detainer

| prison sentence will act as a deterrent to


holding a person other possible criminals.
detect /dtekt/ verb to notice or dis- deterrent sentence /dterənt
detect deterrent sentence

| |

cover something which is hidden or dif- sentəns/ noun a harsh sentence which
ficult to see 쑗 The machine can detect ex- the judge hopes will deter other people
plosives. from committing crimes
detection /dtekʃən/ noun the proc- detinue /detnju/ noun the tort of
detection detinue

ess of discovering something, especially wrongfully holding goods which belong


discovering who has committed a crime to someone else 왍 action in detinue ac-
or how a crime has been committed tion formerly brought to regain posses-
detection rate /dtekʃ(ə)n ret/ sion of goods which were wrongfully
detection rate

noun the number of crimes which are held by someone


solved, as a percentage of all crimes detriment /detrmənt/ noun damage
detriment

detective /dtektv/ noun somebody, or harm 왍 without detriment to his


detective

usually a policeman, who tries to solve a claim without harming his claim 왍 his
crime action was to the detriment of the
COMMENT: The ranks of detectives in claimant his action harmed the claimant
the British Police Force are Detective detrimental /detrment(ə)l/ adjec-
detrimental

Constable, Detective Sergeant, Detec- tive harmful 쑗 Action detrimental to the


tive Inspector, Detective Chief Inspec-
tor, Detective Superintendent, and De- maintenance of public order.
developer / dveləpə/ noun 왍 a prop-
developer

tective Chief Superintendent. |

detective agency /dtektv erty developer person who plans and


detective agency

edənsi/ noun an office which hires builds a group of new houses or new fac-
out the services of private detectives tories
detention /dtenʃən/ noun 1. the act development area /dveləpmənt
detention development area

| |

of keeping someone so that he or she eəriə/ noun an area which has been giv-
cannot escape 쑗 The suspects were en special help from a government to en-
placed in detention. 2. wrongfully hold- courage businesses and factories to be set
ing goods which belong to someone else up there
detention centre / dtenʃən sentə/ devil /dev(ə)l/ noun a barrister to
detention centre devil

noun a place where young offenders whom another barrister passes work be-

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93 directive
cause he or she is too busy 쐽 verb to pass between countries through their diplo-
instruction to another barrister because mats 쑗 The message was delivered by
you are too busy to deal with the case diplomatic channels. 쑗 They are working
yourself 왍 to devil for someone to do un- to restore diplomatic channels between
pleasant or boring work for someone the two countries.
devise /dvaz/ noun a gift of freehold diplomatic corps /dpləmtk
devise diplomatic corps

| |

land to someone in a will 쐽 verb to give kɔ/ plural noun all foreign diplomats in
freehold property to someone in a will a city or country
COMMENT: Giving of other types of diplomatic immunity /dpləmtk
diplomatic immunity

property is a bequest. mjunti/ noun not subject to the laws


|

devisee /dvazi/ noun somebody


devisee

|
of a country because of being a foreign
who receives freehold property in a will diplomat 쑗 He claimed diplomatic immu-
devolve /dvɒlv/ verb to pass to some- nity to avoid being arrested.
devolve

one under the terms of a will direct /darekt/ verb to give an order
direct

dictum /dktəm/ noun a statement


dictum

to someone 쑗 The judge directed the jury


made by a judge to acquit all the defendants. 쑗 The Crown
die /da/ verb to stop living. 쒁 death Court directed the justices to rehear the
die

(NOTE: dying – died) case.


direct discrimination /darekt d
direct discrimination

digest /dadest/ noun a book which


digest
| |

collects summaries of court decisions to- skrmneʃ(ə)n/ noun illegal discrimi-


|

gether, used for reference purposes by le- nation where similar cases are treated
gal practitioners differently or where different cases are
dilapidation /dlpdeʃ(ə)n/ noun
dilapidation

| |
treated in the same way
direct effect /darekt fekt/ noun
direct effect

damage arising through neglect | |

dilatory /dlət(ə)ri/ adjective too slow


dilatory
the effect of a legal decision of the Euro-
pean Union which creates rights for citi-
/dlət(ə)ri
dilatory motion

dilatory motion zens. 쒁 supremacy


məυʃ(ə)n/ noun a motion in the House COMMENT: Direct effect applies verti-
of Commons to delay the debate on a cally, from the state giving a right to the
proposal citizen, and from the citizen who has
dilatory plea /dlət(ə)ri pli/ noun a an obligation to the state. It can also
dilatory plea

plea by a defendant relating to the juris- apply horizontally between individual


citizens who have rights and obliga-
diction of the court, which has the effect tions to each other.
of delaying the action
/ darekt
direct evidence

direct evidence
diminished responsibility /d
diminished responsibility |

|
evd(ə)ns/ noun first-hand evidence
mnʃt rspɒnsblti/ noun a mental
| |
such as the testimony of an eye witness
state of a criminal, either inherited or or the production of original documents
caused by illness or injury, which means
direct examination / darekt 
direct examination

that he or she cannot be held responsible | |

for the crime which has been committed zmneʃ(ə)n/ noun the questioning
|

of a witness by his or her own lawyers as


DInsp abbreviation detective inspector
DInsp

a means of oral evidence by the witness


dip /dp/ noun a pickpocket (slang)
dip

to be given in court
diplomat /dpləmt/, diplomatist
diplomat

direction /darekʃən/ 앳 directions


direction

/dpləυmətst/ noun a person such as


|
1. order which explains how something
an ambassador who is an official repre- should be done 쑗 the court is not able to
sentative of his country in another coun- give directions to the local authority 2.
try instructions from a judge to a jury 3. or-
diplomatic agent /dpləmtk
diplomatic agent

ders given by a judge concerning the


edənt/ noun a person officially em- general way of proceeding with a case
ployed by the embassy of a foreign coun- directive /darektv/ noun 1. an order
directive

try or command to someone to do something


diplomatic channels /dpləmtk
diplomatic channels

2. (in the EU) a legally binding act of the


tʃn(ə)lz/ plural noun communicating European Community which is binding

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Director-General 94
on the Member States of the EU but not Disability Rights Commission
Disability Rights Commission

on individuals until it has been made part /dsəblti rats kəmʃ(ə)n/ noun an |

of national law 쑗 The Commission issued official committee set up to deal with is-
a directive on food prices. Compare reg- sues relating to discrimination against
ulations people with disabilities. Abbreviation
COMMENT: A directive is binding in the DRC
result which is to be achieved. Direc- disabled person /dseb(ə)ld
disabled person

tives do not have a direct effect before


any time limit for their implementation
p$s(ə)n/ noun a person with physical
has expired, and they do not have any disabilities
disallow /dsəlaυ/ verb not to accept
disallow

horizontal direct effect (i.e. an effect |

between citizens). something 쑗 The judge disallowed the


/darektə defence evidence. 쑗 He claimed £2000
Director-General

Director-General |

den(ə)rəl/ noun (in the EU) the head for fire damage, but the claim was disal-
of the Directorates General in the Com- lowed.
mission (NOTE: The plural is Directors- disapproval /dsəpruv(ə)l/ noun
disapproval

General.) the act of disapproving a decision made


Director-General of Fair Trading

Director-General of Fair Trading by a lower court


/darektə den(ə)rəl əv feə tredŋ/ disapprove /dsəpruv / verb 1. to
disapprove

| |

noun an official in charge of the Office of show doubt about a decision made by a
Fair Trading, dealing with consumers lower court, but not to reverse or overrule
and the law it 쑗 The Appeal Court disapproved the
Director of Public Prosecutions

Director of Public Prosecutions County Court decision. 2. 왍 to disap-


/darektə | əv p blk prɒs |
prove of something to show that you do
kjuʃ(ə)nz/ noun a government official not approve of something, that you do
in charge of the Crown Prosecution Serv- not think something is good 쑗 The judge
ice, working under the Attorney-Gener- openly disapproves of juries.
disbar /dsbɑ/ verb to stop a barrister
disbar

al, who can prosecute in important cases |

and advises other government depart- from practising (NOTE: disbarring –


ments if prosecutions should be started 쑗 disbarred)
disburse /dsb$s/ verb to pay money
disburse

The papers in the fraud case have been |

sent to the Director of Public Prosecu- disbursement /dsb$smənt/ noun


disbursement

tions. Abbreviation DPP an amount of money paid from a fund


direct selling /darekt selŋ/ noun held for a particular purpose, or the proc-
direct selling

the activity of selling a product direct to ess of making such a payment


discharge noun /dstʃɑd/ 1. the
discharge

the customer without going through a


shop ending of a contract by performing all
direct sexual discrimination /da
direct sexual discrimination

|
the conditions of the contract, releasing a
rekt sekʃuəl dskrmneʃ(ə)n/ | |
party from the terms of the contract, or
noun an instance of sexual discrimina- being in breach of contract 2. payment of
tion that is overt, e.g. failure to pay one debt 왍 in full discharge of a debt paying
sex the same wage as the other in an a debt completely, paying less than the
equivalent job. 쒁 indirect sexual dis- total amount owed, by agreement 3. re-
crimination lease from prison or from military serv-
ice 4. 왍 in discharge of his duties as di-
taxation /darekt tk
direct taxation

direct | |
rector carrying out his duties 쐽 verb /ds
seʃ(ə)n/ noun a tax such as income tax
|

tʃɑd/ 1. to let someone go free 쑗 The


which is paid direct to the government prisoners were discharged by the judge.
disability /dsəblti/ noun 1. the 왍 the judge discharged the jury the
disability

condition of being unable to use a part of judge told the jury that they were no
the body properly 2. a lack of legal ca- longer needed 2. 왍 to discharge a bank-
pacity to act in your own right because of rupt to release someone from bankrupt-
age or mental state 왍 person under a cy (as when a person has paid his or her
disability person who is not capable to debts) 3. 왍 to discharge a debt, to dis-
taking legal action for himself charge one’s liabilities to pay a debt or

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95 discretionary
one’s liabilities in full 4. to dismiss disclosure that the claimant was an un-
someone from a job or position 쑗 to dis- discharged bankrupt. 쒁 non-disclosure
charge an employee 2. stating that documents exist or have
discharge
discharge by agreement

by agreement existed before a hearing starts in the civil


/dstʃɑd ba ərimənt/ noun a sit- |
courts, usually done by preparing a list of
uation where both parties agree to end a documents. Parties to whom documents
contract have been disclosed have the right to in-
discharge by performance /ds
discharge by performance

|
spect them. (NOTE: Since the introduc-
tion of the new Civil Procedure Rules in
tʃɑd ba pəfɔməns/ noun a situa- |

April 1999, this term has in some con-


tion where the terms of a contract have
texts replaced discovery.)
been fulfilled
discontinuance /dskəntnjuəns/
discontinuance

discharged bankrupt /dstʃɑdd


discharged bankrupt
|

bŋkr pt/ noun somebody who has noun the action of discontinuing a claim
been released from being bankrupt or action 쑗 The claimant has served no-
tice of discontinuance.
discharge in bankruptcy
discharge in bankruptcy

discontinue /dskəntnju/ verb to


discontinue

/dstʃɑd n bŋkr ptsi/ noun an |

order of a court to release someone from stop a claim which has been issued or an
bankruptcy action which has started 쑗 A claimant
may need to seek permission of the court
disciplinary /dsplnəri/ adjective
disciplinary

|
to discontinue a claim.
왍 to take disciplinary action against
discovery of documents /d
discovery of documents

someone to punish someone |

sk v(ə)ri əv dɒkjυmənts/ noun dis-


disciplinary procedure /ds
disciplinary procedure

|
closure of each party’s documents to the
plnəri prəsidə/ noun a way of
|
other before a hearing starts in the civil
warning an employee officially that he or courts (NOTE: Since the introduction of
she is breaking rules or that their stand- the new Civil Procedure Rules in April
ard of work is unacceptable 1999, this term has in some contexts
discipline /dspln/ verb to punish
discipline

been replaced by disclosure.)


someone 쑗 The clerk was disciplined for discredit /dskredt/ verb to show
discredit

leaking the report to the newspapers. that a person is not reliable 쑗 The prose-
disclaim /dsklem/ verb 1. to refuse
disclaim

|
cution counsel tried to discredit the de-
to admit 쑗 He disclaimed all knowledge fence witnesses.
of the bomb. 쑗 The management dis- discretion /dskreʃ(ə)n/ noun the
discretion

claims all responsibility for customers’ ability to decide correctly what should be
property. 2. to refuse to accept a legacy done 쑗 Magistrates have a discretion to
or devise made to you under someone’s allow an accused person to change his
will election from a summary trial to a jury
disclaimer /dsklemə/ noun 1. a le-
disclaimer

|
trial. 쑗 The judge refused the applica-
gal refusal to accept responsibility or to tion, on the ground that he had a judicial
accept a right 2. a clause in a contract discretion to examine inadmissible evi-
where a party disclaims responsibility dence. 왍 to exercise one’s discretion to
for something 3. a refusal to accept prop- decide which of several possible ways to
erty bequeathed under someone’s will act 왍 the court exercised its discretion
disclose /dskləυz/ verb 1. to tell de- the court decided what should be done 왍
disclose

tails 쑗 The bank has no right to disclose I leave it to your discretion I leave it for
details of my account to the tax office. 2. you to decide what to do 왍 at the discre-
(in civil cases) to say that a document ex- tion of someone if someone decides 쑗
ists 쑗 Parties to a case are required to Membership is at the discretion of the
disclose relevant documents. committee. 쑗 Sentencing is at the discre-
disclosure /dskləυə/ noun 1. the
disclosure

|
tion of the judge. 쑗 The granting of an in-
act of telling details or of publishing a se- junction is at the discretion of the court.
discretionary /dskreʃ(ə)n(ə)ri/ ad-
discretionary

cret 쑗 The disclosure of the takeover bid |

raised the price of the shares. 쑗 The de- jective being possible if someone wants
fendant’s case was made stronger by the 왍 the minister’s discretionary powers

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discretionary trust 96
powers which the minister could use if tried to disenfranchise the ordinary
he or she thought it suitable 왍 the tribu- shareholders.
nal has wide discretionary power the dishonour /dsɒnə/ verb to refuse to
dishonour

tribunal can decide on many different pay a cheque or bill of exchange because
courses of action there is not enough money in the account
/d to pay it 쑗 The bank dishonoured his
discretionary trust

discretionary trust |

skreʃ(ə)n(ə)ri tr st/ noun a trust cheque. 쐽 noun the act of dishonouring a
where the trustees decide how to invest cheque 쑗 The dishonour of the cheque
the income and when and how much in- brought her business to a stop.
come should be paid to the beneficiaries disinherit /dsn hert/ verb to make
disinherit

discriminate /dskrmnet/ verb to a will which prevents someone from in-


discriminate

note differences between things and act heriting 쑗 He was disinherited by his fa-
accordingly 쑗 The planning committee ther.
diskette /dsket/ noun a very small
diskette

finds it difficult to discriminate between |

applications which improve the commu- floppy disk


nity, and those which are purely commer- dismiss /dsms/ verb 1. 왍 to dismiss
dismiss

cial. 왍 to discriminate against someone an employee to remove an employee


to treat someone unequally 쑗 The council from a job 쑗 He was dismissed for being
was accused of discriminating against late. 2. to refuse to accept 쑗 The court
women in its recruitment policy. 쑗 He dismissed the appeal or the application
claimed he had been discriminated or the action. 쑗 The justices dismissed
against because of his colour. the witness’ evidence out of hand.
discrimination /dskrmneʃ(ə)n/
discrimination

dismissal /dsms(ə)l/ noun 1. the re-


dismissal

| |
|

noun 1. the unfair treatment of someone moval of an employee from a job, espe-
because of their colour, class, language, cially as a result of something they have
race, religion, sex or a disability 쑗 Racial done wrong. 쒁 wrongful dismissal, un-
discrimination is against the law. 쑗 She fair dismissal 2. an unwillingness to ac-
accused the council of sexual discrimi- cept that something might be true 쑗 the
nation in their recruitment policy. 쑗 company’s public dismissal of the alle-
There should be no discrimination on the gation of fraud 3. an order telling some-
grounds of disability. 2. the ability to no- one to leave a place, or to stop carrying
tice the differences between things 쑗 The out a role 쑗 the dismissal of jurors 4. a
tests are designed to give clear discrimi- judge’s decision that a court case should
nation between the three categories. 3. not continue
good judgement and decision-making 쑗 dismissal procedure /dsms(ə)l
dismissal procedure

The committee showed discrimination in prəsidə/ noun the process of dismiss-


|

its choice of advisers for the project. ing an employee, following the rules in
COMMENT: The UK is gradually intro- the contract of employment
ducing the necessary legislation to
disobedience /dsəbidiəns/ noun
disobedience

comply with the European Council Di- |

rective on Equal Treatment in Employ- bad behaviour which ignores rules or re-
ment and Occupation (2000/78/EC). quests to do something 쑗 The prisoners
This will result in a consistency of ap- were put in solitary confinement as pun-
proach between the various types of ishment for their disobedience of the
unlawful discrimination and introduce
some new types of unlawful discrimi- governor’s orders.
disorder /dsɔdə/ noun a lack of or-
disorder

nation. In particular, the Equality (Reli- |

gion or Belief) Regulations 2003 and der or of control


the Employment Equality (Sexual Ori-
disorderly /dsɔdəli/ adjective badly
disorderly

entation) Regulations 2003 are now |

both in force and legislation against behaved 쑗 She was charged with disor-
dismissal on the grounds of age is in- derly conduct or with being drunk and
tended by 2006. disorderly.
disenfranchise /dsnfrntʃaz/, /dspenseʃ(ə)n/
disenfranchise dispensation

| dispensation |

disfranchise verb to take away some- noun 1. the act of giving out justice 2.
one’s right to vote 쑗 The company has special permission to do something

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97 distribution of assets
which is normally not allowed or is disqualify /dskwɒlfa/ verb not to
disqualify

against the law allow someone to do something, because


dispense / dspens/ verb 1. to provide they have done something which is not
dispense

something, especially officially 쑗 to dis- allowed or have committed a legal of-


pense justice 2. 왍 to dispense with fence 쑗 Being a judge disqualifies him
something not to use something, to do from being a Member of Parliament. 쑗
without something 쑗 The chairman of the After the accident she was fined £1000
tribunal dispensed with the formality of and disqualified from driving for two
taking minutes. 쑗 The accused decided to years. 쑗 He was convicted of driving a
dispense with the services of a lawyer. motor vehicle while disqualified.
disrepute /dsrpjut/ noun a situa-
disrepute

person /dsplesd
displaced person

displaced |
|

p$s(ə)n/ noun a man or woman who tion where something is not regarded
has been forced to leave home and move very highly 왍 to bring something into
to another country because of war disrepute to give something a bad repu-
tation 쑗 He was accused of bringing the
dispose /dspəυz/ verb 왍 to dispose
dispose

|
club into disrepute by his bad behaviour.
of to get rid of, to sell cheaply 쑗 to dis-
disseisin /dssizn/ noun illegally
disseisin

pose of excess stock 쑗 to dispose of one’s |

business depriving someone of possession of land


dissemination /dsemneʃ(ə)n/
dissemination

disposition /dspəzʃ(ə)n/ noun the


disposition
| |

noun the act of passing information,


act of passing property in the form of
slanderous or libellous statements to oth-
land or goods to another person, espe-
er members of the public
cially in a will 쑗 to make testamentary
dissent /dsent/ noun disagreement
dissent

dispositions |

with the majority of other people or with


dispossess /dspəzes/ verb to de-
dispossess

the authorities 쑗 The opposition showed


prive someone wrongfully of his or her its dissent by voting against the Bill. 쐽
possession of land verb to disagree in writing with a major-
/dspəzeʃ(ə)n/
dispossession

dispossession | ity opinion in a court judgment 쑗 One of


noun the act of wrongfully depriving the appeal judges dissented.
someone of possession of land dissenting judgment / dsentŋ
dissenting judgment

dispute / dspjut, dspjut/ noun a d dmənt/ noun the judgment of a


dispute

disagreement or argument between par- judge, showing that he or she disagrees


ties 왍 to adjudicate, to mediate in a dis- with other judges in a case which has
pute to try to settle a dispute between been heard by several judges
other parties 쐽 verb to argue against dissolve /dzɒlv/ verb to bring to an
dissolve

something 왍 the defendant disputed end 쑗 to dissolve a marriage or a part-


the claim the defendant argued that the nership or a company 왍 to dissolve Par-
claim was not correct 왍 she disputed the liament to end a session of Parliament,
policeman’s version of events she said and so force a general election
that the policeman’s story of what had
distrain /dstren / verb to seize goods
distrain

happened was wrong 왍 to dispute the |

jurisdiction of a court to argue that a to pay for debts


distress /dstres/ noun the taking of
distress

court has no jurisdiction over a case |

someone’s goods to pay for debts


/dskwɒlf
disqualification

disqualification | |

distress sale /dstres sel/ noun the


distress sale

keʃ(ə)n/ noun 1. a situation in which |

someone is legally prevented from doing selling of someone’s goods to pay his or
something 2. the fact of being legally her debts
distribution /dstrbjuʃ(ə)n/ noun
distribution

prevented from driving a car |

disqualification from office /ds


disqualification from office

|
sharing out property in an estate
kwɒlfkeʃ(ə)n frəm ɒfs/ noun a
distribution of assets

distribution of assets
rule which forces a director to be re- /dstrbjuʃ(ə)n əv sets / noun shar-
moved from a directorship if he or she ing the assets of a company among the
does not fulfil the conditions shareholders

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district 98
district /dstrkt/ noun a section of a act of splitting the responsibility for
district

town or of a country something between several people


divorce /dvɔs/ noun the legal ending
divorce

district attorney /dstrkt ət$ni/


district attorney
|
|

noun US 1. a prosecuting attorney in a of a marriage 쐽 verb to legally end a mar-


federal district 2. the state prosecuting riage to someone 쑗 He divorced his wife
attorney 왘 abbreviation DA and married his secretary.
COMMENT: Under English law, the only
district court /dstrkt kɔt/ noun
district court

basis of divorce is the irretrievable


US a court in a federal district breakdown of marriage. This is proved
district registrar /dstrkt red
district registrar

|
by one of five grounds: (a) adultery; (b)
strɑ/ noun an official who registers unreasonable behaviour; (c) one of the
parties has deserted the other for a pe-
births, marriages and deaths in a specific riod of two years; (d) the parties have
area lived apart for two years and agree to
/ dstrkt
district registry

district registry a divorce; (e) the parties have lived


redstri/ noun an office where records apart for five years. In the context of di-
vorce proceedings the court has wide
of births, marriages and deaths are kept powers to make orders regarding resi-
disturb /dst$b/ verb 왍 to disturb
disturb

| dence and contact orders for children,


the peace to make a noise which annoys and ancillary relief. Divorce proceed-
people in the area ings are normally dealt with by the
County Court, or in London at the Di-
disturbance /dst$bəns/ noun a
disturbance

|
vorce Registry. Where divorce pro-
noise or movement of people which an- ceedings are defended, they are trans-
noys other people 쑗 Street disturbances ferred to the High Court, but this is rare
forced the government to resign. 쑗 He and most divorce cases are now con-
ducted by what is called the ‘special
was accused of making a disturbance in procedure’.
the public library.
divorcee /dvɔsi/ noun someone
divorcee

disturbed balance of mind /d


disturbed balance of mind |

|
who is divorced
st$bd bləns əv mand/ noun US a
divorce petition /dvɔs pətʃ(ə)n/
divorce petition

state of mind when someone is temporar- | |

noun an official request to a court to end


ily incapable of rational action because
of depression or mental distress 쑗 The a marriage 쑗 She was granted a divorce
verdict of the coroner’s court was suicide on the grounds of unreasonable behav-
while the balance of mind was disturbed. iour by her husband.
Divorce Registry /dvɔs
Divorce Registry

division /dv(ə)n/ noun 1. one sec-


division
|

redstri/ noun a court which deals


|

tion of something which is divided into with divorce cases in London


several sections 쑗 Smith’s is now a divi- DMC

sion of the Brown group of companies. 2. DMC abbreviation donatio mortis causa
dock /dɒk/ noun the part of a court
dock

a separate section of the High Court, e.g.


the Queen’s Bench Division, the Family where an accused prisoner stands 왍 the
Division or the Chancery Division, or a prisoner in the dock the prisoner who is
separate section of the Appeal Court, e.g. being tried for a crime
the Civil Division or the Criminal Divi- dock brief /dɒk brif/ noun a former
dock brief

sion 3. the act of dividing or of being di- system where an accused person could
vided 왍 to have a division of opinion to choose a barrister from those present in
disagree 4. (in the EU) one of the subdi- court to represent them for a small fee
visions of a Directorate in the Commis- dock dues /dɒk djuz/ noun the pay-
dock dues

sion, with a Head of Division at its head ment which a ship makes to the harbour
divisional court /dv(ə)n(ə)l kɔt/
divisional court

|
authorities for the right to use the har-
noun one of courts of the High Court bour
divisional judge /dv(ə)n(ə)l docket /dɒkt/ noun 1. a list of con-
divisional judge docket

d d/ noun a judge in a division of the tents of a package which is being sent 2.
High Court US a list of cases for trial
division of responsibility /d doctrine /dɒktrn/ noun a general
division of responsibility doctrine

v(ə)n əv rspɒnsblti/ noun the


| | principle of law

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99 dominant tenement
document / dɒkjυmənt/ noun 1. a England and the owners and inhabitants
document

paper or set of papers, printed or hand- for tax purposes


written, which contains information 쑗 domestic /dəmestk/ adjective 1. re-
domestic

Deeds, contracts and wills are all legal ferring to a family 2. referring to the
documents. 2. anything in which infor- market of the country where a business is
mation is recorded, e.g. maps, designs, situated
computer files, databases 3. an official domestic consumption
domestic consumption

/də |

paper from a government department 쐽 mestk kəns mpʃən/ noun consump-


|

verb to put in a published paper 쑗 The tion on the home market


cases of unparliamentary language are domestic court /dəmestk kɔt/
domestic court

well documented in Hansard. noun US a court which covers the dis-


/dɒkjυment(ə)ri/
documentary

documentary |
trict in which a defendant lives or has his
adjective in the form of documents 쑗 or her address for service (NOTE: The
documentary evidence 쑗 documentary British term is home court.)
proof domestic premises /dəmestk
domestic premises

premsz/ plural noun house, flat, or


documentary evidence

documentary evidence
/dɒkjυment(ə)ri evd(ə)ns/ noun evi- other unit used for private accommoda-
dence in the form of documents tion
domestic proceedings /dəmestk
documentary proof domestic proceedings

documentary proof |

/dɒkjυment(ə)ri pruf/ noun proof in prəsidŋz/ plural noun a court case


|

the form of a document which involves a husband and wife, or


documentation

documentation /dɒkjυmen parents and children


domestic production /dəmestk
|
domestic production

teʃ(ə)n/ noun all documents referring |

to something 쑗 Please send me the com- prəd kʃən/ noun a production of goods
|

plete documentation concerning the sale. in the home country


domestic sales /dəmestk selz/
domestic sales

document exchange /dɒkjυmənt


document exchange
|

kstʃend/ noun a bureau which re-


|
plural noun sales in the home market
domicile /dɒmsal/ noun a country
domicile

ceives documents for clients and holds


them securely in numbered boxes. Ab- where someone is deemed to live perma-
breviation DX (NOTE: Service can be ef- nently, or where a company’s office is
fected through a document exchange in registered, especially for tax purposes 쐽
cases where this is given as the ad- verb to live in a place officially 쑗 The de-
dress for service.) fendant is domiciled in Scotland. 왍 bills
Doe

Doe 쏡 John Doe domiciled in France bills of exchange


which have to be paid in France
do-it-yourself conveyancing /du
do-it-yourself conveyancing

domiciled /dɒmsald/ adjective liv-


domiciled

t jəself kənveənsŋ/ noun drawing


| |
ing in a particular place
up a legal conveyance without the help of
domicile of choice /dɒmsal əv
domicile of choice

a lawyer
doli capax tʃɔs/ noun a country where someone
doli capax, doli incapax phrase Lat- has chosen to live, which is not the dom-
in phrases meaning ‘capable of crime’ or icile of origin
‘incapable of crime’ domicile of origin /dɒmsal əv
domicile of origin

COMMENT: Children under ten years of ɒrdn/ noun a domicile which a per-
age are doli incapax and cannot be
prosecuted for criminal offences; chil- son has from birth, usually the domicile
dren aged between 10 and 14 are pre- of the father
dominant owner /dɒmnənt əυnə/
dominant owner

sumed to be doli incapax but the pre-


sumption can be reversed if there is noun someone who has the right to use
evidence of malice or knowledge. someone else’s property
dollar stocks /dɒlə stɒkz/ plural
dollar stocks

dominant tenement /dɒmnənt


dominant tenement

noun shares in American companies tenəmənt/ noun land which has been
Domesday Book /dumzde bυk/
Domesday Book

granted an easement over another prop-


noun a record made for King William I erty (NOTE: also called ‘dominant es-
in 1086, which recorded all the land in tate’ in the USA)

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dominion 100
dominion /dəmnjən/ noun 왍 a Do- you 2. the first rough plan of a document
dominion

minion an independent state, part of the which has not been finished 쑗 He drew
British Commonwealth 쑗 the Dominion up the draft agreement on the back of an
of Canada envelope. 쑗 The first draft of the contract
donatio mortis causa /dənɑtiəυ
donatio mortis causa

|
was corrected by the managing director.
mɔts kəυzə/ phrase a Latin phrase 쑗 The draft Bill is with the House of

meaning ‘gift because of death’: transfer Commons lawyers. 쐽 verb to make a first
of property made when death is immi- rough plan of a document 쑗 to draft a
nent contract or a document or a bill 쑗 The
donee /dəυni/ noun somebody who
donee

|
contract is still being drafted or is still in
receives a gift from a donor the drafting stage.
drafter /drɑftə/ noun somebody who
drafter

donor /dəυnə/ noun somebody who


donor

gives property to another makes a draft


drafting / drɑftŋ/ noun the act of
drafting

dormant account /dɔmənt ə


dormant account

kaυnt/ noun a bank account which is preparing the draft of a document 쑗 The
not used drafting of the contract took six weeks. 쑗
double /d b(ə)l/ verb to make some-
double
The drafting stage of a parliamentary
thing twice as big Bill.
draftsman /drɑftsmən/ noun some-
draftsman

double jeopardy /d b(ə)l depədi/


double jeopardy

noun US the possibility that a citizen body who drafts documents


may be tried twice for the same crime, drawee /drɔi/ noun a person or bank
drawee

prohibited in most legal systems asked to make a payment by a drawer


double taxation agreement
double taxation agreement

drawings /drɔŋz/ plural noun mon-


drawings

/d b(ə)l tkseʃ(ə)n ərimənt/,


| |
ey taken out of a partnership by a partner
double taxation treaty /d b(ə)l tk |
as his or her salary
seʃ(ə)n triti/, double tax treaty
draw up /drɔ  p/ verb to write a le-
draw up

noun an agreement between two coun-


tries that a person living in one country gal document 쑗 to draw up a contract or
shall not be taxed in both countries on the an agreement 쑗 to draw up a company’s
income earned in the other country articles of association
doubt /daυt/ noun a feeling of not be- drive /drav/ verb 왍 he drives a hard
drive
doubt

ing sure that something is correct 왍 be- bargain he is a difficult negotiator


yond reasonable doubt, beyond a rea- driving licence / dravŋ las(ə)ns/
driving licence

sonable doubt US to a degree of certain- noun a document which shows that you
ty that is considered acceptable in have passed a driving test and can legally
convicting a person in a criminal case 왍 drive a car, truck, etc. 쑗 Applicants for
open to doubt not certain and even un- the police force should hold a valid driv-
likely 쑗 Her ability to recognise him af- ing licence.
ter so long is open to doubt. driving without due care and attention

driving without due care and at-


doveish / d vʃ/ adjective like a dove
doveish

tention / dravŋ wðaυt dju keə |

쑗 He was accused of having doveish ten-


ən ətenʃən/ noun the offence of driving
|

dencies. a car in a careless way, so that other peo-


down payment /daυn pemənt/
down payment

ple are in danger


noun part of a total payment made in ad-
drop /drɒp/ noun a fall 쑗 drop in sales
drop

vance
쑗 sales show a drop of 10% 쑗 a drop in
dowry /daυri/ noun money or property
dowry

prices 쐽 verb 1. to fall 쑗 Sales have


brought by a wife to her husband when dropped by 10% or have dropped 10%. 쑗
she marries him The pound dropped three points against
DPP abbreviation Director of Public
DPP

the dollar. 2. to stop a case 쑗 The prose-


Prosecutions cution dropped all charges against the
draft /drɑft/ noun 1. an order for mon-
draft

accused. 쑗 The claimant decided to drop


ey to be paid by a bank 왍 to make a draft the case against his neighbour. (NOTE:
on a bank to ask a bank to pay money for dropping – dropped)

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101 due
drop ship /drɒp ʃp/ verb to deliver drug runner /dr  r nə/ noun a per-
drop ship drug runner

a large order direct to a customer son who takes or makes someone else
drop shipment /drɒp ʃpmənt/
drop shipment
take drugs illegally from one country to
noun a delivery of a large order from the another
Drug Squad /dr  skwɒd/ noun a
Drug Squad

factory direct to a customer’s shop or


warehouse without going through an section of the police force which investi-
agent or wholesaler gates crime related to drugs
drug /dr / noun 1. an illegal sub- drug trafficking /dr  trfkŋ/
drug drug trafficking

stance which can be harmful if taken reg- noun the activity of buying and selling
ularly 2. a medicine given by a doctor to drugs illegally
treat a medical problem 3. to give a sub- drunk /dr ŋk/ adjective incapable be-
drunk

stance to someone or put it in their food cause of having drunk too much alcohol
or drink, especially secretly, to make
drunk and disorderly /dr ŋk ən
drunk and disorderly

them go to sleep or become unconscious


COMMENT: There are three classes of
dsɔdəli/ adjective incapable and be-
|

controlled drugs: Class ‘A’ drugs: having in a wild way because of having
(cocaine, heroin, crack, LSD, etc.); drunk too much alcohol
Class ‘B’ drugs: (amphetamines, drunk and incapable /dr ŋk ən n
drunk and incapable

cannabis, codeine, etc.); and Class


‘C’ drugs: (drugs which are related to kepəb(ə)l/ noun the offence of having
the amphetamines, such as benzphet- drunk so much alcohol that you are not
amine). The drugs are covered by five able to act normally
schedules under the Misuse of Drugs drunkard /dr ŋkəd/ noun somebody
drunkard

Regulations: Schedule 1: drugs which


are not used medicinally, such as can- who is frequently drunk. 쒁 habitual
/dr ŋkən
drunken driving

nabis and LSD, for which possession drunken driving


and supply are prohibited; Schedule dravŋ/ noun an offence of driving a
2: drugs which can be used medicinal- car when under the influence of alcohol.
ly, such as heroin, morphine, cocaine,
and amphetamines: these are fully Also called driving with alcohol con-
controlled as regards prescriptions by centrations above a certain limit
DSgt

doctors, safe custody in pharmacies, DSgt abbreviation detective sergeant


registering of sales, etc. Schedule 3:
dud / d d/ adjective, noun (of a coin,
dud

barbiturates, which are controlled as


regards prescriptions, but need not be banknote or cheque) worth nothing be-
kept in safe custody; Schedule 4: cause it is false (informal) 쑗 The £50 note
benzodiazepines, which are controlled was a dud.
as regards registers of purchasers;
dud cheque /d d tʃek/ noun a
dud cheque

Schedule 5: other substances for


which invoices showing purchase cheque which the bank refuses to pay be-
must be kept. cause the person writing it has not
drug abuse / dr  əbjus/ noun the enough money in his or her account to
drug abuse

regular use of drugs for non-medical rea- pay it


sons due /dju/ adjective 1. owed 왍 to fall
due

drug addict /dr  dkt/ noun due, to become due to be ready for pay-
drug addict

somebody who is physically and mental- ment 왍 bill due on May 1st bill which
ly dependent on taking drugs regularly has to be paid on May 1st 왍 balance due
drug addiction /dr  ədkʃən/
drug addiction

|
to us amount owed to us which should be
noun mental and physical dependence paid 2. expected to arrive 쑗 The plane is
on taking a drug regularly due to arrive at 10.30 or is due at 10.30.
3. according to what is expected as usual
drug baron /dr  brən/ noun a
drug baron

or correct 왍 in due form written in the


person with an important position in an correct legal form 쑗 receipt in due form 쑗
organisation that sells illegal drugs contract drawn up in due form 왍 after
drug czar /dr  sɑ/ noun a person
drug czar

due consideration of the problem after


employed by a government to lead a thinking seriously about the problem 왍
campaign against the sale and use of ille- the due process of the law the formal
gal drugs work of a fair legal action

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due date 102


due date /dju det/ noun the date on citizen to serve on a jury if called. 쑗 The
due date

which a debt has to be paid government has a duty to protect the cit-
due diligence /dju dldəns/
due diligence
izens from criminals. 2. official work
noun the carrying out of your duty as ef- which you have to do in a job 왍 to be on
ficiently as is necessary 쑗 The executor duty to be doing official work at a spe-
acted with due diligence to pay the liabil- cial time 3. a tax which has to be paid 쑗
ities of the estate. to take the duty off alcohol 쑗 to put a duty
due execution of a will /dju eks
due execution of a will

|
on cigarettes 왍 goods which are liable
kjuʃ(ə)n əv e wl/ noun the act of to duty goods on which customs or ex-
making a will in the correct way. A will cise tax has to be paid 왍 duty-paid goods
must be written (handwritten, printed, or goods where the duty has been paid
duty bound /djuti baυnd/ adjective
duty bound

written on a standard form, etc.), signed


by the testator and witnessed by two wit- bound to do something because it is your
nesses in the presence of the testator. duty 쑗 Witnesses under oath are duty
due process /dju prəυses/ noun a
due process
bound to tell the truth.
duty-free /djuti fri/ adjective, ad-
duty-free

rule that the forms of law must be fol-


lowed correctly verb sold with no duty to be paid 쑗 He
duly /djuli/ adverb 1. properly 쑗 duly
duly
bought a duty-free watch at the airport or
authorised representative 2. as was ex- he bought the watch duty-free. 왍 duty-
pected 쑗 We duly received his letter of free shop shop at an airport or on a ship
21st October. where goods can be bought without pay-
ing duty
dungeon /d ndən/ noun an under-
dungeon

duty of care /djuti əv keə/ noun a


duty of care

ground prison (often in a castle)


legal obligation which imposes a duty on
duplicating paper /djuplketŋ
duplicating paper

individuals not to act negligently


pepə/ noun a special paper to be used
duty sergeant / djuti sɑdənt/
duty sergeant

in a duplicating machine
noun a police sergeant who is on duty at
duress /djυres/ noun an illegal threat
duress

a particular time
|

to use force on someone to make him or


duty solicitor /djuti səlstə/ noun
duty solicitor

her do something 쑗 Duress provides no |

defence to a charge of murder. 왍 under a solicitor who is on duty at a magis-


duress being forced to do something 쑗 trates’ court and can be contacted at any
They alleged they had committed the time by a party who is appearing in that
crime under duress from another defend- court or by a party who has been taken to
ant. 왍 he signed the confession under a police station under arrest or for ques-
duress he signed the confession because tioning
dwelling /dwelŋ/ noun a place where
dwelling

he was threatened
dutiable goods /djutiəb(ə)l υdz/
dutiable goods
someone lives such as a house or flat 쑗
plural noun goods on which a customs or The tax on dwellings has been raised.
DWI abbreviation US driving while in-
DWI

excise duty has to be paid


duty /djuti/ noun 1. work which a toxicated
duty

DX abbreviation document exchange


DX

person has to do 쑗 It is the duty of every

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E
e. & o.e.

e. & o.e. abbreviation errors and omis- The USA is increasing its trade with the
sions excepted EC.
earmark /əmɑk/ verb to reserve for ECB abbreviation European Central
ECB
earmark

a special purpose 쑗 to earmark funds for Bank


ecclesiastical /klizistk(ə)l/ ad-
ecclesiastical

a project 쑗 The grant is earmarked for | |

computer systems development. jective referring to the church


earn /$n/ verb 1. to be paid money for ecclesiastical court /klizi
earn ecclesiastical court

| |

working 쑗 to earn £150 a week 쑗 Our stk(ə)l kɔt/ noun a court which
agent in Paris certainly does not earn his hears matters referring to the church
commission. 2. to produce interest or ECJ abbreviation European Court of
ECJ

dividends 쑗 account which earns interest Justice


at 10% 쑗 What level of dividend do these economic activity /ikənɒmk k
economic activity

shares earn? tvti/ noun work


earnest /$nst/ noun money paid as a
earnest

economically /ikənɒmkli/ adverb


economically

down payment to show one’s serious in- 왍 economically active (in the EU) being
tention to proceed with a contract 쑗 He an active worker 쑗 Economically active
deposited £1,000 with the solicitor as persons have the right to move freely
earnest of his intention to purchase. from one EU country to another with
earning power /$nŋ paυə/ noun
earning power

their families.
the amount of money someone should be economic planning /ikənɒmk
economic planning

able to earn plnŋ/ noun the activity of planning


earnings /$nŋz/ plural noun 1. the
earnings

the future financial state of the country


salary or wages, profits and dividends or for the government
interest received by an individual 2. prof- economic sanctions /ikənɒmk
economic sanctions

its of a business sŋkʃ(ə)ns/ plural noun restrictions on


earnings per share /$nŋz pə
earnings per share

trade with a country in order to influence


ʃeə/ noun the money earned in profit its political situation or in order to make
per share its government change its policy
earnings-related pension /$nŋz e-conveyancing /i kənveənsŋ/
earnings-related pension e-conveyancing

rletd penʃən/ noun a pension which


| noun 쏡 electronic transfer
is linked to the size of the salary ecoterrorist /ikəυterərst/ noun
ecoterrorist

easement /izmənt/ noun a right somebody who attacks things for ecolog-
easement

which someone (the dominant owner) ical reasons 쑗 Ecoterrorists attacked sev-
has to make use of land belonging to eral fields of crops.
someone else (the servient owner) for a edict /idkt/ noun the public an-
edict

purpose such as a path nouncement of a law


Easter /istə/ noun 1. one of the four editorial /edtɔriəl/ adjective refer-
Easter editorial

sittings of the Law Courts 2. one of the ring to an editor


four law terms editorial board /edtɔriəl bɔd/
editorial board

|
EC

EC abbreviation European Community noun a group of editors (on a newspaper,


쑗 EC ministers met today in Brussels. 쑗 etc.)

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education welfare officer 104


education
education welfare officer

welfare officer ficient time to elapse before making a


/edjυkeʃ(ə)n welfeə ɒfsə/ noun a complaint.
social worker who looks after school- elect /lekt/ verb 1. to choose someone
elect

children, and deals with attendance and by a vote 쑗 A vote to elect the officers of
family problems an association. 쑗 She was elected chair
EEC abbreviation European Economic
EEC

of the committee. 쑗 He was first elected


Community for this constituency in 1992. 2. to
effective date /fektv det/ noun
effective date

| choose to do something 쑗 He elected to


the date on which a rule or a contract stand trial by jury.
starts to be applied election /lekʃən/ noun 1. the act of
election

effective date of termination /


|
effective date of termination

|
electing 쑗 His election as president of the
fektv det əv t$mneʃ(ə)n/ noun |
society. 2. the act of electing a represent-
the date on which a contract of employ- ative or representatives 3. the act of
ment expires choosing a course of action 쑗 The ac-
E-FIT™ a trademark for software that
E-FIT™

cused made his election for jury trial. 4.


produces an image of the face of a police a choice by a legatee to take a benefit un-
suspect on the basis of what a witness der a will and relinquish a claim to the
can remember estate at the same time
e.g. /idi/ abbreviation e.g.
e.g.

|
COMMENT: In Britain, a Parliament can
egalitarian /lteəriən/ noun
egalitarian

| | only last for a maximum of five years,


somebody who supports egalitarianism and a dissolution is usually called by
the Prime Minister before the end of
EGM abbreviation Extraordinary Gen-
EGM

that period. The Lord Chancellor then


eral Meeting issues a writ for the election of MPs. All
eject /dekt/ verb to make someone
eject

| British subjects (including Common-


leave a property which he or she is occu- wealth and Irish citizens), are eligible
pying illegally to vote in British elections provided
they are on the electoral register, are
ejection /dekʃən/ noun the action
ejection

|
over 18 years of age, are sane, are not
of making someone leave a property members of the House of Lords and
which he or she is occupying illegally are not serving prison sentences for
COMMENT: The ejection of someone serious crime. In the USA, members of
who is legally occupying a property is the House of Representatives are
an ouster, while removing a tenant is elected for a two-year period. Sena-
eviction. tors are elected for six-year terms, one
ejectment / dektmənt/ noun 왍 ac-
ejectment

|
third of the Senate being elected every
two years. The President of the USA is
tion of ejectment a court action to force elected by an electoral college made
someone to leave a property which he or up of people elected by voters in each
she is occupying illegally of the states of the USA. Each state
ejusdem generis /idυsdem elects the same number of electors to
ejusdem generis

denərs/, eiusdem generis / e |


the electoral college as it has Con-
jusdem denərs/ phrase a Latin gressmen, plus two. This guarantees
that the college is broadly representa-
phrase meaning ‘of the same kind’: a rule tive of voters across the country. The
of legal interpretation, that when a word presidential candidate with an overall
or phrase follows two or more other majority in the college is elected presi-
words or phrases, it is construed to be of dent. A presidential term of office is
the same type as the words or phrases four years, and a president can stand
which precede it for re-election once.
reform /lekt(ə)rəl r
electoral reform

COMMENT: In the phrase houses, flats electoral | |

and other buildings other buildings fɔm/ noun the activity of changing the
can mean only other dwellings, and electoral system to make it fairer
would not include, for example, a
electric chair /lektrk tʃeə/ noun a
electric chair

church. |

elapse /lps/ verb (of time) to pass 쑗 chair attached to a powerful electric cur-
elapse

Six weeks elapsed before the court order rent, used in some states of the USA for
was put into effect. 쑗 We must allow suf- executing criminals

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105 emoluments
embezzler /mbez(ə)lə/ noun some-
electronic communication embezzler

electronic communication |

/elektrɒnk kəmjunkeʃ(ə)n/ noun


| | body who embezzles
a message which is sent from one person emblements /embləmənts/ plural
emblements

to another by telephone or by other elec- noun vegetable products which come


tronic means from farming
embracery /mbres(ə)ri/ noun the
electronic conveyancing

electronic conveyancing
embracery

/elektrɒnk kənveənsŋ/ noun 쏡 | offence of corruptly seeking to influence


electronic transfer jurors
electronic signature /elektrɒnk emergency powers /m$dənsi
electronic signature emergency powers

sntʃə/ noun electronic text or sym- paυəs/ plural noun special powers
bols attached to a document sent by granted by law to a government or to a
email which acts in a similar way to a minister to deal with an emergency, usu-
handwritten signature, in that they prove ally without going through the usual
the authenticity of the document democratic processes
emergency protection order /
electronic surveillance emergency protection order

electronic surveillance |

/elektrɒnk səveləns/ noun surveil- | m$dənsi prətekʃ(ə)n ɔdə/ noun a


|

lance using hidden microphones, camer- court order, established under the Chil-
as, etc. dren’s Act 1989, which gives a local au-
electronic transfer /elektrɒnk
electronic transfer
thority or the National Society for the
trnsf$/ noun the transfer of interests Prevention of Cruelty to Children
in land by electronic methods rather than (NSPCC) the right to remove a child
paper documents from the care of its parents for a period of
eight days, with the right to apply for a
eleemosynary /elimɒznəri/ ad-
eleemosynary

|
seven-day extension. An order will only
jective referring to charity be granted if the court is satisfied that
eligible /eldb(ə)l/ adjective person
eligible

there is reasonable cause to believe that


who can be chosen 쑗 She is eligible for the child is suffering or likely to suffer
re-election. significant harm unless the order is
E list /i lst/ noun a list of the names
E list
made. 쒁 parental responsibility (NOTE:
of prisoners who frequently try to escape Such an order gives the local authority
from prison parental responsibility for the child, al-
lowing decisions to be made in relation
embargo /mbɑəυ/ noun a govern-
embargo

|
to its welfare.)
ment order which stops a type of trade 왍 emergency services /m$dənsi
emergency services

to lay, put an embargo on trade with a


|

s$vsz/ plural noun police, fire and


country to say that trade with a country
ambulance services, which are ready for
must not take place 왍 to lift an embargo
action if an emergency arises
to allow trade to start again 왍 to be un-
emigrant /emrənt/ noun somebody
emigrant

der an embargo to be forbidden 쐽 verb


not to allow something to take place 쑗 who emigrates. Compare immigrant
emigrate / emret/ verb to go to an-
emigrate

The government has embargoed trade


with the Eastern countries. 왍 the press other country to live permanently. Com-
release was embargoed until 1st Janu- pare immigrate
ary the information in the release could emigration /emreʃ(ə)n/ noun the
emigration

not be published until 1st January act of leaving a country to go to live per-
embezzle /mbez(ə)l/ verb to use ille- manently in another country. Compare
embezzle

gally or steal money which you are re- immigration


sponsible for as part of your work 쑗 He eminent domain /emnənt dəυ
eminent domain

was sent to prison for six months for em- men/ noun the right of the state to ap-
bezzling his clients’ money. propriate private property for public use
/mbez(ə)lmənt/ emoluments /mɒljυmənts/ plural
embezzlement

embezzlement
emoluments

| |

noun the act of embezzling 쑗 He was noun wages, salaries, fees or any mone-
sent to prison for six months for embez- tary benefit from an employment (formal
zlement. or humorous, not technical)

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empanel 106
empanel /mpn(ə)l/ verb 왍 to em- ment issues. Decisions need to be en-
empanel

panel a jury to choose and swear in ju- forced by a separate application to the
rors court. Former name industrial tribunal
employed advocate /mplɔd empower /mpaυə/ verb to give
employed advocate empower

|
|

dvəkət/ noun a person employed to someone the power to do something 쑗


plead in court such as a Crown Prosecu- The agent is empowered to sell the prop-
tor erty. 쑗 She was empowered by the com-
employee /mplɔi/ noun a person
employee

|
pany to sign the contract. 쑗 A constable
who is employed by someone else 쑗 Em- is empowered to arrest a person whom
ployees of the firm are eligible to join a he suspects of having committed an of-
profit-sharing scheme. 쑗 Relations be- fence.
emptor /emptə/ 쏡 caveat emptor
emptor

tween management and employees have


improved. 쑗 The company has decided to enact /nkt/ verb to make a law
enact

take on new employees. enacting clause / nktŋ klɔz/


enacting clause

employer /mplɔə/ noun a person or


employer

|
noun the first clause in a bill or act, start-
company which has employees and pays ing with the words ‘be it enacted that’,
them which makes the act lawful
employer’s contribution /m enactment /nktmənt/ noun 1. the
employer’s contribution
enactment
|
|

plɔəz kɒntrbjuʃ(ə)n/ noun money|


action of making a law 2. an Act of Par-
paid by the employer towards an em- liament
ployee’s pension enclosure /nkləυə/ noun 1. a docu-
enclosure

employer’s liability /mplɔəz laə


employer’s liability

| |
ment enclosed with a letter 2. the act of
blti/ noun the legal responsibility of removing land from common use by
an employer when employees are subject putting fences round it
to accidents due to negligence on the part encroachment
encroachment

/nkrəυtʃmənt/ |

of the employer noun illegally taking over someone’s


employers’ organisation /m
employers’ organisation

|
property little by little
plɔəz ɔənazeʃ(ə)n/ noun US a encrypt /nkrpt/ verb to take ordi-
encrypt

group of employers with similar interests nary text and convert it to a series of fig-
employment /mplɔmənt/ noun a
employment

|
ures or letters which make it unable to be
contractual relationship between an em- read without a special key
ployer and his or her employees encryption /nkrpʃən/ noun the ac-
encryption

Employment Appeal Tribunal /m


Employment Appeal Tribunal

|
tion of encrypting text
plɔmənt əpil trabjun(ə)l/ noun a
| |
encumbrance /nk mbrəns/ noun a
encumbrance

court which hears appeals from employ- liability such as a mortgage or charge
ment tribunals which is attached usually to a property or
employment bureau /mplɔmənt
employment bureau

|
piece of land
bjυərəυ/ noun an office which finds endanger /ndendə/ verb to put
endanger

jobs for people someone in danger of being killed or hurt


employment law / mplɔmənt
employment law

|
왍 endangering railway passengers, en-
bjυərəυ/ noun law referring to the dangering life at sea, criminal damage
rights and responsibilities of employers endangering life notifiable offences
and employees where human life is put at risk
employment office /mplɔmənt endorse /ndɔs/ verb 1. to agree with
employment office
endorse
|
|

ɒfs/ noun an office which finds jobs for 쑗 The court endorsed counsel’s view. 2. 왍
people to endorse a bill, a cheque to sign a bill
employment tribunal /mplɔmənt
employment tribunal

| or a cheque on the back to make it paya-


trabjunəl/ noun a body responsible
| ble to someone else 3. to make a note on
for hearing work-related complaints as a driving licence that the holder has been
specified by statute. The panel hearing convicted of a traffic offence 4. to write
each case consists of a legally qualified a summary of the contents of a legal doc-
chairperson and two independent lay ument on the outside of the folded docu-
people who have experience of employ- ment

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107 entertain
endorsee /endɔsi/ noun a person in engage /ned/ verb 1. 왍 to engage
endorsee engage

| |

whose favour a bill or a cheque is en- someone to do something to bind some-


dorsed one contractually to do something 쑗 The
endorsement /ndɔsmənt/ noun 1. contract engages the company to pur-
endorsement

the act of endorsing 2. a signature on a chase minimum annual quantities of


document which endorses it 3. a summa- goods. 2. 왍 to be engaged in to be busy
ry of a legal document noted on the out- with 쑗 He is engaged in work on comput-
side of the folded document 4. a note on ers. 쑗 The company is engaged in trade
an insurance policy which adds condi- with Africa.
engross /nrəυs/ verb to draw up a
engross

tions to the policy 5. a note on a driving |

licence to show that the holder has been legal document in its final form ready for
convicted of a traffic offence. 쒁 totting signature
up engrossment /nrəυsmənt/ noun
engrossment

endorser /ndɔsə/ noun somebody


endorser

| 1. drawing up of a legal document in its


who endorses a bill or cheque final form 2. a legal document in its final
endowment /ndaυmənt/ noun a gift form
endowment

engrossment paper /nrəυsmənt


engrossment paper

of money to provide a regular income |

endowment
endowment assurance

assurance /n |
pepə/ noun a thick heavy paper on
daυmənt əʃυərəns/ noun an assur-
|
which court documents are engrossed
enjoin /ndɔn/ verb to order some-
enjoin

ance policy where a sum of money is |

paid to the insured person on a specific one to do something


date, or to the heirs if he or she dies enjoyment /ndɔmənt/ noun 왍
enjoyment

endowment mortgage /n


endowment mortgage

| quiet enjoyment of land right of an oc-


daυmənt mɔd/ noun a mortgage cupier to occupy a property under a ten-
backed by an endowment policy ancy without anyone interfering with
end user /end juzə/ noun some- that right
end user

enquire /ŋkwaə/, enquiry another


enquire

body who actually uses a product |

enforce /nfɔs/ verb to make sure spelling of inquire


enforce

entail /ntel/ noun an interest in land


entail

something is done or is obeyed 쑗 to en- |

force the terms of a contract 왍 to enforce where the land is given to another person
a debt to make sure a debt is paid and the heirs of his or her body, but re-
enforceable /nfɔsəb(ə)l/ adjective verts to the donor when the donee and
enforceable

being possible to enforce heirs have all died. 쒁 fee tail


entente /ɒntɒnt/ noun an agreement
entente

enforcement /nfɔsmənt/ noun 1.


enforcement
|
|

the process of making sure that some- between two countries or groups, used
thing is obeyed 쑗 Enforcement of the especially of the ‘Entente Cordiale’ be-
terms of a contract. 2. (in the EU) the tween Britain and France in 1904
enter /entə/ 앳 to enter into 1. to begin
enter

power to force someone to comply with


the law to do something 쑗 to enter into relations
enforcement notice /nfɔsmənt with someone 2. to agree to do some-
enforcement notice

nəυts/ noun a notice issued by a local thing 쑗 to enter into negotiations with a
planning authority which outlines the foreign government 쑗 to enter into a
steps that need to be taken within a spec- partnership with a friend 쑗 to enter into
ified time to stop or repair a breach of an agreement or a contract
entering /entərŋ/ noun the act of
entering

planning control
enforcement proceedings /n writing items in a record
enforcement proceedings

fɔsmənt prəsidŋz/ plural noun le- entering of appearance /entərŋ


entering of appearance

gal proceedings used by the Commission əv əpərəns/ noun same as entry of


|

for ensure that Member States fulfil their appearance


treaty obligations entertain /entəten/ verb to be ready
entertain

enfranchisement /n
enfranchisement

| to consider a proposal 쑗 The judge will


frntʃazmənt/ noun the action of giv- not entertain any proposal from the pros-
ing someone a vote ecution to delay the start of the hearing.

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entertainment expenses 108


entertainment expenses /entə the judgment of a court in the official
entertainment expenses

tenmənt kspensz/ plural noun| records


money spent on giving meals to business entry permit /entri pəmt/ noun a
entry permit

visitors document allowing someone to enter a


entice /ntas/ verb to try to persuade country
entice

someone to do something by offering entry visa /entri vizə/ noun a visa


entry visa

money 쑗 They tried to entice the manag- allowing someone to enter a country
ers to join the new company. environmental
environmental health

health /n |

enticement /ntasmənt/ noun the varənment(ə)l helθ/ noun the health


enticement

act of trying to persuade someone to do of the public as a whole


something, especially trying to persuade environmental
environmental pollution

pollution /n |

an employee to leave a job or a wife to varənment(ə)l pəluʃ(ə)n/ noun the |

leave her husband polluting of the environment


entitle /ntat(ə)l/ verb to give some-
entitle

equalise /ikwəlaz/, equalize


equalise
|

one the right to something 왍 he is enti-


|

/ikwəlaz/ verb to make equal 쑗 to


tled to four weeks’ holiday he has the equalise dividends
right to take four weeks’ holiday
equality /kwɒlti/ noun the condition
equality

entitlement /ntat(ə)lmənt/ noun


entitlement |

|
where all citizens are equal, have equal
something to which you are entitled rights and are treated equally by the state
entity /entti/ noun something which
entity

equality of access /kwɒlti əv


equality of access

exists in law 쑗 His private company is a kses/ noun a situation in which every-
separate entity. one must be given the same opportunities
entrapment /ntrpmənt/ noun the
entrapment

|
for education, employment and other ac-
act of enticing someone to commit a tivities
crime so as to be able to arrest him or her, equality of opportunity /kwɒlti
equality of opportunity

by someone in authority such as a police əv ɒpətjunti/ noun a situation in


|

officer (NOTE: It is not a defence in Brit- which everyone has the same opportuni-
ish law, but exists in US law.) ties to receive education, employment,
entrenched /ntrentʃt/ adjective (of
entrenched

|
election, etc.
ideas and practices) existing in the equality of treatment /kwɒlti əv
equality of treatment

same way for a long time and very diffi- tritmənt/ noun 1. a situation in which
cult to change 쑗 The government’s en- everyone receives the same fair treat-
trenched position on employees’ rights. ment in education, at work and in the
entrenched clause /ntrentʃt
entrenched clause

|
community 2. a right of workers who are
klɔz/ noun a clause in a constitution nationals of other Member States of the
which stipulates that it cannot be amend- European Union to be treated equally to
ed except by an extraordinary process nationals of the country where they work
entryism /entriz(ə)m/ noun a way
entryism

Equal Opportunities Commis-


Equal Opportunities Commission
|

of taking control of a political party or sion /ikwəl ɒpətjuntiz kə | |

elected body, where extremists join or mʃ(ə)n/ noun an official committee set
are elected and are then able to take con- up to make sure that men and women
trol because they are more numerous or have equal chances of employment and
more active than other members to remove discrimination between the
entryist /entrist/ adjective referring
entryist

sexes (NOTE: The US term is Equal Em-


to entryism 쑗 The party leader con- ployment Opportunity Commission.)
demned entryist techniques. equal opportunities programme
equal opportunities programme

entry of appearance /entri əv ə /ikwəl ɒpətjuntiz prəυrm/


entry of appearance

| |

pərəns/ noun the lodging of a docu- noun a programme to avoid discrimina-


ment in court by the defendant to con- tion in employment (NOTE: The US term
firm his or her intention to defend an ac- is affirmative action program.)
tion equal pay /ikwəl pe/ noun the situ-
equal pay

entry of judgment /entri əv


entry of judgment

ation in which the same salary is paid for


d dmənt/ noun the act of recording the same type of work regardless of

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109 establish
whether it is done by, e.g., men or wom- escalator clause /eskəletə klɔz/
escalator clause

en noun a clause in a contract allowing for


equitable /ekwtəb(ə)l/ adjective 1. regular price increases because of in-
equitable

fair and just 2. referring to equity creased costs


escape /skep/ verb 1. to get away
escape

equitable interests /ekwtəb(ə)l


equitable interests
|

ntrəsts/ plural noun interests in prop- from a place of detention 쑗 Three prison-
erty which are recognised separately ers escaped by climbing over the wall. 2.
from rights given by law to avoid something that is unpleasant 쑗
equitable jurisdiction He escaped with a reprimand. 쑗 They
equitable jurisdiction narrowly escaped prosecution. 쑗 We es-
/ekwtəb(ə)l dυərsdkʃən/ noun
|
caped the need to reveal sensitive details
the power of a court to enforce a person’s publicly. 쐽 noun an act of getting away
rights from a place of detention 왍 to make your
equitable lien /ekwtəb(ə)l liən/
equitable lien

escape to leave or escape from some-


noun a right of someone to hold property where
which legally he or she does not own un- escape clause /skep klɔz/ noun a
escape clause

til the owner pays money due clause in a contract which allows one of
equitable mortgage / ekwtəb(ə)l
equitable mortgage

the parties to avoid carrying out the


mɔd/ noun a mortgage which does terms of the contract under some condi-
not give the mortgagee a legal estate in tions without penalty
the land mortgaged escrow /eskrəυ/ noun a deed which
escrow

equity /ekwti/ noun 1. a system of the parties to it deliver to an independent


equity

British law which developed in parallel person who hands it over only when spe-
with the common law to make the com- cific conditions have been fulfilled 왍 in
mon law fairer, summarised in the max- escrow held in safe keeping by a third
im ‘equity does not suffer a wrong to be party 왍 document held in escrow docu-
without a remedy’ 2. the right to receive ment given to a third party to keep and to
dividends as part of the profit of a com- pass on to someone when, e.g., money
pany in which you own shares has been paid
escrow account /eskrəυ əkaυnt/
escrow account

equity of redemption /ekwti əv r


equity of redemption
|
|

dempʃən/ noun the right of a mortga- noun US an account where money is


gor to redeem the estate by paying off the held until something happens such as a
principal and interest contract being signed or goods being de-
livered
equivocal /kwvək(ə)l/ adjective
equivocal

espionage /espiənɑ/ noun the ac-


| espionage

not clearly expressed, or ambiguous 쑗


The court took the view that the defend- tivity of spying
Esq. noun 1. sometimes written after
Esq.

ant’s plea was equivocal.


error /erə/ noun a mistake 쑗 He made
error
the name of a man instead of using ‘Mr’
2. US sometimes written after the name
an error in calculating the total. 쑗 The
secretary must have made a typing error. of a male or female lawyer 왘 full form
Esquire
왍 errors and omissions excepted words
essence of contract /es(ə)ns əv
essence of contract

written on an invoice to show that the


company has no responsibility for mis- kɒntrkt/ noun a fundamental term of
takes in the invoice. Abbreviation e. & a contract. Also called condition of
o.e. contract
establish / stblʃ/ verb 1. to set up,
establish

error rate /erə ret/ noun the number


error rate
|

of mistakes per thousand entries or per to make or to open something 쑗 The com-
page pany has established a branch in Aus-
tralia. 쑗 The business was established in
escalate / eskəlet/ verb to increase at
escalate

Scotland in 1823. 왍 to establish oneself


a constant rate in business to become successful in a
escalation of prices /eskəleʃ(ə)n
escalation of prices

| new business 2. to decide what is correct


əv prass/ noun US a constant increase or true 쑗 The police are trying to estab-
in prices lish his movements on the night of the

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established post 110


murder. 쑗 It is an established fact that the estoppel by deed /stɒp(ə)l ba
estoppel by deed

car could not have been used because it did/ noun the rule that a person cannot
was out of petrol. deny having done something which is re-
established post /stblʃt pəυst/ corded in a deed
established post

estoppel of record /stɒp(ə)l əv


estoppel of record

noun a permanent post in the civil serv- |

ice or similar organisation rekɔd/ noun the rule that a person can-
established use /stblʃt juz/
established use

|
not reopen a matter which has already
noun the use of land for a specific pur- been decided by a court
estovers /stəυvəz/ plural noun right
estovers

pose which is recognised by a local au- |

thority because the land has been used of a tenant to take wood and timber from
for this purpose for some time land which he or she rents
estreat /strit/ verb to get a copy of a
estreat

establishment /stblʃmənt/ noun


establishment
|
|

왍 the Establishment powerful and im- record of bail or a fine awarded by a


portant people who run the country and court
estreated recognizance /stritd
estreated recognizance

its government |

establishment charges

establishment charges / |
rkɒnz(ə)ns/ noun recognisance
|

stblʃmənt tʃɑdz/ plural noun in which is forfeited because the person


a company’s accounts, the cost of staff making it has not come to court
et al. /et l/, et alia phrase a Latin
et al.

and property
phrase meaning ‘and others’ or ‘and oth-
/
establishment officer

establishment officer
er things’
|

stblʃmənt ɒfsə/ noun a civil serv-


ethnic / eθnk/ adjective referring to a
ethnic

ant in charge of personnel in a govern-


ment department specific nation or race
ethnic group /eθnk rup/ noun a
ethnic group

estate /stet/ noun 1. an interest in or


estate

right to hold and occupy land 2. all the group of people with the same back-
property that is owned by a person, espe- ground and culture, different from those
cially a person who has recently died 쑗 of other groups
ethnic minority /eθnk manɒrti/
ethnic minority

His estate was valued at £100,000 or he |

left estate valued at £100,000. 왍 estate noun a group of people of one race in a
duty, estate tax US tax on property left country where most people are of anoth-
by a person now dead er race
etiquette /etket/ noun the set of
etiquette

estate agency /stet edənsi/


estate agency

noun an office which arranges for the rules governing the way people should
sale of property behave, such as the way in which a solic-
itor or barrister behaves towards clients
estate agent /stet edənt/ noun
estate agent

|
in court
the person in charge of an estate agency et seq., et sequentes phrase a Latin
et seq.

estate duty /stet djuti/ noun US


estate duty

|
phrase meaning ‘and the following’
a tax paid on the property left by a dead euro /jυərəυ/ noun the main currency
euro

person unit of the European Union, used as local


estop /əstɒp/ verb to stop someone
estop

| currency in most Member States since


doing something, e.g. exercising a right 2002
estoppel /stɒp(ə)l/ noun a rule of ev- Euro-constituency /jυərəυ kən
estoppel Euro-constituency

| |

idence whereby someone is prevented sttjυənsi/ noun a constituency which


from denying or asserting a fact in legal elects an MEP to the European Parlia-
proceedings ment
estoppel by conduct /stɒp(ə)l ba Eurocrat /jυərəυkrt/ noun a bu-
estoppel by conduct Eurocrat

kɒnd kt/ noun the rule that no one can reaucrat working in the European Union
deny things which he or she has done or or the European Parliament (informal)
European Atomic Energy Com-
European Atomic Energy Community Treaty

failed to do which have had an effect on


other persons’ actions if that person has munity Treaty /jυərəpiən ətɒmk |

acted in a way which relied on the others’ enədi kəmjunəti triti/ noun a |

behaviour treaty established in 1957 to develop nu-

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111 European Parliament


clear energy within the Common Market. Court for the Protection of Human
Abbreviation EURATOM Rights.)
European Commission
European Commission European Court of Justice

European Court of Justice


/jυərəpiən kəmʃ(ə)n/ noun the main|
/jυərəpiən kɔt əv d sts/ noun a
executive body of the European Union, court set up to see that the principles of
made up of members nominated by each law as laid out in the Treaty of Rome are
Member State observed and applied correctly in the Eu-
European Communities ropean Union. The court is responsible
European Communities

/jυərəpiən kəmjuntiz/ plural noun | for settling disputes relating to European


same as European Community Community Law, and also acting as a last
European Community /jυərəpiən
European Community
Court of Appeal against judgments in in-
kəmjunti/ noun the collective body
|
dividual Member States. Abbreviation
formed by the merger in 1967 of the ad- ECJ. Also called Court of Justice of
ministrative networks of the European the European Communities
Atomic Energy Community, the Europe- COMMENT: The ECJ has 15 judges
an Coal and Steel Community, and the and 8 Advocates General; these are
appointed by the governments of
European Economic Community. Ab- Member States for a period of six
breviation EC. Also called European years. The judges come from all the
Communities (NOTE: The Treaty on Member States, and bring with them
European Union made it the official title the legal traditions of each state. The
of the European Economic Community court can either meet as a full court, or
(EEC).) in chambers where only two or three
judges are present. The court normally
European Convention on Human
European Convention on Human Rights

conducts its business in French,


Rights /jυərəpiən kənvenʃ(ə)n ɒn |
though if an action is brought before
hjumən rats/ noun a convention the court by or against a Member
signed by all members of the Council of State, that Member State can choose
Europe covering the rights of all its citi- the language in which the case will be
heard. The Court can hear actions
zens. The key provisions are now incor- against institutions, actions brought ei-
porated by the Human Rights Act 1998, ther by the Commission or by a Mem-
which came into force in the UK in Oc- ber State against another Member
tober 2000. State. The Court also acts as Court of
COMMENT: The convention recognises Appeal for appeals from the Court of
property rights, religious rights, the First Instance. The court also inter-
right of citizens to privacy, the due prets legislation and as such acts in a
process of law, the principle of legal re- semi-legislative capacity.
view. Note that the European Conven- European Parliament /jυərəpiən
European Parliament

tion on Human Rights does not form pɑləmənt/ noun the parliament of
part of English law.
members elected in each Member State
European Council / jυərəpiən
European Council

of the European Union, representing the


kaυns(ə)l/ noun a group formed by the peoples of each Member State
heads of government of the Member COMMENT: The members of the Euro-
States of the European Union. The pres- pean Parliament (MEPs) are elected
ident of the European Council is the head by constituencies in the 25 Member
of the Member State which is currently States. The number of MEPs per
president of the Council of Ministers. country depends on the size of the
(NOTE: Do not confuse with the Council state they come from: the largest
of the European Union.) member state, Germany, has 99
MEPs, and the smallest, Luxembourg,
European Court of Human
European Court of Human Rights

has only 6. The European Parliament


Rights /jυərəpiən kɔt əv hjumən has the duty to supervise the working
rats/ noun a court considering the of the European Commission, and can
rights of citizens of states which are par- if necessary, decide to demand the
resignation of the entire Commission,
ties to the European Convention for the although it cannot demand