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Study Guide Chapters 1- 4


4 early native group in North America

Paleo- 1
st
hunting group to come to NA (Nomadic)

Archaic – 8000 BCE Began trading, better spears, axes, agriculture.

Woodland- 1000 BCE, tied to land, less hunting, Belief system,rituals to dead

Mississippian (Cahokian) – attributes from woodland, interaction w/other tribes, knowledge of
growing corn, large caring capacity.

Caring Capacity- how many people a civilization can support.

Conquistadors

Hernando Cortes – Aztecs

Franciso Pizzaro – Incas

European Native interaction

Europeans unable to see cultural differences between tribes.

Considered them to be pagans

“blood thirsty savages”

Reasons of Migration to the Americas

Viewed as garden of Eden

Aristocratic impulse

Primogeniture – 1
st
son gets everything , younger onesenvision selves living as English lords, dislike work, royalcharter- gave
feudal rights

Best Poor Man’s Country

In England high rent & low wages


Promise of cheap land and high wages in America

Redemptioner- German, Swiss immigrants moved as familiespaid for upon arrival pay back as work, horrible
conditions14 hrs/day, 6 days / week

Right to be whipped, trade contracts, if ran away yearsadded to service

Often not lived through

Involuntary

Kidnapped

His majesty’s 7 years guest – convicts got choice betweendeath or work in new world

Slavery , triangular trade



Religious Haven

Old world did not have religious freedom for all


Calvinism known for belief in predestination, foundedby John Calvin

Puritan- wished to purify the Anglican Church

Separatist – wished to separate from Anglican Church

Antinomianism- under no obligation to obey law of ethics or morality if went against religion

Congregationalist – system of church practice whereevery church congregation is independent (no
bishopspopes ect.)

Spanish

Forced to work on Spanish Encomicndas (similar to federal systemand Dutch Patroon system )

Mission system- Spanish system of setting up missionaries toconquer places

1
st
fort 1565 St.Augustine, Florida

Pueblo Revolt- 1680 August 15 Pope marched with army named self dictator, destroyed all vestiges of
Catholicism

Ruled as harsh dictator,

After death Spanish retook settlement

Had tight control on economy

No foreign ships

No foreigner could sent items to New Spain

To buy from Spain had to go to Spain, prevent other countriesfrom taxing their items.

All trade had to go through one port



Spread catholic religion

Rigid social structure

Bartolome De las Casas believed treatment of the Indians wasunjust

New Laws of 1542 created to prevent the exploitation of the Indiansby Encomicndas

Forced integration w/ Indians

French

Transplanted feudalism, under direct control of king, small tradingoutpost

Jesuits there to “save soul”

Fur trapping for money

Ate up capital,

Coureurs de Bois – someone involved in the fur trade in NewFrance



Coexist w/ Indians peacefully


French Haiti much more prosperous then new France

English

London Virginia Co. &Plymouth Co.- English joint stock companyestablished by James I w/ purpose of
establishing colonialsettlements in North America
Walter Raleigh went to new world w/ Virginia stock Co.

“Salutary Neglect” Eng. Gov neglecting colonies, mercantilist laws notenforced

Robert Walpole “let them grow up”

Many groups came from Eng. To NW seeking religious toleration

1
st
colony Roanoke

Separated selves from Indians, other relation w/ Indians poor

Pequot War 1636- power struggle between Natives andColonist, Dutch trader John Stone killed by
Natives Dutch nolonger trade w/ natives. English uses murder as advantagefor trading contract, made
natives agree to turn in the killers.Pequot raided settlement near Hartford, 1637 massacredPequot, ended by
treaty of Hartford, removed power of Pequot.

King Philip’s War



High Anglican Church- the party within the church that wished toretain many catholic practices & ceremonies that
puritans wish torid off

Chesapeake

Hide from Spanish



James town- 1
st
permanent Eng. settlement

John Smith – major role in establishing Jamestown

John Rolfe – “saved” Jamestown, created successful cultivationof tobacco

Mass. Bay Colony/ New England Colonies – 1630 Puritans cameseeking religious freedom

Close knit towns



Anne Hutchinson- unauthorized Puritan minister, held biblemeetings, bold theologies, Gov felt
threatened by her, bannedher

Roger Williams – believed in separation of church and state, co –founder of RI
John Winthrop “City on a hill”

NO sep. of church and state



Could not vote if not church member

Backsliders – moral laps in religion

1650 Economic prosperity more important than church