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The Trumpet Sonata in England

Author(s): Peter Holman

Source: Early Music, Vol. 4, No. 4 (Oct., 1976), pp. 424-429
Published by: Oxford University Press
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Accessed: 16-09-2018 23:55 UTC

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Musicians in the coronation procession ofJames II, Sandford, The History of the Coronation ofJarnes II and Queen Mary (1687)

In his book The Music and History of the Baroque Trumpet before of which well deserves modern publication and perfor-
1721,1 Don Smithers has given us not only the most complete mance. To increase the chance of modern performances, I
account to date of the role of this little studied instrument, have put the substance of my findings into tabular form at
but has also revealed a repertoire of music that even baroque the end of this brief survey; a survey which I hope and trust
specialists had hardly suspected, which has mostly lain in will be found incomplete. May I therefore invite others to
libraries unpublished and unperformed in modern times. In amplify and correct it?
particular, his chapters on English trumpet music, which Most of the surviving English trumpet sonatas were
include a splendid discussion of Purcell's writing for the written as instrumental sections to extended vocal pieces
instrument, reveal a group of composers contemporary with, originally heard either at court (the birthday ode and
and not far inferior to, those of the much better known welcome song4), in church (the verse anthem, written largely
Bologna and Moravian schools.2 If the sonatas by Finger, for the Chapel Royal5), in public halls (the Odes for St
Daniel Purcell, Paisible, Barrett and Eccles to be found in an Cecilia's Day and other special occasions6), and at the theatre
important set of manuscript orchestral parts in the British (overtures and entr'actes for plays, masques and operas').
Library (Add. 49599) lack the virtuosity of those by Torelli or Very few of these sonatas appear to have been composed as
Vejvanovsky, they are certainly their equal in idiomatic orchestral music independent of vocal music, though some
instrumental writing and dramatic style. Now the repertoire appear to have been detached later for this purpose,8 and
revealed by Don Smithers, although impressive, was others seem to have been conceived from the outset as

comparatively small. Apart from the well known music by chamber music.9 A glance though the pages of The King
Henry Purcell,3 it consists largely of the contents of three Musick'o confirms what all this suggests: that the perfo
manuscripts: British Library Add. Ms.49599, containing 9 mance of purely orchestral music (whether by the cour
trumpet sonatas, Add. Mss.30839, 39565-7, containing 2 orchestra or other groups) was almost non-existent befo
trumpet sonatas, and several suites with trumpet, and a set of the second decade of the 18th century. It seems quite po
part books belonging to Magdalen College, Cambridge sible, even probable, that the first purely orchestral musi
(formerly Fitzwilliam Ms.23E13-7), containing a mixed reper- ever written for performance in London was Handel's Wat
toire of theatre music, some with trumpet parts. Professor Music, written between 1715 and 1717, and by a Germa
Smithers maintained that these are 'the earliest and practic- familiar with the German tradition of performing an
ally the only sources of English trumpet music by contem- publishing that sort of music." In England, the tradition o
poraries of Henry Purcell'. Had he followed up his own orchestral music in court and church independent of voc
remark that 'much of this music could have been adapted music, what Biber called 'tam aris quam aulis servientes
from the incidental overtures and act tunes used in contem- simply did not exist. Of course, English newspapers of t
porary English opera odes and masques', he would have 1690s reveal that instrumental music was the mainstay of th
stumbled, as we shall see, on a much larger repertoire, most newfangled public concerts, often held in taverns, at whi

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trumpet players were often heard; for instance, John Shore Ex. 1

at Richmond New Wells, 27 September 1697:13 'A Trumpet H. Purcell: 'Welcome glorious morn' (1691)
Song on the King, and a Song made for the Birthday of his
Highness the Duke of Gloucester: with two new Sonatas by 2 Tpt.
2 Ob.
Mr John Shore. And variety of other new Musick ... being 2 Vln.

the last time of performance this Season.. .'. Cramped Via.

conditions and economic necessity dictated that the music

heard was small-scale and performed in chamber style, such
as the music Roger North heard at York Buildings:'4 'I
observed well the musick here, and altho' the best masters in
their turnes, as well solo as concerted, shewed their gifts, yet Editorial -]
I cannot say, whatever the music was, that the entertainment
was good; because it consisted of broken incoherent parts;
now a consort, then a lutinist, then a violino solo, then flutes,
then a song, and so peice after peice, the time sliding away,
while the masters blundered and swore in shifting places ...'.
Despite the trend away from court music towards private
enterprise in the years following the Glorious Revolution of
1688 (William and Mary kept their court establishment at a
much lower level than the music-loving Charles II and James
II), the following list of English trumpet sonatas, based on,
and expanded from Smithers, shows just how closely English
orchestral music before Handel was bound to the triple T VlnsTutti
requirements of church, court and stage. From this list also,
the following general observations about musical style can be

1. Scorings are generally of one or two types: trumpet,

strings a 4 and continuo, or, 2 trumpets, drums, 2 oboes,
bassoon, strings a 4 and continuo. From the rather laconic
scoring indications in the original sources it is clear that
oboes were often presumed to be playing with strings
without being mentioned specifically. In Weldon's overture
to The Judgement of Paris, for instance, oboes and 'curtall' are
mentioned in the last movement, though the texture, style
and common sense makes it clear that they should be playing obs.

in the previous movements. There are several trumpet works

by Henry Purcell, listed by Smithers" and Zimmerman 6 with
apparently incomplete scorings, which are usually per-
formed thus today. For instance, the well known 'symphony'
to Come ye sons of art (1694) appears to be scored in the
Tutti VI..I Vln.I
original version for trumpet, oboe and strings," but appears
in a later(?) transposed version as a 'symphony' in The Indian
Queen in the more likely scoring of trumpet, 2 oboes, strings
and bassoon."1 Similarly, several of Purcell's larger scale + 4
trumpet 'symphonys' appear to need a timpani part for their
full effect to be realized: the overture to Purcell's superb ode
Welcome, glorious morn (1691)19 makes very little sense without
the addition of such a part adding solidity and grandeur to
the music. (Ex. 1).
As Thurston Dart pointed out,20 such elementary points of
orchestral balance were a commonplace to the baroque
musician; many records and concert performances still
ignore these common-sense requirements.
2. It appears that Walsh occasionally published trumpet
sonatas in compressed versions for strings alone, omitting
trumpet and wind parts. A few of these are noted in the table, Purce

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but many more are probably lurking in the large repertoire tion of movements was considered appropriate. To make this
of printed theatre overtures and dances for strings. An clear, I have described in general terms each of these
incomplete list of these is to be found printed by Robert stereotypes, and then referred to them by letter (A, B, C, etc.)
Fiske.21 in the appropriate place. in the table. It will be seen that very
3. Purcell and his contemporaries scored quite in- few composers depart from the models described:
discriminately for trumpets in both C and D, strangely, A: Slow movement, in C or C, usually found as an intro-
sometimes in the same work. Smithers22 notices Dioclesian, duction to type C, especially in sonatas with two trumpets
The Indian Queen, The Fairy Queen and King Arthur all contain and timpani. Many of these movements have passages in
changes between C and D trumpet writing, and offers a which the trumpets and timpani are echoed by the other
number of possible reasons. In Daniel Purcell's setting of The instruments, as in the opening of Henry Purcell's Hail, bright
Judgement of Paris (1700), there are three trumpet sonatas, two Cecilia.27 Some of these seem to be modelled on Purcell's
in D, and one (on p. 26 of the Walsh score) in C. It is this work.

sonata which is to be found as the opening of Again the B: Fast movement, non fugal, containing echo passages
welcome morn we sing, a court ode produced on 6 February between trumpet(s) (with continuo) and strings. Many of
1699/1700, according to a note on the score. As his setting of these start with a passage for continuo alone in a style
The Judgement of Paris was produced at Dorset Garden on probably originated by Henry Purcell in his 'Symphony' to
11 April,23 we can assume that an already composed sonata Arise my muse28 (1690), and later imitated by Daniel Purcell,
was pressed into use, thus causing the key conflict. However Clarke, Barrett and others. A comparison between these will
this explanation becomes slightly less convincing when the make this clear:

following points are considered:


a. Henry Purcell frequently transposed trumpet Henry Purcell: 'Arise my muse' (1690)
sonatas when transferring them from work to work.

b. The change of tonality observed in The Judgement of

Paris fits Daniel Purcell's overall scheme rather well, which is
Daniel Purcell: 'Welcome. glorious day' (1698)
(the trumpet sonatas occur at the points asterisked): D*-Dm-
Am-C-F-C*-Cm-C-Am-A-Dm-D*-Am-D-Dm-D. Unfor-
tunately this problem must be left unsolved until a complete
survey of tonality in these extended works is undertaken.
Incidentally, it will be noticed from my table that another of John Barrett: Sonata (c. 1700)
Daniel Purcell's extended stage works, The Grove, produced
in 1700, contains two trumpet sonatas in the contrasted keys.
Overall, of the 62 multi-movement trumpet sonatas so far
found, 41 are in D, 20 in C, and one, by James Kremberg, in
D minor. I hope to show in a future article how the English Jeremiah Clarke:'Welcome, beauty' (early 18th century)

use of trumpets in minor keys was much more widespread

than hitherto suspected. For the time being note here that
Kremberg's Overture uses a technique also used by Moravian
composers such as Biber and Vejvanovsky24 which involves
using the ordinary notes available with a natural C trumpet Another characteristic texture used in this type of movement
to produce the ability to play in a minor key. A comparison involves the doubling of the trumpet with violin I.
between the notes used by Biber in his Sonata in G minor for C: A fast canzona movement in fugal style, nearly always in
trumpet, violin, 2 violas and continuo,25 and the Kremberg duple time, and usually contrasting two simultaneously
overture will make this clear: heard subjects. The fugal texture nearly always degenerates
into fanfares towards the end of the movement. Many of
these appear to be modelled on the canzona movement in
Kremberg Biber
Hail, bright Cecilia.
D: A slow movement, in the tonic or relative minor key of
the sonata, scored without trumpets, and typically consisting
of repeated chords exploring chromatic harmony. The best-
known example is the slow movement of Purcell's trumpet
4. I would take issue with Professor Smithers when he sonata (Z850).29
E: A slow movement in 3/4 or 3/2 with sustained melodic
attempts to find standard patterning of movements in the
English trumpet sonata.'26 My table shows that each type of lines, often in minuet or saraband rhythm. This type is much
movement going to make up a multi-movement work was very less common in trumpet sonatas than type C.
largely stereotyped, but that almost every and any combina- F: A fast movement in 3/8, 6/8 or 12/8, in the style of a jig,

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but 6 Seeusuall
An Account of the Musical Celebrations on St Cecilia's Day by W. H.

ThisHusk (London, type

1857). An indispensable account, still not
G: A fast
See English Theatre Music in the Eighteenth Century by Robert Fiske
a minuet
(London, 1973), which, despite its title, deals with late 17th-century
music in its earlier chapters.
8 For instance, the three sonatas by Daniel Purcell from The
TABLE of multi-movement trumpet sonatas
Judgement composed
of Paris, found in Library, Add.
separately in British
England, 1685-1714. Ms.49599.

9 For instance,
Note: to establish some sort of coherent the sonatas by Finger
repertoire, I have and Corbett for oboe, trumpet
and continuo, and those by Finger for violin, trumpet and continuo,
omitted single movement preludes, together with suites
and violin, oboe, trumpet and continuo.
using the trumpet intended as theatrical act-music,
10 The King's Musick, A Transcript of butRecords Relating to Music and
without non-dance movements. It will be seen from the table Musicians, 1460-1700, edited by Henry Cart de Lafontaine (London,
that the word 'sonata' is of no help in defining this reper- 1909, reprinted New York, 1973).
toire, as the words sonata, overture, sinfonia, symphony, concerto l See The Sonata in the Baroque Era (Chapel Hill, 1959) by William
Newman, p. 212-54, and Hutchings op. cit. p. 114-32.
and even trumpet peice were used to describe the same kind of
12 In the title of: Sonatae, tam aris, quam aulis servientes, ab Authore
piece. Sources bracketed together are of the same piece. HenricoJ. F. Biber ... Salisburg... M.D.C.LXXVI, modern edition in
D.T.O. 106/7. It can best be rendered as: 'sonatas, as suitable for the
altar as for the court'.
13 The Post Man, 18 September 1697, reprinted in: A Calendar of
ABBREVIATIONS References to Music in Newspapers published in London and the Provinces
(1660-1719) by Michael Tilmouth, in R.M.A. Research Chronicle
BM: British Library, reference section (British Museum).
No. 1(1961), p. 21.
Bod: Bodleian Library, Oxford, Music School 14 Collection.
Quoted in Roger North on Music, edited by John Wilson (London,
Cfm: Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge. 1959), p. 305.
Folger: Folger Shakespeare Library, Washington.
" Listed by Smithers op. cit. p. 207-11.
Gresham: Guildhall Library, EC4, Gresham Mss. 16 See Henry Purcell 1659-1695 An analytical catalogue of his music
(London, 1963), by Franklin Zimmerman.
Tenbury: Library of St Michael's College, Tenbury Wells.
17 Printed in Purcell Society Ed., vol. 24, p. 87.
RCM: Parry Room, Royal College of Music. i' Printed in Purcell Society Ed., vol. 19.
19 Printed in Purcell Society Ed., vol. 11, p. 72.
20 The Interpretation of Music (London, 1954), p. 123.
21 op. cit. pp. 591-3.
1 London, 1973. 22 op. cit. p. 217.
2 See for instance, the discussion of the Bologna23 school in
See Fiske op. cit.The
p. 15.
Baroque Concerto by Arthur Hutchings (London, 1961)24 p
Smithers op. cit. p. 187-8.
1 Listed by Smithers op. cit. p. 207-11. 25 Mod. ed. in D.T.O. vol 106/7, p. 113.
4 See The English Court Ode by Rosamund McGuiness (London,
26 op. cit. p. 203.
1972). 27 Printed in Purcell Society Ed., vol. 8, p. 1.
s See English Church Music 1650-1750 by Christopher Dearnley 28 Printed in Purcell Society Ed., vol. 11, p. 36.
(London, 1970). 29 Printed in Purcell Society Ed., vol. 31., p. 86.


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English Trumpet Sonatas 1685-1714

ANON BM: Add.39565-7/30839, Sonata Tromba c. 1690-1700 D tr,2vl,Bc B,D,E,F Similar in style to the C
(JAMES PAISIBLE?) p.52 the Ms, copied by Pais
ANON Bod: C6, p.70 Welcome to the Quire of Heaven C tr,2vl,Bc A,C
(St Cecilia's Apotheosis)

JOHN BARRErr BM: Add.49599, No.1 Sonata 1700? D tr,ob,2vl,vla,Bc B,E,F A compressed version
the in
Walks o

JOHN BLOW BM: Add.31457, f.l (auto) Welcome every guest c. 1688-90 D 2tr,2vl,vla,Bc A,C,F
Gresham Ms.452, p. 174 (Ode on St Cecilia's Day)
LBM: Add.31452, f.47
[Gresham Ms.452, p.1 Overture The glor ous day is come 1691 C/G 2tr,kdr,3ob,bsn, A,C,G
Fitz.Ms.23.H. 11, f.l Overture (Ode on St Cecilia's Day) 2vl,vla,Bc the work starts and
JEREMIAH CLARKE BM: Add.30934, f3 (auto) Come, come along 1695/6 D tr,2ob,2vl,vla,Bc A,C,F,D Modem edition by S
(Ode on the Death of Henry a 19th-century copy by R

Tenbury Ms: 1232, No.8 O tell ye world 1697 D tr,kdr,2vl,vla,Bc B,F

('on ye peace concluded at

Tenbury Ms. 1232, No. 10 Sympho[nial Now Albion, raise thy drooping C 2tr,2ob,2vl,vla,Bc B,F

('on his Majesty's happy


BM: Add.31813, f 101 Overture Welcome, Beauty D tr,2vl,vla,Bc B,F,A A 19th-century copy b
(Ode to Beauty)
WILLIAM CORBETT XII Sonate d tre Sonata XII c. 1700 C tr,ob,Bc Multimovement
(Op. 1, Roger, c. 1700)

6 Sonatas with an overture Sonata I c. 1708 D tr,2vl,Bc B,C,E,F The unique copy of this e
(Op.3, Walsh, c. 1708) Sonata II ,, D ,, A,B,E,E,F Library is incomplete (VI.1
Sonata III ,, D ,, B,E,F There is a complete copy of
Sonata IV ,, D B,C,B,E,F edition in the possession o
Sonata V ,, D ,, B,E,F Geer, Lefusta Bruk, Sw
Sonata VI ,, D ,, B,E,F

WILLIAM CROFT Musicus Apparatus Academicus With noise of cannon 1713 D tr,2vl,vla,Bc B,C,B,F Modern edition b
(Author, c. 1715)

.Tenbury Ms. 1226

JOHN ECCLES [udgement of Paris Symphony for Thejudgement of Paris 1700 D tr,2vl,vla,Bc C,G,F
(Walsh, 1702) Mercury
LBM: Add.49599, No. 16 Sonata Ms copy of abov
BM: Add.29378, f.96 Symphony Europe's Revells on ye Peace 1697 D 2tr,kdr, 2vl,vla,Bc A,B
GODFREY FINGER BM: Add.49599, No.2 Sonata c. 1700 C tr,ob,Bc Multimovement Modern edition by
BM: Add.49599, No.3 Sonata c. 1700 D 2tr,2ob,2vl,Bc B,G,D,E,F Possibly from Finger
BM: Add.49599, No.4 Sonata c. 1700 C tr,ob,vl,Bc Multimovement Modern edition by
BM: Add.49599, No.8 Sonata c. 1700 C vln,ob[or tr],Bc Multimovement The oboe part of this s

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BM: Add.49599, No.11 Sonata c. 1700 C 2tr,3ob,bsn, B,F,C Possibly from Finge
2vl,vla,Bc Judgement of Pa
NICHOLA HAYM Overture in Pyrrhus Overture Pyrrus and Demetrius 1708 D tr?,2vl,vla,Bc A,G,D,4 Presto Although no t
(Cullen, c. 1708) style of the string parts suggest

GODFREY KELLER Six Sonatas (Walsh, c. 1700) Sonata I c. 1700 D tr,2vl,vla,Bc B,C, Roundo,B,D,
Sonata II ,, D tr,2vl,vla,Bc B,D,G,C,4 Aria
Sonata III ,, D tr,2vl,vla,Bc Grouhd,G,F

JAMES KREMBERG RCM 2232, f.14 (auto) Overture The Entertainment c. 1697-1700 Dm tr,2ob,bsn,2vl, French ov. Written in D mi
vla,Bc of the C instru

FRANCESCO MANCINI Six Overtures (Walsh, 1724) Sinfonia Hydaspes 1710 D tr,2vl,vla,Bc B,D,F Modern edition
NICOLA MATTEls Ayresfor the Violin Concerto di 1685 C 3tr Multimovement The full title is given
(Author, 1685/7), p.76-81 Trombe Tre Trombette con violini e f
LBM: Add.24889, No. 1 Sigr Nicola's c. 1690 one small section, only the
Trumpet Piece survived, which, however, gi

JAMES PAISIBLE BM: Add.49599, No. 10 Sonata c. 1700 D 2tr,2vl,vla,Bc B,D,F Modern edition b
DANIEL PURCELL Judgement ofParis Symphony The Judgement of Paris 1700 D 2tr,kdr,2ob,bsn, A,C,D,F
(Walsh, 1702), p. 1 2vl,vja,Bc A
BM: Add.49599, No. 14 Sonata c. 1700 Ms copy of ab
LCfm: 23. H. 12, f.123 Symphony The Prize Musick c. 1701 From a complete
udgement of Paris Trumpet Sonata Thejudgement of Paris 1700 C tr,2vl,vla,Bc B,D,F Modern editio
(Walsh, 1702), p.26
BM: Add.49599, No. 12 Sonata c. 1700 Ms copy of ab
Cfm: 23. H. 12, f.136v Symphony The Prize Musick c. 1700 From a complete
udgement of Paris The Judgement of Paris 1700 D tr,2vl,vla,Bc B,D,F Modern edition
(Walsh, 1702), p.51
BM: Add. 19599, No.9 Sonata c. 1700 Ms copy of ab
Cfm: 23.H. 12, f.15 1v Symphony The Prize Musick c. 1701 From a complete
BM: Add.30934, f.36 Trumpett Sonata Again the welcome morn we sing 1700 Identical with the So
(Song on her Royall Highness Paris, p.2
BM: Add. 15318, f.10 Sym[phony] The Island Princess 1698 D tr,2ob,2vl,vla,Bc B,D,F
Gresham Ms.458, p. 1 Begin the noble song 1698 D 2tr,kdr,2ob, A,D,F Movements 2 and 3
(St Cecilia's Day, 1698) 2vl,vla,Bc ments 3 and 4 of the Sona
Paris, p
RCM Ms.988, f.22 Trumpet Sonata The Grove 1700 C tr,2vl,vla,Bc B,D,F
RCM Ms.988, f.33 Sonata Trumpet The Grove ,, D tr,2ob,2vl,vla,Bc B,D,F
RCM Ms.989 (unfoliated) Overture Welcome, glorious day 1698 D tr,2vl,vla,Bc B,F
HENRY PURCELL Purcell's 15 trumpet sonatas are listed and discussed in detail by Smithers (op. cit. p. 205-27)
and Zimmerman: Henry Purcell, An Analytical Catalogue of his Music (London, 1963).

WILLIAM TOPHAM Six sonata's Sonata in Seven 1709 D 2tr,2vl,vla,Bc B,G,F,A In a set 'compos'd in i
(Op.3,Walsh/Pippard,1709) Parts(No.6) Corelli', which was pub

JOHN WELDON Folger Ms.CS. 1479,p.7 Sonata TheJudgement of Paris 1700 C tr,kdr,2ob,bsn, B,A,F,B
2vl,vla,bass viol,Bc

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