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IPA01-G-068

PROCEEDINGS, INDONESIAN PETROLEUM ASSOCIATION


Twenty-Eighth Annual Convention & Exhibition, October 2001

THE PETROLEUM POTENTIAL OF WEST TIMOR

Tim R. Charlton*

ABSTRACT It is the Australian margin sequences that are


considered prospective for hydrocarbon exploration,
Timor island, situated in the Banda arc-continent an extension of the well-established Australian
collision zone, is the location of numerous oil and gas Northwest Shelf hydrocarbon province into a very
seeps, and contains high-quality hydrocarbon source different and explorationally more challenging
rocks. Despite this, the island is widely considered to structural setting.
have only moderate petroleum potential due to its
well known structural complexity. It is suggested
here, however, that this complexity is limited to Timor island has been the subject of hydrocarbon
shallow structural levels, and below this a simpler exploration since early in the twentieth century,
structural style predominates. In particular, the although to date a larger proportion of the exploration
Kolbano area of southern West Timor is interpreted to has focused on the eastern political half of the island.
be underlain by a very large and structurally simple This is reflected in drilling activity, with only one
inversion anticline, capable of hosting a giant well (Banli-1) out of a total of 27 exploration wells
hydrocarbon accumulation. The Banli-1 exploration drilled onshore in Timor having been drilled in West
well only penetrated the flank of this structure, Timor. As can be seen from Figure 3, the bias in
perhaps 300-500m below the prospective crest. Banli- exploration activity is matched by, and presumably
1 was drilled on a gravity high, which corresponds to related to, an imbalance in the distribution of oil and
the footwall basement block of the inversion gas seeps. The majority of hydrocarbon seeps are
structure, not to the crest of the hangingwall anticline. found in East Timor, with rather fewer occurring in
Similar if smaller structures are likely to occur West Timor. West Timor seeps additionally tend to be
elsewhere both onshore in West Timor and offshore hydrocarbon gas: the westernmost well-documented
to the south in the northern slope of the Timor oil seep in Timor is found in the extreme east of
Trough. West Timor near Besikama (Giani, 1971). Palaeo-
geographically West Timor was a predominantly
INTRODUCTION basinal area lying at the northern end of the
Palaeozoic Bonaparte Graben aulacogen (Bird and
Timor island is divided politically between newly Cook, 1991), and West Timor may form part of a
independent Timor Lorosa'e (East Timor), and the predominantly gas province along this old graben
Indonesian province of Nusa Tenggara Timur (`West trend, together with the Petrel and Tern fields of the
Timor'). The island is situated in the zone of collision Northwest Shelf (Figure 1).
between the formerly passive NW continental margin
of Australia and the Banda island arc subduction Timor is probably best known geologically for its
system (Figure 1). Timor comprises a fold and thrust structural complexity. Due to the abundance of shale
belt in which distal Australian margin sequences have in the distal Australian margin sequences, scaly clay
been thrust southwards onto the more proximal mélange of the Bobonaro Complex forms a locally
Australian continental shelf, with remnants of the dominant structural element at outcrop in West
former intra-oceanic subduction complex structurally Timor, in place of coherent thrust sheets. This
overlying the imbricated Australian margin sequences structural complexity is a major discouragement to
(Figure 2). hydrocarbon exploration. I suggest here, however,
that this complexity is la rgely restricted to shallow
___________________________________________________________
* Consultant structural levels, and below this large and relatively

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simple inversion structures are to be found, with the (MacDaniel, 1988) and the Laminaria and Corallina
potential to host giant hydrocarbon accumulations. fields (Smith et al., 1996). In Jabiru, Lower Jurassic
marine sands of the Plover Formation average 21%
STRATIGRAPHY, SOURCE, RESERVOIR, porosity and have permeabilities in the range 600-
SEAL 10,000md (MacDaniel, 1988). In the Laminaria -
Corallina fields the Plover Formation contains
excellent reservoir quality sandstones, with porosities
The stratigraphy of Timor is summarised in Figure 4. of about 17% and permeabilities up to 2500md
The key elements in the probable Timor petroleum (Smith et al., 1996).
system occur within the Mesozoic succession,
particularly in the Late Triassic and Jurassic section.
Oil seeps from East Timor analysed by Ware and The seal to the Late Triassic -Early Jurassic potential
Ichram (1997) and Peters et al. (1999) point to Upper reservoir sandstones is Middle Jurassic shales of the
Triassic -Jurassic source rocks, although, as mentioned Wai Luli Formation (Figure 4). The Wai Luli
above, the petroleum systems may not be identical in Formation reportedly has a stratigraphic thickness of
eastern and western Timor. In West Timor, 't Hoen up to about 1km in East Timor (Audley-Charles,
and van Es (1928) reported a Late Triassic 1968), but in the Banli-1 well it was only about 100m
bituminous shale sample containing 23.3% TOC thick (Sani et al., 1995). In Banli-1 the reduction in
(location in Figure 3). Robertson (1998) recorded thickness is likely to be the result of significant
Upper Triassic source rocks from the same area with structural thinning, as these shales also form the
up to 8% TOC and hydrogen indices up to 396, primary decollement level separating shallow
indicating oil prone kerogen with good to very good structural complexity from a deeper, less intensely
source quality. Lower Jurassic source rock samples deformed structural domain (see the following
range from good quality for oil and gas to very good section). From a sealing perspective, however, it is
for oil. The Permian succession may additionally significant that despite the fairly intense structural
have minor to fair source potential for gas. The main thinning of the Wai Luli Formation in Banli-1, a
source rock sequences in Timor are likely to be substantial thickness of shales was still encountered.
directly comparable to the Late Triassic source rocks The sealing quality of the Wai Luli shales is
of Seram and Jurassic source rocks of the Northwest demonstrated by overpressuring within this formation
Shelf (Peters et al., 1999). in Banli-1 (Sani et al., 1995) and in wells in East
Timor.
The most likely reservoir sequence in Timor is the
Late Triassic -Early Jurassic `Malita-equivalent' and
`Plover-equivalent' (after the Malita and Plover THE STRUCTURE OF TIMOR:
Formations of the Northwest Shelf) encountered in THIN-SKINNED OR BASEMENT-INVOLVED?
the Banli-1 exploration well in southern West Timor
(Sani et al., 1995; Figure 4). This paper appears to be The structure of Timor has long been a controversial
the only source of public domain information on the subject, with a number of strikingly different
well, and Sani et al. (1995) did not report porosity and structural models proposed to explain the tectonic
permeability data from Banli-1. However, on the complexity of the island. These interpretations range
Northwest Shelf the fluviatile Malita Formation is a from essentially thin-skinned (Hamilton, 1979;
potential reservoir target, and contemporaneous Charlton et al., 1991; Harris, 1991) to substantial
Middle-Upper Triassic marginal marine strata involvement of Australian continental basement
(perhaps a better analogy for the shallow marine (Chamalaun and Grady, 1978; Sani et al., 1995;
`Malita-equivalent' in Timor) form the main Charlton, in press). In West Timor thin-skinned
reservoirs in the Challis and Talbot fields (Wormald, models have been most prevalent, but as will be
1988; Bourne and Faehrmann, 1991). In the Challis discussed in more detail below, Amoseas geologists
field reservoir quality is described as excellent, with (Sani et al., 1995) developed a basement-involved
effective porosities in the main reservoir sand thrust model for Timor in which a large tectonic flake
averaging 29%, and horizontal permeabilities ranging derived from the outermost edge of the Australian
between 500-7000md. The Plover Formation forms margin was thrust as a coherent body onto the more
part of the reservoir sequence in the Jabiru field proximal Australian shelf (Figure 5a).

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In thin-skinned interpretations of West Timor (e.g. Amoseas Indonesia Inc., on behalf of Chevron and
Charlton et al., 1991), two main structural levels are Texaco, entered into the Soe Production Sharing
recognised: an upper zone of emergent fan imbricates, Contract with Pertamina in April 1990. This PSC
and a deeper underplated zone. The emergent fan block covered the bulk of onshore West Timor,
imbricates in Timor consist of the shallowest together with an offshore area to the south, with the
stratigraphic levels (mainly Late Jurassic -Neogene), total exploration acreage extending to 18,482km2
repeatedly imbricated and complexly deformed by (7136 sq. mi.). Initial work by Amoseas between
overprinting high-angle reverse faulting, wrench 1990-1993 included geological field mapping and the
faulting, and in the less competent stratigraphic acquisition of gravity, magnetic, synthetic aperture
sections, by the formation of tectonic mélange. The radar, vibroseis and offshore marine seismic data
Kolbano area of southern West Timor is the primary (Sawyer et al., 1993; Sani et al., 1995). Geological
example of this style of deformation (Figure 2). fieldwork focused in particular on the Kolbano
structural block in the south, but also involved
reconnaissance traverses throughout central and
Shales of the Middle Jurassic Wai Luli Formation northern West Timor. Detailed structural traverse
generally form the basal decollement to this upper mapping and extensive spot sampling was carried out
structural zone, and separate it from the deeper zone throughout the structurally complex Kolbano area.
of underplating. In West Timor the underplated zone This fieldwork led to the publication of a new
typically consists of Permo-Triassic basinal reconnaissance geological map of West Timor at
successions, with the Kekneno area forming the 1:500,000 scale (Sawyer et al., 1993, Figure 3), and a
clearest example of this type of deformation (Figure more detailed geological map of the Kolbano area
2; Bird and Cook, 1991). The Kekneno area consists (Sani et al., 1995, Figure 4). A line drawing
of relatively continuous and much less intensely interpretation of an offshore seismic line figured by
deformed thrust sheets, reflecting a significantly Sani et al. (1995, Figure 6) is shown in Figure 6.
lesser degree of thrust shortening within the zone of
underplating compared with the more intense thrust From the geological and geophysical data, Amoseas
shortening in the Kolbano imbricate fan zone. geologists developed a rather radical structural
interpretation of southern Timor and the Timor
Thin-skinned models for fold and thrust belts have Trough, illustrated by Sani et al. (1995, Figure 5)
been popular over the last 2-3 decades, but more through a series of cross-sections, one of which is
recently there has been an increasing recognition of reproduced here as Figure 5a.
the role that basement-involved structures play in
many foldbelts. Whilst the thin-skinned model still Banli-1
offers a good explanation for the style of deformation
in the basinal successions of central West Timor (the The Banli-1 well was drilled in the eastern half of the
Kolbano-Kekneno areas), it should also now be Kolbano structural block, near the mouth of the Banli
recognised that basement-involvement probably plays river (Figure 7). The surface geology in this area
an important role in Timor tectonics, particularly in consists of Cretaceous and Palaeogene deepwater
the palaeogeographically higher-standing areas of limestones of the Ofu, Latan and Menu Formations,
eastern Timor (Chamalaun and Grady, 1978; and radiolarian shales and radiolarites of the Nakfunu
Charlton, in press). Even in the predominantly thin- Formation (Figure 4). These sequences are
skinned zone of central West Timor, I will suggest in structurally imbricated on north-dipping low-angle
the following section that a large basement-involved thrusts and high-angle reverse faults, with a structural
inversion structure underlies the Kolbano thin- style analogous to the thin-skinned imbricates
skinned imbricates (see Figure 5b), and that this interpreted in Figure 6.
structure has considerable hydrocarbon potential.
The Banli-1 well location was apparently chosen
THE BANLI-1 EXPLORATION WELL: primarily on the basis of gravity data. According to
IMPLICATIONS FOR STRUCTURE AND Sani et al. (1995), a 25-30mgal positive Bouguer
HYDROCARBON PROSPECTIVITY gravity anomaly coincides with the Banli surface
anticline. Modelling of the gravity and magnetic data
Amoseas's Soe PSC Exploration Programme (the latter not showing a corresponding anomaly over

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the Banli structure) in conjunction with the marine 18o at the top of the section to 4o near T.D. Dip
seismic data led Amoseas geologists to interpret a azimuth is consistently to the SE in this section.
large basement-involved anticline with a weakly Lithologically the lower structural domain comprises
magnetic but dense basement trending parallel to the shallow marine siliciclastics of Late Triassic -Middle
surface strike of the Kolbano structure (Figure 5a). Jurassic age (the Malita- and Plover-equivalents:
The location of the Banli-1 well may additionally Figure 4).
have been influenced by the presence of a surface gas
seep at this locality (Sawyer et al., 1993, Figure 3). The Banli-1 well did not find commercial
hydrocarbons, and the well was plugged and
The drilling results of Banli-1 are summarised in abandoned. Amoseas relinquished the Soe PSC in late
Figure 8. The well was drilled to a depth of 1772m 1995.
(5812ft), with T.D. in Upper Triassic strata. Above
914m (3000ft) the geology intersected consists of Re-Evaluation of the Soe PSC/Banli-1 Exploration
structurally alternating Cretaceous and Palaeogene Results
deepwater sediments, primarily white mudstone
carbonates of the Ofu Formation and grey claystone Amoseas collected a large amount of new geological
and argillaceous carbonates assigned by Amoseas to data and derived a number of new interpretations of
the Nakfunu Formation. A major structural the Timor collision complex during their interest in
duplication of section was recognised at a depth of the Soe PSC. These interpretations, which formed the
602m (1975ft), with the emplacement of Berriasian justification for the drilling of the Banli-1 exploration
(earliest Cretaceous) Nakfunu Formation on top of well, are in many respects markedly different from
Eocene Ofu Formation. The well sections above and previous structural-stratigraphic interpretations of
below 602m correspond to two first order thrust Timor, and therefore merit detailed critical
packages, whilst detailed structural and examination. The main criticisms identified in the
biostratigraphic analysis of the well section indicates present study concern:
many finer-scale structural duplications on numerous
minor reverse faults. This is precisely the style of • Amoseas's structural model.
deformation that is seen at outcrop in river sections • The interpretation of the Banli-1 area as an
throughout the Kolbano area (Barber et al., 1977; Australian continental margin palaeohigh prior to
Charlton, 1987). collision.
• The timing of structural development.
Between 914-1113m (3000-3650ft), Sani et al. (1995)
recognised a structural transition domain a. Structural model
characterised by a simpler bedding dip pattern,
indicative of significantly less intense deformation Sani et al. (1995) illustrated their interpretation of the
than in the upper structural domain. Lithologically geological structure in the Kolbano-Timor Trough
this zone comprises (downwards) an unnamed and region through a series of cross-sections, one of
undated volcanic/volcaniclastic unit (lowermost which is reproduced here as Figure 5a. This model
Cretaceous?), shallow marine siliciclastics of the Oe interprets a major part of the Timor subsurface as a
Baat Formation (Upper Jurassic) and the upper sandy coherent structural block derived from the outer
facies of the Wai Luli Formation (probably upper Australian continental margin, and thrust onto the
Middle Jurassic). No large-scale thrust duplications of more proximal margin as one large thrust unit. Figure
stratigraphy were recognised, although minor 5a suggests that the Kolbano fold and thrust belt
bedding-parallel thrusts were interpreted, particularly exposed onshore forms an essentially distinct thrust
in the upper part of this transitional domain. system from that developed in the lower slope of the
inner Timor Trough, with the two separated by a
The lower structural domain below 1113m (3650ft) is relatively coherent panel of pre-Cretaceous strata
separated from the transitional domain by beneath the upper trough slope. This pre-Cretaceous
overpressured shales of the Wai Luli Formation (Sani panel is overlain in the innermost trough slope by a
et al., 1995). The lower structural domain is relatively thin (<1km) carapace of imbricated
characterised by a very orderly bedding dip pattern, Cretaceous-Tertiary strata, but this thrusted upper
with dip angle decreasing regularly downhole from structural domain does not continue far out onto the

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upper trough slope. This is in marked contrast to the [approximately 5.2-3.4Ma] (Charlton and Wall,
structure interpreted previously for the offshore 1994); and that the Timor Trough has been essentially
region by BOCAL during their programme of inactive since approximately 1.1 ±0.2Ma (Charlton,
exploration (Crostella and Powell, 1976, Figure 9), 1988).
which shows a structural style directly comparable to
both the onshore Kolbano area (Charlton, 1987) and Post-Banli-1 Re-Interpretation of the Kolbano
structures near the present thrust front in the Timor Structural Block
Trough (Karig et al., 1987).
The Kolbano structural block comprises an imbricate
b. Pre -collisional continental margin structure stack of thrust sheets composed principally of
Cretaceous and Tertiary distal Australian margin
The Amoseas model also interpreted the Banli sediments. These thrust sheets, of the order of 1km
subthrust structure as a palaeogeographic high (Sani thick (as with the primary thrust duplication
et al., 1995). There is, however, little stratigraphic penetrated at 602m in Banli-1), are internally highly
evidence to support this interpretation. The Triassic - deformed by low- and high-angle reverse faulting, by
Jurassic Malita- and Plover-equivalents in Banli-1 normal faulting and by wrench faulting, particularly
were deposited on a broad coastal plain that extended left-lateral strike slip with a predominant NNE-SSW
over most of the Northwest Shelf. On the present orientation. Amoseas's map of the Kolbano area (Sani
Australian shelf the Malita Formation is up to 392m et al., 1995, Figure 4) does not clearly distinguish the
thick, and the Plover Formation in the range 200- first order thrusting from the subsequent smaller-
672m (Mory, 1988). The equivalent thicknesses in displacement overprint of reverse faulting, nor does it
Banli-1 are >275m and ca.275m respectively, which recognise significant cross-cutting wrench faults.
does not suggest any significant stratigraphic thinning Figure 7 shows a simpler structural map of the
at the Triassic -Jurassic level. In the Early Cretaceous Kolbano area overlaid on a topographic base which
the region to the north of the reconstructed location of emphasises only the first order thrusts and some of
Banli-1 (i.e., the present-day northern Kolbano area) the main left-lateral wrench faults.
was accumulating very distal turbidites of the
Nakfunu Formation. This is inconsistent with a Banli At the southwestern end of the Kolbano block there is
palaeohigh because the high would either have cut off a sharp swing in the trend of the thrustbelt, such that
distal turbidites sourced from Australia, or would the direction of apparent thrusting changes from
itself have sourced more proximal turbidites. nearly southward in the eastern thrustbelt to eastward
Similarly the simple pattern of a prograding carbonate in the extreme west (Figure 7). This change in strike
wedge for the Kolbano area from the Late occurs around the inlier of Jurassic rocks in the Pasi
Cretaceous-Miocene (Charlton, 1989) is inconsistent area, and consequently the gross configuration of the
with a palaeohigh separating the main Kolbano area Kolbano block has been frequently described as an
from the Australian shelf/slope break. antiform.

c. Timing of deformation Offshore seismic line SOE-91-85 (Figure 6) runs


WSW-ENE parallel to the coast offshore from the
Through restoration of balanced cross-sections Kolbano area. Because of the swing in strike of the
combined with some regional data, Sani et al. (1995) Kolbano structure west of the Pasi Inlier, it was
inferred that arc-continent collision commenced in suggested by Sani et al. (1995) that this seismic
Timor at approximately 3.7Ma (late Early Pliocene); section may also be fairly representative of a north-
that the Kolbano fold and thrust belt developed south section through the Kolbano block. Figure 6
between 2.2Ma and 1.6Ma; and that the separate shows an upper panel of Cretaceous-Tertiary thin-
Timor Trough fold and thrust belt developed between skinned imbricates analogous to those seen in the
1.6Ma and the present. This interpretation is, Kolbano area which more internally into the foldbelt
however, not compatible with a number of other lines link down into deeper, more coherent thrust structures
of evidence which suggest that collision commenced with clearly defined hangingwall anticlines.
in Timor during the Late Miocene (Berry and
McDougall, 1986); that deformation in the Kolbano A particularly significant feature of Figure 6 is the
area took place primarily during the Early Pliocene effect that these deeper structures have on the

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topographic profile of the upper panel of thin-skinned and overpressured shales of the Wai Luli Formation
imbricates. The marked topographic step on the base form the seal. Source rocks are likely to be present in
Plio-Pleistocene unconformity is a direct expression the deeper (Permian-Triassic) and more distal
of the inward transition along the section from (northward) parts of the pre-inversion half-graben.
essentially emergent fan type imbrication to The crest of the sub-Kolbano anticline could be 300-
underplating or inversion at deeper levels. Similar 500m above the intersection of the base of the Wai
topographic steps on seismic profiles across the inner Luli Formation in the Banli-1 well (Figure 9). The
slope of the Timor Trough (e.g. Karig et al., 1987) anticline is likely to be up to 5-8km broad and 30km
probably correspond to similar antiformal long (Figure 7), and is therefore capable of hosting a
culminations below the complexly deformed giant hydrocarbon accumulation.
Cretaceous-Tertiary section, either as the result of
thin-skinned duplexing (analogous to the Kekneno A second factor significant to exploration in Timor is
Duplex: Figure 2) or through basement-involved that the Banli-1 well location was selected primarily
inversion. on the basis of a gravity high. In the case of an
inversion structure striking E-W with the hangingwall
The southern front of the Kolbano mountains forms a in the northern fault block, the gravity profile would
comparable topographic step (Figure 7), and this is have the general form of a step down to the north,
likely to be the surface expression of further with a gravity low in the hangingwall and a high over
antiformal development at depth. The Banli-1 well, the footwall block. However, Timor additionally has a
which was drilled near to the Kolbano mountain front, strong N-S gravity gradient increasing to the north.
encountered SE-dipping Triassic-Jurassic strata Superimposition of the down-to-the-north gravity step
beneath the upper section of complexly imbricated on the up-to-the-north regional gradient would result
Late Jurassic -Tertiary strata. These deeper strata are in a local gravity high over the footwall block. As was
here interpreted to represent the frontal limb of an demonstrated by the drilling of Banli-1, the gravity
inversion anticline developed within (?Permian-) high is situated over the southern, frontal limb of the
Triassic -Jurassic section beneath the complex upper inversion anticline, whereas the prospective crest of
zone of imbricated Cretaceous-Tertiary strata (Figure the anticline is located some distance to the north in
9). The size of the Kolbano block, the regularity of the region of lower gravity. The mismatch between
the Kolbano pseudo-antiform at the coarsest scale and the gravity high and the inversion anticline is well
the height of the topographic step at the mountain shown by Figure 6.
front are consistent with a single large antiform
beneath the Kolbano area, and this is more likely to CONCLUSIONS
be the result of subthrust basement-involved inversion
rather than, for instance, thin-skinned duplexing. 1. The Kolbano area of southern West Timor is
Furthermore the regular downhole decrease in dip interpreted to be underlain by a very large but
values in Banli-1 through the Malita- and Plover- structurally simple inversion anticline with the
equivalents is a characteristic feature of anticlines potential to host a giant hydrocarbon
developed by relatively mild inversion of a syn-rift accumulation.
half-graben sequence where the graben fill prior to
inversion had the characteristic growth rollover 2. Similar if smaller inversion anticlines occur
geometry. elsewhere in the area offshore south of West
Timor (e.g. Sani et al., 1995, Figure 6), and are
Implications for Hydrocarbon Exploration likely to occur beneath shallow-level structural
complexity onshore in West Timor.
The main implication for hydrocarbon exploration is
that the sub-Kolbano inversion anticline (Figure 9) 3. The gravity high over the southern part of the
probably forms a highly prospective target, but that Kolbano block corresponds to the basement
the Banli-1 well was located a considerable distance footwall block of the sub-Kolbano inversion
off the crest of the target structure. Consequently the structure, not to the crest of the target anticline.
sub-Kolbano target anticline has not yet been Gravity highs alone therefore do not form good
adequately tested. The Malita- and Plover-equivalents drilling locations: a more subtle combination of
form the reservoir target in the sub-Kolbano anticline, gravity, magnetic and structural modelling is

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needed to define the crests of subthrust inversion Aileu metamorphic massifs, East Timor, Journal of
anticlines in Timor. Asian Earth Sciences.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Charlton, T.R., Barber, A.J., and Barkham, S.T.,


1991. The structural evolution of the Timor collision
My thanks to Andy Livsey (P.T. Robertson Utama complex, eastern Indonesia, Journal of Structural
Indonesia) for information on Timor source rocks. Geology 13, 489-500. Charlton, T.R. and Wall, D.,
1994, New biostratigraphic results from the Kolbano
area, southern West Timor: implications for the
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Stratigraphy and sedimentology of West Timor, oilfield - Timor Sea, Australia, in Petroleum in
Indonesia, Proceedings of the Indonesian Petroleum Australia: the First Century. Australian Petroleum
Association 22, 1-20. Exploration Association/MacArthur Press, 425-437.

Vol. 1 - 308
u lt
g Fa
Bintuni Basin
ron 14.4tcf gas, under
Undifferentiated land So development

Salawati Basin
Volcanic arc >300mmbo produced

Sulawesi Irian
Banda forearc
Seram Jaya
Undifferentiated sea
Seram
>14mmbo produced
Australian margin Kai islands 5¡S
offshore Banda Sea

Tanimbar

gh
Sunda Arc

ou
Elang, Kakatua Bayu-Undan
Banda Arc

Tr
17mmbo? 3.4tcf gas, 400mmb

ar
condensate b
i m
Sahul Platform T an Arafura Shelf
o r Giant gas fields under

Ti m development (>10tcf)
orm b en
latf Gra
ugh P 10¡S
ro h u l
l der
Sumba o rT Sa
lita
-Ca
Tim Ma

e lf
Java Tre
nch Bo Sh
n

Ashmore na
be

Laminaria- pa
a

Platform rte
Gr

Scott Reef-Brecknock Corallina Gr


an

Vulcan Graben
200mmbo? a be
lc

17.7tcf gas, 211mmb c.200mmbo Petrel, Tern


Australia
Vu

t n
es
condensate, undeveloped
Indian produced Undeveloped gas

h w fields 1.5tcf?
Ocean
120¡E N ort 125¡ 130¡ 135¡E

FIGURE 1 - Timor tectonic setting and regional petroleum highlights Vol. 1 - 309
124¡ 125¡ 126¡ 127¡E

East Timor Baucau


0 100km
Dili
Mata Bia
Cribas
Legumau
Suete

West Timor
Laclubar Aliambata
Aitutu
9¡S

Bazol

Kekneno massif: Oecusse


Lolotoi Betano
thin-skinned duplex
Suai Eroded-out inversion anticline
Mutis
Syn-/post-orogenic basins
asin Besikama
al B Parautochthon, allochthon
C entr
& Bobonaro melange complex
Aileu Complex
(syn-collisional metamorphics)
10¡
Kolbano block: Mutis Complex
Kolbano
Kupang emergent fan foldbelt (obducted forearc basement)
Lolotoi Complex
(Australian continental basement)

FIGURE 2 -Simplified structural/location map of Timor. Assignment of metamorphic complexes after Charlton (in press).

Vol. 1 - 310
Oil seep Oil field

Gas seep Gas field Dili

Mud volcano Exploration


East Timor
(with seeping gas) well
Matai-1 Aliambata-1 9¡S
180bopd 200m oil & gas shows
Cota Taci-1 0m
216 bopd 1 00
Oecusse Betano-2 .
Minor oil shows
Mola-1
Suai Loro-1 gas shows
Suai-1 oil & gas shows C
rea
West Timor minor gas shows
-ope
ratio
nA
Co
e of
Zon
u g h
Tro
Late Triassic bituminous 2000m
shale 23.3% TOC 10¡S

Banli-1 o r
Kupang Minor oil shows Tim 2000
m

100
0m East Timor/Australia
Zone of Co-operation
Corallina
Zone of Co-operation Area A
Laminaria 0 m
20
st esia

Kakatua / N. Kakatua
m
lia
on

Elang West Elang


200
ra
d
In

Hingkip 11¡S
Mistral
Au

124¡E 125¡E 0m 126¡E 127¡E


20
Bayu-Undan

FIGURE 3 - Petroleum highlights of Timor


Vol. 1 - 311
SYSTEM
AGE (Ma)

SERIES STAGE FORMATION/LITHOLOGY


N S Key:
Pliocene
NEOGENE

Upper
10
Miocene Middle Siu Formation R R Reservoir sequence
20 Lower major/minor
Upper
TERTIARY

30
Oligo- Kokneo Conglomerate Source sequence
cene Lower S S
PALAEOGENE

Upper
oil/gas, major/minor
40
Eocene Middle
Shallow marine/
50 Latan
reefal limestone
Lower
Formation
60 Palaeo- Upper
cene Lower hiatus?
Ofu Formation
Outer shelf
70 Maastrichtian limestone
Campanian Menu Formation
80 Upper
Santonian Inner slope
CRETACEOUS

Coniacian
90 Turonian limestone
Cenomanian
100
deepwater hiatus
Albian Outer slope
110 limestone

120 Lower Aptian Wai Bua/Nakfunu Deepwater


Barremian Formation radiolarian shale
130
Hauterivian
Valanginian
140
Berriasian vvv Shale
150 Upper
Tithonian
Kimmeridgian
Oe Baat Formation R

Oxfordian
Distal turbidite
JURASSIC

160 Callovian
Bathonian
Middle Bajocian
170 S
Aalenian
180
Turbidite
Toarcian
Wai Luli Formation R
190
Lower
Pliensbachian Plover Proximal grain flow/
S
200 Sinemurian equivalent turbidite
Hettangian
Rhaetian
210
S Malita Shallow marine
TRIASSIC

Upper
Norian Aitutu equivalent sandstone
220 R

Carnian
Formation
230
Babulu Formation Conglomerate
Middle Ladinian
Anisian
240
Lower Scythian Niof Formation
250 Upper
Tatarian v v Maubisse Cribas Formation
v v v v Basic volcanics
PERMIAN

Kazanian/Ufimian

260
Kungurian v v v Formation S
Artinskian v v Major structural
270 Lower
Sakmarian
v v Atahoc Formation dŽcollement

280
Asselian

FIGURE 4 - Stratigraphy of Timor, showing the main source and reservoir sequences

Vol. 1 - 312
(a)
NW Banli-1 SE
Kolbano mountains Timor Trough
0

Cretaceous-Tertiary 4
km
Jurassic
6
Triassic
8
Permian

0 No vertical exaggeration 20km 10

12

(b)
NW Kolbano mountains
Banli-1
Timor Trough SE
0
Triassic-Neogene Emergent fan imbricates
Permian-E. Jurassic (Lt. Jurassic-Neogene) 2

Figure 9 Permian-E. Jurassic 4


km
Footwall shortcut thrust 6

Continental basement 8
0 No vertical exaggeration 20km 10

12

FIGURE 5 - Cross-sections through the Kolbano-Timor Trough region. (a) Sani et al. (1995). (b) This study.

Vol. 1 - 313
a -30

mgal
-40

-50

b Sea
Plio-Pleistocene 1
Thin-skinned imbricates

Seconds twt
Thin-skinned imbricates
Jurassic 2
ssic Jurassic
Triassic Jura
ssic 3
Tria

4
0 1 2 3 4km
W E

c
Plio-Pleistocene
1
Thin-skinned imbricates
2 km

FIGURE 6 - Interpretation of seismic line SOE-91-85, offshore Kolbano area, southern West Timor, modified from Sani et al.
(1995, figure 6). (a) Gravity profile. (b) Line drawing of t he seismic section. (c) Schematic depth conversion, true scale.

Vol. 1 - 314
Central Basin

it
Un
eb ait
nnn
So
Banli-1
k
B loc

no Timor Sea
lba
10¡S

Ko
Plio-Pleistocene
syn/postorogenic strata
Kolbano Sonnebait Unit
melange (approx.
=Bobonaro Complex)

Kolbano Block
x.) Emergent fan fold/thrust belt
pro
(a p
ructural trend

Coastal u re
5 Pasi Inlier
Fig
M-U Jurassic
plain
0 10 20km
c e st
rfa

124¡30'E 124¡45'E
su

b
Su

FIGURE 7 - Simplified structure map of the Kolbano area, with topography at 100m interval.
The interpreted sub-Kolbano inversion anticline is outlined by the dashed red line.

Vol. 1 - 315
Vol. 1 - 316
Banli-1
N North Kolbano imbricates Late Albian-?Palaeocene S
(including Babulu/Aitutu Fms.) t io n regressive cycle (Menu Fm.)
ma
F or
funu i Mbr.
Nak ?Oinlas Eocene transgressive cycle
Nakfunu Fm.,
Late Tithonian-early Albian trans (Ofu Formation)
gressive cycle
Wai Luli Formation (Lower-Middle Ju
1 r assi c)
Callovian-E. Tithonian
R regressive cycle
Malita/Plover equivalents
Babulu/Aitutu S (Upper Triassic-Lower Jurassic)
Formations
2 (Triassic)
Depth (km)

3 Australian continental
Basement

n
sio
er
inv

4
rust
ild

c ut t h
short
M

0 1 2
w a ll
km Foot

FIGURE 9 - The sub-Kolbano inversion anticline: an inadequate ly tested structure

Vol. 1 - 317