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DEFINITION OF TERMS

A language is a system of communication which consists of a set of sounds and written symbols which are used by the
people of a particular country or region for talking or writing.
https://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/language
Language, a system of conventional spoken, manual, or written symbols by means of which human beings, as members
of a social group and participants in its culture, express themselves. The functions of language include communication,
the expression of identity, play, imaginative expression, and emotional release.
https://www.britannica.com/topic/language or encyclopaedia britannica

Your mother tongue is the language that you learn from your parentswhen you are a baby.
https://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/language

the first language that you learn when you are a baby, rather than alanguage learned at school or as an adult.
https://dictionary.cambridge.org/us/dictionary/english/mother-tongue

Mother tongue is a traditional term for a person's native language—that is, a languagelearned from birth. Also called
a first language, dominant language, home language, and native tongue (although these terms are
not necessarily synonymous).

Contemporary linguists and educators commonly use the term L1 to refer to a first or native language (the mother tongue),
and the term L2 to refer to a second language or a foreign language that's being studied.

https://www.thoughtco.com/mother-tongue-language-1691408

Multilingual Education typically refers to "first-language-first" education, that is, schooling which begins in
the mother tongue and transitions to additional languages. Typically MLE programs are situated in developing countries
where speakers of minority languages, i.e. non-dominant languages, tend to be disadvantaged in the mainstream education
system. There are increasing calls to provide first-language-first education to immigrant children from immigrant parents
who have moved to the developed world.

https://www.quora.com/What-is-multilingual-education

What is multilingual education?

Sometimes also referred to as “bilingual” (two-language) education, multilingual education employs the use of two or
more languages as media of instruction in primary [elementary] education. In “mother tongue-based multilingual educa-
tion” programs, the students’ home language, a regional or national language and an international language are used
for instruction.”

https://www.wycliffe.net/topics?topic-id=12#Q1

Mother Tongue- Based Multilingual Education (MTB-MLE)


Mother Tongue- Based Multilingual Education (MTB-MLE)
One of the changes in Basic Education Curriculum brought about by the new K-12 program is the introduction of
Mother Tongue- Based Multilingual Education (MTB-MLE) specifically in Kindergarten, Grades 1, 2 and 3 to support the
goal of “ Every Child- A- Reader and A –Writer” by Grade 1.”
MTB-MLE refers to “first-language-first” education that is, schooling which begins in the mother tongue and transitions
to additional languages particularly Filipino and English. It is meant to address the high functional illiteracy of Filipinos
where language plays a significant factor. Since the child’s own language enables her/ him to express him/herself easily,
then, there is no fear of making mistakes. It encourages active participation by children in the learning process because
they understand what is being discussed and what is being asked of them. They can immediately use their mother tongue
to construct and explain their world, articulate their thoughts and add new concepts to what they already know.
Currently, there are twelve (12) major languages or lingua franca that shall be language of instruction.
The major languages are a) Tagalog b) Kapampangan c) Pangasinense d) Iloko e) Bikol f) Cebuano g) Hiligaynon h)
Waray i) Tausug j) Maguindanaoan k) Maranao; l) Chabacano.

http://www.cu.edu.ph/?page_id=3290

Abstract
This article wants to show how most of the students around the world because of teaching in a language contrary to
their mother tongue in first grades of school have found problems in their character, identity, originality and concepts of
some words.
Introduction
Children whose primary language is not the language of instruction in school are more likely to drop out of school or fail
in early grades. Research has shown that children’s first language is the optimal language for literacy and learning
throughout primary school (UNESCO, 2008a). In
spite of growing evidence and parent demand, many educational systems around the world insist
on exclusive use of one or sometimes several privileged languages. This means excluding other languages and with them
the children who speak them (Arnold, Bartlett, Gowani, & Merali, 2006).
A recent UNESCO Conference and subsequent publication brought together educators from
around the world to capture experiences and research on language learning. Their principles represent the results of
evidence and cognitive development based research on language learning to provide guidelines for optimal language
learning. Based on this research and experience, their key principles for language learning include:

It takes about 12 years to fully develop first language competence. As many students begin studying in a new language
before reaching age 12, they need to continue with mother tongue literacy, building their second language on the
foundation of their first language. So if, for instance, a child moves to the UK from Turkey, Turkish language and literacy
development should continue alongside the acquisition of English as an additional language.

Children normally require 5-7 years of learning a second language before they can learn academic subjects in this
language. Continuing with the example of the Turkish child, the burden placed on a child studying only in English means
the child must first understand an abstract concept, the vocabulary and the language before proceeding, but once a child
understands a concept in his or her first language, or Turkish in our
example, the child doesn’t need to re-learn the concept in English, only the vocabulary.
Building a strong foundation in the first language helps second language learning much more than early or prolonged
exposure to the additional language Studies have shown it is more efficient to develop the first language because the skills
and concepts can then easily be transferred to the second.

The most effective language programs continue with mother tongue thinking and learning through out the school career.
Increasingly, international schools are developing first language
mother tongue programs that work alongside the second language academic program. The best of these offer the mother
tongue lessons within the class day with native language speakers where the students can be supported with the
vocabulary, concepts and learning which is proceeding in the classroom. This is supported additionally by intensive
second language study, which again works both within the classroom and in small groups. Whilst no program can match
the literacy of a child taught only in the mother tongue, a balanced bilingualism, as opposed to subtractive bilingualism,
offers so much more. At home, parents are encouraged to continue the use of the mother tongue through reading stories
and writing emails, listening to radio and television and doing internet research in this language. In addition to building
language, it helps the child maintain social-emotional ties with the home culture and society. More families are
seeking mother tongue learning as an embedded part of their child’s curriculum. That nervous child at the school gate
today may be tomorrow’s employee with those ‘soft skills’ employers value: multilingual, flexible in thinking, and with
an ability to view situations from different perspectives and operate easily in multi-cultural environments.
It’s hard to tell who is more nervous on the first day of school—the children or the parents. But when neither parent nor
child speaks the language of the school, the anxiety level reaches a new high. Imagine the difference for a child who is
met on that first day by their mother tongue teacher who helps them settle in, then continues with first language literacy
throughout the child’s education in the school. Supporting mother tongue language literacy goes beyond preserving
cultural connections and providing a soft landing.
Methodology
Research included 2 million students of UAE that start their learning with their mother tongue language.
The aim of this study was to examine whether using mother tongue in acquiring a second language has a facilitating role.
Showing also if it helps students feel more relaxed and comfortable when acquiring a foreign or second language. This
feeling helps students to build up their confidentiality, and making them more secure during the process of
language learning/acquisition. The teachers also filled out a short questionnaire about their attitudes toward the use mother
tongue in the classroom. The same questionnaire was also distributed to students.
Result
A high percentage of 80 of the student participants in this study felt that mother tongue should be used in their classes.
Very obvious is the 75 percent of students who would like mother tongue language used to explain difficult concepts, but
also about 65 percent of teachers considered this as a right use. Generally, students also responded notably higher than
teachers on the following uses for mother tongue language: to help students feel more comfortable and confident, to check
comprehension, and to define new vocabulary items. A notable percentage of students would like mother tongue language
to be used in primary classes either between 10 and 30 percent of the time. A large number of students like the use of
mother tongue language because it helps them feel more comfortable and they feel less lost. About 67 percent of students
feel mother tongue language can be used in translating the unknown words and difficult words.
Students feel there are clear cases where mother tongue language will facilitate their comprehension of what is happening
in class.
Conclusion
Teaching of the mother tongue alongside the second language, allows the sounds and structures of the language to be
transferred more easily. The child builds on what is already known and understood. Even if the written structure of the
languages is different, if the child already knows how to read in the first language, the processes of learning to read,
understanding how language structure works, as well as literacy strategies, sensory motor skills and coordination are
more easily transferred. As the language development progresses, concepts already understood in the first language are
more easily transferred into the second language. The transition, however, is a process whereby a student shifts from
reliance on the mother tongue to his or her second language. It should begin on the first day of school when the mother
tongue teacher may be using key cards with important words. With a young child, this can be done with pictures to help
them in the first few weeks.
Objects may be labelled with both words. The mother tongue teacher would actively point out the differences and
similarities between the languages. The classroom teacher may bring in the new child’s first language by sharing a
vocabulary word each day with the rest of the class, so the child’s new friends also begin to understand something of the
newcomer’s home language and culture. The important thing to remember is that the best transitions are gradual.
The programs that try to transition too quickly have been proven ineffective.

Other major findings include:


. Simultaneous mother tongue language and second language learners have enhanced linguistic and educational
development. They develop a deeper understanding and are able to compare, contrast and use multiple linguistic systems,
giving greater depth of understanding. Some feel this also leads to greater flexibility in their thinking as they filter through
different languages.
Success and ability in the mother tongue l language is a strong predictor of success in the second language. Increasingly,
studies are finding students who have a strong first language foundation perform better in second language exams and
education, although long-term research at this point is still preliminary.

Bi and multi-language learners have a greater breadth in their additional language learning. Through transition, the two
languages become inter-dependent. Going back to the concept of transfer, building on the foundation of the mother tongue
provides greater access to other viewpoints and sources of knowledge. Bi and multilingual students are able to access
different sources of learning— from newspapers, grandparents and other sources in the home country which expand on
their learning in the new one.

First language skills can be easily lost within 2-3 years of starting school. Without language and literacy support in the
mother tongue, a child’s home language begins to degrade. The student may still be able to speak and respond, but they
will feel uncomfortable reading or writing in the home language, alienating the child from the home culture, relatives,
family and society.