A Simplified Pipeline Calculations Program: Part 2

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A Simplified Pipeline Calculations Program: Part 2

A Simplified Pipeline Calculations Program: Part 2

© All Rights Reserved

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ISSN 2229-5518

ameter, defined as the ratio of the cross-sectional area of the Fig 2: geometry of isosceles triangular pipe section

piping section to the wetted perimeter. Source: [3], [4]

The hydraulic diameter is defined such that it reduces to the

The laminar flow factors vary as a function of the isosceles

diameter for the circular pipes (Cengel et. al., ‚[2],‛). It is gen-

angle, in line with the values in Table 1.

erally a parameter for generalising fluid flow in turbulent

Note that angles falling between those in the table can be ob-

flow. The hydraulic diameter concept does not apply for lami-

tained by straight line interpolation.

nar flow through non-circular pipe sections. The hydraulic

diameter for different piping configurations is provided by

Table 1: Laminar flow factors for Isosceles duct type pipes

Engineering Sciences Data Unit (ESDU), [3], [4].

Source: ESDU, [3], [4]

θ f.Re

3.2.2 SQUARE SECTION PIPE 10 12.5

30 13.1

45 13.3

60 13.3

D 90 13.2

120 12.7

150 12.5

D

Fig. 1: geometry of square pipe section- Source: [3], [4]

A = D2 (17)

Thus,

Fig 3: geometry of Rectangular pipe section-Source: [3], [4]

14.2

f (19a)

Re A Dd (22)

Dh

THE ISOSCELES TYPE

D d (23)

A ½ d 2 sin (20)

d sin (21)

Dh

1 sin 2 d d

f .Re 160.67 0.46 2

D D

(24)

d d ratio by ‚(24),‛

θ

The Variation of Laminar Flow factors for different (D/d) val-

ues is as shown in Table 2.

IJSER © 2012

http://www.ijser.org

International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 3, Issue 1, January-2012 4

ISSN 2229-5518

Again, duct side ratios falling between those in the table can Laminar flow factors for triangular pipe sections of the right-

be obtained by straight line interpolation. angled type, for variations in the angle θ¸ defined by ‚(31),‛ is

shown in Table 3.

Again, angles falling between those in the table can be ob-

Source: ESDU, [3], [4]

tained by straight line interpolation.

D/d f.Re

1 14.2

2 15.8

5 19.2 d

θ

10 21.1

Fig 5: geometry of right-angled triangular pipe section

Source: [3], [4]

dD

A (29)

2

2d

2dD

2D Dh

d D d 2

D2

0.5

(30)

d

tan 1 (31)

A Dd (25) D

Hydraulic diameter, Source:ESDU, [3], [4]

θ f.Re

Dh

4 Dd 64 16c 2 10 12.5

(26)30

d D 64 3c 4 45

13.0

13.2

60 13.0

Where, for, 0.1 < (D/d) < 10

70 12.8

90 12.0

c

D d

D d (27)

4 FLUID PROPERTIES FUNCTIONS

The Laminar flow factor for elliptical pipe sections is obtained option) can be used to develop a database of mouse click,

from ‚(28),‛. drop-down physical properties of typical pumping liquids.

f .Re

2 Dh2 D 2 d 2 Yaws,

( [5], [6], [7], [8], provides density, viscosity, and vapour

pressure data as a function of temperature in line with the

28)

d 2D2 mathematical relation, function(Temperature), i.e ƒ(T).

For example, [8], derived general curve-fitted density relation-

ships for certain fluid types as functions of reduced tempera-

ture. As an example, for Chlorobenzene (C6H6Cl), the follow-

3.2.6 RIGHT-ANGLED TRIANGULAR PIPE SECTION ing relations for liquid density apply:

2

L AB 1T

7

r

(32)

IJSER © 2012

http://www.ijser.org

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