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International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 3, Issue 1, January-2012 3

ISSN 2229-5518

ameter, defined as the ratio of the cross-sectional area of the Fig 2: geometry of isosceles triangular pipe section
piping section to the wetted perimeter. Source: , 
The hydraulic diameter is defined such that it reduces to the
The laminar flow factors vary as a function of the isosceles
diameter for the circular pipes (Cengel et. al., ‚,‛). It is gen-
angle, in line with the values in Table 1.
erally a parameter for generalising fluid flow in turbulent
Note that angles falling between those in the table can be ob-
flow. The hydraulic diameter concept does not apply for lami-
tained by straight line interpolation.
nar flow through non-circular pipe sections. The hydraulic
diameter for different piping configurations is provided by
Table 1: Laminar flow factors for Isosceles duct type pipes
Engineering Sciences Data Unit (ESDU), , .
Source: ESDU, , 
θ f.Re
3.2.2 SQUARE SECTION PIPE 10 12.5
30 13.1
45 13.3
60 13.3
D 90 13.2
120 12.7
150 12.5
D

3.2.4 RECTANGULAR SECTION PIPE

Fig. 1: geometry of square pipe section- Source: , 

A = D2 (17)

Lf = Laminar Flow factor = f.Re = 14.2 (19) D

Thus,
Fig 3: geometry of Rectangular pipe section-Source: , 
14.2
f  (19a)
Re A  Dd (22)

3.2.3 TRIANGULAR PIPE SECTION OF 2 Dd

Dh 
THE ISOSCELES TYPE
D  d  (23)

A  ½ d 2 sin   (20)

d sin  (21)
Dh 
1  sin 2    d  d 
f .Re  160.67  0.46  2  
 D  D 
 (24)

The Laminar flow factor, (f.Re) is defined in terms of the (D/d)

d d ratio by ‚(24),‛
θ
The Variation of Laminar Flow factors for different (D/d) val-
ues is as shown in Table 2.

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International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 3, Issue 1, January-2012 4
ISSN 2229-5518

Again, duct side ratios falling between those in the table can Laminar flow factors for triangular pipe sections of the right-
be obtained by straight line interpolation. angled type, for variations in the angle θ¸ defined by ‚(31),‛ is
shown in Table 3.

Table 2: Laminar flow factors for Rectangular duct type pipes

Again, angles falling between those in the table can be ob-
Source: ESDU, , 
tained by straight line interpolation.
D/d f.Re
1 14.2
2 15.8
5 19.2 d
θ
10 21.1

3.2.5 ELLIPTICAL PIPE SECTION D

Fig 5: geometry of right-angled triangular pipe section
Source: , 
dD
A (29)
2
2d

2dD
2D Dh 
d  D  d 2
 D2 
0.5
 (30)

Fig 4: geometry of elliptical pipe section- Source: , 

d
  tan 1   (31)
A  Dd (25) D

Table 3: Laminar flow factors for Right-angled duct type pipes

Hydraulic diameter, Source:ESDU, , 
θ f.Re

Dh 
4 Dd 64  16c 2  10 12.5

  
(26)30
d  D  64  3c 4 45
13.0
13.2
60 13.0
Where, for, 0.1 < (D/d) < 10
70 12.8
90 12.0
c
D  d 
D  d  (27)
4 FLUID PROPERTIES FUNCTIONS

Microsoft ExcelTM Functions category (under the Insert menu

The Laminar flow factor for elliptical pipe sections is obtained option) can be used to develop a database of mouse click,
from ‚(28),‛. drop-down physical properties of typical pumping liquids.

f .Re 

2 Dh2 D 2  d 2  Yaws,
( , , , , provides density, viscosity, and vapour
pressure data as a function of temperature in line with the
 
28)
d 2D2 mathematical relation, function(Temperature), i.e ƒ(T).
For example, , derived general curve-fitted density relation-
ships for certain fluid types as functions of reduced tempera-
ture. As an example, for Chlorobenzene (C6H6Cl), the follow-
3.2.6 RIGHT-ANGLED TRIANGULAR PIPE SECTION ing relations for liquid density apply:
2

 L  AB 1T 
7
r
(32)