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Vol. 4 No. 1, 2018; pp.

ISSN: 2442-3750 (print); ISSN: 2527-6204 (online)
Received: 26/02/2018
Revised: 24/03/2018
Indonesian Journal of Biology Education



Arindra Trisna Widiansyah1*, Sri Endah Indriwati2, Munzil3, Ahmad Fauzi4

Science Study Program, PGRI Nganjuk School of Teacher Training and Education (STKIP PGRI
Nganjuk), East Java, Indonesia
Department of Biology Education, Faculty of Mathematics and Sciences, Universitas Negeri Malang,
East Java, Indonesia
Department of Chemistry Education, Faculty of Mathematics and Sciences, Universitas Negeri
Malang, East Java, Indonesia
Department of Biology Education, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, University of
Muhammadiyah Malang, Indonesia
*corresponding e-mail:

In Zoology course, students often have difficulty to identify several invertebrates. Android-based learning
media is currently an alternative way of solving some problems during the learning process. Therefore,
android-based learning media that assist students to identify invertebrates was developed in this study.
This research method used to research and development model (R&D) developed by Borg and Gall (1983)
that consisting 10 steps, that are research and data collection; planning the educational product;
developing the product's preliminary form; initial field testing; the first revision of main product; main
field testing; operational product revision; operational field testing; final product revision; and
dissemination. The validation results from the material expert I, material expert II, and media experts were
96.6%; 94.3%; and 94.7%, respectively. That results concluded I-Invertebrata was feasible for use in
learning but requires minor revision. Furthermore, the results of quasi-experimental research that was
analyzed by using analysis of covariance test showed the learning motivation of students who use I-
Invertebrata is significantly higher than students who do not use I-Invertebrata.

Keywords: I-Invertebrata, Invertebrate Zoology, learning motivation

© 2018 Department of Biology Education, FTTE, University of Muhammadiyah Malang, Indonesia

INTRODUCTION of invertebrates that they found in the

Biology is one branch of science that learns The tool that could be used to identify
all about life (Reece, Urry, Cain, Wasserman, invertebrates is dichotomous keys, the tool that
Minowsky, & Jackson, 2011). The learning presents a series of statements consisting of two
objects in biology include all organisms, lines of description of the characteristics of an
including invertebrates. Invertebrates are organism with opposite features (Randler,
animals that do not have the vertebral column 2008). To understand the dichotomous keys,
(Wijayanti et al., 2015). In university, somebody must understand the nature and the
invertebrate is studied in the Invertebrate diversity of animal shapes being identified.
Zoology course. The object of Invertebrate To understand the principles of invertebrate
Zoology study includes the characteristics of identification, sometimes, course held a field
morphology, anatomy, physiology, habitat and study that could facilitate a contextual learning
the role of invertebrates in the ecosystem. In process. Contextual learning is a learning that
addition, in the course, students are required to links learning materials to real-world contexts
be able to identify and classify the various types (Fraser, Tobin, & McRobbie, 2012). Through
this learning, students are empowered to think

Citation: Widiansyah, A. T., Indriwati, S. E., Munzil, M., & Fauzi, A. (2018). I-Invertebrata as an android-
based learning media for molluscs, arthropods, and echinoderms identification and its influence on students' 43
motivation. JPBI (Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi Indonesia), 4(1), 43-52.
Widiansyah et al / JPBI (Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi Indonesia) / 4 (1) (2018) pp. 43-52

critically and effectively in understanding a (students) understand the material being studied
surrounding phenomenon (Nasution & Rezeqi, (Husamah, 2015a, 2015b; Purwanti, 2013).
2015). However, sometimes, these activities Estimated, with ease of access, there is the
require adequate learning media, time and cost. acceleration in the use of android to overcome
The information obtained from interviews obstacles in the learning process (Indriwati &
with Biology Laborans and Zoology Dedi, 2013).
Invertebrate course lecturer at the University of The results of further observations, through
Muhammadiyah Malang (UMM) in February 31 questionnaires distributed by researchers in
2016, during the field study, students had the second-semester students majoring in
difficulty focusing on complex invertebrate Department of Biology Education at the UMM
materials, thus making learning a bit saturated. who are taking the course of invertebrate
One of the causes is the media used by students courses; it is known that 84% of students have
in assisting invertebrate identification during smartphone devices based on android.
field study were only general maritime books However, this smartphone device is mostly
and journal articles. Those learning sources just used for SMS, phone, or chat. This indicates
contain the description of invertebrates and the that most students still use their smartphones
research results. This condition made teach less just for social media. In addition, with so many
relevant, causing students to be less confident android users, there is great potential to apply
and less satisfied with their invertebrate android-based learning media to those students.
identification results. This fact shows that Based on the information, it is proposed a
students' learning motivation, as well as the research that develops the “Identifikasi
utilization of instructional media in Invertebrate Invertebrata” (I-Invertebrata) or invertebrate
Zoology course at the UMM, has not developed identification as an android-based learning
optimally. media to identify Molluscs, Arthropods, and
The learning motivation is very important in Echinoderms and its effect on students' learning
the learning process (Filak & Sheldon, 2008; motivation. The development of I-Invertebrata
Kusurkar, Cate, Vos, Westers, & Croiset, is an essential study because it provides various
2013). Motivation also affects how many benefits, both theoretical and practical. The
students participate in a learning activity, or theoretical use of this present study is to
how many students absorb the describe and develop the repertoire of science
information/concepts teached by the lecturer. In education and learning, especially on the
addition, learning motivation also affects life development of learning media. The practical
skills (Kiswoyowati, 2011). A person who has uses of this study are: 1) for students, the results
good life skills will be able to overcome various of the I-Invertebrata implementation is to have
problems of life. a positive effect on student motivation and 2)
Related to the interview results, it needs for lecturers, the results of the study can be used
improvement in the learning process that as input material and one of the references for
involves invertebrate identification activities at lecturers in choosing learning media.
the UMM. One of the efforts that could be done
is to utilize innovative and contextual learning METHOD
media that is able to improve the invertebrate
learning process and could increase student The development of I-Invertebrata based on
learning motivation. One of that is a media that android used a research and development
is able to identify invertebrates by utilizing (R&D) development model developed by Borg
android-based smartphone devices. & Gall (1983) consisting of 10 steps.
The utilization of android to support the
learning process is called mobile learning or m- Research and Data Collection
learning (Mehdipour & Zerehkafi, 2013). At this step, the information related to
Implementation of m-learning is an attempt to human resources with skills, knowledge, and
overcome a number of educational problems as media development experiences were collected
it allows the creation of innovation and could as well as the research for content on the media
help students and teachers in obtaining were conducted. At this step, an inventory of
information (West, 2013). In addition, the use Molluscs, Arthropods, and Echinoderms species
of android-based applications in learning- in the tidal zone of Gatra Beach, Malang
known as blended learning-could help users

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District, East Java province, Indonesia was Operational field testing

conducted. I-Invertebrata was tested on a wider scale.
In this step, a quasi-experimental research was
Planning The Educational Product conducted to find out whether the I-
Research and development (R&D) planning Invertebrata could significantly be motivated
includes: 1) estimating funding, personnel and students or not. The data obtained from this step
time; 2) formulate validator qualification; and was then tested using analysis of covariance
3) compiling research instrument consisting of (ANCOVA). The designs at this step are
student motivation questionnaire, student presented in Table 1.
motivation observation sheet, expert material
questionnaire and media expert and student Table 1. A quasi-experimental research design in
response questionnaire. operational field testing step
Group Pretest Treatment Posttest
Developing the Product's Preliminary Form Experiment T1 using T2
Class I-Invertebrata
At this step, preliminary media was
Control T1 without T2
developed. The preliminary media was in the Class I-Invertebrata
form of draft or storyboard.
Final Product Revision
Initial Field Testing The final media revision was conducted
Initial field testing was conducted by after operational field testing and if there were
presenting several experts including media still the weakness of I-Invertebrata.
expert and material experts to assess the
designed media. Each expert was asked to Dissemination
assess the design, so, it could be known about The dissemination was conducted if the
the weaknesses and the advantages of the learning media that has been tested was
designed media. declared as an effective media and feasible for
mass production. Dissemination conducted by
The First Revision of Main Product presenting the learning media in research
Once the media design was validated seminar and dissemination the learning media
through discussion with the experts, it could be to several students from several universities.
known the weakness of the media. The
weakness was then tried to be reduced by RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
revising the design.
Research and Data Collection
Main Field Testing At this step, it has been found a person who
The test was conducted on a small scale by has the skills, knowledge, and experiences were
involving 9-second semester students of willing to create a media application based on
Department of Biology Education, at the UMM android and web server. In addition, from the
which were taken based on students' ability inventory of Molluscs, Arthropods, and
(high achievement, middle and low Echinoderms in the tidal zone of Gatra Beach, it
achievement). The reason for choosing students was found 42 species from six classes, those
with different ability level was to know the were Gastropoda, Malacostraca, Asteroidea,
evaluation of the media from the different Ophiuroidea, and Echinoidea.
student who has different ability level. After
implemented I-Invertebrata, students were Planning the Educational Product
given a questionnaire to find out the students' The results of this step were: 1) the time
response to the learning media. required for the research was 6 months, the
activity starts from initial observation until final
Operational product revision media revision; 2) the material experts were
After conducting a main field testing and senior lecturers i.e. Atok Miftachul Hudha and
have known the weakness, next step was to Agus Dharmawan, and the learning media
revise I-Invertebrata in order to design the expert was Henry Praherdiono; and 3) the
media that more perfect. instruments were student motivation
questionnaire and observation sheets, material

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validation questionnaire and learning media been developed in this study. I-Invertebrate is
validation questionnaire. an android application that serves to identify the
types of Molluscs, Arthropods, and
Developing the Product's Preliminary Form Echinoderms. The I-Invertebrata displays could
a) I-Invertebrata be seen in Figure 1.
“Identifikasi Invertebrata” (abbreviated to
I-Invertebrata) is the name of the media that has

Figure 1. The displays of I-Invertebrata

b) Web Server suggestion from the media expert was: 1) direct

Web server is a website that serves to usage instructions need to be provided on the
process and store data used by I-Invertebrata main page; 2) hardware usage instructions
applications. When the database on the web (smartphone screen type) and android versions
server changes then the data on the I- (Android 4.0, Android 4.1, etc.) need to be
Invertebrata application also changed provided; and 3) the media needs to be
automatically. The web server displays could be uploaded to the play store so that it could be
seen in Figure 2. downloaded en masse.

Initial Field Testing The First Revision of Main Product

The validation score from the material In this step, the main product was revised.
expert I and II was 96.6% and 94.3%, At the revision step, not all images were full
respectively, which means the material was colored due to there are several morphologies
feasible for use in learning but required minor of invertebrates that look more contrast and
revision. The advice from the material experts clearer when the image of these invertebrates is
was: 1) the images should not be just black and black and white. In this step, the description has
white; and ) all images need to have the been added to all images. The usage instruction
description. has been also added to the main page. However,
The media expert's validation score is the suggestion from media expert that advice to
94.7%, which means the media is eligible for upload the media to the play store was not
use in learning but required minor revision. The conducted due to limited of funds and time.

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has been feasible and can be used in learning

Main Field Testing but required little revision. The total students'
The score of student responses to I- responses to the I-Invertebrata are shown in
Invertebrata was 88.3% which means media Table 2.

Figure 2. The displays of the web server

Students' comments on I-Invertebrata were interesting media and helpful in identifying

generally said that I-Invertebrata was an Molluscs, Arthropods, and Echinoderms. But,

I-Invertebrata as an android-based learning …. 47

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there was some point that needs to be improved, Beside from the observation sheet, the
such as the need to add an explanatory image to students' learning motivation data was also
each key determination in order to enable the obtained through pretest and posttest. The mean
student to understand every key determination. pretest score of students' learning motivation in
Figure 3 is the documentation of the main field the control class was 76 whereas the post-test
testing step. score was 74. The mean score of students'
learning motivation in the experimental class
Table 2. Results of student responses to learning was 75 whereas posttest score was 77. The
media graph of students' motivation mean score is
Percentage shown in Figure 4.
No. Aspects Category
1 Attractiveness 89 Feasible
Clarity of
2 material 85 Feasible
Efficiency Quite
3 91
Interactivity Quite
4 88
Average 88.3 Feasible

Figure 4. The graph of pretest and posttest score in

experimental and control class

Then, the data were analyzed using

ANCOVA. The result of ANCOVA test could
be seen in Table 3.

Tabel 3. The summary of ANCOVA test result

Type III
Source Sum of df Mean F Sig.
789.3 2 394.7 11.2 0.000
Figure 3. The main field testing step (Source: Intercept 294.1 1 294.1 8.4 0.006
Authors' research documentation) Pretest
650.4 1 650.4 18.5 0.000
Operational Product Revision Class 195.7 1 195.7 5.6 0.022
At this step, an explanatory image of the Error 1863.1 53 35.2
determination key to enable the student to Total 320471.2 56
understand every key determination were Corrected
2652.4 55
added. Total

Operational Field Testing Based on the result, F value was 5.567 with
Based on students' learning motivation from p-value was 0.022, p-value < α (α = 0.05).
observation sheet, the students' learning mean Thus, H0 was rejected and the research
score in experimental class was 74%, whereas hypothesis that states there are significant
in control class was 64%. From the data, it differences between students' learning
could be seen that during the learning process, motivation in the experimental class with
students who use I-Invertebrata appear more students in the control class was accepted. The
motivated in following the learning process adjusted mean score in experimental class was
when compared with students who do not use I- 77.212 whereas control class was 73.458. Thus,
Invertebrata. the learning motivation of students who use I-

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Invertebrata is significantly higher than Final Product Revision

students who do not use I-Invertebrata. In this step, several revision have been
The student response score on I-Invertebrata conducted, such as revising the display of icons,
was 80% which means media was feasible and backgrounds, menus that directly displayed on
could be used in learning but still required the main page, and adding the share menu that
minor revision. Students' comments generally aims to enable students to share their
stated that I-Invertebrata were attractive, identification results to social media (email,
innovative, and useful for identifying Facebook, Twitter, and the other social media),
invertebrates. Furthermore, students stated I- as well as adding the contact menu so that
Invertebrata were more reliable. However, students could give a criticism or suggestions to
there were some notes that need to be fixed, developers.
such as the visual displays were less interesting,
the menu was not directly displayed on the Dissemination
main page, and need to be added a share menu This step was conducted through national
with the aims the students could share the research seminar and dissemination the learning
identification information to the other friends. media to several students at the UMM and
Figure 4 is the documentation of the operational Universitas Negeri Malang (UM). In this
field testing step. research, I-Invertebrata as a learning media that
could improve students' learning motivation in
Zoology Course has been developed. The
findings obtained in this study is I-Invertebrata
able to improve student's motivation to learn.
This finding is in line with some previous
researchers who conducted research on the
positive impact of learning media on the
learning process (Alqahtani & Mohammad,
2015; Lee, 2015). Alqahtani and Mohammad
(2015) research show that the use of Say Quran
which is an android-based learning media has a
relationship with the appearance, satisfaction,
and behavior of students, whereas, in Lee's
research, the use of mobile phone can increase
(a) the academic motivation of learners.
The characteristics of I-Invertebrata that use
original images made I-Invertebrata as an
interesting learning media. Furthermore, I-
Invertebrata is an easy operation media. Those
two factors contribute to improving students'
This explanation is in line with Nugrahani
(2007) that stated the use of the image in
learning media is an effective way to improve
students' absorptive capacity and improve the
students' understanding of the lessons.
Moreover, the use of the image as a learning
media is more effective to convey information
or messages as well as more facilitate students
Figure 4. The operational field testing step in
during learning something (Arguel & Jamet,
experimental class: (a) identification 2009). Pan and Pan (2009) also reported the
process and (b) identification results presence of images can make it easier for
presentation (Source: Authors' research students to understand what they are reading.

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In addition, the use of key determination alternative way to improve the learning process
using Bahasa Indonesia led learning to more of Zoology course.
effective. This condition also led the confidence It is recommended for lecturers to use I-
of the students to increase. Students were more Invertebrata as the solution of the obstacle
understanding of the material and were more when student face difficulty in identify
confident with their invertebrate identification invertebrates. However, I-Invertebrata still
results. This self-confidence is one of the needs to be refined to be more perfect. Related
important characteristics to achieve optimal to that, The database on the web server needs to
learning achievement (Salirawati, 2012). be added by conducting an inventory study on
Students who are more confident about a the other beach or collecting data generated by
subject generate more motivation during the the other inventory reports from other
learning process. researchers.
Based on this study, I-Invertebrata is the
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