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5/22/2018 Reynolds number

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Reynolds number
 Category: Hydraulic calculation for re protection engineers (/Table/Support/Hydraulic-calculation-for- re-protection-engineers/)

In uid mechanics, the Reynolds number (Re) is the ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces and consequently it quanti es the relative importance of
these two types of forces for given ow conditions.

It is one of the most important dimensionless numbers in uid dynamics and is used, usually along with other dimensionless numbers, to provide a
criterion for determining dynamic similitude. It is also used to identify and predict different ow regimes, such as laminar or turbulent ow this depends
on the pipe diameter, the density and viscosity of the owing uid.

Laminar ow occurs at low Reynolds numbers, where viscous forces are dominant, and is characterised by smooth, constant uid motion. This occurs
when the Reynolds number is less that 2000 and the resistance to ow is independent of the wall roughness.

Turbulent ow occurs when the Reynolds number exceeds 4000. It this time Eddy current are present within the ow and the ratio of the internal
roughness of the pipe to the internal diameter of the pipe needs to be considered to be able to determine the friction factor. In large diameter pipes the
overall effect of the currents is less signi cant. In small diameter pipes the internal roughness can have a major in uence on the friction factor.

Between the two states (laminar and turbulent) lies the 'critical zone' where the ow is in a process of change, depending upon many possible
conditions is unpredictable. It may be considered as a combination of the two ow conditions.

Laminar ow
Coloured laments are carried along undisturbed by a stream of water

Turbulent ow
The coloured laments are completely dispersing only a short distance downstream
from the point of injection

Reynolds number can be calculated from the following formula


Q = ow in L/min
p = weight density of uid in kg/m3
d = internal pipe diameter in mm
µ = absolute (dynamic) viscosity in centipoise cP 1/2
5/22/2018 Reynolds number
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