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Dairy farming is very profitable business in India. In many parts of India be it a

rural or urban dairy farming business has gain its importance and became very
popular in terms of its profit margin. Any cattle farming business when done in
proper and in scientifically manner with effective business plan leads to success.
Mostly in every part of India cattle farmer are having lack of knowledge and
also, they are not aware of the latest methodology and technique due to which
they are not succeeding in this business. So I decided to write this article in
order to practically guide and help those who are novice or newbie in dairy
farming and have keen interest to start dairy farm business in a profitable way.

So folks, do remember that before stepping into this dairy farming business
firstly you should mentally prepared that you are going to dedicate your full
effort and time to this and special 24×7 attention should be maintained

Dairy Farming Business Planning (For 10 – 15

what are the basic requirement of Dairy farming in India?

 Proper shed construction.

 Surplus area of land for cultivation of green fodder (1-2 acre of land is
sufficient for 15 cows)
 Adequate water supply
 Good breed of cows (High yielding cows HF, Jersey, sahiwal etc)
 Fodder management (Dry fodder, green fodder and concentrate)
 Labour
 Proper vaccination schedule

Shed Construction
Well spacious and hygienic shed for cattle is needed for their good health. Let
us take an example of 10 cows. It is scientifically recommended that 1 cow
should have 7ft x 11 ft area and it also varies depending upon the size of
animal. For 10 cows roughly, we will construct 80 ft x 12ft of cow shed.

Cow shed are basically of two types:

 Closed housing
 Open housing

Open housing are not considered these days as we keep high milk yield animals
which needs extra care. So generally we should use closed housing system.

Closed housing is further classified in two arrangements:

 Head to Head Arrangement

 Tail to Tail Arrangement.
In head to head arrangement animal feeder or menzer is constructed in
between the shed with a separation wall in between so that the cow can be fed
from both sides facing head to head each other.

On the other hand in tail to tail arrangement Feeder or menzer is constructed

on either side of the shed so the cows are fed in tail to tail position.

I prefer Head to Head Arrangement because it costs less as compare to tail to

tail arrangement. In this arrangement feeder or menzer is one in between the

Shed should be in some elevated area to avoid rainfall water to come inside.
Special attention should be given in the flooring. The floor must be made of
bricks and cement with proper inclination so that the urine or excrete can drain

Proper Drainage system should be there to drain the urine on either side of the
shed to avoid the stagnation.

So for shed construction choose area which has proper light and sun with little
elevation from normal ground level. For construction use cement and bricks and
asbestos sheet can be used as the roof of the shed.

Electricity and proper water supply is also needed for the high yield cows such
as HF and jersey fan and cooler is also necessary during summer season.

Fodder Management
Cattle health mainly depends upon the type and nutritional facts of the fodder.
High milk yield cows must be given 1kg of concentrate in 2.5ltr of milk yield. If
a cow yields 10 ltrs of milk, then scientifically they should be provide with 4 kg
of concentrate with mineral mixture. In fodder management we should know
that there are three types of fodder what we give to the cattle.

 Dry fodder
 Green fodder
 Concentrate and mineral mixture.

Dry fodder: - Generally the dry fodder constitutes 2/3rd of the supplements.
Dry fodder is

 wheat hay
 paddy straw(kutti)
 chokar, etc.
Green fodder: - green fodder play vital role in animals health as it provides the
essential nutrients required for good milk yield. We must have surplus area of
land preferably 2 acres for 15 cows for green fodder cultivation.

 Green fodder are basically leguminous rabby crops they are gram,
barseem, maize, masoor, etc. They are rich in protein and hence
increase the fat percentage in the milk.

Mineral mixture:- It is essential that minerals concentrate given to the cattle

to overcome the mineral deficiency. It is also required for the good health of the

So for ideal food for the 1 cow should be in precise proportion of dry fodder ,
green fodder and mineral mixture with concentrate.

 Mix kutti, chokar and concentrate like khalli (sarso,badam or teesi) add
water in it and feed them
 Generally, sarso khalli provides heat and it should be given during
winter season and
 Teesi khalli in summer seasons
 Badam khalli can be given any time as it increases fat percentage in
the milk



Adequate water supply:-

Proper water supply is very much needed for the cattle to drink, cleaning of cow
and shed etc.

Breed selection of cow: -

Right breed selection is very much important in the dairy farming. As the profit
is totally dependent on the milk yield of the cow. For breed selection we must
take care of the breed which is adapted to our climatic condition and their milk
yielding capability. For this we suggest the cross breed of Holstein
fresian(HF) with Indian sahiwal. Or Jersey with sahiwal.

Also, cross breed of jersey and red sindhi is preferable for the good milk
yield. Generally, breed selection of these cow should be done on the basis of
milk yield production in general 15-20 ltrs of milk yield in a day is preferable.

Cross breeding technique with artificial insemination (AI) has drastically

improved the quantity of milk production in the country which also increased
the per capita milk yield production.

Basic care and management of cows and calves: -

Timely Mating and Insemination is Needed: -

In general mating or insemination is done after every 3 months of calving.

Indian breed takes approx. 30-35 months in reaching maturity phase whereas
high yield cows HF or jersey cross breed reaches maturity at 15-18 months and
its ready for mating. Ideally every 13 months cow should be calving, then only
our farm production will grow. Lactation period should be of 300 days and
service period must be of 90-120 days. Rest must be gestation period i.e 266

After three four attempts of mating if cattle is not conceiving then there is a
fertility issue or may be some genital problems are there so special medicine
should be given. Iodine and mineral mixture supply must be increased to
minimize the mineral deficiency.

Special care for pregnant cows: -

Pregnant cows should be given special attention and there must be adequate
amount of concentrate and mineral mixture should be given during gestation
period of cows. Just before 3 month, calving cow should be given challenge
feeding i.e giving fodder as much as they can feed it so that there would be a
proper growth of calves and its udder.

As we know the prolactin hormone is responsible for milk production

and oxytocin hormone is for milk ejection or secretion. The moment calves
suck the udder oxytocin hormone secretes which is responsible for milk
ejection. In some cases when calf dies we give oxytocin injection which should
be avoided as it mix with the milk and can harm humans when they consume it.

Note: - effect of oxytocin hormone remains for 7-8 minutes in this duration and
total milk should be taken out from the udder otherwise milk secretion becomes

Calves (baby cow) Management: -

Within an hour after immediate birth calves must be given mother’s first
milk colostrum, which is rich in protein vitamins and other antibodies. It
contains 28% of solid material generally milk contains 13-14% of solid material.
We insist on giving first milk i.e colostrum just after an hour because at this
time calves intestine are porous. The macro molecule and antibody in the
colostrum easily penetrates through calf intestine and provide a good immunity
and immune system to fight with disease and infection. Also
the meconium that is the first stool excretes after colostrum intake.

After 10 days deluding of horn should be done so that it becomes docile in

nature. It is done with hot iron with NaOh and KOH. On regular interval
mucous from nose should remove from towel to reduce the infection.

Vaccination schedule: -
Timely vaccination schedule is very important in order to prevent cattle from
deadly diseases. It provides better immunity and disease resistance to the

In india generally we follow the following vaccination schedule: -

Time of
Disease Animal Vaccine Dose Immunity

All cloven Polyvalent February

Foot and mouth
footed FMD 3 ml S/C 1 year and
animals Vaccine December

Hemorrhagic 6 month
Cattle,Buffalo HS Vaccine 5 ml S/C May-June
septecimia(HS) and 1 year

Black Quarter 6 month

Cattle,Buffalo BQ Vaccine 5ml S/C May-June
(BQ) and 1 year

All species of
Anthrax spore 1ml S/C 1 year May-June

Female cattle
and buffalo Brucella
Brucella 2ml S/C 1 year ———-
calf age 4-8 Vaccine
months only

Cattles and
calves above Theileria
Theileriosis 3 ml S/C I Year ———–
2 month of vaccine

Note: - Before any vaccination, deworming is compulsory for better result.

Source:- Indian Development Gateways InDG

Essential precaution and proposed routine of a
dairy farmer: -
 Every morning before milking, examine each cattle. See if they are in
good health whether they are ruminating or not. If not ruminating,
then there is some problem like it may be fever or internal parasitic
load or may be some infection. Seasonal deworming is necessary to
remove the parasitic load.
 Before milking, give them proper fodder and clean the shed.
 Use mustard oil to lubricate the udder at the time of milking.
 After milking don’t let the cattle to sit as their udders may get infected
so give them the green fodder so that they remain standing for at least
half an hour.
 Do not give raw wheat, rice etc. As the cattle metabolism is different
from humans.
 2 times fodder and concentrate should be given i.e morning and
evening. Also let the cattle go for grazing.
 Specially in summer season HF Cow heavily respirates at least 3-time
water sprinkling or bath is necessary and cool climate should be
maintain by putting fan and cooler in shed.
 Similarly, in winter season cover the cow and shed with the jute bag,
light fire to provide heat and to maintain the climate.

Our suggestion to dairy farmer in India: -

Dear reader if you will follow these methods of dairy farming surely there would
be a better result in the terms of milk production and hence your dairy business
profitability. Please stick to this rule in the next article I am going to
share profit margin calculation in dairy farming business.

MY WHATS APP NO IS 7608877335




Steps to start #dairy #farming/Cattle farming.

Phase 1
A) Project Plan and Site Visit.
Phase 2
Fodder Planning
A) Green and Dry Fodder.
B) Hydroponics Fodder Production.
C)Silage and Hey Making.
Shed Construction
A) Shed, Storage and Processing.
B)Milking Parlors and Electric Rooms.

Machinery Planning and Selection:

1.Milking Palor.
2.Chilling Unit.
3.Cow Mat.
4. Chaff Cutter.
Dairy farm Auxiliary Materials:
Phase 3
1. Purchasing of cows
2. Cow Management
3.Milk Management.
Phase 4
Milk Processing and Products
1.Milk Packaging
2.Milk Processing.
3.Milk Products and Machinery
c)Butter. Call us on 8981529691

A dairy farm with 5 animals would cost upwards of Rs. 12 lakhs..., legal requirements may not be
many as it is a environment friendly business. The most difficult thing would be to understand if
you are cut out to do this business... its a labor intensive business , requiring you to spend a lot
of time with cows....including tending to them when they are sick.
We can assist you with a profile of this business, including legal/capital and other requirements.
Pls get in touch at Need to learn


Commercial and small scale dairy farming in India is no doubt playing an important role in
the total milk production and economy of our country. And almost all regions of India are
suitable for setting up dairy farming business. Most of the dairy farmers in India are raising
animals in small scale scale traditional methods. They are not aware about the modern
farming methods and improved techniques for dairy farming.

As a result, some farmers are loosing their investment instead of being benefited. Proper
business plan, well management and care can ensure maximum production and profit from
dairy farming business. I have described here the importance, setting up steps and some
problems of dairy farming in India.

Why Dairy Farming in India?

There are many benefits of starting dairy farming business in India. Here I am describing
the main importance and benefits of dairy farming in India.
 Dairy farming business is a traditional business. So, you don’t have to worry about
marketing your products. You can easily sell your products in almost every place of
India. And dairy product market is active round the year.
 Dairy farming is eco-friendly and it doesn’t pollute the environment.
 Dairy farming business doesn’t required highly skilled labor. You can easily setup
small scale dairy farm with your family labor.
 Great business opportunities for unemployed educated young people. Proper plan and
management can ensure maximum production.
 Numerous highly productive native Indian and foreign breeds are suitable for farming
according to the climate and environment of India.
 You can apply for loan in your local NGO or banks.

How to Start Dairy Farm in India?

Setting up dairy farming business in India is not so easy. You have to go through several
important steps for setting up dairy farming in India. Consider the following tips while
starting dairy farming business in India.
 First of all, you have to decide the aim and objective of your farm (includes housing,
feeding, breeding, number of animals to be maintained etc.
 Try to visit some commercial dairy farms. Discuss with the experienced farm owners
about his dairy farming system and secrets. Try to visit as much farms as possible. This
will help you to analyze various farming systems and extremely broaden your
 While visiting various farms, try to analyze their every event deeply.
 Visit your nearest veterinarians and discuss about the possibilities of dairy farming in
your area.
 If your plan is to maintain the farm by your own, then try to work for an existing farm
for at least six months.
 Be conscious about the availability of food and its costs. You also have to stock food for
adverse seasons.
 You have to employ hardworking labor with some practical experience. In some cases
you can also train them for specific dairy farm jobs.
 Visit your nearest market occasionally and observe the price and demand of live
animals and dairy products. Keeping good relation with market help you for getting
proper value of your products and purchasing necessary commodities.
 And lastly, try to learn more and more about dairy farming in India. Read a lots of
books, visit numerous farms, gather experience, make proper business plan and finally
do it.
There are numerous native Indian and highly productive foreign breeds available. You can
choose any of them. You can raise both cows and buffaloes together in separate rows under
same shed. Cow’s milk is lower in fat than buffaloes milk. Visit the market and try to
understand which product has high demand.

For profitable commercial dairy production Murrah, Surti, Mehasani, Jaffrabadi, Badhawari
etc. are common and popular buffalo milch breeds. Gir, Sahiwal, Red Sindhi, Tharparkar are
popular cow breed. You can also go with highly productive foreign breeds like Holstein
Friesian, Brown Swiss, Jersey etc. All those breeds are suitable for farming in the Indian
weather. Always keep in mind the market while choosing breeds for your dairy farming

Good housing play an important role for keeping the animal healthy, diseases free and
productive. For proper production you should give your animal required space inside the
house. Generally 40 square feet inside shed and 80 square feet open space is required per
In small scale production for 20 animals, you have to ensure availability of 3000 square feet
land area. For medium scale producers with 100 animals, 13,000 to 15,000 square feet
space is required. However, ensure availability of all types of essential facilities in the
house. Essential facilities includes proper ventilation, sufficient flow of fresh and clean air,
sufficient space etc.

Feeding good and high-quality nutritious foods ensure proper growth and good health of the
animals. So, always try to feed them sufficient amount of nutritious food. Try to add as much
green food as possible with their regular food. Because, green food helps the animal to produce
more milk and helps the producer to reduce feeding costs.
If possible, try to make a grazing place for your animals. Along with nutritious foods,
always provide them enough clean and fresh water. Dairy animals need more water than
other animals. Generally, a milk producing animal need five litters of water for producing
one litter milk. So, always serve them enough clean and fresh water.

Care & Management

Taking good care is the key to every livestock farming business. So, you also must take good
care of your animals. Try to keep the animals free from all types of cattle diseases.
Vaccinate them timely. Provide them nutritious food and clean water regularly. Make a
stock of necessary medicines and other materials.
Marketing your products is not a problem in India. Dairy product has huge demand
throughout the India. You can easily sell your products in almost every places of our
country. So, don’t worry about marketing, just take good care of your animals.
Problems of Dairy Farming in India
Every business has some problems or difficulties. Dairy cow farming also has some
problems. The main limitations and constraints of dairy farming in India are listed below.
 High infrastructure and feeding cost is the main constraint of dairy farming business.
 Most of the farmers don’t serious about the total expenditure and profit from this
business. The don’t count the value of green food which they grow with their crop.
 Breeding process of animal depends on various factors. It is a biological phenomenon
and getting expected milk production depends on proper breeding process. But most
of our farmers are not conscious about this due to lack of proper publicity and public
announcement by the government.
 In accordance with making good business plan, dairy farming requires hardworking,
proper care, good management and you must be alert always. In our country, one of
the family members take care of the animals. But for commercial purpose, you must
employ several experienced people with high salary.
Every business go with some additional advantages and problems. On an average,
commercial dairy farming in India is profitable. If you want to start this business, try to
learn more about it and visit as much farms as possible.


8 Things You Need to Know Before Starting Your

Own Dairy Farm
Whatever your background and experience, there are some things you need to
know before you start milking cows.
Save For Later Print
Develop a Business Plan and SWOT Analysis
It is important to remember that a dairy farm is a business. Development of detailed
business plan and a SWOT analysis (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) of
your plan and the resources you have available will be critical to the success of your
business. How many cows will you milk? Where will you market your milk? Will you hire
employees? How much money do you need to live on after the dairy bills are all paid?
Your business plan should include a cash flow plan that will help you set reasonable
expectations for your expenses and cost of production.

Consult the Experts

Even if you grew up on a dairy and learned how to feed and milk cows from your parents
and grandparents it is important to consult experts in the dairy industry as you develop
your business plan and design your management system. Other dairy producers are great
resources. Attend field days and open houses on dairy farms in your area and other parts of
the state or country. When visiting other farms find out what has worked well on those
farms and what has not worked, but keep in mind that just because something worked on
one farm does not mean it will work for you on your farm. In addition to farmers, talk to
veterinarians, nutritionists, agronomists, bankers, extension educators, and others that c an
provide different perspectives on management of your dairy.
Create a Cropping and Feeding Program
Whether you are going to feed a TMR (total mixed ration), graze your cattle, or some
combination of both; dairy cattle require a certain set of nutrients t o support themselves,
produce milk, and grow a calf. Work with a nutritionist to develop rations for your
lactating cows and dry cows and heifers if these animals are to be raised on the farm. Many
dairy farms in Pennsylvania produce most if not all their own forages and many of their
concentrate (grain) needs. Raising all your own feed takes land and time, not to mention
equipment for planting and harvesting the crops. Hiring custom operators to plant and
harvest crops, or making arrangements with neighbours to share equipment and labor can
reduce your capital investment as you get started with your dairy business and are building
capital. Double cropping systems, with small grain crops following corn silage, are used
successfully on many Pennsylvania farms.

Create a Waste Management Plan

Dairy cattle produce a lot of manure. While this manure is often referred to as waste, if
managed and used properly it can be a great resource on the farm. Manure management
will be tied closely to your cropping and feeding program. If you are able to use a double
cropping system on your farm it will not only allow you to produce more feed but will also
allow you to apply more manure to your land. Alternatives to direct land application of
manure include composting and anaerobic digestion of manure, while these options may
provide additional revenue and other benefits to your dairy they will also increase the
capital investment required to get your dairy started. Every farm will need a manure
management plan, but depending on the size of your farm a nutrient management plan may
also be required. Check with your county Conservation District or local Extension office
for more information.

Build Your Equity Over Time

Dairy farming requires a large capital investment. Land, buildings, equipment, and cows
are expensive and few new dairy farmers will have the capital required to purchase
everything when they get started in business. Many beginning farmers begin by purchasing
their cows first and renting the farm and land. These initial animals are your farms equity.
Dairy Farming is a Biological System
The dairy farm is dependent on the cow's ability to live a healthy life, produce milk, and
have calves that can become the next generation of the farm. Dairy farming requires
detailed programs for herd health, reproduction and calf care in addition to the nutrition
and financial aspects on the farm. Working with your veterinarian, genetics representatives
and extension agents can help you develop comprehensive farm plans to create a posi tive

One Size Does Not Fit All

All dairy farms are different based on the producer's wishes, resource requirements, market
needs and more. Multiple systems exist and can be profitable. Some producers contract out
their replacements to a custom heifer raiser while others diversify by selling crops, raising
steers or creating a home-bottling plant. How you farm will depend on your desires,
resources, and drive.

You are a Manager First

All these previous items are just pieces of the puzzle. In order to succeed you will need to
combine each aspect of management into a whole farm plan. However, you don't need to do
it all. Work with trusted consultants to help you build a plan, and stick with your strengths.
If you love milking cows but hate planting corn, find someone to work with who does, or
contract that work out to a third party. Consider creating a farm management team or profit
team that engages your consultants to be active participants in the farm's progress.

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