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The analogy study method in

engineering mechanics

Jianlin Liu

Department of Engineering Mechanics, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao 266580,

China

E-mail: liujianlin@upc.edu.cn

Abstract The course ‘Engineering Mechanics’ plays an essential role as a bridge and bond between

fundamental and specialized knowledge, and it has become a basic class for most engineering

students. However, there are many complex concepts and formulas to be covered, and this makes it

difficult for students to grasp the spirit of engineering mechanics. One way to solve this problem is to

use the analogy study method in learning. Following this new route, students can find the linear

quantities and angular quantities in theoretical mechanics, and some analogous relations between

stress and deformation for fundamental deformations in mechanics of materials. Through these analogy

relations, students can appreciate the essence of different physical phenomena. Indeed, it seems that

twice as much is accomplished with half the effort.

Introduction

‘Engineering Mechanics’ is a fundamental course for engineering students majoring

in a wide variety of subjects – mechanical engineering, engineering mechanics, civil

engineering, material science and engineering, and oceanographic engineering, as

well as those studying for the automobile, mining, aeronautics and petroleum indus-

tries, and geological exploration. In the current higher-education system in China,

the course ‘Engineering Mechanics’ normally has two parts: theoretical mechanics

and mechanics of materials [1]. It has become the bridge and bond between elemen-

tary and specialized knowledge for engineering students. On the one hand, although

classed as a basic course, engineering mechanics is different from truly fundamental

subjects, such as mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, astronomy and geogra-

phy, for mechanics is closer to engineering applications; on the other hand, although

engineering mechanics falls within the definition of ‘engineering science’ proposed

by Prof. Hsue-Shen Tsien [2], it is distinct from the purely technological areas due

to its strict system of logic. Partly as a result of this, and partly because of the large

number of concepts and formulas to be covered, ‘Engineering Mechanics’ has been

regarded as one of the most difficult undergraduate courses. A central concern is

how to get students to master, in a limited time, so many equations and definitions

and to understand the physical mechanisms.

In fact, it is surprising to see that there are plenty of analogy relations throughout

the entire contents of this course. Therefore, we strongly advocate that a new learn-

ing route – which we term the analogy study method – for engineering mechanics.

By this method we can find the connections between different phenomena, and then

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering Education, Volume 41, Number 2 (April 2013), © Manchester University Press

http://dx.doi.org/10.7227/IJMEE.41.2.6

The analogy study method in mechanics 137

the known characters of a first object. The method helps students to memorize a

large number of facts and concepts and to grasp the essence of different physical

phenomena. It seems that with this new method students can accomplish twice as

much in learning engineering mechanics, with half the effort.

Such motivations have stimulated the present study, in which we explore the pos-

sibility of using the analogy study method to learn engineering mechanics. The paper

is organized as follows. In the following section we present some interesting exam-

ples of similarities in nature and daily life, spanning all kinds of scale. In the third

section some analogy relations involving linear quantities and angular quantities in

theoretical mechanics are analyzed. Analogy relations for stress and deformation in

mechanics of materials are presented in the following section. Finally, similar phe-

nomena in theoretical mechanics and mechanics of materials are investigated.

Maybe we have already noticed a plethora of similar natural phenomena, spanning

scales from the nano and micro to the meso and macro, and even to the astronomi-

cal scope. Two well known examples are spiral morphologies and hierarchical

structures. The nebula, sunflower seed array, sheep horn, fluid vortex, grapevine,

snail shell and even macromolecule all capture the characteristics of spiral or chiral

shapes. Some typical spiral structures are shown in Fig. 1: the spiral galaxy, water

vortex, climbing plant [3], and DNA with its double-helix structure. We can see that

spiral phenomena are ubiquitous and fundamental.

A related phenomenon is the structure hierarchy, which can be observed in the

branches and roots of trees, different levels of bone, components of the silk cocoon

[4] and so on. In addition, micro/nano hierarchical structure plays a critical role in

the self-cleaning capability of the lotus [5], the super-hydrophobicity of the water

strider’s leg [6] and the strong adhesion forces produced by the hairs of gecko feet

[7], as shown in Fig. 2(a–c). Besides these phenomena, if two bundles of hair are

dipped into liquid, a splendid hierarchical pattern will be formed, as shown in Fig.

2(d) [8, 9], which is the result of competition between the strain energy and surface

energy of the liquid.

Moreover, we are already familiar with some textbook examples of physical laws

with similarities. For instance, a harmonic vibration system and a resistance–induc-

tance–capacitance (RLC) oscillation circuit obey the same vibration equation. The

torsion of a bar can be measured by the membrane analogy or sand-heap analogy,

as they are governed by the same format of equation [1]. Many aspects of fluid

mechanics have parallels in electricity and magnetism, and there are similar field

equations and field quantities. Additionally, a long time ago, the great scientist

Maxwell [10] stated that the shape of a meniscus surface is identical to that of an

elastic sheet, and this was later experimentally verified by Clanet and Quere [11],

and then was analyzed in detail by Liu [12].

Much effort has already been devoted to the similarities between the adhesion of

a droplet and a slender rod on a solid substrate. For example, Pugno [13] pointed

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering Education, Volume 41, Number 2 (April 2013), © Manchester University Press

138 J. Liu

(a) (b)

(c) (d)

Fig. 1 Spiral shapes in nature: (a) spiral galaxy, (b) fluid vortex, (c) climbing plant, (d)

DNA with its double-helix structure.

out that the shape of a carbon nanotube (CNT) cross-section resembles the side view

of a droplet stuck on a substrate. Roman et al. [14] proposed that there is an analogy

between a pendulum, drops and rods. Majidi compared three formulations for an

elastic material adhering to a rigid surface – from stationary principles, the surface

integral of Eshelby’s energy–momentum tensor, and the configuration of a force

balance [15]. More recently, Liu and Xia [16] pointed out that the adhesion of a

droplet, micro-beam and CNT ring on a solid can all be analyzed in the same single

framework, in which the strain energy and surface energy compete with each other

and reach a final equilibrium state. Although the intrinsic boundary conditions for

this sort of problem are fixed, they can be imagined as movable, and the developed

analysis framework can be employed. The bending stiffness, characteristic length,

energy origination, governing equation and boundary conditions among these three

different systems possess close similarities and analogies.

In brief, considering the similarities and analogies across different disciplines, the

analogy study method can be utilized in learning theoretical mechanics and mechan-

ics of materials. This method also paves the way to design new analogy experiments,

and to explore the unity of nature in depth.

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering Education, Volume 41, Number 2 (April 2013), © Manchester University Press

The analogy study method in mechanics 139

Spatular Stalk

Setal area

Stalk

Spatula

115.000X

(a) (b)

(c) (d)

Fig. 2 Hierarchical structures in nature: (a) gecko foot, (b) setae of the water strider’s

leg, (c) two-level structure of the lotus leaf, (d) hierarchical structure of a bundle of strips

dipped into liquid.

Let us first consider the analogies in theoretical mechanics. A course on theoretical

mechanics will have three main sections, namely statics, kinetics and dynamics. The

first, statics, is the most fundamental, as it deals with the simplification of force

systems and equilibrium equations. Most students will be very familiar with this

from the middle school stage, and so it is not too difficult for them to understand.

However, kinetics and dynamics are not so easy for students, as these sections deal

with many new concepts and formulas. As a matter of fact, most mechanics quanti-

ties can be grouped into two classes, namely linear quantities and angular quantities.

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering Education, Volume 41, Number 2 (April 2013), © Manchester University Press

140 J. Liu

The linear quantities include displacement s (or vector r), velocity v, acceleration a,

mass m, force F, momentum mv; the corresponding angular quantities are, respec-

tively, angular displacement φ, angular velocity ω, angular acceleration ε, moment

of inertia J, moment r × F, and moment of momentum r × mv. The equations for

these two classes of quantities are very similar, and they must have some internal

connections. The analogy relationships between these sets of mechanics quantities

are listed in Table 1.

In Table 1, three kinds of mechanical quantities are demonstrated in detail, namely

kinetic, inertia and force. First, from Table 1 we can clearly see that the angular

quantities, including angular displacement, angular velocity and angular accelera-

tion, are in lower orders than the corresponding linear quantities. Secondly, if two

mechanical quantities are properly combined, new mechanical quantities, such as

force (F = ma), moment (M = r × F), momentum (P = mv), impulse (I = Ft), moment

1

of momentum (Lo = r × mv), kinetic energy ( T = mv 2 ) and work (W = Fs) can be

2

produced. Moreover, the most important theorems in Table 1 are Newton’s second

law, the theorem of momentum, the theorem of moment on momentum, and the

theorem of kinetic energy. For a rigid body, Newton’s second law corresponds to

the theorem of momentum, and degenerates to the mass center motion equation of

a rigid body:

maC = ∑ Fi (1)

s = s(t)

. .

Velocity v=r ω=φ ν = ωr

.

v=s

Acceleration a = v. = r̈ ε = ω. = φ̈ aτ = εr

.

aτ = v = s̈

Inertia m J J = Σmiri2

Force F = ma M = Jε Mo(F) = r × F

Lo = Mo(mv) = r × (mv)

Momentum P = mv L0 = Jω

Theorem of dP dLo

=∑F =∑M

momentum dt dt

1 1

Kinetic energy T = mv 2 T = Jω 2 dT = dW

2 2 T2 − T1 = W

Work T = ∫ Fds W = ∫ Mdϕ

C ϕ

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering Education, Volume 41, Number 2 (April 2013), © Manchester University Press

The analogy study method in mechanics 141

where aC is the acceleration of the mass center of the rigid body, and ΣFi is its

resultant force. Similarly, the theorem of angular momentum can be reduced to the

differential equation for a rigid body’s motion on a fixed axis:

J z ε = ∑ Mi (2)

where Jz is the inertial moment for the rigid body on a fixed z-axis, and ΣMi is the

resultant moment.

If students can grasp these relations, they will have a good overview of the whole

substance of theoretical mechanics.

At the start of the ‘Mechanics of Materials’ course, teachers always point out that

it has three sections: strength, rigidity and stability. Strength refers to the stress state

of a structure and its ability to resist collapse; rigidity refers to the ability to resist

deformation; and the concept of stability is addressed in terms of Euler rod instabil-

ity as a study case. Although they are different properties of materials and structures,

these three mechanics behaviors can be explored to show some internal connections.

The concepts of strength, rigidity and stability are illustrated through several kinds

of fundamental deformations and a combined deformation. The fundamental defor-

mations incorporate tension, compression, bending, torsion and shear, which demand

a large number of formulas and constants of materials. This makes it difficult for

students to learn the subject quickly. In fact, though, through the analogy method,

it is found that these formulas have strong similarities. For example, the normal

stress, σ, or shear stress, τ, in the fundamental deformation is the ratio between the

generalized force (N, Q, T or M) and structural parameter (A, Ip or Iz), as shown in

Table 2. The deformations of the structure involve stretch or compression, Δl, torsion

angle, φ, deflection, y, and so on, whose expressions also have interesting analogy

relations.

Under the framework of infinitesimal deformation and with linear elasticity, once

these fundamental deformation laws have been found, the combined deformation

problem can be solved based upon the principle of superposition. In Table 2, all

these analogy connections are listed. Our teaching experience shows that, if these

analogy relations have been mastered, the students can easily remember most of the

contents of mechanics of materials.

Besides the above-mentioned analogy relations within theoretical mechanics and

mechanics of materials, there are also some internal connections between these two

courses. In the traditional teaching process, the two courses are addressed separately,

for theoretical mechanics mainly deals with forces acting on rigid bodies, and

mechanics of materials primarily involves deformed bodies. In fact, in the infini-

tesimal deformation case, the analysis of the deformed bodies is based upon an

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering Education, Volume 41, Number 2 (April 2013), © Manchester University Press

142

Deformation type Internal force Stress Strength criterion Deformation Rigidity Hooke’s law

N N Ndx

Tension and Normal (N) σ= σ max = max ≤ [σ ] d ( Δl ) = Tensile stiffness (EA) σ = Eε

compression A A EA

Nl

Δl =

EA

Q Qmax Qdx

Shearing Shear (Q) τ= τ max = ≤ [τ ] dφ = α Shear stiffness (GA) τ = Gγ

A A GA

T T T dx

Torsion Torque (T) τ= ρ τ max = max ≤ [τ ] dϕ = Torsion stiffness (GIp) τ = Gγ

Ip Wp GI p

Tl

ϕ=

GI p

M M max Mdx

Bending Bending moment σ= y σ max = ≤ [σ ] dθ = Bending stiffness (EIz) σ = Eε

(M); shear (Q) Iz Wz EI z

Bending section modulus (Wz) M

Q Sz* y ′′ =

τ= Q S* EI z

Iz b τ max = max z,max ≤ [τ ]

Iz b

Combined Normal, bending σ = σN + σ M σ1 − σ3 ≤ [σ] u = uN + uM + uT – σ = C:ε

deformation moment, torque, τ = τ T + τM σeq ≤ [σ]

shear (N+M+T+Q)

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering Education, Volume 41, Number 2 (April 2013), © Manchester University Press

J. Liu

The analogy study method in mechanics 143

un-deformed configuration. In this case, the deformed body can be viewed as a rigid

body, and the balance equations for rigid bodies can be directly put into use. For

example, for the general force system in space, both the rigid body and the deformed

body should satisfy the following equations of force and moment:

∑ X = 0, ∑ Y = 0, ∑ Z = 0, (3)

∑ M = 0, ∑ M = 0, ∑ M = 0

x y z

These are the most fundamental equations both in theoretical mechanics and mechan-

ics of materials.

Applying the above equilibrium equations to a beam with large displacement, the

slope angle at an arbitrary point, θ, should fulfill the following governing equation

in mechanics of materials [17]:

where α2 = P/(EI), P is the external force and EI the bending stiffness of the beam.

In theoretical mechanics, using the dynamic equation, one can get the governing

equation of a pendulum with a fixed axis, which is written as:

ϕ + β 2 sin ϕ = 0 (5)

where β2 = mgl/J, l is the total length of the pendulum, J is the moment of inertia,

and φ the angle between the lines of the pendulum and the vertical direction, as

schematized in Fig. 3. It is amazing to see that the two different problems are satis-

fied by the same equation after some parameter displacement, and so that equation

acts as a bridge between statics and dynamics. In fact, this feature is only one special

case of the famous Kirchhoff analogy.

In what follows, one can notice that the Euler instability of a slender rod can be

analogous to the kinetic stability phenomenon in theoretical mechanics, as schema-

tized in Fig. 4. When the external load is smaller than the critical load, the straight-

(a) (b)

Fig. 3 Schematic of (a) a cantilever with large displacement and (b) the dynamics of

a pendulum.

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering Education, Volume 41, Number 2 (April 2013), © Manchester University Press

144 J. Liu

(a) (b)

Fig. 4 Schematic of the stabilities of (a) an Euler rod and (b) a ball on a rough substrate.

line state of the Euler rod is stable. This means that the bent rod can go back to its

original position once the disturbance is cancelled. This example corresponds to the

situation of a small ball sitting at the bottom of a curved surface, where it is inher-

ently stable. When the load is bigger than the critical load, the straight-line configu-

ration of the Euler rod is not stable, and it corresponds to a small ball balanced at

the apex of a curved surface. This kind of analogy helps students understand the

essence of elastic stability.

Conclusions

In conclusion, the course on ‘Engineering Mechanics’ has two parts, namely theo-

retical mechanics and mechanics of materials. In theoretical mechanics, there are

quantitative analogy relations between the linear quantities and angular quantities.

Additionally, the expressions of stress and deformation for the fundamental deforma-

tions in mechanics of materials have similar formulas. Moreover, some concepts and

equations from theoretical mechanics and mechanics of materials have similar

analogy relations. The models for a rigid body and an elastic body with infinitesimal

deformation can obey the same governing equation after parameter displacement.

The formula for the motion of a pendulum with a fixed axis in theoretical mechan-

ics has analogy relations to the large deformation equation of a beam in mechanics

of materials. Furthermore, from the viewpoint of the kinetic stability of a ball, we

can get a deep understanding of Euler rod instability.

Through the full exploration of all kinds of analogy relations in engineering

mechanics, it is found that there are many formulas with similarities. In using this

analogy study method, students can easily master a large number of concepts and

formulas. It is beneficial for them to have an overview of mechanics, and then twice

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering Education, Volume 41, Number 2 (April 2013), © Manchester University Press

The analogy study method in mechanics 145

as much can be accomplished with half the effort. This new study method also opens

a new path to design new types of analogy experiment, and to gain full insight of

the unity of nature.

Acknowledgement

The project was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China

(11272357 and 11320003), the Opening Project of the State Key Laboratory of

Nonlinear Mechanics in Chinese Academy of Sciences (LNM201319), the Science

Foundation for Distinguished Young Scholars of Shandong Province (JQ201302),

and the Scientific Research Foundation for the Returned Overseas Chinese Scholars,

State Education Ministry.

References

[1] S. Timoshenko and J. M. Gere, Mechanics of Materials (Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York,

1972).

[2] Z. M. Zheng, ‘Thoughts of Hsue-Shen Tsien on engineering sciences: in memory of Hsue-Shen

Tsien’s 100th anniversary’, Chin. J. Theor. Appl. Mech., 43(6) (2011), 973–977.

[3] A. Goriely and M. Tabor, ‘Spontaneous helix hand reversal and tendril perversion in climbing

plants’, Phys. Rev. Lett., 80(7) (1998), 1564–1567.

[4] H. P. Zhao, X. Q. Feng, W. Z. Cui and F. Z. Zou, ‘Mechanical properties of silkworm cocoon

pelades’, Eng. Frac. Mech., 74(12) (2007), 1953–1962.

[5] C. Neinhuis and W. Barthlott, ‘Characterization and distribution of water-repellent, self-cleaning

plant surfaces’, Ann. Bot. – London, 79(6) (1997), 667–677.

[6] D. L. Hu, B. Chan and J. W. Bush, ‘The hydrodynamics of water strider locomotion’, Nature,

424(6949) (2004), 663–666.

[7] H. J. Gao, X. Wang, H. M. Yao, S. Gorb and E. Arzt, ‘Mechanics of hierarchical adhesion structure

of gecko’, Mech. Mater., 37(2–3) (2005), 275–285.

[8] J. Bico, B. Roman, L. Moulin and A. Boudaoud, ‘Adhesion: elastocapillary coalescence in wet hair’,

Nature, 432(7018) (2004), 690.

[9] J. L. Liu, X. Q. Feng, R. Xia and H. P. Zhao, ‘Hierarchical capillary adhesion of micro-cantilevers

or hairs’, J. Phys. D – Appl. Phys., 40(18) (2007), 5564–5570.

[10] J. C. Maxwell, ‘Capillary action’, in Encyclopaedia Britannica, vol. II (Cambridge University Press,

Cambridge, 1980).

[11] C. Clanet and D. Quere, ‘Onset of menisci’, J. Fluid Mech., 460(1) (2002), 131–149.

[12] J. L. Liu, ‘Analogies between a meniscus and a cantilever’, Chin. Phys. Lett., 26(11) (2009), 116803.

[13] N. M. Pugno, ‘An analogy between the adhesion of liquid drops and single walled nanotubes’,

Scripta Mater., 58(1) (2008), 73–75.

[14] B. Roman, C. Gay and C. Clanet, ‘Pendulum, drops and rods: a physical analogy’, at http://www

.pmmh.espci.fr/~benoit/publi/Elastica-drop.pdf (accessed October 2013).

[15] C. Majidi, ‘Remarks on formulating an adhesion problem using Euler’s elastica’. Mech. Res.

Commun., 34(1) (2006), 85–90.

[16] J. L. Liu and R. Xia, ‘A unified analysis of a micro-beam, droplet and CNT ring adhered on a

substrate: variation with movable boundary condition’, Acta Mech. Sinica – PRC, 29(1) (2013),

62–72.

[17] K. E. Bishopp and D. C. Drucker, ‘Large deflection of cantilever beams’, Q. Appl. Math., 3(3)

(1945), 272–275.

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